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                    THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS
                      BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION

                        UNSETTLED PROBLEMS

        Probably no book in the New Testament presents more
unsettled problems than does the Epistle to the Hebrews. On that
score it ranks with the Fourth Gospel, the Apocalypse of John,
and Second Peter. But, in spite of these unsolved matters, the
book takes high rank for its intellectual grasp, spiritual power,
and its masterful portrayal of Christ as High Priest. It is much
briefer than the Fourth Gospel, but in a sense it carries on
further the exalted picture of the Risen Christ as the
King-Priest who reigns and pleads for us now.

                      THE PICTURE OF CHRIST

        At once we are challenged by the bold stand taken by the
author concerning the Person of Christ as superior to the
prophets of the Old Testament because he is the Son of God
through whom God has spoken in the new dispensation ( Heb
1:1-3 ), this Son who is God's Agent in the work of creation and
of grace as we see it stated in  Php 2:5-11  Col 1:13-20  Joh
1:1-18 . This high doctrine of Jesus as God's Son with the glory
and stamp of God's nature is never lowered, for as God's Son he
is superior to angels ( Heb 1:4-2:4 ), though the humanity of
Jesus is recognized as one proof of the glory of Jesus ( Heb
2:5-18 ). Jesus is shown to be superior to Moses as God's Son
over God's house ( Heb 3:1-4:13 ), But the chief portion of the
Epistle is devoted to the superiority of Jesus Christ as priest
to the work of Aaron and the whole Levitical line ( Heb
4:14-12:3 ). Here the author with consummate skill, though with
rabbinical refinements at times, shows that Jesus is like
Melchizedek and so superior to Aaron ( Heb 4:14-7:28 ), works
under a better covenant of grace ( Heb 8:1-13 ), works in a
better sanctuary which is in heaven ( Heb 9:1-12 ), offers a
better sacrifice which is his own blood ( Heb 9:13-10:18 ), and
gives us better promises for the fulfilment of his task ( Heb
10:19-12:3 ). Hence this Epistle deserves to be called the
Epistle of the Priesthood of Christ. So W. P. Du Bose calls his
exposition of the book, _High Priesthood and Sacrifice_ (1908).
This conception of Christ as our Priest who offered himself on
the Cross and as our Advocate with the Father runs all through
the New Testament ( Mr 10:46  Mt 20:28  Joh 10:17  Mt 26:28  Ro
8:32  1Pe 1:18f.  1Jo 2:1f.  Re 5:9 , etc.). But it is in Hebrews
that we have the full-length portrait of Jesus Christ as our
Priest and Redeemer. The Glory of Jesus runs through the whole
book.

                            THE STYLE

        It is called an epistle and so it is, but of a peculiar
kind. In fact, as has been said, it begins like a treatise,
proceeds like a sermon, and concludes like a letter. It is, in
fact, more like a literary composition than any other New
Testament book as Deissmann shows: "It points to the fact that
the Epistle to the Hebrews, with its more definitely artistic,
more literary language (corresponding to its more theological
subject matter), constituted an epoch in the history of the new
religion. Christianity is beginning to lay hands on the
instruments of culture; the literary and theological period has
begun" (_Light from the Ancient East_, pp. 70f.). But Blass (_Die
Rhythmen der asianischen und romischen Kunstprosa_, 1905) argues
that the author of Hebrews certainly and Paul probably were
students of Greek oratory and rhetoric. He is clearly wrong about
Paul and probably so about the author of Hebrews. There is in
Hebrews more of "a studied rhetorical periodicity" (Thayer), but
with many "parenthetical involutions" (Westcott) and with less of
"the impetuous eloquence of Paul." The eleventh chapter reveals a
studied style and as a whole the Epistle belongs to the literary
_Koin(825f) rather than to the vernacular. Moulton (_Cambridge
Biblical Essays_, p. 483) thinks that the author did not know
Hebrew but follows the Septuagint throughout in his abundant use
of the Old Testament.

                            THE AUTHOR

        Origen bluntly wrote: "Who wrote the Epistle God only
knows certainly" as quoted by Eusebius. Origen held that the
thoughts were Paul's while Clement of Rome or Luke may have
written the book. Clement of Alexandria (Eusebius says) thought
that Paul wrote it in Hebrew and that Luke translated it into
Greek. No early writer apparently attributed the Greek text to
Paul. Eusebius thought it was originally written in Hebrew
whether by Paul or not and translated by Clement of Rome. But
there is no certainty anywhere in the early centuries. It was
accepted first in the east and later in the west which first
rejected it. But Jerome and Augustine accepted it. When the
Renaissance came Erasmus had doubts, Luther attributed it to
Apollos, Calvin denied the Pauline authorship. In North Africa it
was attributed to Barnabas. In modern times Harnack has suggested
Priscilla, but the masculine participle in  Heb 11:32  (me
di(8867)oumenon) disposes of that theory. The oldest Greek MSS.
(Aleph A B) have simply Pros Hebraious as the title, but they
place it before the Pastoral Epistles, while the Textus Receptus
puts it after the Pastoral Epistles and Philemon. In the light of
all the facts one can only make a guess without a sense of
certainty. For myself I should with Luther guess Apollos as the
most likely author of this book which is full of the Spirit of
God.

                          THE RECIPIENTS

        If the title is allowed to be genuine or a fair
interpretation of the Epistle, then it is addressed to Jewish
(Hebrew) Christians in a local church somewhere. Dr. James
Moffatt in his _Commentary_ (pp. xv to xvii) challenges the title
and insists that the book is written for Gentile Christians as
truly as First Peter. He argues this largely from the author's
use of the LXX. For myself Dr. Moffatt's reasons are not
convincing. The traditional view that the author is addressing
Jewish Christians in a definite locality, whether a large church
or a small household church, is true, I believe. The author seems
clearly to refer to a definite church in the experiences alluded
to in  Heb 10:32-34 . The church in Jerusalem had undergone
sufferings like these, but we really do not know where the church
was. Apparently the author is in Italy when he writes ( Heb
13:24 ), though "they of Italy" (hoi apo t(8873) Italias) can mean
those who have come from Italy. These Jewish Christians may even
have lived in Rome itself.

                             THE DATE

        Here again modern scholars differ widely. Westcott places
it between A.D. 64 and 67. Harnack and Holtzmann prefer a date
between 81 and 96. Marcus Dods argues strongly that the Epistle
was written while the temple was still standing. If it was
already destroyed, it is hard to understand how the author could
have written  Heb 10:1f. : "Else would they not have ceased to be
offered?" And in  Heb 8:13  "nigh to vanishing away" (eggus
aphanismou) is only intelligible with the temple service still
going on. The author makes use of the tabernacle instead of the
temple because the temple was patterned after the tabernacle. On
the other hand, the mention of Timothy in  Heb 13:23  as being
"set free" (apolelumenon) raises an inquiry concerning Paul's
last plea to Timothy to come to him in Rome ( 2Ti 4:11-13 ).
Apparently Timothy came and was put in prison. If so, since Paul
was put to death before Nero's own death (June 8, A.D. 68), there
is left only the years 67 to 69 A.D. as probable or even
possible. It is thus the last of the New Testament books before
the Johannine Writings all of which come towards the close of the
century and after the destruction of Jerusalem.

                           THE PURPOSE

        The author states it repeatedly. He urges the Jewish
Christians to hold fast the confession which they have made in
Jesus as Messiah and Saviour. Their Jewish neighbours have urged
them to give up Christ and Christianity and to come back to
Judaism. The Judaizers tried to make Jews out of Gentile
Christians and to fasten Judaism upon Christianity with a purely
sacramental type of religion as the result. Paul won freedom for
evangelical and spiritual Christianity against the Judaizers as
shown in the Corinthian Epistles, Galatians, and Romans. The
Gnostics in subtle fashion tried to dilute Christianity with
their philosophy and esoteric mysteries and here again Paul won
his fight for the supremacy of Christ over all these imaginary
aeons (Colossians and Ephesians). But in Hebrews the author is
battling to stop a stampede from Christ back to Judaism, a revolt
(apostasy) in truth from the living God. These Jews argued that
the prophets were superior to Jesus, the law came by the ministry
of angels, Moses was greater than Jesus, and Aaron than Jesus.
The author turns the argument on the Jews and boldly champions
the Glory of Jesus as superior at every point to all that Judaism
had, as God's Son and man's Saviour, the crown and glory of the
Old Testament prophecy, the hope of mankind. It is the first
great apologetic for Christianity and has never been surpassed.
Moffatt terms it "a profound homily."

                      SOME BOOKS ON HEBREWS

ANDEL, _De Brief aan de Hebraer_ (1906).
ANDERSON, R., _The Hebrews Epistle in the Light of the Types_
   (1911).
AYLES, _Destination, Date and Authorship of the Epistle to the
   Hebrews_ (1899).
BAILEY, _Leading Ideas of the Epistle to the Hebrews_ (1907).
BLASS, F., _Brief an die Hebraer, Text, Angabe der Rhythmen_
   (1903).
BLEEK, F., _Der Hebraerbrief Erklart_ (1840).
BRUCE, A. B., _The Epistle to the Hebrews_ (1899).
DALE, R. W., _The Jewish Temple in the Christian Church_
   (1865).
DAVIDSON, A. B., _The Epistle to the Hebrews_ (1882).
DELITZSCH, F., _Commentary on the Hebrews_ (1857).
DIBELIUS, M., _Der Verfasser des Hebraerbriefes_ (1910).
DODS, M., _Expositor's Greek Testament_ (1910).
DU BOSE, W. P., _High Priesthood and sacrifice_ (1908).
EDWARDS, T. C., _Expositor's Bible_ (1888).
FARRAR, F. W., _Cambridge Greek Testament_ (1893).
GOODSPEED, E. J., _Bible for Home and School_ (1908).
GRIFFTH-THOMAS, W. H., _Let Us Go On_ (1923).
HEIGL, _Verfalser und Addresse des Briefes an die Hebraer_
   (1905).
HOLLMANN, _Schriften d. N. T_. 2 Aufl. (1907).
KENDRICK, A. C., _American Commentary_ (1890).
LIDGETT, J. S., _Sonship and Salvation_ (1921).
LOWRIE, _An Explanation of Hebrews_ (1921).
LUNEMANN, G., _Meyer Komm_. (1882).
MACFADYEN, J. F., _Through the Eternal Spirit_ (1925).
MACNEILL, _The Christology of the Epistle to the Hebrews_
   (1914).
MENEGOZ, E., _La Theologie de l'epitre aux Hebreaux_ (1894).
MILLIGAN, G., _The Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews_
   (1899).
MOFFATT JAMES, _Int. and Cosit. Comm_. (1924)
MOULE, H. C., _Messages from the Epistle to the Hebrews_ (1909).
MURRAY, ANDREW, _Devotional Commentary_.
NAIRNE, A., _The Epistle of Priesthood_ (1913).
NAIRNE, A., _The Alexandrian Gospel_ (1917).
PEAKE, A. S., _New Century Bible_ (1904).
PORTER, S. J., _The Twelve-Gemmed Crown_ (1913).
RENDALL, F., _The Theology of the Hebrew Christians_ (1886).
RIGGENBACH, M., _Zoeckler Komm_. 2 Aufl. (1913).
ROTHERHAM, _The Epistle to the Hebrews_ (1906).
SAPHIR, A., _Exposition of Hebrews_.
SCOTT, E. F., _The Epistle to the Hebrews_ (1922).
SEEBERG, A., _Der Brief an die Hebraer_ (1912).
SLOT, _De Letterkundige Vorm van den Brief aan de Hebraer
   (1912).
SODEN, VON, _Hand-Comm_. (1899).
THOLUCK, A., _Komm. zum Briefe an die Hebraer_.
VAUGHAN, C. J., _Epistle to the Hebrews_ (1899).
WADE, _The Epistle to the Hebrews_ (1923).
WEISS, B., _Meyer-Komm_. 6 Aufl. (1902).
WEISS, B., _Der Hebraerbrief in Zeitgeschichtlicher Bekuch-
   tung_ (1910).
WELCH, _Authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews_ (1899).
WESTCOTT, B. F., _Epistle to the Hebrews_ (3rd ed. 1906).
WICKHAM, E. C., _Westminster Comm_. (1910).
WINDISCH, H., _Handbuch zum N.T_. (1913).
WREDE, W., _Das literarisches Ratsel des Hebraerbriefs_ (1906).

經文:

希伯來書 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 {God} (ho theos). This Epistle begins like Genesis and the
Fourth Gospel with God, who is the Author of the old revelation
in the prophets and of the new in his Son. Verses  1-3  are a
_proemium_ (Delitzsch) or introduction to the whole Epistle. The
periodic structure of the sentence ( 1-4 ) reminds one of Lu
1:1-4, Ro 1:1-7, 1Jo 1:1-4. The sentence could have concluded
with en hui(9369) in verse  2 , but by means of three relatives
(hon, di' hou, hos) the author presents the Son as "the exact
counterpart of God" (Moffatt). {Of old time} (palai). "Long
ago" as in  Mt 11:21 . {Having spoken} (lal(8873)as). First aorist
active participle of lale(935c), originally chattering of birds,
then used of the highest form of speech as here. {Unto the
fathers} (	ois patrasin). Dative case. The Old Testament
worthies in general without "our" or "your" as in  Joh 6:58  7:22  Ro 9:5 . {In the prophets} (en tois proph(8874)ais). As the
quickening power of their life (Westcott). So  4:7 . {By divers
portions} (polumer(9373)). "In many portions." Adverb from late
adjective polumer(8873) (in papyri), both in _Vettius Valens_, here
only in N.T., but in Wisdom 7:22 and Josephus (_Ant_. VIII, 3,
9). The Old Testament revelation came at different times and in
various stages, a progressive revelation of God to men. {In
divers manners} (polutrop(9373)). "In many ways." Adverb from old
adjective polutropos, in Philo, only here in N.T. The two
adverbs together are "a sonorous hendiadys for 'variously'"
(Moffatt) as Chrysostom (diaphor(9373)). God spoke by dream, by
direct voice, by signs, in different ways to different men
(Abraham, Jacob, Moses, Elijah, Isaiah, etc.).

經文:

希伯來書 1:2-1:2

註釋:

 {At the end of these days} (ep' eschatou t(936e) h(886d)er(936e)
tout(936e)). In contrast with palai above. {Hath spoken}
(elal(8873)en). First aorist indicative of lale(935c), the same verb
as above, "did speak" in a final and full revelation. {In his
Son} (en hui(9369)). In sharp contrast to en tois proph(8874)ais.
"The Old Testament slopes upward to Christ" (J. R. Sampey). No
article or pronoun here with the preposition en, giving the
absolute sense of "Son." Here the idea is not merely what Jesus
said, but what he is (Dods), God's Son who reveals the Father
( Joh 1:18 ). "The revelation was a _son-revelation_" (Vincent).
{Hath appointed} (eth(886b)en). First aorist (kappa aorist) active
of 	ith(886d)i, a timeless aorist. {Heir of all things}
(kl(8872)onomon pant(936e)). See  Mr 12:6  for ho kl(8872)onomos in
Christ's parable, perhaps an allusion here to this parable
(Moffatt). The idea of sonship easily passes into that of
heirship ( Ga 4:7  Ro 8:17 ). See the claim of Christ in  Mt
11:27  28:18  even before the Ascension. {Through whom} (di'
hou). The Son as Heir is also the Intermediate Agent (dia) in
the work of creation as we have it in  Col 1:16f.  Joh 1:3 . {The
worlds} (	ous ai(936e)as). "The ages" (_secula_, Vulgate). See
 11:3  also where 	ous ai(936e)as=ton kosmon (the world) or the
universe like 	a panta (the all things) in  1:3  Ro 11:36  Col
1:16 . The original sense of ai(936e) (from aei, always) occurs
in  Heb 5:20 , but here "by metonomy of the container for the
contained" (Thayer) for "the worlds" (the universe) as in LXX,
Philo, Josephus.

經文:

希伯來書 1:3-1:3

註釋:

 {Being} ((936e)). Absolute and timeless existence (present
active participle of eimi) in contrast with genomenos in
verse  4  like (886e) in  Joh 1:1  (in contrast with egeneto in
 1:14 ) and like huparch(936e) and genomenos in  Php 2:6f . {The
effulgence of his glory} (apaugasma t(8873) dox(8873)). The word
apaugasma, late substantive from apaugaz(935c), to emit brightness
(aug(882c) augaz(935c) in  2Co 4:4 ), here only in the N.T., but in
Wisdom 7:26 and in Philo. It can mean either reflected
brightness, refulgence (Calvin, Thayer) or effulgence (ray from
an original light body) as the Greek fathers hold. Both senses
are true of Christ in his relation to God as Jesus shows in plain
language in  Joh 12:45  14:9 . "The writer is using metaphors
which had already been applied to Wisdom and the Logos"
(Moffatt). The meaning "effulgence" suits the context better,
though it gives the idea of eternal generation of the Son ( Joh
1:1 ), the term Father applied to God necessarily involving Son.
See this same metaphor in  2Co 4:6 . {The very image of his
substance} (charakt(8872) t(8873) hupostase(9373)). Charakt(8872) is an old
word from charass(935c), to cut, to scratch, to mark. It first was
the agent (note ending =t(8872)) or tool that did the marking, then
the mark or impress made, the exact reproduction, a meaning
clearly expressed by charagma ( Ac 17:29  Re 13:16f. ).
Menander had already used (Moffatt) charakt(8872) in the sense of
our "character." The word occurs in the inscriptions for "person"
as well as for "exact reproduction" of a person. The word
hupostasis for the being or essence of God "is a philosophical
rather than a religious term" (Moffatt). Etymologically it is the
sediment or foundation under a building (for instance). In  11:1 
hypostasis is like the "title-deed" idea found in the papyri.
Athanasius rightly used  Heb 1:1-4  in his controversy with
Arius. Paul in  Php 2:5-11  pictures the real and eternal deity
of Christ free from the philosophical language here employed. But
even Paul's simpler phrase morph(8820)theou (the form of God) has
difficulties of its own. The use of Logos in  Joh 1:1-18  is
parallel to  Heb 1:1-4 . {And upholding} (pher(936e) te). Present
active participle of pher(935c) closely connected with (936e) (being)
by 	e and like  Col 1:17  in idea. The newer science as
expounded by Eddington and Jeans is in harmony with the spiritual
and personal conception of creation here presented. {By the word
of his power} (	(9369) r(886d)ati t(8873) duname(9373) autou). Instrumental
case of 
(886d)a (word). See  11:3  for 
(886d)ati theou (by the word
of God) as the explanation of creation like Genesis, but here
autou refers to God's Son as in  1:2 . {Purification of sins}
(katharismon t(936e) hamarti(936e)). Katharismos is from kathariz(935c),
to cleanse ( Mt 8:3  Heb 9:14 ), here only in Hebrews, but in
same sense of cleansing from sins,  2Pe 1:9  Job 7:21 . Note
middle participle poi(8873)amenos like heuramenos in  9:12 . This
is the first mention of the priestly work of Christ, the keynote
of this Epistle. {Sat down} (ekathisen). First aorist active of
kathiz(935c), "took his seat," a formal and dignified act. {Of the
Majesty on high} (	(8873) megalosun(8873) en hups(886c)ois). Late word from
megas, only in LXX ( De 32:3  2Sa 7:23 , etc.), Aristeas,  Heb
1:3  8:1  Jude 1:25 . Christ resumed his original dignity and
glory ( Joh 17:5 ). The phrase en hups(886c)ois occurs in the
Psalms ( Ps 93:4 ), here only in N.T., elsewhere en hupsistois
in the highest ( Mt 21:9  Lu 2:14 ) or en tois epouraniois in
the heavenlies ( Eph 1:3,20 ). Jesus is here pictured as King
(Prophet and Priest also) Messiah seated at the right hand of
God.

經文:

希伯來書 1:4-1:4

註釋:

 {Having become} (genomenos). Second aorist middle
participle of ginomai. In contrast with on in verse  3 . {By so
much} (	osout(9369)). Instrumental case of 	osoutos correlative
with hos(9369) (as) with comparative in both clauses (kreitt(936e),
better, comparative of kratus, diaphor(9374)eron, more excellent,
comparative of diaphoros). {Than the angels} (	(936e) aggel(936e)).
Ablative of comparison after kreitt(936e), as often. {Than they}
(par' autous). Instead of the ablative aut(936e) here the
preposition para (along, by the side of) with the accusative
occurs, another common idiom as in  3:3  9:23 . Diaphoros only
in Hebrews in N.T. except  Ro 12:6 . {Hath inherited}
(kekl(8872)onom(886b)en). Perfect active indicative of kl(8872)onome(935c)
(from kl(8872)onomos, heir, verse  2 ), and still inherits it, the
name (onoma, oriental sense of rank) of "Son" which is superior
to prophets as already shown ( 1:2 ) and also to angels
( 1:4-2:18 ) as he now proceeds to prove. Jesus is superior to
angels as God's Son, his deity ( 1:4-2:4 ). The author proves it
from Scripture ( 1:4-14 ).

經文:

希伯來書 1:5-1:5

註釋:

 {Unto which} (Tini). "To which individual angel." As a
class angels are called sons of God (Elohim) ( Ps 29:1 ), but no
single angel is called God's Son like the Messiah in  Ps 2:7 .
Dods takes "have I begotten thee" (gegenn(886b)a se, perfect active
indicative of genna(935c)) to refer to the resurrection and
ascension while others refer it to the incarnation. {And again}
(kai palin). This quotation is from  2Sa 7:14 . Note the use of
eis in the predicate with the sense of "as" like the Hebrew
(LXX idiom), not preserved in the English. See  Mt 19:5  Lu
2:34 . Like Old English "to" or "for." See  2Co 6:18  Re 21:7 
for the same passage applied to relation between God and
Christians while here it is treated as Messianic.

經文:

希伯來書 1:6-1:6

註釋:

 {And when he again bringeth in} (hotan de palin eisagag(8869)).
Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and second aorist active
subjunctive of eisag(935c). If palin is taken with eisagag(8869),
the reference is to the Second Coming as in  9:28 . If palin
merely introduces another quotation ( Ps 97:7 ) parallel to kai
palin in verse  5 , the reference is to the incarnation when the
angels did worship the Child Jesus ( Lu 2:13f. ). There is no way
to decide certainly about it. {The first-born} (	on
pr(9374)otokon). See  Ps 89:28 . For this compound adjective applied
to Christ in relation to the universe see  Col 1:15 , to other
men,  Ro 8:29  Col 1:18 , to the other children of Mary,  Lu
2:7 ; here it is used absolutely. {The world} (	(886e) oikoumen(886e)).
"The inhabited earth." See  Ac 17:6 . {Let worship}
(proskun(8873)at(9373)an). Imperative first aorist active third plural
of proskune(935c), here in the full sense of worship, not mere
reverence or courtesy. This quotation is from the LXX of  De
32:43 , but is not in the Hebrew, though most of the LXX MSS.
(except F) have huioi theou, but the substance does occur also
in  Ps 97:7  with hoi aggeloi autou.

經文:

希伯來書 1:7-1:7

註釋:

 {Of the angels} (pros tous aggelous). "With reference to"
(pros) as in  Lu 20:9 . So "of the Son" in verse  8 . Note
men here and de in verse  8  in carefully balanced contrast.
The quotation is from  Ps 104:4 . {Winds} (pneumata). "Spirits"
the word also means. The meaning (note article with aggelous,
not with pneumata) apparently is one that can reduce angels to
the elemental forces of wind and fire (Moffatt). {A flame of
fire} (puros phloga). Predicate accusative of phlox, old
word, in N.T. only here and  Lu 16:24 . Lunemann holds that the
Hebrew here is wrongly rendered and means that God makes the wind
his messengers (not angels) and flaming fire his servants. That
is all true, but that is not the point of this passage. Preachers
also are sometimes like a wind-storm or a fire.

經文:

希伯來書 1:8-1:8

註釋:

 {O God} (ho theos). This quotation (the fifth) is from  Ps
45:7f . A Hebrew nuptial ode (epithalamium) for a king treated
here as Messianic. It is not certain whether ho theos is here
the vocative (address with the nominative form as in  Joh 20:28 
with the Messiah termed 	heos as is possible,  Joh 1:18 ) or
ho theos is nominative (subject or predicate) with estin (is)
understood: "God is thy throne" or "Thy throne is God." Either
makes good sense. {Sceptre} (
abdos). Old word for
walking-stick, staff ( Heb 11:21 ).

經文:

希伯來書 1:9-1:9

註釋:

 {Hath anointed thee} (echrisen se). First aorist active
indicative of chri(935c), to anoint, from which verb the verbal
Christos (Anointed One) comes. See Christ's use of echrisen
in  Lu 4:18  from  Isa 66:1 . {With the oil of gladness} (elaion
agalliase(9373)). Accusative case with echrisen (second accusative
besides se). Perhaps the festive anointing on occasions of joy
( 12:2 ). See  Lu 1:44 . {Fellows} (metochous). Old word from
metech(935c), partners, sharers, in N.T. only in Hebrews save  Lu
5:7 . Note para with accusative here, beside, beyond, above (by
comparison, extending beyond).

經文:

希伯來書 1:10-1:10

註釋:

 {Lord} (Kurie). In the LXX, not in the Hebrew. Quotation
(the sixth) from  Ps 102:26-28  through verses  10-12 . Note
emphatic position of su here at the beginning as in verses
 11-12  (su de). This Messianic Psalm pictures the Son in his
Creative work and in his final triumph. {Hast laid the
foundation} (ethemeli(9373)as). First aorist active of 	hemelio(935c),
old verb from 	hemelios (foundation) for which see  Col 1:23 .

經文:

希伯來書 1:11-1:11

註釋:

 {They} (autoi). The heavens (ouranoi). {Shall perish}
(apolountai). Future middle of apollumi. Modern scientists no
longer postulate the eternal existence of the heavenly bodies.
{But thou continuest} (su de diameneis). This is what matters
most, the eternal existence of God's Son as Creator and Preserver
of the universe ( Joh 1:1-3  Col 1:14ff. ). {Shall wax old}
(palai(9374)h(8873)ontai). First future passive indicative of
palaio(935c), from palaios, for which see  Lu 12:33  Heb 8:13 .

經文:

希伯來書 1:12-1:12

註釋:

 {A mantle} (peribolaion). Old word for covering from
pariball(935c), to fling around, as a veil in  1Co 11:15 , nowhere
else in N.T. {Shalt thou roll up} (helixeis). Future active of
heliss(935c), late form for heiliss(935c), in N.T. only here and  Re
6:14 , to fold together. {As a garment} (h(9373) himation). LXX
repeats from  11 . {They shall be changed} (allag(8873)ontai).
Second future passive of allass(935c), old verb, to change. {Shall
not fail} (ouk ekleipsousin). Future active of ekleip(935c), to
leave out, to fail, used of the sun in  Lu 23:45 . "Nature is at
his mercy, not he at nature's" (Moffatt).

經文:

希伯來書 1:13-1:13

註釋:

 {Hath he said} (eir(886b)en). Perfect active common use of the
perfect for permanent record. This seventh quotation is proof of
the Son's superiority as the Son of God (his deity) to angels and
is from  Ps 110:1 , a Messianic Psalm frequently quoted in
Hebrews. {Sit thou} (kathou). Second person singular imperative
middle of kath(886d)ai, to sit, for the longer form kath(8873)o, as
in  Mt 22:44  Jas 2:3 . {On my right hand} (ek dexi(936e) mou).
"From my right." See  1:3  for en dexi(8369) "at the right hand."
{Till I make} (he(9373) an th(935c)). Indefinite temporal clause about
the future with he(9373) and the second aorist active subjunctive
of 	ith(886d)i with an (often not used), a regular and common
idiom. Quoted also in  Lu 20:43 . For the pleonasm in hupodion
and 	(936e) pod(936e) (objective genitive) see  Mt 5:35 .

經文:

希伯來書 1:14-1:14

註釋:

 {Ministering spirits} (leitourgika pneumata). Thayer says
that leitourgikos was not found in profane authors, but it
occurs in the papyri for "work tax" (money in place of service)
and for religious service also. The word is made from
leitourgia ( Lu 1:23  Heb 8:6  9:21 ). {Sent forth}
(apostellomena). Present passive participle of apostell(935c),
sent forth repeatedly, from time to time as occasion requires.
{For the sake of} (dia). With the accusative, the usual causal
meaning of dia. {That shall inherit} (	ous mellontas
kl(8872)onomein). "That are going to inherit," common idiom of
mell(935c) (present active participle) with the infinitive (present
active here), "destined to inherit" ( Mt 11:14 ). {Salvation}
(s(9374)(8872)ian). Here used of the final salvation in its
consummation. Only here in the N.T. do we have "inherent
salvation," but see  6:12  12:17 . We do not have here the
doctrine of special guardian angels for each of us, but simply
the fact that angels are used for our good. "And if so, may we
not be aided, inspired, guided by a cloud of witnesses--not
witnesses only, but helpers, agents like ourselves of the
immanent God?" (Sir Oliver Lodge, _The Hibbert Journal_, Jan.,
1903, p. 223).

經文:

希伯來書 2:1-2:1

註釋:

 {Therefore} (dia touto). Because Jesus is superior to
prophets and angels and because the new revelation is superior to
the old. The author often pauses in his argument, as here, to
drive home a pungent exhortation. {Ought} (dei). It is
necessity, necessity rather than obligation (chr(885c)). {To give
heed} (prosechein). Present active infinitive with 
oun
(accusative singular of 
ous) understood as in  Ac 8:6 . {More
earnest} (perissoter(9373)). Comparative adverb, "more earnestly,"
"more abundantly" as in  1Th 2:7  {To the things that were heard}
(	ois akoustheisin). Dative plural neuter of the articular
participle first aorist passive of akou(935c). {Lest haply we drift
away} (m(8820)pote pararu(936d)en). Negative clause of purpose with m(880a)pote and the second aorist passive subjunctive of pararre(935c),
old verb to flow by or past, to glide by, only here in N.T. (cf.
 Pr 3:21 ). Xenophon (Cyrop. IV. 52) uses it of the river flowing
by. Here the metaphor is that "of being swept along past the sure
anchorage which is within reach" (Westcott), a vivid picture of
peril for all ("we," h(886d)as).

經文:

希伯來書 2:2-2:2

註釋:

 {For if ... proved steadfast} (ei gar ... egeneto bebaios).
Condition of first class, assumed as true. {Through angels} (di'
aggel(936e)). Allusion to the use of angels by God at Sinai as in
 Ac 7:38,53  Gal 3:19 , though not in the O.T., but in Josephus
(_Ant_. XV. 156). {Transgression and disobedience} (parabasis
kai parako(885c)). Both words use para as in pararu(936d)en, refused
to obey (stepping aside, para-basis as in  Ro 2:23 ), neglect
to obey (par-ako(885c) as in  Ro 5:19 ), more than a mere hendiadys.
{Recompense of reward} (misthapodosian). Late double compound,
like misthapodot(8873) ( Heb 11:6 ), from misthos (reward) and
apodid(936d)i, to give back. The old Greeks used misthodosia.
{Just} (endikon). Old compound adjective, in N.T. only here and
 Ro 3:8 .

經文:

希伯來書 2:3-2:3

註釋:

 {How shall we escape?} (p(9373) h(886d)eis ekpheuxometha;).
Rhetorical question with future middle indicative of ekpheug(935c)
and conclusion of the condition. {If we neglect} (amel(8873)antes).
First aorist active participle of amele(935c), "having neglected."
{So great salvation} (	(886c)ikaut(8873) s(9374)(8872)ias). Ablative case after
amel(8873)antes. Correlative pronoun of age, but used of size in
the N.T. ( Jas 3:4  2Co 1:10 ). {Which} (h(8874)is). "Which very
salvation," before described, now summarized. {Having at the
first been spoken} (arch(886e) labousa laleisthai). Literally,
"having received a beginning to be spoken," "having begun to be
spoken," a common literary _Koin(825f) idiom (Polybius, etc.).
{Through the Lord} (dia tou kuriou). The Lord Jesus who is
superior to angels. Jesus was God's full revelation and he is the
source of this new and superior revelation. {Was confirmed}
(ebebai(9374)h(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of ebaio(935c),
from ebaios (stable), old verb as in  1Co 1:6 . {By them that
heard} (hupo t(936e) akousant(936e)). Ablative case with hupo of the
articular first aorist active participle of akou(935c). Those who
heard the Lord Jesus. Only one generation between Jesus and the
writer. Paul ( Ga 1:11 ) got his message directly from Christ.

經文:

希伯來書 2:4-2:4

註釋:

 {God also bearing witness with them} (sunepimarturountos tou
theou). Genitive absolute with the present active participle of
the late double compound verb sunepimarture(935c), to join (sun)
in giving additional (epi) testimony (marture(935c)). Here only in
N.T., but in Aristotle, Polybius, Plutarch. {Both by signs}
(s(886d)eiois te kai) {and wonders} (kai terasin) {and by
manifold powers} (kai poikilais dunamesin) {and by gifts of the
Holy Ghost} (kai pneumatos hagiou merismois). Instrumental case
used with all four items. See  Ac 2:22  for the three words for
miracles in inverse order (powers, wonders, signs). Each word
adds an idea about the erga (works) of Christ. Teras (wonder)
attracts attention, dunamis (power) shows God's power,
s(886d)eion reveals the purpose of God in the miracles. For
poikilais (manifold, many-coloured) see  Mt 4:24  Jas 1:2 . For
merismos for distribution (old word, in N.T. only here and  Heb
4:12 ) see  1Co 12:4-30 . {According to his own will} (kata t(886e)
autou thel(8873)in). The word 	hel(8873)is is called a vulgarism by
Pollux. The writer is fond of words in -is.

經文:

希伯來書 2:5-2:5

註釋:

 {For not unto angels} (ou gar aggelois). The author now
proceeds to show ( 2:5-18 ) that the very humanity of Jesus, the
Son of Man, likewise proves his superiority to angels. {The world
to come} (	(886e) oikoumen(886e) t(886e) mellousan). The new order, the
salvation just described. See a like use of mell(935c) (as
participle) with s(9374)(8872)ia ( 1:14 ), ai(936e) ( 6:4f. ), agatha
( 9:11  10:1 ), polis ( 13:14 ). {Whereof we speak} (peri h(8873)
laloumen). The author is discussing this new order introduced by
Christ which makes obsolete the old dispensation of rites and
symbols. God did not put this new order in charge of angels.

經文:

希伯來書 2:6-2:6

註釋:

 {But one somewhere} (de pou tis). See  4:4  for a like
indefinite quotation. Philo uses this "literary mannerism"
(Moffatt). He quotes  Ps 8:5-7  and extends here to  8a . {Hath
testified} (diemarturato). First aorist middle indicative of
diamarturomai, old verb to testify vigorously ( Ac 2:40 ).
{What} (Ti). Neuter, not masculine 	is (who). The
insignificance of man is implied. {The son of man} (huios
anthr(9370)ou). Not ho huios tou anthr(9370)ou which Jesus used so
often about himself, but literally here "son of man" like the
same words so often in Ezekiel, without Messianic meaning here.
{Visited} (episkept(8869)). Second person singular present
indicative middle of episkeptomai, old verb to look upon, to
look after, to go to see ( Mt 25:36 ), from which verb
episcopos, overseer, bishop, comes.

經文:

希伯來書 2:7-2:7

註釋:

 {Thou madest him a little lower} (elatt(9373)as auton brachu
ti). First aorist active of old verb elatto(935c) from elatt(936e)
(less), causative verb to lessen, to decrease, to make less, only
here, and verse  9  and  Joh 3:30  in N.T. Brachu ti is
accusative neuter of degree like  2Sa 16:1 , "some little," but
of time in  Isa 57:17  (for a little while). {Than the angels}
(par' aggelous). "Beside angels" like para with the
accusative of comparison in  1:4,9 . The Hebrew here has _Elohim_
which word is applied to judges in  Ps 82:1,6  ( Joh 10:34f. ).
Here it is certainly not "God" in our sense. In  Ps 29:1  the LXX
translates _Elohim_ by huoi theou (sons of God). {Thou
crownedst} (estephan(9373)as). First aorist active indicative of
old verb, stephano(935c), to crown, in N.T. only here and  2Ti 2:5 
The Psalmist refers to God's purpose in creating man with such a
destiny as mastery over nature. The rest of verse  7  is absent
in B.

經文:

希伯來書 2:8-2:8

註釋:

 {In that he subjected} (en t(9369) hupotaxai). First aorist
active articular infinitive of hupatass(935c) in the locative case,
"in the subjecting." {He left} (aph(886b)en). First aorist active
indicative (kappa aorist) of aphi(886d)i. {Nothing that is not
subject to him} (ouden aut(9369) anupotakton). Later verbal of
hupotass(935c) with a privative. Here in passive sense, active
sense in  1Ti 1:9 . Man's sovereignty was meant to be
all-inclusive including the administration of "the world to
come." "He is crowned king of nature, invested with a divine
authority over creation" (Moffatt). But how far short of this
destiny has man come! {But now we see not yet} (
un de oup(930a)hor(936d)en). Not even today in the wonderful twentieth century with
man's triumphs over nature has he reached that goal, wonderful as
are the researches by the help of telescope and microscope, the
mechanism of the airplane, the submarine, steam, electricity,
radio.

經文:

希伯來書 2:9-2:9

註釋:

 {Even Jesus} (I(8873)oun). We do not see man triumphant, but we
do see Jesus, for the author is not ashamed of his human name,
realizing man's destiny, "the very one who has been made a little
lower than the angels" (	on brachu ti par' aggelous
(886c)att(936d)enon), quoting and applying the language of the Psalm in
verse  7  to Jesus (with article 	on and the perfect passive
participle of elatta(935c)). But this is not all. Death has defeated
man, but Jesus has conquered death. {Because of the suffering of
death} (dia to path(886d)a tou thanatou). The causal sense of dia
with the accusative as in  1:14 . Jesus in his humanity was put
lower than the angels "for a little while" (rachu ti). Because
of the suffering of death we see (lepomen) Jesus crowned
(estephan(936d)enon, perfect passive participle of stephano(935c) from
verse  7 ), crowned already "with glory and honour" as Paul shows
in  Php 2:9-11  (more highly exalted, huperups(9373)en) "that at
the name of Jesus every knee should bow." There is more glory to
come to Jesus surely, but he is already at God's right hand
( 1:3 ). {That by the grace of God he should taste death for
every man} (hop(9373) chariti theou huper pantos geus(8874)ai
thanatou). This purpose clause (hop(9373) instead of the more
usual hina) is pregnant with meaning. The author interprets and
applies the language of the Psalm to Jesus and here puts Christ's
death in behalf of (huper), and so instead of, every man as the
motive for his incarnation and death on the Cross. The phrase to
taste death (geuomai thanatou) occurs in the Gospels ( Mt
16:28  Mr 9:1  Lu 9:27  Joh 8:52 ), though not in the ancient
Greek. It means to see death ( Heb 11:5 ), "a bitter experience,
not a rapid sip" (Moffatt). His death was in behalf of every one
(not everything as the early Greek theologians took it). The
death of Christ (Andrew Fuller) was sufficient for all, efficient
for some. It is all "by the grace (chariti, instrumental case)
of God," a thoroughly Pauline idea. Curiously enough some MSS.
read ch(9372)is theou (apart from God) in place of chariti theou,
Nestorian doctrine whatever the origin.

經文:

希伯來書 2:10-2:10

註釋:

 {It became him} (eprepen aut(9369)). Imperfect active of
prep(935c), old verb to stand out, to be becoming or seemly. Here it
is impersonal with 	elei(9373)ai as subject, though personal in
 Heb 7:26 . Aut(9369) (him) is in the dative case and refers to
God, not to Christ as is made plain by 	on arch(8867)on (author).
One has only to recall  Joh 3:16  to get the idea here. The
voluntary humiliation or incarnation of Christ the Son a little
lower than the angels was a seemly thing to God the Father as the
writer now shows in a great passage ( 2:10-18 ) worthy to go
beside  Php 2:5-11 . {For whom} (di' hon). Referring to aut(9369)
(God) as the reason (cause) for the universe (	a panta).
{Through whom} (di' hou). With the genitive dia expresses the
agent by whom the universe came into existence, a direct
repudiation of the Gnostic view of intermediate agencies (aeons)
between God and the creation of the universe. Paul puts it
succinctly in  Ro 11:36  by his ex autou kai di' autou kai eis
auton ta panta. The universe comes out of God, by means of God,
for God. This writer has already said that God used his Son as
the Agent (di' hou) in creation ( 1:2 ), a doctrine in harmony
with  Col 1:15f.  (en aut(9369), di' autou eis auton) and  Joh
1:3 . {In bringing} (agagonta). Second aorist active participle
of ag(935c) in the accusative case in spite of the dative aut(9369)
just before to which it refers. {The author} (	on arch(8867)on).
Old compound word (arch(885c) and ag(935c)) one leading off, leader or
prince as in  Ac 5:31 , one blazing the way, a pioneer (Dods) in
faith ( Heb 12:2 ), author ( Ac 3:15 ). Either sense suits here,
though author best (verse  9 ). Jesus is the author of salvation,
the leader of the sons of God, the Elder Brother of us all ( Ro
8:29 ). {To make perfect} (	elei(9373)ai). First aorist active
infinitive of 	eleio(935c) (from 	eleios). If one recoils at the
idea of God making Christ perfect, he should bear in mind that it
is the humanity of Jesus that is under discussion. The writer
does not say that Jesus was sinful (see the opposite in  4:15 ),
but simply that "by means of sufferings" God perfected his Son in
his human life and death for his task as Redeemer and Saviour.
One cannot know human life without living it. There was no moral
imperfection in Jesus, but he lived his human life in order to be
able to be a sympathizing and effective leader in the work of
salvation.

經文:

希伯來書 2:11-2:11

註釋:

 {He that sanctifieth} (ho hagiaz(936e)). Present active
articular participle of hagiaz(935c). Jesus is the sanctifier
( 9:13f.  13:12 ). {They that are sanctified} (hoi
hagiazomenoi). Present passive articular participle of
hagiaz(935c). It is a process here as in  10:14 , not a single act,
though in  10:10  the perfect passive indicative presents a
completed state. {Of one} (ex henos). Referring to God as the
Father of Jesus and of the "many sons" above (verse  10 ) and in
harmony with verse  14  below. Even before the incarnation Jesus
had a kinship with men though we are not sons in the full sense
that he is. {He is not ashamed} (ouk epaischunetai). Present
passive indicative of epaischunomai, old compound ( Ro 1:16 ).
Because of the common Father Jesus is not ashamed to own us as
"brothers" (adelphous), unworthy sons though we be.

經文:

希伯來書 2:12-2:12

註釋:

 {Unto my brethren} (	ois adelphois mou). To prove his
point the writer quotes  Ps 22:22  when the Messiah is presented
as speaking "unto my brethren." {Congregation} (ekkl(8873)ias). The
word came to mean the local church and also the general church or
kingdom ( Mt 16:18  Heb 12:23 ). Here we have the picture of
public worship and the Messiah sharing it with others as we know
Jesus often did.

經文:

希伯來書 2:13-2:13

註釋:

 {I will put my trust in him} (Eg(9320)esomai pepoith(9373) ep'
aut(9369)). A rare periphrastic (intransitive) future perfect of
peith(935c), a quotation from  Isa 8:17 . The author represents the
Messiah as putting his trust in God as other men do (cf.  Heb
12:2 ). Certainly Jesus did this constantly. The third quotation
(kai palin, And again) is from  Isa 8:18  (the next verse), but
the Messiah shows himself closely linked with the children
(paidia) of God, the sons (huioi) of verse  10 .

經文:

希伯來書 2:14-2:14

註釋:

 {Are sharers in flesh and blood} (kekoin(936e)(886b)en haimatos kai
sarkos). The best MSS. read "blood and flesh." The verb is
perfect active indicative of koin(936e)e(935c), old verb with the
regular genitive, elsewhere in the N.T. with the locative ( Ro
12:13 ) or with en or eis. "The children have become partners
(koin(936e)oi) in blood and flesh." {Partook} (metesche). Second
aorist active indicative of metech(935c), to have with, a practical
synonym for koin(936e)e(935c) and with the genitive also (	(936e) aut(936e)).
That he might bring to nought (hina katarg(8873)(8869)). Purpose of the
incarnation clearly stated with hina and the first aorist
active subjunctive of katarge(935c), old word to render idle or
ineffective (from kata, argos), causative verb (25 times in
Paul), once in Luke ( Lu 13:7 ), once in Hebrews (here). "By
means of death" (his own death) Christ broke the power (kratos)
of the devil over death (paradoxical as it seems), certainly in
men's fear of death and in some unexplained way Satan had sway
over the realm of death ( Zec 3:5f. ). Note the explanatory
	out' estin (that is) with the accusative after it as before
it. In  Re 12:7  Satan is identified with the serpent in Eden,
though it is not done in the Old Testament. See  Ro 5:12  Joh
8:44  14:30  16:11  1Jo 3:12 . Death is the devil's realm, for he
is the author of sin. "Death as death is no part of the divine
order" (Westcott).

經文:

希伯來書 2:15-2:15

註釋:

 {And might deliver} (kai apallax(8869)). Further purpose with
the first aorist active subjunctive of appallass(935c), old verb to
change from, to set free from, in N.T. only here,  Lu 12:58  Ac
19:12 . {Through fear of death} (phob(9369) thanatou). Instrumental
case of phobos. The ancients had great fear of death though the
philosophers like Seneca argued against it. There is today a
flippant attitude towards death with denial of the future life
and rejection of God. But the author of Hebrews saw judgement
after death ( 9:27f. ). Hence our need of Christ to break the
power of sin and Satan in death. {All their lifetime} (dia
pantos tou z(8869)n). Present active infinitive with pas and the
article in the genitive case with dia, "through all the
living." {Subject to bondage} (enochoi douleias). Old adjective
from enech(935c), "held in," "bound to," with genitive, bond-slaves
of fear, a graphic picture. Jesus has the keys of life and death
and said: "I am the life." Thank God for that.

經文:

希伯來書 2:16-2:16

註釋:

 {Verily} (de pou). "Now in some way," only here in N.T.
{Doth he take hold} (epilambanetai). Present middle indicative
and means to lay hold of, to help, like o(8874)h(8873)ai in verse
 18 . {The seed of Abraham} (spermatos Abraham). The spiritual
Israel ( Ga 3:29 ), children of faith ( Ro 9:7 ).

經文:

希伯來書 2:17-2:17

註釋:

 1Jo
2:18 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
2' or engs='1Jo
2'
經文:

希伯來書 2:18-2:18

註釋:

 {In that} (en h(9369)). Literally, "In which" (=en tout(9369) en
h(9369), in that in which), a causal idea, though in  Ro 14:22  en
h(9369) means "wherein." {Hath suffered} (peponthen). Second
perfect active indicative of pasch(935c), permanent part of Christ's
experience. {Being tempted} (peirastheis). First aorist passive
participle of peiraz(935c). The temptation to escape the shame of
the Cross was early and repeatedly presented to Christ, by Satan
in the wilderness ( Mt 4:8-11 ), by Peter in the spirit of Satan
( Mt 16:22f. ), in Gethsemane ( Mt 26:39 ), and caused intense
suffering to Jesus ( Lu 22:44  Heb 5:8 ). {He is able}
(dunatai). This word strikes the heart of it all. Christ's
power to help is due not merely to his deity as God's Son, but
also to his humanity without which he could not sympathize with
us ( Heb 4:15 ). {To succour} (o(8874)h(8873)ai). First aorist active
infinitive of the old compound verb o(8874)he(935c) (o(885c), a cry,
	he(935c), to run), to run at a cry or call for help ( Mt 15:25 ).
{Them that are tempted} (	ois peirazomenois). Dative plural of
the articular participle (present passive) of peiraz(935c). These
Jewish Christians were daily tempted to give up Christ, to
apostatize from Christianity. Jesus understands himself (autos)
their predicament and is able to help them to be faithful.

經文:

希伯來書 3:1-3:1

註釋:

 {Holy brethren} (adelphoi hagioi). Only here in N.T., for
hagiois in  1Th 5:27  only in late MSS. See  Heb 2:11  for same
idea. First time the author makes direct appeal to the readers,
though first person in  2:1 . {Partakers} (metochoi). See  Lu
5:7  for "partners" in the fishing, elsewhere in N.T. only in
Hebrews ( 1:9  6:4  12:8 ) in N.T. {Of a heavenly calling}
(kl(8873)e(9373) epouraniou). Only here in the N.T., though same idea
in  9:15 . See h(8820)an(9320)kl(8873)is in  Php 3:14  (the upward
calling). The call comes from heaven and is to heaven in its
appeal. {Consider} (katano(8873)ate). First aorist active
imperative of katanoe(935c), old compound verb (kata, nous), to
put the mind down on a thing, to fix the mind on as in  Mt 7:3  Lu 12:24 . {Even Jesus} (I(8873)oun). No "even" in the Greek, just
like the idiom in  2:9 , the human name held up with pride. {The
Apostle and High Priest of our confession} (	on apostolon kai
archierea t(8873) homologias h(886d)(936e)). In descriptive apposition with
I(8873)oun and note the single article 	on. This is the only time
in the N.T. that Jesus is called apostolos, though he often
used apostell(935c) of God's sending him forth as in  Joh 17:3 
(apesteilas). This verb is used of Moses as sent by God ( Ex
3:10 ). Moffatt notes that apostolos is Ionic for presbeut(8873),
"not a mere envoy, but an ambassador or representative sent with
powers." The author has already termed Jesus high priest
( 2:17 ). For homologia (confession) see  2Co 9:13  1Ti 6:12 .
These Hebrew Christians had confessed Jesus as their Apostle and
High Priest. They do not begin to understand what Jesus is and
means if they are tempted to give him up. The word runs through
Hebrews with an urgent note for fidelity ( 4:14  10:23 ). See
homologe(935c) (homon, same, leg(935c), say), to say the same thing,
to agree, to confess, to profess.

經文:

希伯來書 3:2-3:2

註釋:

 1Sa
12:6 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Sa
12' or engs='1Sa
12'
經文:

希伯來書 3:3-3:3

註釋:

 {Hath been counted worthy of more glory than Moses}
(pleionos dox(8873) para M(9375)s(886e) (8878)i(9374)ai). Perfect passive
indicative of axio(935c), to deem worthy, permanent situation
described with definite claim of Christ's superiority to Moses.
Dox(8873) in genitive case after (8878)i(9374)ai. For para after the
comparative pleionos see  1:4,9  2:7 . {By so much as} (kath'
hoson). A proportionate measurement (common use of kata and
the quantitative relative hosos). {Than the house} (	ou
oikou). Ablative case of comparison after pleiona. The
architect is superior to the house just as Sir Christopher Wren
is superior to St. Paul's Cathedral. The point in the argument
calls for Jesus as the builder (ho kataskeuasas, first aorist
active participle of kataskeuaz(935c), to found or build). But it is
God's house as autou means (verses  2,5 ) and hou in verse
 6 . This house of God existed before Moses ( 11:2,25 ). Jesus as
God's Son founded and supervised this house of God.

經文:

希伯來書 3:4-3:4

註釋:

 {Is God} (	heos). God is the Creator of all things and so
of his "house" which his Son, Jesus Christ, founded and
supervises.

經文:

希伯來書 3:5-3:5

註釋:

 {And Moses} (kai M(9375)s(8873) men). "Now Moses indeed on his
part" (men contrasted with de). {In} (en). Moses was in
"God's house" "as a servant" (h(9373) therap(936e)). Old word, in LXX,
only here in N.T. and quoted from  Nu 12:7f . Kin to the verb
	herapeu(935c), to serve, to heal, and 	herapeia, service ( Lu
9:11 ) and a group of servants ( Lu 12:42 ). {For a testimony of
those things which were afterward to be spoken} (eis marturion
t(936e) lal(8874)h(8873)omen(936e)). Objective genitive of the articular future
passive participle of lale(935c). It is not certain what it means
whether the "testimony" (marturion) is to Moses or to God and
whether it points on to Christ. In  9:9  see parabol(885c) applied
to the old dispensation as a symbol pointing to Christ and
Christianity. {But Christ} (Christos de). In contrast with
Moses (men in verse  5 ). {As a son} (h(9373) huios). Instead of
a 	herap(936e) (servant). {Over his house} (epi ton oikon autou).
The difference between epi and en added to that between
huios and 	herap(936e). It is very neat and quite conclusive,
especially when we recall the high place occupied by Moses in
Jewish thought. In  Ac 7:11  the Jews accused Stephen of speaking
"blasphemous words against Moses and God" (putting Moses on a par
with God).

經文:

希伯來書 3:6-3:6

註釋:

 {Whose house are we} (hou oikos esmen h(886d)eis). We
Christians (Jew and Gentile) looked at as a whole, not as a local
organization. {If we hold fast} (ean katasch(936d)en). Condition of
third class with ean and second aorist (effective) active
subjunctive of katech(935c). This note of contingency and doubt runs
all through the Epistle. We are God's house if we do not play the
traitor and desert. {Boldness} (parr(8873)ian) {and glorying} (kai
kauch(886d)a) some had lost. The author makes no effort to reconcile
this warning with God's elective purpose. He is not exhorting
God, but these wavering Christians. All these are Pauline words.
B does not have mechri telous bebaian (firm unto the end), but
it is clearly genuine in verse  14 . He pleads for intelligent
confidence.

經文:

希伯來書 3:7-3:7

註釋:

 Act
21:11 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Act' or engs='Act'
經文:

希伯來書 3:8-3:8

註釋:

 Ex.
17:1-7 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Ex.' or engs='Ex.'
經文:

希伯來書 3:9-3:9

註釋:

 {Wherewith} (hou). Literally, "where" (the wilderness) as
in  De 8:15 . {Tempted me by proving me} (epeirasan en
dokimasi(8369)). No word for "me." The Israelites "tested" God "in
putting to the proof" (only N.T. use of this word from dokimaz(935c)
and this from the LXX). They were not content with God's promise,
but demanded objective proof (erga, deeds) of God.

經文:

希伯來書 3:10-3:10

註釋:

 {And saw} (kai eidon). "And yet saw." {Wherefore} (dio).
Not in the LXX, but it makes clear the argument in the Psalm. {I
was displeased} (pros(9363)hthisa). First aorist active of
prosochthiz(935c), late compound for extreme anger and disgust. In
N.T. only here and verse  17 . {Err} (plan(936e)tai). Present
middle indicative of plana(935c), to wander astray, common verb.
{They did not know} (ouk egn(9373)an). In spite of God's works
(erga) and loving patience the Israelites failed to understand
God's ways with them. Are we any better? They "cared not to take
my road" (Moffatt).

經文:

希伯來書 3:11-3:11

註釋:

 {As I sware} (h(9373) (936d)osa). "Correlating the oath and the
disobedience" (Vincent). First aorist active indicative of
omnu(935c), old verb for solemn oath ( 6:13 ). {They shall not
enter} (ei eiseleusontai). Future middle of eiserchomai with
ei as an anacoluthon for the Hebrew _im_ (not). Really it is a
condition of the first class with the conclusion not expressed,
common in the LXX as here (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1024). {Into
my rest} (eis t(886e) katapausin mou). Old word from katapau(935c)
( Heb 4:8 ), to give rest, in LXX, in N.T. only in  Ac 7:49  Heb
3:11-4:11 . Primarily the rest in Canaan and then the heavenly
rest in which God dwells.

經文:

希伯來書 3:12-3:12

註釋:

 {Take heed} (lepete). Present active imperative as in
 Php 3:2  (three times) of lep(935c) in place of the more usual
horate. Solemn warning to the Jewish Christians from the
experience of the Israelites as told in  Ps 95 . {Lest haply
there shall be} (m(8820)pote estai). Negative purpose with m(880a)pote and the future indicative as in  Mr 14:2 . But we have in
 Col 2:8  m(8820)tis estai as in  Heb 12:25 ; m(885c) occurs with the
aorist subjunctive, and m(8820)pote with present subjunctive ( Heb
4:1 ) or aorist subjunctive ( Ac 5:39 ). {In any one of you} (en
tini hum(936e)). The application is personal and pointed. {An evil
heart of unbelief} (kardia pon(8872)a apistias). A remarkable
combination. {Heart} (kardia) is common in the LXX (about 1,000
times), but "evil heart" only twice in the O.T. ( Jer 16:12  18:12 ). Apistias is more than mere unbelief, here rather
disbelief, refusal to believe, genitive case describing the evil
heart marked by disbelief which is no mark of intelligence then
or now. {In falling away from the living God} (en t(9369) apost(886e)ai
apo theou z(936e)tos). "In the falling away" (locative case with
en of the second aorist active (intransitive) infinitive of
aphist(886d)i, to stand off from, to step aside from (apo with
the ablative case 	heou) the living God (common phrase in the
O.T. and the N.T. for God as opposed to lifeless idols)).
"Remember that to apostatize from Christ in whom you have found
God is to apostatize from God" (Dods). That is true today. See
 Eze 20:8  for this use of the verb.

經文:

希伯來書 3:13-3:13

註釋:

 2Th
2:10 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Th
2' or engs='2Th
2'
經文:

希伯來書 3:14-3:14

註釋:

 {For we are become partakers of Christ} (metochoi gar tou
Christou gegonamen). Second perfect active of ginomai, "we
have become," not the equivalent of esmen (are). For metochoi
see  1:9  3:1  6:4 . We have become partners with Christ and
hence (gar, for) should not be tricked into apostasy. {If we
hold fast} (ean per katasch(936d)en). The same condition as in
verse  6  with per (indeed, forsooth) added to ean. Jonathan
Edwards once said that the sure proof of election is that one
holds out to the end. {The beginning of our confidence} (	(886e)
arch(886e) t(8873) hupostase(9373)). For hupostasis see  1:3  11:1 . These
faltering believers (some even apostates) began with loud
confidence and profession of loyalty. And now?

經文:

希伯來書 3:15-3:15

註釋:

 {While it is said} (en t(9369) legesthai). Locative case with
en of the articular present passive infinitive of leg(935c), "in
the being said." Thus the author (cf. same phrase in  Ps 42:4 )
introduces the repeated quotation from verses  7,8 . Probably it
is to be connected with katasch(936d)en, though it can be joined
with parakaleite in verse  13  (treating  14  as a
parenthesis).

經文:

希伯來書 3:16-3:16

註釋:

 {Who} (Tines). Clearly interrogative, not indefinite
(some). {Did provoke} (parepikranan). First aorist active
indicative of parapikrin(935c), apparently coined by the LXX like
parapikrasmos (verse  15 ) to which it points, exasperating the
anger of God. {Nay, did not all} (all' ou pantes). "A favourite
device of the diatribe style" (Moffatt), answering one rhetorical
question with another ( Lu 17:8 ) as in verses  17,18 , There was
a faithful minority mentioned by Paul ( 1Co 10:7f. ).

經文:

希伯來書 3:17-3:17

註釋:

 {With them that sinned} (	ois hamart(8873)asin). Dative
masculine plural after pros(9363)hthisen (cf. verse  10 ) of the
articular first aorist active participle of hamartan(935c)
(hamart(8873)as, not hamart(936e)). {Carcases} (k(936c)a). Old word for
members of the body like the feet, in LXX a dead body ( Nu
14:29 ), here only in N.T.

經文:

希伯來書 3:18-3:18

註釋:

 {That they should not enter} (m(8820)eiseleusesthai). Negative
m(885c) (cf. ei in verse  11 ) and the future middle infinitive in
indirect discourse. {To them that were disobedient} (	ois
apeith(8873)asin). Dative masculine plural of the articular first
aorist active participle of apeithe(935c), active disobedience with
which compare apistias in verse  12,19 .

經文:

希伯來書 3:19-3:19

註釋:

 {And we see} (kai blepomen). Triumphant conclusion of the
exegesis of  Ps 95 . "So we see."

經文:

希伯來書 4:1-4:1

註釋:

 {Let us fear therefore} (phob(8874)h(936d)en oun). First aorist
passive volitive subjunctive of phobeomai, to be afraid. There
is no break in the argument on  Ps 95 . This is a poor chapter
division. The Israelites perished because of disbelief. We today
face a real peril. {Lest haply} (m(8820)pote) Here with the present
subjunctive (dokei), but future indicative in  3:12 , after the
verb of fearing. For the optative see  2Ti 2:25 . {A promise
being left} (kataleipomen(8873) epaggelias). Genitive absolute of
the present passive participle of kataleip(935c), to leave behind.
God's promise still holds good for us in spite of the failure of
the Israelites. {Should seem to have come short of it} (dokei
huster(886b)enai). Perfect active infinitive of hustere(935c), old verb
from husteros (comparative of root ud like our out, outer,
outermost), to be too late, to fail to reach the goal as here,
common in the N.T. ( 11:37  12:15 ).

經文:

希伯來書 4:2-4:2

註釋:

 {For indeed we have had good tidings preached unto us} (kai
gar esmen eu(8867)gelismenoi esmen). Periphrastic perfect passive
indicative of euaggeliz(935c) (from euaggelion, good news, glad
tidings) to bring good news, used here in its original sense as
in verse  6  of the Israelites (euaggelisthentes first aorist
passive participle). {Even as also they} (kathaper kakeinoi).
See verse  6 . We have the promise of rest as the Israelites had.
The parallel holds as to the promise, the privilege, the penalty.
{The word of hearing} (ho logos t(8873) ako(8873)). As in  1Th 2:13 .
Genitive ako(8873) describing logos, the word marked by hearing
(the word heard). {Because they were not united by faith with
them that heard} (m(8820)sunkekerasmenous t(8869) pistei tois
akousasin). M(885c), the usual negative of the participle. A very
difficult phrase. The text is uncertain whether the participle
(perfect passive of sunkerannumi, old verb to mix together)
ends in -os agreeing with logos or -ous agreeing with
ekeinous (them). Taking it in -ous the translation is
correct. Pistei is in the instrumental case and 	ois
akousasin in the associative instrumental after sun.

經文:

希伯來書 4:3-4:3

註釋:

 {Do enter} (eiserchometha). Emphatic futuristic present
middle indicative of eiserchomai. We are sure to enter in, we
who believe. {He hath said} (eir(886b)en). Perfect active
indicative for the permanent value of God's word as in  1:13  4:4  10:9,13  13:5  Ac 13:34 . God has spoken. That is enough for
us. So he quotes again what he has in verse  11  from  Ps 95 .
{Although the works were finished} (kaitoi t(936e) erg(936e)
gen(8874)hent(936e)). Genitive absolute with concessive use of the
participle. Old particle, in N.T. only here and  Ac 14:17  (with
verb). {From the foundation of the world} (apo katabol(8873)
kosmou). Katabol(885c), late word from kataball(935c), usually laying
the foundation of a house in the literal sense. In the N.T.
usually with apo ( Mt 25:44 ) or pro ( Joh 17:24 ) about the
foundation of the world.

經文:

希伯來書 4:4-4:4

註釋:

 {Somewhere on this wise} (pou hout(9373)). See  2:6  for pou
tis for a like indefinite allusion to an Old Testament
quotation. Here it is  Ge 2:2  (cf.  Ex 20:11  31:17 ). Moffatt
notes that Philo quotes  Ge 2:2  with the same "literary
mannerism." {Rested} (katepausen). First aorist active
indicative of katapau(935c), intransitive here, but transitive in
verse  8 . It is not, of course, absolute rest from all creative
activity as Jesus shows in  Joh 5:17 . But the seventh day of
God's rest was still going on (clearly not a twenty-four hour
day).

經文:

希伯來書 4:5-4:5

註釋:

 {And in this place again} (kai en tout(9369) palin). The
passage already quoted in verse  3  3:11 .

經文:

希伯來書 4:6-4:6

註釋:

 {It remaineth} (apoleipetai). Present passive indicative of
apoleip(935c), old verb to leave behind, to remain over. So again in
 4:9  10:26 . Here the infinitive clause (	inas eiselthein eis
aut(886e)) is the subject of apoleipetai. This left-over promise
is not repeated, though not utilized by the Israelites under
Moses nor in the highest sense by Joshua and David. {Failed to
enter in} (ouk eis(886c)thon). "Did not enter in" (second aorist
active indicative of eiserchomai). It is a rabbinical argument
all along here, but the author is writing to Jews.

經文:

希伯來書 4:7-4:7

註釋:

 {He again defineth a certain day} (palin tina horizei
h(886d)eran). Present active indicative of horiz(935c), old verb to set
a limit (horos, horizon) as in  Ac 17:26  Ro 1:4 . {In David}
(en Daueid). Attributing the Psalm to David or in the Psalter
at any rate. {Hath been before said} (proeir(8874)ai). Perfect
passive indicative referring to the quotation in  3:7,15 . {After
so long a time} (meta tosouton chronon). The time between
Joshua and David.

經文:

希伯來書 4:8-4:8

註釋:

 {Joshua} (I(8873)ous). The Greek form is Jesus. Condition of
the second class (determined as unfulfilled) with ei and aorist
indicative in the condition and an with the imperfect in the
conclusion. {He would not have spoken} (ouk elalei). Wrong
translation, "he would not speak" (be speaking), in the passage
in David. Imperfect tense, not aorist.

經文:

希伯來書 4:9-4:9

註釋:

 {A sabbath rest} (sabbatismos). Late word from sabbatiz(935c)
( Ex 16:30 ) to keep the Sabbath, apparently coined by the author
(a doubtful passage in Plutarch). Here it is parallel with
katapausis (cf.  Re 14:13 ). {For the people of God} (	(9369) la(9369)
tou theou). Dative case of blessed personal interest to the true
Israel ( Ga 6:16 ).

經文:

希伯來書 4:10-4:10

註釋:

 {As God did from his} (h(9373)per apo t(936e) idi(936e) ho theos). It
is not cessation of work, but rather of the weariness and pain in
toil. The writer pictures salvation as God's rest which man is to
share and God will have perfect satisfaction when man is in
harmony with him (Dods).

經文:

希伯來書 4:11-4:11

註釋:

 {Let us therefore give diligence} (spoudas(936d)en oun).
Volitive subjunctive aorist of spoudaz(935c), old verb to hasten
( 2Ti 4:9 ), to be eager and alert ( 1Th 2:17 ). The exhortation
has a warning like that in  4:1 . {That no man fall} (hina m(880a)pes(8869)). Negative purpose with hina m(885c) and the second aorist
active subjunctive of pipt(935c), to fall. {After the same example
of disobedience} (en t(9369) aut(9369) hupodeigmati t(8873) apeitheias).
The unbelief is like that seen in the Israelites ( 3:12,18  4:2 ). Hupodeigma is a late word from hupodeiknumi ( Mt 3:7 )
and means a copy ( Joh 13:15  Jas 5:10 ). The Israelites set a
terrible example and it is so easy to copy the bad examples.

經文:

希伯來書 4:12-4:12

註釋:

 {The word of God} (ho logos tou theou). That just quoted
about the promise of rest and God's rest, but true of any real
word of God. {Living} (z(936e)). Cf. the Living God ( 3:12 ). In
Philo and the Book of Wisdom the Logos of God is personified, but
still more in  Joh 1:1-18  where Jesus is pictured as the Logos
on a par with God. "Our author is using Philonic language rather
than Philonic ideas" (Moffatt). See  Joh 6:63 : "The words which
I have spoken are spirit and are life." {Active} (energ(8873)).
Energetic, powerful ( Joh 1:12  Php 3:21  Col 1:29 ). {Sharper}
(	om(9374)eros). Comparative of 	omos, cutting (from 	emn(935c), to
cut), late adjective, here only in the N.T. {Than} (huper).
Often so after a comparative ( Lu 16:8  2Co 12:13 ). {Two-edged}
(distomon). "Two-mouthed" (di-, stoma), double-mouthed like a
river (Polybius), branching ways (Sophocles), applied to sword
(xiphos) by Homer and Euripides. {Piercing} (diiknoumenos).
Present middle participle of diikneomai, old verb to go
through, here only in N.T. {Even to the dividing} (achri
merismou). Old word from meriz(935c) (meros, part), to partition.
{Of soul and spirit} (psuch(8873) kai pneumatos). As in  1Th 5:23  1Co 15:45 , but not an argument for trichotomy. Psychology is
constantly changing its terminology. {Of both joints and marrow}
(harm(936e) te kai muel(936e)). From ar(935c), to join, comes harmos,
old word, here only in the N.T. Muelos (from mu(935c), to shut),
old word, here only in N.T. This surgeon goes into and through
the joints and marrow, not cleaving between them. {Quick to
discern} (kritikos). Verbal adjective in -ikos, from krin(935c),
skilled in judging, as the surgeon has to be and able to decide
on the instant what to do. So God's word like his eye sees the
secret lurking doubt and unbelief "of the thoughts and intents of
the heart" (enthum(8873)e(936e) kai ennoi(936e) kardias). The surgeon
carries a bright and powerful light for every dark crevice and a
sharp knife for the removal of all the pus revealed by the light.
It is a powerful picture here drawn.

經文:

希伯來書 4:13-4:13

註釋:

 {That is not manifest} (aphan(8873)). Old adjective (a
privative and phain(935c), to show), here only in the N.T. God's
microscope can lay bare the smallest microbe of doubt and sin.
{Naked} (gumna). Both soul and body are naked to the eye of
God. {Laid open} (	etrach(886c)ismena). Perfect passive participle
of 	rach(886c)iz(935c), late verb to bend back the neck (	rach(886c)os,
 Mt 18:6 ) as the surgeon does for operating, here only in N.T.
See  Ro 16:4  for the peril of risking one's neck (	rach(886c)on
hupotithenai). God's eyes see all the facts in our inmost
hearts. There are no mental reservations from God. {With whom we
have to do} (pros hon h(886d)in ho logos). "With whom the matter or
account for us is." There is a slight play here on logos of
verse  12 . Surely every servant of Christ today needs to gaze
into this revealing mirror and be honest with himself and God.

經文:

希伯來書 4:14-4:14

註釋:

 {A great high priest} (archierea megan). The author now
takes up the main argument of the Epistle, already alluded to in
 1:3  2:17f.  3:1 , the priestly work of Jesus as superior to
that of the Levitical line ( 4:14-12:3 ). Jesus is superior to
the prophets ( 1:1-3 ), to angels ( 1:4-2:18 ), to Moses
( 3:1-4:13 ), he has already shown. Here he only terms Jesus
"great" as high priest (a frequent adjective with high priest in
Philo) but the superiority comes out as he proceeds. {Who hath
passed through the heavens} (diel(886c)uthota tous ouranous).
Perfect active participle of dierchomai, state of completion.
Jesus has passed through the upper heavens up to the throne of
God ( 1:3 ) where he performs his function as our high priest.
This idea will be developed later ( 6:19f.  7:26-28  9:11f.,24f. ). {Jesus the Son of God} (I(8873)oun ton huion tou
theou). The human name linked with his deity, clinching the
argument already made ( 1:1-4:13 ). {Let us hold fast our
confession} (krat(936d)en t(8873) homologias). Present active volitive
subjunctive of krate(935c), old verb (from kratos, power), with
genitive to cling to tenaciously as here and  6:18  and also with
the accusative ( 2Th 2:15  Col 2:19 ). "Let us keep on holding
fast." This keynote runs all through the Epistle, the exhortation
to the Jewish Christians to hold on to the confession ( 3:1 ) of
Christ already made. Before making the five points of Christ's
superior priestly work (better priest than Aaron,  5:1-7:25 ;
under a better covenant,  8:1-13 ; in a better sanctuary,
 9:1-12 ; offering a better sacrifice,  9:13-10:18 ; based on
better promises,  10:19-12:3 ), the author gives a double
exhortation ( 4:14-16 ) like that in  2:1-4  to hold fast to the
high priest ( 14f. ) and to make use of him ( 16 ).

經文:

希伯來書 4:15-4:15

註釋:

 {That cannot be touched with the feeling} (m(8820)dunamenon
sunpath(8873)ai). "Not able to sympathize with." First aorist
passive infinitive of sunpathe(935c), late compound verb from the
late adjective sunpathos ( Ro 12:15 ), both from sunpasch(935c),
to suffer with ( 1Co 12:26  Ro 8:17 ), occurring in Aristotle and
Plutarch, in N.T. only in Hebrews (here and  10:34 ). {One that
hath been tempted} (pepeirasmenon). Perfect passive participle
of peiraz(935c), as already shown in  2:17f . {Without sin} (ch(9372)is
hamartias). This is the outstanding difference that must never
be overlooked in considering the actual humanity of Jesus. He did
not yield to sin. But more than this is true. There was no latent
sin in Jesus to be stirred by temptation and no habits of sin to
be overcome. But he did have "weaknesses" (astheneiai) common
to our human nature (hunger, thirst, weariness, etc.). Satan used
his strongest weapons against Jesus, did it repeatedly, and
failed. Jesus remained "undefiled" (amiantos) in a world of sin
( Joh 8:46 ). This is our ground of hope, the sinlessness of
Jesus and his real sympathy.

經文:

希伯來書 4:16-4:16

註釋:

 {Let us therefore draw near} (proserch(936d)etha oun). Present
active middle volitive subjunctive of proserchomai. "Let us
keep on coming to" our high priest, this sympathizing and great
high priest. Instead of deserting him, let us make daily use of
him. This verb in Hebrews means reverent approach for worship
( 7:25  10:1,22  11:6 ). {Unto the throne of grace} (	(9369) thron(9369)
t(8873) charitos). This old word (	hronos) we have taken into
English, the seat of kings and of God and so of Christ ( 1:3,8 ),
but marked by grace because Jesus is there ( Mt 19:28 ). Hence we
should come "with boldness" (meta parr(8873)ias). Telling Jesus the
whole story of our shortcomings. {That we may receive mercy}
(hina lab(936d)en eleos). Purpose clause with hina and second
aorist active subjunctive of lamban(935c). {And find grace} (kai
charin heur(936d)en). Second aorist active subjunctive of
heurisk(935c). We are sure to gain both of these aims because Jesus
is our high priest on the throne. {To help us in time of need}
(eis eukairon bo(8874)heian). Bo(8874)heia is old word (from
o(8874)he(935c),  2:18  which see), in N.T. only here and  Ac 27:17 .
Eukairos is an old word also (eu, well, kairos,
opportunity), only here in N.T. "For well-timed help," "for help
in the nick of time," before too late.

經文:

希伯來書 5:1-5:1

註釋:

 {In things pertaining to God} (	a pros ton theon).
Accusative of general reference as in  2:17  ( Ro 15:17 ). The
two essential points about any high priest are human sympathy
( 5:1-3 ) and divine appointment ( 5:4 ). He is taken from men
and appointed in behalf of men. {That he may offer} (hina
prospher(8869)). Purpose clause with hina and present active
subjunctive of prospher(935c), "that he keep on offering (from time
to time)." {Both gifts} (d(9372)a) {and sacrifices} (kai
thusias). General term (d(9372)a) and bloody offerings, but the
two together are inclusive of all as in  8:3  9:9  ( 1Ki 8:64 ).
{For sins} (huper hamarti(936e)). His own included ( 7:27 ) except
in the case of Jesus.

經文:

希伯來書 5:2-5:2

註釋:

 {Who can bear gently} (metriopathein dunamenos). Present
active infinitive of the late verb metriopathe(935c) (metrios,
moderate, pate(935c), to feel or suffer). It is a philosophical term
used by Aristotle to oppose the apatheia (lack of feeling) of
the Stoics. Philo ranks it below apatheia. Josephus (_Ant_.
XII. 32) uses it of the moderation of Vespasian and Titus towards
the Jews. It occurs here only in the N.T. "If the priest is
cordially to plead with God for the sinner, he must bridle his
natural disgust at the loathsomeness of sensuality, his
impatience at the frequently recurring fall, his hopeless
alienation from the hypocrite and the superficial, his
indignation at any confession he hears from the penitent" (Dods).
{With the ignorant} (	ois agnoousin). Dative case of the
articular present active participle of agnoe(935c), old verb not to
know ( Mr 9:32 ). {And erring} (kai plan(936d)enois). Present
middle participle (dative case) of plana(935c). The one article with
both participles probably makes it a hendiadys, sins of ignorance
(both accidence and sudden passion) as opposed to high-handed
sins of presumption and deliberate purpose. People who sinned
"willingly" (hekousi(9373),  10:26 ) had no provision in the
Levitical system. For deliberate apostasy ( 3:12  10:26 ) no
pardon is offered. {Is compassed with infirmity} (perikeitai
astheneian). Present passive indicative of the old verb
perikeimai here used transitively as in  Ac 28:20  (halusin,
chain). The priest himself has weakness lying around him like a
chain. Not so Jesus.

經文:

希伯來書 5:3-5:3

註釋:

 {For himself} (peri heautou). Note peri three times here
(peri tou laou, peri heautou, peri hamarti(936e)), but in verse  1 
huper anthr(9370)(936e), huper hamarti(936e). In the _Koin(825f) this
interchange of peri (around) and huper (over) is common ( Mt
26:28 ).

經文:

希伯來書 5:4-5:4

註釋:

 {Taketh the honour unto himself} (heaut(9369) lambanei t(886e)
tim(886e)). Dative case of personal interest (heaut(9369)). The priest
was called of God. This is the ideal and was true of Aaron. The
modern minister is not a priest, but he also should be a
God-called man and not one who pushes himself into the ministry
or into ecclesiastical office.

經文:

希伯來書 5:5-5:5

註釋:

 {So Christ also} (hout(9373) kai ho Christos). Just as with
Aaron. Jesus had divine appointment as high priest also. {To be
made} (gen(8874)h(886e)ai). First aorist passive infinitive of
ginomai. {High priest} (archierea). Predicate accusative
agreeing with heauton (himself) object of edoxasen. {But he
that spake unto him} (all' ho lal(8873)as pros auton). Ellipsis of
edoxasen to be supplied from preceding clause. God did glorify
Jesus in appointing him priest as we see in  Ps 2:7  quoted
already as Messianic ( Heb 1:5 ). Jesus himself repeatedly
claimed that the Father sent him on his mission to the world
( Joh 5:30,43  8:54  17:5 , etc.). Bruce holds that Christ's
priesthood is co-eval with his Sonship. Davidson thinks it is
merely suitable because he is Son. Clearly the Father nominated
(Dods) the Son to the Messianic priesthood ( Joh 3:16 ).

經文:

希伯來書 5:6-5:6

註釋:

 {In another place} (en heter(9369)). That is  Ps 110:4 . It is
this crucial passage by which the author will prove the
superiority of Jesus to Aaron as high priest. Only the word
priest (hiereus) occurs here which the author uses as
synonymous with high priest (archiereus). The point lies in the
meaning of the phrase "After the order of Melchizedek" (kata t(886e)
taxin Melchisedek). But at this point the only thing pressed is
the fact of the divine appointment of Jesus as priest. He returns
to this point ( 5:10-7:28 ).

經文:

希伯來書 5:7-5:7

註釋:

 {In the days of his flesh} (en tais h(886d)erais t(8873) sarkos
autou). Here (verses  7-9 ) the author turns to the other
requirement of a high priest (human sympathy). Since Jesus was
"without sin" ( 4:15 ) he did not have to offer sacrifices "for
himself," yet in all other points he felt the sympathy of the
human high priest, even more so by reason of his victory over
sin. {Having offered up} (prosenegkas). Second aorist active
(-a form) participle of prospher(935c) (cf. verse  3 ). An
allusion to the Agony of Christ in Gethsemane. {Supplications}
(hiket(8872)ias). Socrates, Polybius, Job ( Job 40:22 ) combine
this word with de(8873)eis (prayers) as here. The older form was
hikesia. The word hiket(8872)ios is an adjective from hiket(8873)
(a suppliant from hik(935c), to come to one) and suggests one coming
with an olive-branch (elaia). Here only in the N.T. {With
strong crying and tears} (meta kraug(8873) ischuras kai dakru(936e)).
See  Lu 22:44f . for a picture of the scene in Gethsemane
(anguish and pathos). No doubt the writer has in mind other times
when Jesus shed tears ( Joh 11:35  Lu 19:41 ), but Gethsemane
chiefly. {To save him from death} (s(937a)ein ek thanatou). A
reference to the cry of Jesus in Gethsemane ( Mt 26:39 ). {Having
been heard for his godly fear} (eisakoustheis apo t(8873)
eulabeias). Old word from eulab(8873) (taking hold well,  Lu 2:25 
from eu, lamban(935c), the verb eulabeomai in N.T. only in  Heb
11:7 ), in N.T. only here and  12:28 . Fine picture of Christ's
attitude toward the Father in the prayer in Gethsemane and in all
his prayers. Jesus in Gethsemane at once surrendered his will to
that of the Father who heard his plea and enabled him to
acquiesce in the Father's will.

經文:

希伯來書 5:8-5:8

註釋:

 {Though he was a Son} (kaiper (936e) huios). Concessive
participle with kaiper, regular Greek idiom as in  7:5  12:17 .
{Yet learned obedience} (emathen hupako(886e)). Second aorist
active indicative of manthan(935c). Succinct and crisp statement of
the humanity of Jesus in full harmony with  Lu 2:40,52  and with
 Heb 2:10 . {By the things which he suffered} (aph' h(936e)
epathen). There is a play on the two verbs (emathen--epathen),
paronomasia. Second aorist active indicative of pasch(935c). He
always did his Father's will ( Joh 8:29 ), but he grew in
experience as in wisdom and stature and in the power of sympathy
with us.

經文:

希伯來書 5:9-5:9

註釋:

 {Having been made perfect} (	elei(9374)heis). First aorist
passive participle of 	eleio(935c), the completion of the process of
training mentioned by this same verb in  2:10  "by means of
sufferings" (dia path(886d)at(936e)) as stated again here in verse  8 .
{The author of eternal salvation} (aitios s(9374)(8872)ias ai(936e)iou).
Common adjective from aitia (cause), causing, often in Greek
with s(9374)(8872)ias (Aeschines, Philo), in N.T. only here,  Lu
23:4,14,22  Ac 19:40 . See same idea in  Heb 2:10  (arch(8867)on).
See  Isa 45:17 .

經文:

希伯來書 5:10-5:10

註釋:

 {Named of God} (prosagoreutheis). First aorist passive
participle of prosagoreu(935c), old verb to salute, to address, only
here in N.T. Common in Plutarch.

經文:

希伯來書 5:11-5:11

註釋:

 {Of whom} (peri hou). Or "concerning which," for hou can
be either masculine or neuter (genitive). It is the likeness of
Jesus as high priest to Melchizedek that the author has in mind.
He is ready to discuss that but for the fear that the reader may
fail to grasp his meaning, for he will run counter to the usual
Jewish ideas. Hence he pauses to stir up the interest of the
readers ( 5:11-6:20 ) before going on with the argument
( 7:1-28 ). {Hard of interpretation} (duserm(886e)eutos). Late and
rare verbal compound (dus, herm(886e)eu(935c)), in Diodorus and Philo,
here only in N.T. Hard to explain because of the strange (to
Jews) line taken, but still more because of their dulness. {Dull
of hearing} (
(9374)hroi tais akoais). Old adjective (papyri also),
from negative 
(885c) and (9374)he(935c), to push, no push in the hearing,
slow and sluggish in mind as well as in the ears. In N.T. only
here and  6:12  (slack, sluggish). Plato calls some students

(9374)hroi (stupid).

經文:

希伯來書 5:12-5:12

註釋:

 1Co
3:2 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
3' or engs='1Co
3'
經文:

希伯來書 5:13-5:13

註釋:

 {Without experience} (apeiros). Old adjective (alpha
privative and peira, trial). Inexperienced. The babe (
(8870)ios,
old word, negative 
(885c) and epos, word like Latin _infans_,
infant, not able to talk), not able to chew if one uses only milk
and is without teeth. Perhaps moral truth is meant by "word of
righteousness" (cf.  1:2  2:3  for the word spoken by Christ).

經文:

希伯來書 5:14-5:14

註釋:

 {For full-grown men} (	elei(936e)). Predicate genitive. The
word is for adults, relative perfection (	eleioi) in contrast
with babes as in  1Co 2:6  3:1  13:11  Php 3:15  Eph 4:4 , not
absolute perfection ( Mt 5:48 ). {Their senses} (	a
aisth(8874)(8872)ia). The organs of perception (Stoic term for sense
organs) from aisthanomai ( Lu 9:45 ), in Plato, Galen,
Hippocrates, here only in N.T. {Exercised} (gegumnasmena).
Perfect passive participle of gumnaz(935c), to exercise (naked,
gumnos). Galen uses aisth(8874)(8872)ia gegumnasmena together after
ech(935c) as we have here. For this predicate use of the participle
with ech(935c) see  Lu 13:6  14:19f . "By reason of use" one gains
such skill. {To discern} (pros diakrisin). "For deciding
between" (from diakrin(935c)), old word with ablative kalou te kai
kakou (between good and evil). See  1Co 12:1  Rom 14:1 .


經文:

希伯來書 6:1-6:1

註釋:

 {Wherefore} (dio). Because of the argument already made
about the difficulty of the subject and the dulness of the
readers. {Let us cease to speak} (aphentes ton logon). Second
aorist active participle of aphi(886d)i, to leave off or behind.
{Of the first principles of Christ} (	(8873) arch(8873) tou Christou).
Objective genitive Christou (about Christ). "Leaving behind the
discussion of the beginning about Christ," another way of saying
again 	a stoicheia t(8873) arch(8873) t(936e) logi(936e) tou theou of  5:12 .
{And press on} (kai pher(936d)etha). Volitive present subjunctive
passive, "Let us be borne on" (both the writer and the readers).
The Pythagorean Schools use pher(936d)etha in precisely this sense
of being borne on to a higher stage of instruction. Bleek quotes
several instances of Greek writers using together as here of
aphentes pher(936d)etha (Eurip., _Androm_. 393, for instance).
{Unto perfection} (epi t(886e) teleiot(8874)a). Old word from 	eleios
mature, adults as in  5:14 . Only twice in N.T. (here and  Col
3:14 ). Let us go on to the stage of adults, not babes, able to
masticate solid spiritual food. The writer will assume that the
readers are adults in his discussion of the topic. {Not laying
again the foundation} (m(8820)palin themelion kataballomenoi). The
regular idiom for laying down the foundation of a building
(	hemelion,  Lu 6:48f. ). The metaphor is common ( 1Co 3:11 )
and the foundation is important, but one cannot be laying the
foundation always if he is to build the house. There are six
items mentioned here as part of the "foundation," though the
accusative didach(886e) in apposition with 	hemelion may mean
that there are only four included in the 	hemelion. Two are
qualitative genitives after 	hemelion (metanoias and
piste(9373)). What is meant by "dead works" (apo nekr(936e) erg(936e)) is
not clear ( 9:14 ), though the reference may be to touching a
corpse ( Nu 19:1f.  31:19 ). There are frequent allusions to the
deadening power of sin ( Jas 2:17,26  Joh 7:25  Rom 6:1,11  7:8  Col 2:13  Eph 2:1,5 ). The use of repentance and faith together
occurs also elsewhere ( Mr 1:15  Ac 20:21  1Th 1:9 ).

經文:

希伯來書 6:2-6:2

註釋:

 1Ti
4:14 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ti
4' or engs='1Ti
4'
經文:

希伯來書 6:3-6:3

註釋:

 {If God permit} (eanper epitrep(8869) ho theos). Condition of
the third class with eanper (note per indeed). See  1Co 16:7 
(ean ho kurios epitreps(8869)) and  Ac 18:21  (	ou theou
thelontos). It is not an idle form with the author. He means
that he will go on with the argument and not attempt to lay again
the foundation (the elements). Moffatt takes him to mean that he
will teach them the elements at a later time ( 13:23 ) if the way
opens, a less probable interpretation.

經文:

希伯來書 6:4-6:4

註釋:

 {As touching those who were once enlightened} (	ous hapax
ph(9374)isthentas). First aorist passive articular participle (the
once for all enlightened) of photiz(935c), old and common verb (from
ph(9373)) as in  Lu 11:36 . The metaphorical sense here (cf.  Joh
1:9  Eph 1:18  Heb 10:32 ) occurs in Polybius and Epictetus. The
accusative case is due to anakainizein in verse  6 . Hapax
here is "once for all," not once upon a time (pote) and occurs
again ( 9:7,26,27,28  12:26,27 ). {Tasted of the heavenly gift}
(geusamenous t(8873) d(9372)eas t(8873) epouraniou). First aorist middle
participle of geu(935c), old verb once with accusative (verse  5 ,
kalon r(886d)a, dunameis), usually with genitive ( Heb 2:9 ) as
here. {Partakers of the Holy Ghost} (metochous pneumatos
hagiou). See  3:14  for metochoi. These are all given as
actual spiritual experiences. {And then fell away} (kai
parapesontas). No "then" here, though the second aorist
(effective) active participle of parapipt(935c), old verb to fall
beside (aside), means that. Only here in N.T. In  Gal 5:4  we
have 	(8873) charitos exepesate (ye fell out of grace, to law, Paul
means).

經文:

希伯來書 6:6-6:6

註釋:

 2Co
4:16 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
4' or engs='2Co
4'
經文:

希伯來書 6:7-6:7

註釋:

 2Ti
2:6 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ti
2' or engs='2Ti
2'
經文:

希伯來書 6:8-6:8

註釋:

 {If it beareth} (ekpherousa). Present active participle of
ekpher(935c), conditional participle. For "thorns and thistles" see
 Mt 7:16  for both words (akanthas kai tribolous). Roman
soldiers scattered balls with sharp iron spikes, one of which was
called _tribulus_, to hinder the enemy's cavalry. {Rejected}
(adokimos). See  1Co 9:27  Ro 1:28 . For kataras eggus (nigh
unto a curse) see  Gal 3:10 . {To be burned} (eis kausin). "For
burning." Common sight in clearing up ground.

經文:

希伯來書 6:9-6:9

註釋:

 {But we are persuaded} (pepeismetha de). Perfect passive
indicative of peith(935c), literary plural. Note Paul's use of
pepeismai in  2Ti 1:12 . {Better things} (	a kreissona). "The
better things" than those pictures in  6:4-8 . {That accompany
salvation} (echomena s(9374)(8872)ias). "Things holding on to
salvation" ( Mr 1:38 ), a common Greek phrase echomena, present
middle participle of ech(935c). {Though we thus speak} (ei kai
hout(9373) laloumen). Concessive condition of the first class.
Explanatory, not apologetic, of his plain talk. {Not unrighteous
to forget} (ou gar adikos epilathesthai). Second aorist middle
infinitive of epilanthan(935c) with genitive case (ergou, work,
agap(8873), love). But even God cannot remember what they did not
do. {In that ye ministered and still do minister} (diakon(8873)antes
kai diakonountes). First aorist active and present active
participle of the one verb diakone(935c), the sole difference being
the tense (single act _aorist_, repeated acts _present_).

經文:

希伯來書 6:11-6:11

註釋:

 {And we desire} (epithumoumen de). Literary plural again
like pepeismetha ( 6:9 ). He is not wholly satisfied with them
as he had already shown ( 5:11-14 ). They have not given up
Christ ( 6:4-8 ), but many of them are still babes (
(8870)ioi,
 5:13 ) and not adults (	eleioi,  5:14 ) and others are in
peril of becoming so. {Unto the fulness of hope} (pros t(886e)
pl(8872)ophorian t(8873) elpidos). For pl(8872)ophoria see  1Th 1:5  Col
2:2 . {To the end} (achri telous). As in  3:6,14 .

經文:

希伯來書 6:12-6:12

註釋:

 1Th
1:6 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
1' or engs='1Th
1'
經文:

希伯來書 6:13-6:13

註釋:

 {Made promise} (epaggeilamenos). First aorist middle
participle of epaggell(935c). Could swear by none greater (kat'
oudenos eichen meizonos omosai). Imperfect active of ech(935c) in
sense of edunato as often with omosai (first aorist active
infinitive of omnu(935c)) and (936d)osen (he sware) is first aorist
active indicative.

經文:

希伯來書 6:14-6:14

註釋:

 {Surely} (ei m(886e)). By itacism for (8820)m(886e) (Deissmann,
_Bible Studies_, p. 205). The quotation is from  Ge 22:16f . (the
promise renewed to Abraham with an oath after offering of Isaac).
{Blessing} (eulog(936e)). Hebraism (present active participle) for
the Hebrew infinitive absolute and so with pl(8874)hun(936e)
(multiplying).

經文:

希伯來書 6:15-6:15

註釋:

 {Having patiently endured} (makrothum(8873)as). First aorist
active participle of makrothumos (makros, thumos, long
spirit) illustrating makrothumia of verse  12 . {He obtained}
(epetuchen). Second aorist (effective) active indicative of
epetugchan(935c), old verb with genitive. God was true to his word
and Abraham was faithful.

經文:

希伯來書 6:16-6:16

註釋:

 {In every dispute} (pas(8873) antilogias). Objective genitive
of old word several times in Hebrews ( 6:16  7:7  12:3 ). Talking
back, face to face, in opposition. {Final} (peras). Limit,
boundary ( Mt 12:42 ). Men may perjure themselves.

經文:

希伯來書 6:17-6:17

註釋:

 {To shew} (epideixai). First aorist active infinitive of
epideiknumi, to show in addition (epi-) to his promise "more
abundantly" (perissoteron). {The immutability of his counsel}
(	o ametatheton t(8873) boul(8873) autou). Late compound verbal neuter
singular (alpha privative and metatith(886d)i, to change), "the
unchangeableness of his will." {Interposed} (emesiteusen).
First aorist active indicative of mesiteu(935c), late verb from
mesit(8873), mediator ( Heb 8:6 ), to act as mediator or sponsor or
surety, intransitively to pledge one's self as surety, here only
in the N.T. {With an oath} (hork(9369)). Instrumental case of
horkos (from herkos, an enclosure),  Mt 14:7,9 .

經文:

希伯來書 6:18-6:18

註釋:

 {By two immutable things} (dia duo pragmat(936e) ametathet(936e)).
See verse  17 . God's promise and God's oath, both unchangeable.
{In which it is impossible for God to lie} (en hois adunaton
pseusasthai theon). Put this "impossibility" by that in verses
 4-6 . {Theon} is accusative of general reference with
pseusasthai, first aorist middle infinitive of pseudomai.
{That we may have} (hina ech(936d)en). Purpose clause with hina
and the present active subjunctive of ech(935c), "that we may keep
on having." {Strong consolation} (ischuran parakl(8873)in). "Strong
encouragement" by those two immutable things. {Who have fled for
refuge} (hoi kataphugontes). Articular effective second aorist
active participle of katapheug(935c), old verb, in N.T. only here
and  Ac 14:6 . The word occurs for fleeing to the cities of
refuge ( De 4:42  19:5  Jos 20:9 ). {To lay hold of}
(krat(8873)ai). First aorist active (single act) infinitive of
krate(935c) in contrast with present tense in  4:14  (hold fast).
{Set before us} (prokeimen(8873)). Placed before us as the goal.
See this same participle used with the "joy" (charas) set
before Jesus ( 12:2 ).

經文:

希伯來書 6:19-6:19

註釋:

 {Which} (h(886e)). Which hope. What would life be without this
blessed hope based on Christ as our Redeemer? {As an anchor of
the soul} (h(9373) agkuran t(8873) psuch(8873)). Old word, literally in  Ac
27:29 , figuratively here, only N.T. examples. The ancient
anchors were much like the modern ones with iron hooks to grapple
the rocks and so hold on to prevent shipwreck ( 1Ti 1:19 ). {Both
sure and steadfast} (asphal(8820)te kai bebaian). This anchor of
hope will not slip (alpha privative and sphall(935c), to totter) or
lose its grip (ebaia, from ain(935c), to go, firm, trusty).
{That which is within the veil} (	o es(9374)eron tou
katapetasmatos). The Holy of Holies, "the inner part of the
veil" (the space behind the veil), in N.T. only here and  Ac
16:24  (of the inner prison). The anchor is out of sight, but it
holds. That is what matters.

經文:

希伯來書 6:20-6:20

註釋:

 {As a forerunner} (prodromos). Old word used for a spy, a
scout, only here in N.T. Jesus has shown us the way, has gone on
ahead, and is the surety (egguos,  Heb 7:22 ) and guarantor of
our own entrance later. In point of fact, our anchor of hope with
its two chains of God's promise and oath has laid hold of Jesus
within the veil. It will hold fast. All we need to do is to be
true to him as he is to us. {A high priest for ever} (archiereus
eis ton ai(936e)a). There he functions as our great high priest,
better than Aaron for he is "after the order of Melchizedek," the
point that now calls for elucidation ( 5:10f. ).

經文:

希伯來書 7:1-7:1

註釋:

 {This Melchizedek} (houtos ho Melchisedek). The one already
mentioned several times with whose priesthood that of Christ is
compared and which is older and of a higher type than that of
Aaron. See  Ge 14:18-20  Ps 110  for the only account of
Melchizedek in the Old Testament. It is a daring thing to put
Melchizedek above Aaron, but the author does it. Moffatt calls
verses  1-3  "a little sermon" on  6:20 . It is "for ever" (eis
ton ai(936e)a) that he explains. Melchizedek is the only one in his
line and stands alone in the record in Genesis. The
interpretation is rabbinical in method, but well adapted to
Jewish readers. The description is taken verbatim from Genesis
except that "who met" (ho sunant(8873)as) is here applied to
Melchizedek from  Ge 14:17  instead of to the King of Sodom. They
both met Abraham as a matter of fact. For this verb (first aorist
active participle of sunanta(935c)) see  Lu 9:37 . {Slaughter}
(kop(8873)). Old word for cutting (kopt(935c), to cut), here only in
N.T. These kings were Amraphel, Arioch, Chedorlaomer, Tidal.
Amraphel is usually taken to be Khammurabi. {Priest of God Most
High} (hiereus tou theou tou hupsistou). He is called "priest"
and note 	ou hupsistou applied to God as the Canaanites,
Phoenicians, Hebrews did. It is used also of Zeus and the
Maccabean priest-kings. The demons apply it to God ( Mr 5:7  Lu
8:28 ).

經文:

希伯來書 7:2-7:2

註釋:

 {A tenth} (dekat(886e)). It was common to offer a tenth of the
spoils to the gods. So Abraham recognized Melchizedek as a priest
of God. {Divided} (emerisen). First aorist active of meriz(935c),
from meros (portion), to separate into parts. From this point
till near the end of verse  3  (the Son of God) is a long
parenthesis with houtos of verse  1  as the subject of menei
(abideth) as the Revised Version punctuates it. Philo had made
popular the kind of exegesis used here. The author gives in Greek
the meaning of the Hebrew words Melchizedek (King of
righteousness, cf.  1:8 ) and Salem (peace).

經文:

希伯來書 7:3-7:3

註釋:

 {Without father, without mother, without genealogy} (apat(9372),
am(8874)(9372), agenealog(8874)os). Alliteration like  Ro 1:30 , the first
two old words, the third coined by the author (found nowhere
else) and meaning simply "devoid of any genealogy." The argument
is that from silence, made much of by Philo, but not to be
pressed. The record in Genesis tells nothing of any genealogy.
Melchizedek stands alone. He is not to be understood as a
miraculous being without birth or death. Melchizedek has been
made more mysterious than he is by reading into this
interpretation what is not there. {Made like} (aph(936d)oi(936d)enos).
Perfect passive participle of aphomoio(935c), old verb, to produce a
facsimile or copy, only here in N.T. The likeness is in the
picture drawn in Genesis, not in the man himself. Such artificial
interpretation does not amount to proof, but only serves as a
parallel or illustration. {Unto the Son of God} (	(9369) hui(9369) tou
theou). Associative instrumental case of huios. {Abideth a
priest} (menei hiereus). According to the record in Genesis,
the only one in his line just as Jesus stands alone, but with the
difference that Jesus continues priest in fact in heaven.
{Continually} (eis to di(886e)ekes). Old phrase (for the
continuity) like eis ton ai(936e)a, in N.T. only in Hebrews ( 7:3  10:1,14,21 ).

經文:

希伯來書 7:4-7:4

註釋:

 {How great} (p(886c)ikos). Geometrical magnitude in contrast to
arithmetical (posos), here only in N.T., "how distinguished."
He received tithes from Abraham (verses  4-6a ) and he blessed
Abraham ( 6b-7 ) and even Levi is included (verses  8-10 ). {Out
of the chief spoils} (ek t(936e) akrothini(936e)). Old word from
akros, top, and 	his, a heap (the top of the pile).
{Patriarch} (patriarch(8873)). LXX word (patria, tribe, arch(935c),
to rule) transferred to N.T. ( Ac 2:29 ).

經文:

希伯來書 7:5-7:5

註釋:

 {The priest's office} (	(886e) hierateian). LXX and _Koin(825f)
word from hiereus, in N.T. only here and  Lu 1:9 . {To take
tithes} (apodekatoin). Present active infinitive (in -oin,
not -oun, as the best MSS. give it) of apodekato(935c) a LXX word
(apo, dekato(935c)), to take a tenth from (apo). {Brethren}
(adelphous). Accusative case in apposition with laon (people)
unaffected by the explanatory phrase 	out' estin (that is).
{Though come out} (kaiper exel(886c)uthotas). Concessive participle
(cf.  5:8 ) with kaiper (perfect active of exerchomai).

經文:

希伯來書 7:6-7:6

註釋:

 {He whose genealogy is not counted} (ho m(880a)genealogoumenos). Articular participle with negative m(885c) (usual
with participles) of the old verb genealoge(935c) trace ancestry
(cf. verse  3 ) {Hath taken tithes} (dedekat(936b)en). Perfect
active indicative of dekato(935c), standing on record in Genesis.
{Hath blessed} (eulog(886b)en). Perfect active indicative of
euloge(935c), likewise standing on record. Note the frequent perfect
tenses in Hebrews. {Him that hath the promises} (	on echonta tas
epaggelias). Cf.  6:12,13-15  for allusion to the repeated
promises to Abraham ( Ge 12:3,7  13:14  15:5  17:5  22:16-18 ).

經文:

希伯來書 7:7-7:7

註釋:

 {Dispute} (antilogias). Ablative case with ch(9372)is. For
the word see  6:16 . The writer makes a parenthetical
generalization and uses the article and neuter adjective (	o
elasson, the less, hupo tou kreittonos, by the better), a
regular Greek idiom.

經文:

希伯來書 7:8-7:8

註釋:

 {Here} (h(9364)e). In the Levitical system. {There} (ekei).
In the case of Melchizedek. {Of whom it is witnessed}
(marturoumenos). "Being witnessed," present passive participle
of marture(935c) (personal construction, not impersonal). {That he
lives} (hoti z(8869)). Present active indicative of za(935c)). The
Genesis record tells nothing of his death.

經文:

希伯來書 7:9-7:9

註釋:

 {So to say} (h(9373) epos eipein). An old idiom, here only in
the N.T., common in Philo, used to limit a startling statement,
an infinitive for conceived result with h(9373). {Hath paid tithes}
(dedekat(9374)ai). Perfect passive indicative of dekato(935c), "has
been tithed." This could only be true of Levi "so to speak."

經文:

希伯來書 7:10-7:10

註釋:

 {In the loins of his father} (en t(8869) osphui tou patros).
Levi was not yet born. The reference is to Abraham, the
forefather (patros) of Levi. This is a rabbinical imaginative
refinement appealing to Jews.

經文:

希伯來書 7:11-7:11

註釋:

 {Perfection} (	elei(9373)is). Abstract substantive of
	eleio(935c). More the act than the quality or state (	eleiot(8873),
 6:1 ). The condition is of the second class, "if there were
perfection, etc." The Levitical priesthood failed to give men "a
perfectly adequate relation to God" (Moffatt). {Priesthood}
(hierosun(8873)). Old word, in N.T. only here, verses  12,24 . Cf.
hieretia in verse  5 . The adjective Leueitik(885c) occurs in
Philo. {Received the law} (
enomothet(8874)ai). Perfect passive
indicative of 
omothete(935c), old compound to enact law (
omos,
tith(886d)i), to furnish with law (as here), only other N.T. example
in  8:6 . {What further need was there?} (	is eti chreia;). No
copula expressed, but it would normally be (886e) an, not just
(886e): "What need still would there be?" {Another priest}
(heteron hierea). Of a different line (heteron), not just one
more (allon). Accusative of general reference with the
infinitive anistasthai (present middle of anist(886d)i
intransitive). {And not to be reckoned} (kai ou legesthai). The
negative ou belongs rather to the descriptive clause than just
to the infinitive.

經文:

希伯來書 7:12-7:12

註釋:

 {The priesthood being changed} (metatithemen(8873) t(8873)
hierosun(8873)). Genitive absolute with present passive participle
of metatith(886d)i, old word to transfer ( Ga 1:6 ). {A change}
(metathesis). Old substantive from metatith(886d)i. In N.T. only
in Heb. ( 7:12  11:5  12:27 ). God's choice of another kind of
priesthood for his Son, left the Levitical line off to one side,
forever discounted, passed by "the order of Aaron" (	(886e) taxin
Aar(936e)).

經文:

希伯來書 7:13-7:13

註釋:

 {Belongeth to another tribe} (phul(8873) heteras metesch(886b)en).
See  2:14  for metech(935c), perfect active indicative here. A
different (heteras) tribe. {Hath given attendance at}
(prosesch(886b)en). Perfect active indicative (watch perfects in
Hebrews, not "for" aorists) of prosech(935c), old verb, here with
either 
oun (mind) or self (heauton) understood with dative
case (	(9369) thusiast(8872)i(9369), the altar, for which word see  Mt
5:23  Lu 1:11 ).

經文:

希伯來書 7:14-7:14

註釋:

 1Ti
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5' or engs='1Ti
5'
經文:

希伯來書 7:15-7:15

註釋:

 {Yet more abundantly evident} (perissoteron eti
katad(886c)on). Only N.T. instance of the old compound adjective
katad(886c)os thoroughly clear with eti (still) added and the
comparative perissoteron (more abundantly) piling Ossa on
Pelion like  Php 1:23 . {Likeness} (homoiot(8874)a). See  4:15 ,
only N.T. examples. Cf. the verb in verse  3 . {Ariseth another
priest} (anistatai hiereus heteros). As said in verse  11 , now
assumed in condition of first class.

經文:

希伯來書 7:16-7:16

註釋:

 {Carnal} (sarkin(8873)). "Fleshen" as in  1Co 3:1 , not
sarkik(8873) (fleshlike,  1Co 3:3 ). The Levitical priests became
so merely by birth. {Of an endless life} (z(9388)s akatalutou).
Late compound (alpha privative and verbal adjective from
katalu(935c), to dissolve, as in  2Co 4:1 ), indissoluble. Jesus as
priest lives on forever. He is Life.

經文:

希伯來書 7:17-7:17

註釋:

 {It is witnessed} (martureitai). Present passive
indicative of marture(935c). The author aptly quotes again  Ps
110:4 .

經文:

希伯來書 7:18-7:18

註釋:

 {A disannulling} (athet(8873)is). Late word from athete(935c)
(alpha privative and 	ith(886d)i), to set aside ( Mr 6:26 ), in
N.T. only here and  9:26 . Common in the papyri in a legal sense
of making void. Involved in metathesis (change in verse  12 ).
{Foregoing} (proagous(8873)). Present active participle of
proag(935c), to go before ( 1Ti 1:18 ). {Because of its weakness}
(dia to aut(8873) asthenes). Neuter abstract adjective with article
for quality as in verse  7  with dia and accusative case for
reason. {Unprofitableness} (an(9370)heles). Old compound (alpha
privative and ophelos) useless, and neuter singular like
asthenes. In N.T. only here and  Tit 3:9 .

經文:

希伯來書 7:19-7:19

註釋:

 {Made nothing perfect} (ouden etelei(9373)en). Another
parenthesis. First aorist active indicative of 	eleio(935c). See
verse  11 . And yet law is necessary. {A bringing in thereupon}
(epeisag(9367)(885c)). An old double compound (epi, additional,
eisag(9367)(885c), bringing in from eisag(935c)). Here only in N.T. Used by
Josephus (_Ant_. XI. 6, 2) for the introduction of a new wife in
place of the repudiated one. {Of a better hope} (kreittonos
elpidos). This better hope ( 6:18-20 ) does bring us near to God
(eggizomen t(9369) the(9369)) as we come close to God's throne through
Christ ( 4:16 ).

經文:

希伯來書 7:20-7:20

註釋:

 {Without the taking of an oath} (ch(9372)is hork(936d)osias). As
in  Ps 110:4 .

經文:

希伯來書 7:21-7:21

註釋:

 {Have been made} (eisin gegonotes). Periphrastic perfect
active indicative of ginomai (perfect active participle of
ginomai) and then eisin. The parenthesis runs from hoi men
gar (for they) to eis ton ai(936e)a (for ever, end of verse  21 ).
{But he with an oath} (ho de meta hork(936d)osias). Positive
statement in place of the negative one in verse  20 .

經文:

希伯來書 7:22-7:22

註釋:

 {By so much also} (kata tosouto kai). Correlative
demonstrative corresponding to kath' hoson (the relative
clause) in verse  20 . {The surety} (egguos). Vulgate
_sponsor_. Old word, here only in the N.T., adjective (one
pledged, betrothed), from eggu(885c), a pledge, here used as
substantive like eggu(8874)(8873), one who gives a pledge or guarantee.
There may be a play on the word eggiz(935c) in verse  19 . Eggua(935c)
is to give a pledge, eggualiz(935c), to put a pledge in the hollow
of the hand. It is not clear whether the author means that Jesus
is God's pledge to man, or man's to God, or both. He is both in
fact, as the Mediator (ho mesit(8873),  8:6 ) between God and man
(Son of God and Son of man).

經文:

希伯來書 7:23-7:23

註釋:

 {Many in number} (pleiones). Comparative predicate
adjective, "more than one," in succession, not simultaneously.
{Because they are hindered} (dia to k(936c)uesthai). Articular
infinitive (present passive) with dia and the accusative case,
"because of the being hindered." {By death} (	hanat(9369)).
Instrumental case. {From continuing} (paramenein). Present
active infinitive of the compound (remain beside) as in  Php
1:25  and in the ablative case.

經文:

希伯來書 7:24-7:24

註釋:

 {Because he abideth} (dia to menein auton). Same idiom as
in verse  23 , "because of the abiding as to him" (accusative of
general reference, auton). {Unchangeable} (aparabaton).
Predicate adjective in the accusative (feminine of compound
adjective like masculine), late double compound verbal adjective
in Plutarch and papyri, from alpha privative and parabain(935c),
valid or inviolate. The same idea in verse  3 . God placed Christ
in this priesthood and no one else can step into it. See verse
 11  for hier(9373)un(885c).

經文:

希伯來書 7:25-7:25

註釋:

 {Wherefore} (hothen). Since he alone holds this
priesthood. {To the uttermost} (eis to panteles). Old idiom, in
N.T. only here and  Lu 13:10 . Vulgate renders it _in perpetuum_
(temporal idea) or like pantote. This is possible, but the
common meaning is completely, utterly. {Draw near}
(proserchomenous). Present middle participle of proserchomai,
the verb used in  4:16  which see. {To make intercession} (eis
to entugchanein). Purpose clause with eis and the articular
present active infinitive of entugchan(935c) for which verb see  Ro
8:34 . "His intercession has red blood in it, unlike Philo's
conception" (Moffatt).

經文:

希伯來書 7:26-7:26

註釋:

 {Became us} (h(886d)in eprepen). Imperfect active indicative
of prep(935c) as in  2:10 , only there it was applied to God while
here to us. "Such" (	oioutos) refers to the Melchizedek
character of Jesus as high priest and in particular to his power
to help and save ( 2:17f. ) as just explained in  7:24f.  Moffatt
notes that "it is generally misleading to parse a rhapsody" but
the adjectives that follow picture in outline the qualities of
the high priest needed by us. {Holy} (hosios). Saintly, pious,
as already noted. Cf.  Ac 2:24  13:35 . {Guileless} (akakos).
Without malice, innocent. In N.T. only here and  Ro 16:18 .
{Undefiled} (amiantos). Untainted, stainless. In the papyri.
Not merely ritual purity ( Le 21:10-15 ), but real ethical
cleanness. {Separated from sinners} (kech(9372)ismenos apo t(936e)
hamart(936c)(936e)). Perfect passive participle. Probably referring to
Christ's exaltation ( 9:28 ). {Made higher than the heavens}
(hups(886c)oteros t(936e) ouran(936e) genomenos). "Having become higher
than the heavens." Ablative case (ouran(936e)) after the
comparative adjective (hups(886c)oteros).

經文:

希伯來書 7:27-7:27

註釋:

 {First} (proteron). Regular adverb for comparison between
two, though pr(9374)on often occurs also ( Joh 1:41 ), with
epeita (then) following. {For the sins} (	on). Only the
article in the Greek with repetition of huper or of
hamarti(936e). {When he offered up himself} (heauton anenegkas).
First aorist active participle of anapher(935c), to offer up. See
same idea in  9:14  where heauton pros(886e)egken is used. Old verb
for sacrifice to place on the altar ( 1Pe 2:5,24 ).

經文:

希伯來書 7:28-7:28

註釋:

 {After the law} (meta ton nomon). As shown in verses
 11-19 , and with an oath ( Ps 110:4 ). {Son} (huion). As in
 Ps 2:7  Heb 1:2  linked with  Ps 110:4 . {Perfected}
(	etelei(936d)enon). Perfect passive participle of 	eleio(935c). The
process ( 2:10 ) was now complete. Imperfect and sinful as we are
we demand a permanent high priest who is sinless and perfectly
equipped by divine appointment and human experience ( 2:17f.  5:1-10 ) to meet our needs, and with the perfect offering of
himself as sacrifice.

經文:

希伯來書 8:1-8:1

註釋:

 {In the things which we are saying} (epi tois legomenois).
Locative case of the articular present passive participle of
leg(935c) after epi as in  Lu 5:5  Heb 11:4 , "in the matter of
the things being discussed." {The chief point} (kephalaion).
Neuter singular of the adjective kephalaios (from kephal(885c),
head), belonging to the head. Vulgate _capitulum_, nominative
absolute in old and common sense, the main matter (even so
without the article as in Thucydides), "the pith" (Coverdale),
common in the papyri as in Greek literature. The word also occurs
in the sense of the sum total or a sum of money ( Ac 22:28 ) as
in Plutarch, Josephus, and also in the papyri (Moulton and
Milligan's _Vocabulary_). {Such an high priest} (	oiouton
archierea). As the one described in chapters  4:16-7:28  and in
particular  7:26  (	oioutos)  7:27,28 . But the discussion of
the priestly work of Jesus continues through  12:3 . Toioutos
is both retrospective and prospective. Here we have a summary of
the five points of superiority of Jesus as high priest ( 8:1-6 ).
He is himself a better priest than Aaron (	oioutos in  8:1 
such as shown in  4:16-7:28 ); he works in a better sanctuary
( 8:2,5 ); he offers a better sacrifice ( 8:3f. ); he is mediator
of a better covenant ( 8:6 ); his work rests on better promises
( 8:6 ); hence he has obtained a better ministry as a whole
( 8:6 ). In this resum(8220)(kephelaion) the author gives the pith
(kephalaion) of his argument, curiously enough with both senses
of kephalaion (pith, summary) pertinent. He will discuss the
four points remaining thus: (1) the better covenant,  8:7-13 .
(2) The better sanctuary,  9:1-12 . (3) The better sacrifice,
 9:13-10:18 . (4) The better promises,  10:19-12:3 . One point
(the better high priest, like Melchizedek) has already been
discussed ( 4:16-7:28 ). {Sat down} (ekathisen). Repetition of
 1:3  with 	ou thronou (the throne) added. This phrase prepares
the way for the next point.

經文:

希伯來書 8:2-8:2

註釋:

 2Co
5:1 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
5' or engs='2Co
5'
經文:

希伯來書 8:3-8:3

註釋:

 {Is appointed} (kathistatai). As in  5:1 . {To offer} (eis
to prospherein). Articular infinitive accusative case with eis
as is common while hina prospher(8869) (hina with present active
subjunctive) for purpose in  5:1 , with d(9372)a te kai thusias as
there. {It is necessary} (anagkaion). A moral and logical
necessity (from anagk(885c) necessity) as seen in  Ac 13:46  Php
1:24 . {This high priest also} (kai touton). "This one also,"
no word for high priest, accusative of general reference with the
infinitive echein (have). {Somewhat to offer} (	i h(930a)prosenegk(8869)). Second aorist active subjunctive of prospher(935c)
(verse  3 ). Vulgate _aliquid quod offerat_. The use of the
subjunctive in this relative clause is probably volitive as in
 Ac 21:16  Heb 12:28  (possibly here merely futuristic), but note
ho prospherei (present indicative) in  9:7 . See Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 955.

經文:

希伯來書 8:4-8:4

註釋:

 {On earth} (epi g(8873)). As opposed to en tois ouranois
(verse  1 ). Condition of second class, determined as
unfulfilled. {He would not be a priest at all} (oud' an (886e)
hiereus). "Not even would he be a priest." Conclusion of second
class condition with an and imperfect indicative ((886e)).
{Seeing there are those} (ont(936e) t(936e)). Genitive absolute with
ont(936e) (from eimi) and the articular present active participle
of prospher(935c) (verse  3 ). Jesus was not of the tribe of Levi
and so could not serve here.

經文:

希伯來書 8:5-8:5

註釋:

 {Serve} (latreuousin). Present active indicative of
latreu(935c) for which verb see on 烘t 4:10|. {A copy}
(hupodeigmati). Dative case after latreuousin. See already on
浥oh 13:15; Heb 4:11| for this interesting word. {Shadow}
(ski(8369)). Dative case. Old word for which see already  Mt 4:16  Mr 4:32  Col 2:17 . See same idea in  Heb 9:23 . For difference
between skia and eik(936e) see  10:1 . Here "copy and shadow"
form a practical hendiadys for "a shadowy out- line" (Moffatt).
{Is warned of God} (kechr(886d)atistai). Perfect passive indicative
of chr(886d)atiz(935c), old verb (from chr(886d)a, business) for which see
on 烘t 2:12,22; Lu 2:26|. The word "God" is not used, but it is
implied as in  Ac 10:22  Heb 12:25 . So in LXX, Josephus, and the
papyri. {For saith he} (gar ph(8873)i). Argument from God's command
( Ex 25:40 ). {See that thou make} (Hor(8320)poi(8873)eis). Common
Greek idiom with present active imperative of hora(935c) and the
volitive future of poie(935c) without hina (asyndeton, Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 949). {The pattern} (	on tupon). The very word
used in  Ex 25:40  and quoted also by Stephen in  Ac 7:44 . For
	upos see already  Joh 20:25  Ro 6:17 , etc. The tabernacle was
to be patterned after the heavenly model.

經文:

希伯來書 8:6-8:6

註釋:

 {But now} (
un de). Logical use of 
un, as the case now
stands, with Jesus as high priest in heaven. {Hath he obtained}
(	etuchen). Perfect active indicative of 	ugchan(935c) with the
genitive, a rare and late form for 	eteuchen (also
	eteuch(886b)en), old verb to hit the mark, to attain. {A ministry
the more excellent} (diaphor(9374)eras leitourgias). "A more
excellent ministry." For the comparative of diaphoros see
 1:4 . This remark applies to all the five points of superiority
over the Levitical priesthood. {By how much} (hos(9369)).
Instrumental case of the relative hosos between two comparative
adjectives as in  1:4 . {The mediator} (mesit(8873)). Late word
from mesos (amid) and so a middle man (arbitrator). Already in
 Ga 3:19f.  and see  1Ti 2:5 . See  Heb 9:15  12:24  for further
use with diath(886b)(885c). {Of a better covenant} (kreittonos
diath(886b)(8873)). Called "new" (kain(8873), neas in  9:15  12:24 ). For
diath(886b)(885c) see  Mt 26:28  Lu 1:72  Ga 3:17 , etc. This idea he
will discuss in  8:7-13 . {Hath been enacted} (
enomothet(8874)ai).
Perfect passive indicative of 
omothete(935c) as in  7:11  which
see. {Upon better promises} (epi kreittosin epaggeliais). Upon
the basis of (epi). But how "better" if the earlier were also
from God? This idea, alluded to in  6:12-17 , Will be developed
in  10:19-12:3  with great passion and power. Thus it is seen
that "better" (kreiss(936e)) is the keynote of the Epistle. At
every point Christianity is better than Judaism.

經文:

希伯來書 8:7-8:7

註釋:

 {That first covenant} (h(8820)pr(9374)(8820)ekein(885c)). The word
diath(886b)(885c) (covenant) is not expressed, but clearly meant by the
feminine gender pr(9374)(885c). {Faultless} (amemptos). Old compound
adjective for which see  Lu 1:6  Php 2:15 . The condition is
second class and assumes that the old covenant was not
"blameless," apparently a serious charge which he hastens to
explain. {For a second} (deuteras). Objective genitive with
diath(886b)(8873) understood. The conclusion with an and the
imperfect passive indicative (ez(8874)eito) is clearly a
second-class condition. See a like argument in  7:11 .

經文:

希伯來書 8:8-8:8

註釋:

 {Finding fault with them} (memphomenos autous). Present
middle participle of memphomai (cf. amemptos), old verb, in
N.T. only here and  Ro 9:19 . The covenant was all right, but the
Jews failed to keep it. Hence God made a new one of grace in
place of law. Why do marriage covenants so often fail to hold?
The author quotes in verses  8-12  Jer 38:31-34  (in LXX
 31:31-34 ) in full which calls for little explanation or
application to prove his point (verse  13 ). {I will make}
(sunteles(935c)). Future active of suntele(935c), old compound verb to
accomplish as in  Mr 13:4  Ro 9:28 . {A new covenant} (diath(886b)(886e)
kain(886e)). In  12:24  we have diath(886b)(8873) neas, but kain(8873) in
 1Co 11:25 . Kainos is fresh, on new lines as opposed to the
old (palaios) as in  2Co 3:6,14 ; 
eos is young or not yet
old.

經文:

希伯來書 8:9-8:9

註釋:

 {In the day that I took them} (en h(886d)er(8369) epilabomenou
mou). Genitive absolute (mou and second aorist middle
participle of epilamban(935c)), "a Hellenistic innovation" (Moffatt)
in imitation of the Hebrew after h(886d)er(8369) in place of en h(8869)
epelabomen, occurring also in Barn. 2:28. {By the hand} (	(8873)
cheiros). Technical use of the genitive of the part affected.
{To lead them forth} (exagagein autous). Second aorist active
infinitive of exag(935c) to denote purpose. {For they continued not}
(hoti autoi ouk enemeinan). First aorist active indicative of
emmen(935c), old verb to remain in ( Ac 14:22 ). The Israelites
broke the covenant. Then God annulled it. {I regarded not}
((886d)el(8873)a). "I neglected" as in  2:3 . The covenant was void
when they broke it.

經文:

希伯來書 8:10-8:10

註釋:

 {This} (haut(885c)). The "new" one of verse  8 . {That I will
make} (h(886e) diath(8873)omai). Future middle of diatith(886d)i, "that I
will covenant," cognate accusative (h(886e)), using the same root
in the verb as in diath(886b)(885c). {I will put} (didous). "Giving,"
present active participle of did(936d)i, to give. {Into their mind}
(eis t(886e) dianoian aut(936e)). Their intellect, their moral
understanding, all the intellect as in Aristotle ( Col 1:21  Eph
4:18 ). {On their heart} (epi kardias aut(936e)). Either genitive
singular or accusative plural. Kardia is the seat of man's
personal life (Westcott), the two terms covering the whole of
man's inward nature. {A god} (eis theon). Note the Hebraistic
use of eis in the predicate instead of the usual nominative
	heos as in "a people" (eis laon). This was the ideal of the
old covenant ( Ex 6:7 ), now at last to be a fact.

經文:

希伯來書 8:11-8:11

註釋:

 2Co
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經文:

希伯來書 8:12-8:12

註釋:

 {Merciful} (hile(9373)). Old Attic adjective for hilaos,
common in the LXX, only here in N.T., from which hilaskomai
comes ( Lu 18:13 ). {Will I remember no more} (ou m(8820)mn(8873)th(930a)eti). Double negative ou m(885c) with first aorist passive
subjunctive (volitive) of mimn(8873)k(935c), to recall.

經文:

希伯來書 8:13-8:13

註釋:

 {In that he saith} (en t(9369) legein). Locative case of the
articular present active infinitive of leg(935c), "in the saying as
to him." {He hath made the first old} (pepalai(936b)en t(886e) pr(9374)(886e)).
Perfect active indicative of palaio(935c), old verb from palaios
(in contrast with kainos, fresh, new), to treat as old and out
of date. The conclusion is to the point. {That which is becoming
old and waxeth aged} (	o palaioumenon kai g(8872)askon). G(8872)ask(935c)
is old verb from g(8872)as (age) like ger(936e) (old man) and refers
to the decay of old age so that both ideas appear here in
opposition to kainos (palaios) and 
eos (geraios). {Is
nigh unto vanishing away} (eggus aphanismou). Genitive case
with eggus and late word for disappearance (from aphaniz(935c),
 Mt 6:19 ), here only in the N.T. The author writes as if the Old
Testament legal and ceremonial system were about to vanish before
the new covenant of grace. If he wrote after A.D. 70, would he
not have written "has vanished away"?

經文:

希伯來書 9:1-9:1

註釋:

 {Even the first covenant} (kai h(8820)pr(9374)(885c)). Kai (even) is
doubtful. No word for covenant with pr(9374)e (cf.  8:7 ). {Had}
(eiche). Imperfect active, used to have. {Ordinances}
(dikai(936d)ata). Regulations (from dikaio(935c)) as in  Lu 1:6  Ro
5:16 . {Of divine service} (latreias). No word for "divine,"
though worship is meant as in  Ro 9:4  Php 3:3 . Genitive case.
{And its sanctuary, a sanctuary of this world} (	o te hagion
kosmikon). By 	o hagion the author describes the whole
sanctuary ( Ex 36:3  Nu 3:38 ) like 	(936e) hagi(936e) in  8:2 .
Kosmikon is a late adjective (Aristotle, Plutarch) from
kosmos, relating to this world, like epi g(8873) (upon earth) of
 8:4 . It is in the predicate position, not attributive.

經文:

希伯來書 9:2-9:2

註釋:

 {A tabernacle the first} (sk(886e)(8820)h(8820)pr(9374)(885c)). See  8:2  for
sk(886e)(885c). Large tents usually had two divisions (the outer and the
inner or the first and the second). Note pr(9374)(885c) for the first of
two as with the first covenant ( 8:7,13  9:1 ). The large outer
tent was entered first and was called Hagia (Holy), the first
division of the tabernacle. The two divisions are here termed two
tabernacles. {Was prepared} (kateskeuasth(885c)). First aorist
passive of kataskeuaz(935c). See  3:3 . For the furniture see  Ex
25  26 . Three items are named here: the candlestick (h(880a)luchnia, late word for luchnion) or lampstand, necessary since
there were no windows ( Ex 25:31-39 ); the table (h(8820)trapeza,
old word,  Mt 15:27 ) for the bread ( Ex 25:23-30  Le 24:6  of
pure gold); the shewbread (h(8820)prothesis t(936e) art(936e)) as in  Ex
25:30  40:23  Le 24:5-9 . Probably a hendiadys for the table with
the loaves of God's Presence.

經文:

希伯來書 9:3-9:3

註釋:

 {After the second veil} (meta to deuteron katapetasma). The
first veil opened from outside into the Holy Place, the second
veil opened from the Holy Place into the Holy of Holies (Hagia
Hagi(936e)). The word katapetasma is from katapetannumi, to
spread down, and we have already had it in  6:19 . Cf. also  Mt
27:51 .

經文:

希伯來書 9:4-9:4

註釋:

 {Having a golden censer} (chrusoun echousa thumiat(8872)ion).
The present active participle echousa (feminine singular)
agrees with sk(886e)(885c) (the Holy of Holies). It is not certain
whether 	humiat(8872)ion here means censer or altar of incense. In
the LXX ( 2Ch 26:19  Ex 8:11 ; IV Macc. 7:11) it means censer and
apparently so in the inscriptions and papyri. But in Philo and
Josephus it means altar of incense for which the LXX has
	husiast(8872)ion tou thumiatos ( Ex 30:1-10 ). Apparently the
altar of incense was in the Holy Place, though in  Ex 30:1-10  it
is left quite vague. B puts it in verse  2 . So we leave the
discrepancy unsettled. At any rate the altar of incense was used
for the Holy of Holies ("its ritual associations," Dods). {The
ark of the covenant} (	(886e) kib(9374)on t(8873) diath(886b)(8873)). A box or
chest four feet long, two and a half broad and high ( Ex
25:10f. ). The Scotch have a "meal-ark." {Wherein} (en h(8869)). In
the ark. There were three treasures in the ark of the covenant (a
pot of manna, Aaron's rod, the tables of the covenant). For the
pot of manna (golden added in the LXX) see  Ex 16:32-34 . For
Aaron's rod that budded (h(8820)blast(8873)asa, first aorist active
participle of lastan(935c)) see  Nu 17:1-11 . For the tables of the
covenant see  Ex 25:16f.  31:18  De 9:9  10:5 . Not definitely
clear about these items in the ark, but on front, except that
 1Ki 8:9  states that it did contain the tables of the covenant.
For plakes (tables) see  2Co 3:3  (only other N.T. example).

經文:

希伯來書 9:5-9:5

註釋:

 {Above it} (huperan(9320)aut(8873)). Up above, in local sense as in
 Eph 4:10 , with ablative case aut(8873) (it, the ark). {Cherubim
of glory} (Cheroubein dox(8873)). Hebrew word (dual form), two in
number, made of gold ( Ex 25:18-22 ). They are called z(9361)
(living creatures) in the LXX ( Isa 6:2f.  Eze 1:5-10  10:5-20 ).
{Overshadowing} (kataskiazonta). Present active participle of
kataskiaz(935c), old verb to shadow down on, cover with shade, only
here in the N.T. {The mercy seat} (	o hilast(8872)ion). The pinions
of the Cherubim spread over the rectangular gold slab on top of
the ark termed the mercy seat. Here the adjective hilast(8872)ios
has to mean mercy seat, the place, not the propitiatory gift or
propitiation, as in  Ro 3:25  (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, pp.
124-35). {Severally} (kata meros). In detail, distributive use
of kata with meros (part).

經文:

希伯來書 9:6-9:6

註釋:

 {These things having been thus prepared} (	out(936e) hout(9373)
kateskeuasmen(936e)). Genitive absolute with the perfect passive
participle of kataskeuaz(935c) for which verb see verse  2 . A mere
summary has been made of the furniture. {Go in} (eisiasin).
Present active indicative of eiseimi, to go in, old verb, in
N.T. only here,  Ac 3:3  21:18,26 . {Accomplishing}
(epitelountes). Present active participle of epitele(935c) for
which see  8:5 .

經文:

希伯來書 9:7-9:7

註釋:

 {Alone} (monos). Predicate adjective with ho archiereus.
{Once in the year} (hapax tou eniautou). Once for each year
(not pote, at any time) with genitive of time. {Not without
blood} (ou ch(9372)is haimatos). According to  Le 16:14f . Not even
he could enter the second tent (Holy of Holies) without blood.
{The errors of the people} (	(936e) tou laou agno(886d)at(936e)). Late word
from agnoe(935c), not to know ( 5:2 ), only here in the N.T., but in
LXX, papyri, and inscriptions where a distinction is drawn
between errors (agno(886d)ata) and crimes (harmart(886d)ata). In  Ge
43:12  agno(886d)a is "an oversight." But these sins of ignorance
(agno(886d)ata) were sins and called for atonement. See  Heb 10:26 
for wilful sinning.

經文:

希伯來書 9:8-9:8

註釋:

 {The Holy Ghost this signifying} (	outo d(886c)ountos tou
pneumatos tou hagiou). Genitive absolute with present active
participle of d(886c)o(935c), to make plain. Used as in  12:27 . {The
way into the Holy place} (	(886e) t(936e) hagi(936e) hodon). Here as in
verses  12,25  	(936e) hagi(936e) is used for the very Presence of God
as in  8:2  and is in the objective genitive. Hodon is the
accusative of general reference with the infinitive. {Hath not
yet been made manifest} (m(8870)(9320)pephaner(9373)thai). Perfect passive
infinitive of phanero(935c), to make plain (phaneros) in indirect
discourse after d(886c)ountos with negative m(8870)(935c). {While as the
first tabernacle is yet standing} (eti t(8873) pr(9374)(8873) sk(886e)(8873)
echous(8873) stasin). Another genitive absolute with present active
participle of ech(935c) (having standing stasin), "the first
tabernacle still having a place." The veil at the entrance kept
the people out of the first tent as the second veil (verse  3 )
kept the priests out of the Holy of Holies (the very Presence of
God).

經文:

希伯來書 9:9-9:9

註釋:

 {Which} (h(8874)is). "Which very thing," the first tent (	(8873)
pr(9374)(8873) sk(886e)(8873), division of the tabernacle), a parenthesis and
explanation. {A parable} (parabol(885c)). Only in the Synoptic
Gospels in the N.T. and  Heb 9:9  11:19 . See on 烘t 13:3| for
the word (from paraball(935c), to place alongside). Here like
	upos (type or shadow of "the heavenly reality," Moffatt). {For
the time now present} (eis ton kairon ton enest(886b)ota). "For the
present crisis " (kairon, not ai(936e)a, age, not chronon,
time). Perfect active articular (repeated article) participle of
enist(886d)i (intransitive), the age in which they lived, not the
past, not the future. See  1Co 3:22  Ro 8:38  for contrast
between enest(9374)a and mellonta. This age of crisis,
foreshadowed by the old tabernacle, pointed on to the richer
fulfilment still to come. {According to which} (kath' h(886e)).
Here the relative refers to parabol(885c) just mentioned, not to
sk(886e)(8873). See  5:1  8:3 . {As touching the conscience} (kata
suneid(8873)in). For suneid(8873)is see  1Co 8:10  10:17  Ro 2:15 .
This was the real failure of animal sacrifice ( 10:1-4 ). {Make
the worshipper perfect} (	elei(9373)ai ton latreuonta). First
aorist active infinitive ( 2:10 ). At best it was only ritual or
ceremonial purification ( 7:11 ), that called for endless
repetition ( 10:1-4 ).

經文:

希伯來書 9:10-9:10

註釋:

 {Only with meats and drinks and divers washings} (monon epi
br(936d)asin kai pomasin kai diaphorois baptismois). The parenthesis
of the Revised Version here is unnecessary. The use of epi here
with the locative case is regular, "in the matter of" ( Lu 12:52  Joh 12:16  Ac 21:24 ). What ritual value these Levitical
sacrifices had was confined to minute regulations about diet and
ceremonial cleansing (clean and unclean). For "divers"
(diaphorois, late adjective, in N.T. only in  Heb 1:4  8:6  9:10  Ro 12:6 ) say "different" or "various." Baptismois is, of
course, the Jewish ceremonial immersions (cf.  Mr 7:4  Ex 29:4  Le 11:25,28f.  Nu 8:7  Re 6:2 ). {Carnal ordinances}
(dikai(936d)asin sarkos). But the correct text is undoubtedly
simply dikai(936d)ata sarkos (nominative case), in apposition with
d(9372)a te kai thusiai (gifts and sacrifices). See  9:1  for
dikai(936d)ata. {Imposed} (epikeimena). Present middle or passive
participle of epikeimai, old verb to lie upon (be laid upon).
Cf.  1Co 9:16 . {Until a time of reformation} (mechri kairou
diorth(9373)e(9373)). Definite statement of the temporary nature of the
Levitical system already stated in  7:10-17  8:13  and argued
clearly by Paul in  Ga 3:15-22 . Diorth(9373)is is a late word,
here alone in N.T. (from diortho(935c), to set right or straight),
used by Hippocrates for making straight misshapen limbs like
anortho(935c) in  Heb 12:12 . Here for reformation like diorth(936d)a
(reform) in  Ac 24:2f . Christianity itself is the great
Reformation of the current Judaism (Pharisaism) and the spiritual
Judaism foreshadowed by the old Abrahamic promise (see  Ga 3  Ro
9 ).

經文:

希伯來書 9:11-9:11

註釋:

 {Having come} (paragenomenos). Second aorist middle
participle of paraginomai. This is the great historic event
that is the crux of history. "Christ came on the scene, and all
was changed" (Moffatt). {Of the good things to come} (	(936e)
mellont(936e) agath(936e)). But B D read genomen(936e) (that are come). It
is a nice question which is the true text. Both aspects are true,
for Christ is High Priest of good things that have already come
as well as of the glorious future of hope. Westcott prefers
genomen(936e), Moffatt mellont(936e). {Through the greater and more
perfect tabernacle} (dia t(8873) meizonos kai teleioteras sk(886e)(8873)).
Probably the instrumental use of dia ( 2Co 2:4  Ro 2:27  14:20 ) as accompaniment, not the local idea ( 4:14  10:20 ).
Christ as High Priest employed in his work the heavenly
tabernacle ( 8:2 ) after which the earthly was patterned
( 9:24 ). {Not made with hands} (ou cheiropoi(8874)ou). Old
compound verbal for which see  Mr 14:58  Ac 7:48  17:24 . Cf.
 Heb 8:2 . Here in the predicate position. {Not of this creation}
(ou taut(8873) t(8873) ktise(9373)). Explanation of ou chieropoi(8874)ou. For
ktisis see  2Co 5:17  Ro 8:19 . For the idea see  2Co 4:18  Heb
8:2 . This greater and more perfect tabernacle is heaven itself
( 9:24 ).

經文:

希伯來書 9:12-9:12

註釋:

 {Through his own blood} (dia tou idiou haimatos). This is
the great distinction between Christ as High Priest and all other
high priests. They offer blood (verse  7 ), but he offered his
own blood. He is both victim and High Priest. See the same phrase
in  13:12  Ac 20:28 . {Once for all} (ephapax). In contrast to
the repeated (annual) entrances of the Levitical high priests
( 9:7 ). {Into the holy place} (eis ta hagia). Here, as in
verses  8,24  heaven itself. {Having obtained} (heuramenos).
First aorist middle (indirect) participle of heurisk(935c),
simultaneous action with eis(886c)then, and by or of himself "as
the issue of personal labour directed to this end" (Westcott).
The value of Christ's offering consists in the fact that he is
the Son of God as well as the Son of man, that he is sinless and
so a perfect sacrifice with no need of an offering for himself,
and that it is voluntary on his part ( Joh 10:17 ). Lutr(9373)is
(from lutro(935c)) is a late word for the act of ransoming (cf.
lutron, ransom), in O.T. only here and  Lu 1:68  2:38 . But
apolutr(9373)is elsewhere (as in  Lu 21:28  Ro 3:24  Heb 9:15  11:35 ). For "eternal" (ai(936e)ian, here feminine form) see  6:2 .
The author now turns to discuss the better sacrifice
( 9:13-10:18 ) already introduced.

經文:

希伯來書 9:13-9:13

註釋:

 {Ashes} (spodos). Old word, in N. T. only here,  Mt 11:21  Lu 10:13 . Common in LXX. {Of a heifer} (damale(9373)). Old word
(damalis), a red heifer whose ashes mingled with water (meta
hudatos, verse  19 ) were sprinkled (
antizousa, present
active participle of 
antiz(935c), in LXX, though 
ain(935c) more
common) on the contaminated or defiled ones ( Nu 19 ) as the
blood of bulls and goats was offered for sins ( Le 16 ).
{Sanctify} (hagiazei). First-class condition, assumed as true.
This ceremonial ritual does serve "for the cleansing
(katharot(8874)a, old word here only in N.T.) of the flesh," but
not for the conscience (verse  9 ). The cow was am(936d)on, the
individual katharos.

經文:

希伯來書 9:14-9:14

註釋:

 {How much more} (pos(9369) mallon). Instrumental case, "by how
much more," by the measure of the superiority of Christ's blood
to that of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer. {Through
the eternal Spirit} (dia pneumatos ai(936e)iou). Not the Holy
Spirit, but Christ's own spirit which is eternal as he is. There
is thus a moral quality in the blood of Christ not in that of
other sacrifices. {Offered himself} (heauton pros(886e)egken).
Second aorist active indicative of prospher(935c) (used so often as
in  5:1,3  8:3 ). The voluntary character of Christ's death is
again emphasized. {Without blemish} (am(936d)on). Old compound
adjective ( Col 1:22  1Pe 1:19 ) as the sacrifice had to be ( Ex
29:1  Le 1:3,10 ). {Shall cleanse from conscience} (kathariei
t(886e) suneid(8873)in hum(936e)). Future active indicative of kathariz(935c).
Some MSS. have h(886d)(936e) (our). The old Greek used kathair(935c), not
kathariz(935c) (in inscriptions for ceremonial cleansing, Deissmann,
_Bible Studies_, pp. 216f.), for cleansing. {From dead works}
(apo nekr(936e) erg(936e)). As in  6:1 . "A pause might be made before
erg(936e), from dead--(not bodies but) works."

經文:

希伯來書 9:15-9:15

註釋:

 {Mediator of a new covenant} (diath(886b)(8873) kain(8873) mesit(8873)).
See  8:6  for this phrase with kreittonos instead of kain(8873).
{A death having taken place} (	hanatou genomenou). Genitive
absolute, referring to Christ's death. {For the redemption} (eis
apolutr(9373)in). {Of the transgressions} (	(936e) parabase(936e)). Really
ablative case, "from the transgressions." See verse  12 ,
lutr(9373)in. {Under the first covenant} (epi t(8869) pr(9374)(8869)
diath(886b)(8869)). Here there is a definite statement that the real
value in the typical sacrifices under the Old Testament system
was in the realization in the death of Christ. It is Christ's
death that gives worth to the types that pointed to him. So then
the atoning sacrifice of Christ is the basis of the salvation of
all who are saved before the Cross and since. {That they may
receive} (hop(9373) lab(9373)in). Purpose clause (God's purpose in the
rites and symbols) with hop(9373) and the second aorist active
subjunctive of lamban(935c).

經文:

希伯來書 9:16-9:16

註釋:

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經文:

希伯來書 9:18-9:18

註釋:

 {The first covenant} (h(8820)pr(9374)(885c)). Supply diath(886b)(885c) as in
 9:1 . {Has been dedicated} (enkekainistai). Stands dedicated.
Perfect passive indicative of enkainizo, a late verb in LXX,
one papyrus, and in N.T. only here and  10:20 . It means to
renew, to inaugurate ( 1Sa 11:14  2Ch 15:8 ) and in  1Ki 8:63  to
dedicate. Note 	a enkainia ( Joh 10:22 ) for the feast of
dedication.

經文:

希伯來書 9:19-9:19

註釋:

 {When every commandment had been spoken} (lal(8874)heis(8873)).
Genitive absolute with first aorist passive participle feminine
singular of lale(935c). The author uses the account in  Ex 24:3f. 
"with characteristic freedom" (Moffatt). There is nothing there
about the water, the scarlet wool (erion, diminutive of eros,
eiros, old word, here and in  Re 1:14 ; for kokkinos see on
烘t 27:6,28|), and hyssop (huss(9370)ou, a plant mentioned in  Joh
19:29 ). It had become the custom to mingle water with the blood
and to use a wisp of wool or a stem of hyssop for sprinkling ( Nu
10:2-10 ). {Both the book itself} (auto te to biblion). There
is nothing in Exodus about sprinkling the book of the covenant,
though it may very well have been done. He omits the use of oil
in  Ex 40:9f.  Le 8:10f.  and applies blood to all the details.
{Sprinkled} (erantisen). First aorist active indicative from

antiz(935c) (from 
antos and this from 
ain(935c)), like aptiz(935c)
from apt(935c). Cf.  Mr 7:4  Heb 10:22  Re 19:13 .

經文:

希伯來書 9:20-9:20

註釋:

 {This is} (	outo). Instead of idou of the LXX ( Ex
24:8 ), just like our Lord's words in  Mr 14:24 , a possible
reminiscence of the Master's words (Dods). The author also has
eneteilato (he commanded) for dietheto of the LXX.

經文:

希伯來書 9:21-9:21

註釋:

 {In like manner with the blood} (	(9369) haimati homoi(9373)).
Instrumental case of haima (blood). But the use of the article
does not necessarily refer to the blood mentioned in verse  19 .
In  Ex 40:9  Moses sprinkled the tabernacle with oil. It had not
been erected at the time of  Ex 24:5f . Josephus (_Ant_. III. 8,
6) gives a tradition that blood was used also at this dedication.
Blood was used annually in the cleansing rites on the day of
atonement.

經文:

希伯來書 9:22-9:22

註釋:

 {I may almost say} (schedon). Old adverb, only three times
in the N.T., here,  Ac 13:44  19:26 . Here it qualifies the
entire clause, not just panta. {With blood} (en haimati). In
blood. There were exceptions ( Ex 19:10  32:30f.  Le 5:11f.  15:5  Nu 16:46f.  31:23f. , etc.). {Apart from shedding of blood}
(ch(9372)is haimatekchusias). A double compound first found here
(coined by the writer) and later in ecclesiastical writers
(haima, blood, ek, out, che(935c), to pour, like ekchusis
haimatos  1Ki 18:28 ). "Pouring out of blood." The author seems
to have in mind Christ's words in  Mt 26:28 : "This is my blood
of the covenant which is shed for many for the forgiveness of
sins." The blood is the vital principle and is efficacious as an
atonement. The blood of Christ sets aside all other plans for
pardon.

經文:

希伯來書 9:23-9:23

註釋:

 {The copies} (	a hupodeigmata). See  8:5  for this word,
the earthly ( 8:4  9:1 ) tabernacle. {With these} (	outois).
Instrumental case of houtos, like the rites above described
(verse  19 ), perhaps with some disparagement. {Themselves}
(auta). The heavenly realities ( 8:2,5  9:11f. ). {With better
sacrifices} (kreittosin thusiais). Instrumental case again.
Point of this section ( 9:13-10:18 ). {Than these} (para
tautas). Use of para and the accusative case after a
comparative as in  1:4,9 . To us it seems a bit strained to speak
of the ritual cleansing or dedication of heaven itself by the
appearance of Christ as Priest-Victim. But the whole picture is
highly mystical.

經文:

希伯來書 9:24-9:24

註釋:

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經文:

希伯來書 9:25-9:25

註釋:

 {That he should offer himself often} (hina pollakis
prospher(8869) heauton). Purpose clause with hina and present
active subjunctive of prospher(935c) (keep on offering himself, like
 5:1,3 ). {With blood not his own} (en haimati allotri(9369)).
So-called instrumental use of en (accompaniment). allotrios
means "belonging to another," "not one's own" ( Lu 16:12 ).

經文:

希伯來書 9:26-9:26

註釋:

 {Else must he often have suffered} (epei edei auton
pollakis pathein). A common elliptical use of epei after which
one must supply "if that were true" or "in that case," a protasis
of a condition of the second class assumed to be untrue. The
conclusion with edei is without an (verbs of necessity,
obligation, etc.). See Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 963. The
conclusion with an occurs in  10:2 . See also  1Co 5:10 .
"Since, if that were true, it would be necessary for him to
suffer often." {Since the foundation of the world} (apo
katabol(8873) kosmou). See  4:3  for this phrase. The one sacrifice
of Christ is of absolute and final value ( 1Pe 1:19f.  Re 13:8 ).
{At the end} (epi suntelei(8369)). Consummation or completion as in
 Mt 13:39f.  which see. {Hath he been manifested}
(pephaner(9374)ai). Perfect passive indicative of phanero(935c),
permanent state. See "the primitive hymn or confession of faith"
(Moffatt) in  1Ti 3:16  and also  1Pe 1:20 . Jesus came once for
all ( Heb 1:2 ). {To put away sin} (eis athet(8873)in t(8873)
hamartias). See  7:18  for the word athet(8873)is. "The sacrifice
of Christ dealt with sin as a principle: the Levitical sacrifices
with individual transgressions" (Vincent).

經文:

希伯來書 9:27-9:27

註釋:

 {It is appointed} (apokeitai). Present middle (or passive)
of apokeimai, "is laid away" for men. Cf. same verb in  Lu
19:20  Col 1:5  2Ti 4:8  (Paul's crown). {Once to die} (hapax
apothanein). Once for all to die, as once for all to live here.
No reincarnation here. {After this cometh judgement} (meta touto
krisis). Death is not all. Man has to meet Christ as Judge as
Jesus himself graphically pictures ( Mt 25:31-46  Joh 5:25-29 ).

經文:

希伯來書 9:28-9:28

註釋:

 {Once} (hapax). "Once for all" (verse  26 ) as already
stated. {Shall appear a second time} (ek deuterou ophth(8873)etai).
Future passive indicative of hora(935c). Blessed assurance of the
Second Coming of Christ, but this time "apart from sin" (ch(9372)is
hamartias, no notion of a second chance then). {Unto salvation}
(eis s(9374)(8872)ian). Final and complete salvation for "them that
wait for him" (	ois auton apekdechomenois). Dative plural of
the articular participle present middle of apekdechomai, the
very verb used by Paul in  Php 3:20  of waiting for the coming of
Christ as Saviour.

經文:

希伯來書 10:1-10:1

註釋:

 {Shadow} (skian). The contrast here between skia
(shadow, shade caused by interruption of light as by trees,  Mr
4:32 ) and eik(936e) (image or picture) is striking. Christ is the
eik(936e) of God ( 2Co 4:4  Col 1:15 ). In  Col 2:17  Paul draws a
distinction between skia for the Jewish rites and ceremonies
and s(936d)a for the reality in Christ. Children are fond of shadow
pictures. The law gives only a dim outline of the good things to
come ( 9:11 ). {Continually} (eis to di(886e)ekes). See this phrase
also in  7:3  9:12,14 . Nowhere else in N.T. From di(886e)egka
(diapher(935c)), to bear through. {They can} (dunantai). This
reading leaves ho nomos a _nominativus pendens_ (an
anacoluthon). But many MSS. read dunatai (it--the law--can).
For the idea and use of 	elei(9373)ai see  9:9 .

經文:

希伯來書 10:2-10:2

註釋:

 {Else they would not have ceased?} (epei ouk an
epausanto;). Ellipsis of condition after epei (since if they
really did perfect) with the conclusion of the second-class
condition (an and the aorist middle indicative of pauomai).
{To be offered} (prospheromenai). Regular idiom, participle
(present passive) with pauomai ( Ac 5:42 ). {Because} (dia
to). Dia with the accusative of the articular infinitive,
"because of the having" (echein) as to the worshippers (	ous
latreuontas, accusative of general reference of the articular
participle), not "would have had." {No more conscience of sins}
(m(8864)emian eti suneid(8873)in hamarti(936e)). Rather "consciousness of
sins" as in  9:14 . {Having been once cleansed} (hapax
kekatharismenous). Perfect passive participle of kathariz(935c),
"if they had once for all been cleansed."

經文:

希伯來書 10:3-10:3

註釋:

 {A remembrance} (anamn(8873)is). A reminder. Old word from
anamimn(8873)k(935c), to remind, as in  Lu 22:19  1Co 11:24f .

經文:

希伯來書 10:4-10:4

註釋:

 {Should take away} (aphairein). Present active infinitive
of aphaire(935c). Old verb and common in N.T., only here and  Ro
11:27  with "sins". Cf.  9:9 .

經文:

希伯來書 10:5-10:5

註釋:

 {When he cometh into the world} (eiserchomenos eis ton
kosmon). Reference to the Incarnation of Christ who is
represented as quoting  Ps 40:7-9  which is quoted. The text of
the LXX is followed in the main which differs from the Hebrew
chiefly in having s(936d)a (body) rather than (9374)ia (ears). The
LXX translation has not altered the sense of the Psalm, "that
there was a sacrifice which answered to the will of God as no
animal sacrifice could" (Moffatt). So the writer of Hebrews
"argues that the Son's offering of himself is the true and final
offering for sin, because it is the sacrifice, which, according
to prophecy, God desired to be made" (Davidson). {A body didst
thou prepare for me} (s(936d)a kat(8872)tis(9320)moi). First aorist middle
indicative second person singular of katartiz(935c), to make ready,
equip. Using s(936d)a (body) for (9374)ia (ears) does not change the
sense, for the ears were the point of contact with God's will.

經文:

希伯來書 10:6-10:6

註釋:

 {Thou hadst no pleasure} (ouk eudok(8873)as). First aorist
active indicative of eudoke(935c), common for God's good pleasure
( Mt 3:17 ). God took no pleasure in the animal offering
(	husian), the meal-offering (prosphoran), the burnt-offering
(holokaut(936d)ata), the sin-offering (peri hamartias, concerning
sin).

經文:

希伯來書 10:7-10:7

註釋:

 {Then} (	ote). When it was plain that God could not be
propitiated by such sacrifices. {Lo, I am come} (Idou h(886b)(935c)).
The Messiah is represented as offering himself to do God's will
(	ou poi(8873)ai to thel(886d)a sou, the genitive articular infinitive
of purpose). {In the roll of the book it is written of me} (en
kephalidi bibliou gegraptai peri emou). Stands written
(gegraptai, perfect passive indicative). Kephalis is a
diminutive of kephal(885c) (head), a little head, then roll only
here in N.T., but in the papyri. Here it refers "to the O.T. as a
prediction of Christ's higher sacrifice" (Moffatt).

經文:

希伯來書 10:8-10:8

註釋:

 {Saying above} (an(9374)eron leg(936e)). Christ speaking as in
verse  5 . "Higher up" (an(9374)eron, comparative of an(935c), up)
refers to verses  5,6  which are quoted again.

經文:

希伯來書 10:9-10:9

註釋:

 {The which} (haitines). "Which very things" (	husiai).
{Then hath he said} (	ote eir(886b)en). That is Christ. Perfect
active indicative with which compare 	ote eipon (second aorist
active) in verse  7  which is quoted again. {He taketh away the
first} (anairei to pr(9374)on). Present active indicative of
anaire(935c), to take up, to abolish, of a man to kill ( Mt 2:16 ).
By "the first" (	o pr(9374)on) he means the system of animal
sacrifices in verse  8 . {That he may establish the second}
(hina to deuteron st(8873)(8869)). Purpose clause with hina and the
first aorist active (transitive) subjunctive of hist(886d)i, to
place. By "the second" (	o deuteron) he means doing God's will
as shown in verse  9  (following verse  8 ). This is the author's
exegesis of the Psalm.

經文:

希伯來書 10:10-10:10

註釋:

 {We have been sanctified} (h(8867)iasmenoi esmen).
Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of hagiaz(935c), to set
apart, to sanctify. The divine will, unfulfilled in animal
sacrifices, is realized in Christ's offering of himself. "He came
to be a great High Priest, and the body was prepared for him,
that by the offering of it he might put sinful men for ever into
the perfect religious relation to God" (Denney, _The Death of
Christ_, p. 234).

經文:

希伯來書 10:11-10:11

註釋:

 {Standeth} (hest(886b)en). Perfect active indicative of
hist(886d)i (intransitive), vivid picture. {Ministering and
offering} (leitourg(936e) kai prospher(936e)). Present active
participles graphically describing the priest. {Take away}
(perielein). Second aorist active infinitive of periaire(935c),
old verb to take from around, to remove utterly as in  Ac 27:20 .

經文:

希伯來書 10:12-10:12

註釋:

 {When he had offered} (prosenegkas). Second aorist active
participle (with first aorist ending -as in place of -on) of
prospher(935c), single act in contrast to present participle
prospher(936e) above. {One sacrifice} (mian thusian). This the
main point. The one sacrifice does the work that the many failed
to do. One wonders how priests who claim that the "mass" is the
sacrifice of Christ's body repeated explain this verse. {For
ever} (eis to di(886e)ekes). Can be construed either with mian
thusian or with ekathisen (sat down). See  1:3  for
ekathisen.

經文:

希伯來書 10:13-10:13

註釋:

 {Henceforth expecting} (	o loipon ekdechomenos). "For the
rest" or "for the future" (	o loipon, accusative of extent of
time). The expectant attitude of Christ here is that of final and
certain victory ( Joh 16:33  1Co 15:24-28 ). {Till his enemies be
made} (he(9373) teth(9373)in hoi echthroi autou). Purpose and temporal
clause with he(9373) and the first aorist passive subjunctive of
	ith(886d)i. He quotes  Ps 110:1  again.

經文:

希伯來書 10:14-10:14

註釋:

 {He hath perfected} (	etelei(936b)en). Perfect active
indicative of 	eleio(935c). He has done what the old sacrifices
failed to do (verse  1 ). {Them that are sanctified} (	ous
hagiazomenous). Articular participle (accusative case) present
passive of hagiaz(935c) (note perfect in verse  10 ) either because
of the process still going on or because of the repetition in so
many persons as in  2:11 .

經文:

希伯來書 10:15-10:15

註釋:

 {And the Holy Ghost also beareth witness to us} (marturei
de h(886d)in kai to pneuma to hagion). Marture(935c) is common in Philo
for Scripture quotation. The author confirms his interpretation
of  Ps 40:7-9  by repeating from Jeremiah ( Jer 31:31ff. ) what
he had already quoted ( 8:8-12 ). {After he hath said} (meta to
eir(886b)enai). Accusative case after meta of the articular
infinitive perfect active, "after the having said."

經文:

希伯來書 10:16-10:16

註釋:

 {With them} (pros autous). The author changes 	(9369) oik(9369)
Israel ( 8:10 ) thus without altering the sense. He also changes
the order of "heart" (kardias) and "mind" (dianoian) from
that in  8:10 .

經文:

希伯來書 10:17-10:17

註釋:

 Here again the writer adds "their iniquities" (	(936e)
anomi(936e)) to "sins" of  8:12  and reads mn(8873)th(8873)omai (first
future passive) with ou m(885c) rather than mn(8873)th(935c) (first aorist
passive subjunctive) of  8:12  (the more common idiom). It is
uncertain also whether the writer means verse  17  to be the
principal clause with  15,16  as subordinate or the whole
quotation to be subordinate to meta to eir(886b)enai of verse  15 
with anacoluthon in verse  18 . At any rate verse  17  in the
quotation does not follow immediately after verse  16  as one can
see in  8:10-12  (skipping part of  8:10  and all of  8:11 ).

經文:

希伯來書 10:18-10:18

註釋:

 {There is no more offering for sin} (ouketi prosphora peri
hamartias). This is the logical and triumphant conclusion
concerning the better sacrifice offered by Christ ( 9:13-10:18 ).
As Jeremiah had prophesied, there is actually remission
(aphesis, removal) of sins. Repetition of the sacrifice is
needless.

經文:

希伯來書 10:19-10:19

註釋:

 {Having therefore} (echontes oun). The author now gives a
second (the first in  8:1-6 ) resum(8220)of the five arguments
concerning the superior priestly work of Christ ( 10:19-25 )
coupled with an earnest exhortation like that in  4:14-16 , with
which he began the discussion, before he proceeds to treat at
length the fifth and last one, the better promises in Christ
( 10:26-12:3 ). {Boldness} (parr(8873)ian). This is the dominant
note all through the Epistle ( 3:6  4:16  10:19,35 ). They were
tempted to give up Christ, to be quitters. Boldness (courage) is
the need of the hour. {Into the holy place} (	(936e) hagi(936e)). That
is, the heavenly sanctuary where Jesus is ( 6:18-20 ). This is
the better sanctuary ( 9:1-12 ). {By the blood of Jesus} (en t(9369)
haimati I(8873)ou). This is the better sacrifice just discussed
( 9:13-10:18 ).

經文:

希伯來書 10:20-10:20

註釋:

 {By the way which he dedicated for us} (h(886e) enekainisen
h(886d)in hodon). This "new" (prosphaton, freshly killed, newly
made, from pros and the root of phatos, in the papyri, only
here in N.T.) and "living" (z(9373)an) Jesus opened ("dedicated")
for us by his Incarnation and Death for us. Thus he fulfilled
God's promise of the "New Covenant" ( 8:7-13 ) in Jeremiah. The
language is highly symbolic here and "through the veil" here is
explained as meaning the flesh of Christ, his humanity, not the
veil opening into heaven ( 6:20 ). Some do take "veil" here as
obscuring the deity of Christ rather than the revelation of God
in the human body of Christ ( Joh 1:18  14:9 ). At any rate
because of the coming of Christ in the flesh we have the new way
opened for access to God ( Heb 2:17f.  4:16 ).

經文:

希伯來書 10:21-10:21

註釋:

 {A great priest} (hierea megan). As has been shown in
 4:14-7:28 . {Over the house of God} (epi ton oikon tou theou).
As God's Son ( 3:5f. ).

經文:

希伯來書 10:22-10:22

註釋:

 {Let us draw near} (proserch(936d)etha). Present middle
volitive subjunctive as in  4:16  with which exhortation the
discussion began. There are three exhortations in verses  22:25 
(Let us draw near, proserch(936d)etha, let us hold fast,
katech(936d)en, let us consider one another, katano(936d)en
all(886c)ous). Four items are added to this first exhortation. {With
a true heart} (meta al(8874)hin(8873) kardias). With loyalty and
fealty. {In fulness of faith} (en pl(8872)ophori(8369) piste(9373)). See
 6:11  for this very phrase. {Having our hearts sprinkled from an
evil conscience} (
erantismenoi tas kardias apo suneid(8873)e(9373)
pon(8872)as). Perfect passive participle of 
antiz(935c) with the
accusative retained in the passive, an evident allusion to the
sprinkling of blood in the old tabernacle ( 9:18-22 ) and the
shedding of Christ's blood for the cleansing of our consciences
( 10:1-4 ). Cf.  1Pe 1:2  for "the sprinkling of the blood of
Jesus Christ." {Our body washed with pure water} (lelousmenoi to
s(936d)a hudati kathar(9369)). Perfect passive (or middle) of lou(935c),
old verb to bathe, to wash. Accusative also retained if passive.
Hudati can be either locative (in) or instrumental (with). See
 Eph 5:26  Tit 3:5  for the use of loutron. If the reference
here is to baptism (quite doubtful), the meaning is a symbol
(Dods) of the previous cleansing by the blood of Christ.

經文:

希伯來書 10:23-10:23

註釋:

 {Let us hold fast} (katech(936d)en). Present (keep on holding
fast) active volitive subjunctive of katech(935c) as in  3:6,14 .
{That it waver not} (aklin(885c)). Common compound adjective (alpha
privative and klin(935c), unwavering, not leaning, here only in N.T.
It is a confession of hope, not of despair. {That promised} (ho
epaggeilamenos). First aorist middle articular participle of
epaggell(935c). This is the argument remaining to be discussed
( 10:26-12:3 ) and already alluded to ( 6:13f.  8:6 ). The
ministry of Jesus rests upon "better promises." How better? God
is "faithful," but he made the other promises also. We shall see.

經文:

希伯來書 10:24-10:24

註釋:

 {Let us consider one another} (katano(936d)en all(886c)ous).
Present (keep on doing so) active volitive subjunctive of
katanoe(935c). The verb used about Jesus in  3:1 . {To provoke}
(eis paroxusmon). Our very word "paroxysm," from paroxun(935c)
(para, oxun(935c) from oxus, sharp), to sharpen, to stimulate, to
incite. So here in good sense (for incitement to), but in  Ac
15:39  the word is used of irritation or contention as in the LXX
and Demosthenes. Hippocrates uses it for "paroxysm" in disease
(so in the papyri). {Unto love and good works} (agap(8873) kai kal(936e)
erg(936e)). Objective genitive. So Paul seeks to stir up the
Corinthians by the example of the Macedonians ( 2Co 8:1-7 ).

經文:

希伯來書 10:25-10:25

註釋:

 2Th
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經文:

希伯來書 10:26-10:26

註釋:

 {If we sin wilfully} (hekousi(9373) hamartanont(936e) h(886d)(936e)).
Genitive absolute with the present active participle of
hamartan(935c), circumstantial participle here in a conditional
sense. {After that we have received} (meta to labein). "After
the receiving" (accusative case of the articular infinitive
second aorist active of lamban(935c) after meta). {Knowledge}
(epign(9373)in). "Full knowledge," as in  6:4f . {There remaineth
no more} (ouketi apoleipetai). "No longer is there left behind"
(present passive indicative as in  4:9 ), for one has renounced
the one and only sacrifice for sin that does or can remove sin
( 10:1-18 ).

經文:

希伯來書 10:27-10:27

註釋:

 {Expectation} (ekdoch(885c)). Usually reception or
interpretation from ekdechomai ( Heb 11:10 ), only here in N.T.
and in unusual sense like prosdokia, like apekdechomai ( Ro
8:19,23,25 ), this sense apparently "coined by the writer"
(Moffatt) from his use of ekdechomai in  10:13 . The papyri
have it in the sense of interpretation. {A fierceness of fire}
(puros z(886c)os). An anger (zeal, jealousy) marked (genitive) by
fire. Language kin to that in  Isa 26:11  Zep 1:19  Ps 79:5 . See
also  2Th 1:8-10  for a like picture of destined doom. {Devour}
(esthiein). "To eat" (figuratively), present active infinitive.
{The adversaries} (	ous hupenantious). Old double compound
adjective (hupo, en, antios), in N.T. only here and  Col 2:14 .
Those directly opposite.

經文:

希伯來書 10:28-10:28

註釋:

 {Hath set at naught} (athet(8873)as). First aorist active
participle of athete(935c), late compound, very common in LXX, from
alpha privative and 	ith(886d)i, to render null and void, to set
aside, only here in Hebrews (see  Mr 7:9 ), but note athet(8873)is
( Heb 7:18  9:26 ). {Without mercy} (ch(9372)is oiktirm(936e)). See
 2Co 1:3 . This was the law ( De 17:6 ) for apostates. {On the
word of two or three} (epi dusin (8820)trisin). "On the basis of
two or three." For this use of epi with the locative see
 9:17 .

經文:

希伯來書 10:29-10:29

註釋:

 {How much} (pos(9369)). Instrumental case of degree or
measure. An argument from the less to the greater, "the first of
Hillel's seven rules for exegesis" (Moffatt). {Think ye}
(dokeite). An appeal to their own sense of justice about
apostates from Christ. {Sorer} (cheironos). "Worse,"
comparative of kakos (bad). {Punishment} (	im(9372)ias). Genitive
case with axi(9374)h(8873)etai (first future passive of axio(935c), to
deem worthy). The word 	im(9372)ia originally meant vengeance. Old
word, in LXX, only here in N.T. {Who hath trodden under foot the
Son of God} (ho ton huion tou theou katapat(8873)as). First aorist
active articular participle of katapate(935c), old verb ( Mt 5:13 )
for scornful neglect like  Zec 12:3 . See same idea in  Heb 6:6 .
{Wherewith he was sanctified} (en h(9369) h(8867)iasth(885c)). First aorist
passive indicative of hagiaz(935c). It is an unspeakable tragedy
that should warn every follower of Christ not to play with
treachery to Christ (cf.  6:4-8 ). {An unholy thing} (koinon).
Common in the sense of uncleanness as Peter used it in  Ac
10:14 . Think of one who thus despises "the blood of Christ
wherewith he was sanctified." And yet there are a few today who
sneer at the blood of Christ and the gospel based on his atoning
sacrifice as "a slaughter house" religion! {Hath done despite}
(enubrisas). First aorist active participle of enubriz(935c), old
verb to treat with contumely, to give insult to, here only in the
N.T. It is a powerful word for insulting the Holy Spirit after
receiving his blessings ( 6:4 ).

經文:

希伯來書 10:30-10:30

註釋:

 {We know him that said} (oidamen ton eiponta). God lives
and is true to his word. He quotes  De 32:35  (cf.  Ro 12:19 ).
For ekdik(8873)is see  Lu 18:7f . God is the God of justice. He is
patient, but he will punish. {And again} (kai palin).  De
32:36 .

經文:

希伯來書 10:31-10:31

註釋:

 {A fearful thing} (phoberon). Old adjective (from
phobe(935c), to frighten). In N.T. only in Heb. ( 10:27,31  12:21 ).
The sense is not to be explained away. The wrath of God faces
wrongdoers. {To fall} (	o empesein). "The falling" (articular
infinitive second aorist active of empipt(935c), to fall in,
followed here by eis). We are not dealing with a dead or an
absentee God, but one who is alive and alert ( 3:12 ).

經文:

希伯來書 10:32-10:32

註釋:

 {Call to remembrance} (anamimn(8873)kesthe). Present middle
imperative of anamimn(8873)k(935c), as in  2Co 7:15  "remind
yourselves." The former days were some distance in the past
( 5:12 ), some years at any rate. It is a definite experience of
people in a certain place. Jerusalem Christians had had
experiences of this nature, but so had others. {After ye were
enlightened} (ph(9374)isthentes). First aorist passive participle
of ph(9374)iz(935c) in the same sense as in  6:4  (regeneration) and
like "the full knowledge of the truth" in  10:26 . {Conflict}
(athl(8873)in). Late word from athle(935c), to engage in a public
contest in the games ( 2Ti 2:5 ), only here in the N.T. It occurs
in the inscriptions. Cf.  2:10  for the benefit of "sufferings"
in training.

經文:

希伯來書 10:33-10:33

註釋:

 {Partly} (	outo men) {and partly} (	outo de).
Accusative of general reference (	outo) with men and de for
contrast. {Being made a gazing-stock} (	heatrizomenoi). Late
verb to bring upon the stage, to hold up to derision. See Paul's
use of 	heatron of himself in  1Co 4:9 . {By reproaches and
afflictions} (oneidismois te kai thlipsesin). Instrumental
case. See  Ro 15:3 . {Partakers} (koin(936e)oi). Partners ( Lu
5:10 ) with those (	(936e) objective genitive). {So used} (hout(9373)
anastrephomen(936e)). Present middle articular participle of
anastreph(935c), to conduct oneself ( 2Co 1:12 ).

經文:

希伯來書 10:34-10:34

註釋:

 {Ye had compassion on} (sunepath(8873)ate). First aorist
active indicative of sunpathe(935c), old verb to have a feeling
with, to sympathize with. {Them that were in bonds} (	ois
desmiois). Associative instrumental case, "with the prisoners"
(the bound ones). Used of Paul ( Eph 3:1  2Ti 1:8 ). {Took
joyfully} (meta charas prosedexasthe). First aorist middle
(indirect) indicative, "ye received to yourselves with joy." See
 Ro 13:1,3  15:7 . {The spoiling} (	(886e) harpag(886e)). "The
seizing," "the plundering." Old word from harpaz(935c). See  Mt
23:35 . {Of your possessions} (	(936e) huparchont(936e) hum(936e)). "Of
your belongings." Genitive of the articular present active neuter
plural participle of huparch(935c) used as a substantive (cf.
hum(936e) genitive) as in  Mt 19:21 . {That ye yourselves have}
(echein heautous). Infinitive (present active of ech(935c)) in
indirect discourse after gin(9373)kontes (knowing) with the
accusative of general reference (heautous, as to yourselves),
though some MSS. omit heautous, some have heautois (dative,
for yourselves), and some en heautois (in yourselves). The
predicate nominative autoi could have been used agreeing with
gin(9373)kontes (cf.  Ro 1:22 ). {A better possession} (kreissona
huparxin). Common word in the same sense as 	a huparchonta
above, in N.T. only here and  Ac 2:45 . In place of their
plundered property they have treasures in heaven ( Mt 6:20 ).
{Abiding} (menousan). Present active participle of men(935c). No
oppressors (legal or illegal) can rob them of this ( Mt
6:19ff. ).

經文:

希伯來書 10:35-10:35

註釋:

 {Cast not away therefore your boldness} (m(8820)apobal(8874)e oun
t(886e) parr(8873)ian hum(936e)). Prohibition with m(885c) and the second
aorist active subjunctive of apoball(935c). Old verb to throw away
from one as worthless, only twice in the N.T., here in a
figurative sense and  Mr 10:50  in a literal sense (garment by
Bartimaeus). The Jewish Christians in question were in peril of a
panic and of stampeding away from Christ. Recall katech(936d)en in
verse  23 .

經文:

希伯來書 10:36-10:36

註釋:

 {Which} (h(8874)is). Your boldness of verse  35 . {Recompense
of reward} (misthapodosian). Late double compound, like
misthapodot(8873) ( Heb 11:6 ), from misthos (reward, wages) and
apodid(936d)i, to give back, to pay (repay). In N.T. only here,
 2:2  11:26 . {Of patience} (hupomon(8873)). Old word for remaining
under trial ( Lu 8:15 ). This was the call of the hour then as
now. {Having done the will of God} (	o thel(886d)a tou theou). This
is an essential prerequisite to the exercise of patience and to
obtain the promised blessing. There is no promise to those who
patiently keep on doing wrong. {That ye may receive the promise}
(hina komis(8873)the t(886e) epaggelian) Purpose clause with hina and
the first aorist middle subjunctive of komiz(935c), old verb to
carry ( Lu 7:37 ), in the middle to get back one's own ( Mt
25:27 ), to receive. See also  11:39 . Now the author is ready to
develop this great idea of receiving the promise in Christ.

經文:

希伯來書 10:37-10:37

註釋:

 {A very little while} (mikron hoson hoson). From  Isa
26:20  as an introduction to the quotation from  Hab 2:3f . {He
that cometh} (ho erchomenos). The article ho is added to
erchomenos in  Hab 2:3  and is given here a Messianic
application.

經文:

希伯來書 10:38-10:38

註釋:

 {If he shrink back} (ean huposteil(8874)ai). Condition of
third class with ean and the first aorist middle subjunctive of
hupostell(935c), old verb to draw oneself under or back, to
withdraw, as already in  Ac 20:20,27  Ga 2:12 . See  Ro 1:17  for
the quotation also of "the just shall live by faith."

經文:

希伯來書 10:39-10:39

註釋:

 {But we} (h(886d)eis de). In contrast to renegades who do
flicker and turn back from Christ. {Of them that shrink back unto
perdition} (hupostol(8873) eis ap(936c)eian). Predicate genitive of
hupostol(885c), as in  12:11 , from hupostell(935c) with same sense
here, stealthy retreat in Plutarch, dissimulation in Josephus.
Here alone in the N.T. {Unto the saving of the soul} (eis
peripoi(8873)in psuch(8873)). Old word from peripoie(935c), to reserve, to
preserve ( Lu 17:33 ) to purchase ( Ac 20:28 ). So here
preserving or saving one's life as in Plato, but possession in
 Eph 1:14 , obtaining in  1Th 4:9 . Papyri have it in sense of
preservation.


經文:

希伯來書 11:1-11:1

註釋:

 {Now faith is} (estin de pistis). He has just said that
"we are of faith" ( 10:39 ), not of apostasy. Now he proceeds in
a chapter of great eloquence and passion to illustrate his point
by a recital of the heroes of faith whose example should spur
them to like loyalty now. {The assurance of things hoped for}
(elpizomen(936e) hupostasis). {Hupostasis} is a very common word
from Aristotle on and comes from huphist(886d)i (hupo, under,
hist(886d)i, intransitive), what stands under anything (a building,
a contract, a promise). See the philosophical use of it in  1:3 ,
the sense of assurance (une assurance certaine, M(826e)(8267)oz) in
 3:14 , that steadiness of mind which holds one firm ( 2Co 9:4 ).
It is common in the papyri in business documents as the basis or
guarantee of transactions. "And as this is the essential meaning
in  Heb 11:1  we venture to suggest the translation 'Faith is the
_title-deed_ of things hoped for'" (Moulton and Milligan,
_Vocabulary_, etc.). {The proving of things not seen} (pragmat(936e)
elegchos ou blepomen(936e)). The only N.T. example of elegchos
(except Textus Receptus in  2Ti 3:16  for elegmon). Old and
common word from elegch(935c) ( Mt 18:15 ) for "proof" and then for
"conviction." Both uses occur in the papyri and either makes
sense here, perhaps "conviction" suiting better though not in the
older Greek.

經文:

希伯來書 11:2-11:2

註釋:

 {Therein} (en taut(8869)). That is, "in faith," feminine
demonstrative referring to pistis. {The elders} (hoi
presbuteroi). More nearly like "the fathers," not the technical
sense of elders (officers) usual in the N.T., but more like "the
tradition of the elders" ( Mr 7:3,5  Mt 15:2 ). {Had witness
borne to them} (emartur(8874)h(8873)an). First aorist passive of
marture(935c) (cf.  7:8 ), "were testified to."

經文:

希伯來書 11:3-11:3

註釋:

 {By faith} (pistei). Instrumental case of pistis which
he now illustrates in a marvellous way. Each example as far as
verse  31  is formally and with rhetorical skill introduced by
pistei. After that only a summary is given. {We understand}
(
ooumen). Present active indicative of 
oe(935c), old verb (from

ous, intellect) as in  Mt 15:17  Ro 1:20 . The author appeals
to our knowledge of the world in which these heroes lived as an
illustration of faith. Recent books by great scientists like
Eddington and Jeans confirm the position here taken that a
Supreme Mind is behind and before the universe. Science can only
stand still in God's presence and believe like a little child.
{The worlds} (	ous ai(936e)as). "The ages" as in  1:2  (cf.
Einstein's fourth dimension, time). Accusative case of general
reference. {Have been framed} (kat(8872)tisthai). Perfect passive
infinitive of katartiz(935c), to mend, to equip, to perfect ( Lu
6:40 ), in indirect discourse after 
ooumen. {So that} (eis
to). As a rule eis to with the infinitive is final, but
sometimes as here it expresses result as in  Ro 12:3  (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 1003). {Hath been made} (gegonenai). Perfect
active infinitive of ginomai. {What is seen} (	o blepomenon).
Present passive articular participle (accusative case of general
reference) of lep(935c). {Of things which do appear} (ek
phainomen(936e)). Ablative case with ek (out of) of the present
passive participle. The author denies the eternity of matter, a
common theory then and now, and places God before the visible
universe as many modern scientists now gladly do.

經文:

希伯來書 11:4-11:4

註釋:

 {A more excellent sacrifice} (pleiona thusian). Literally,
"more sacrifice" (comparative of polus, much). For this rather
free use of plei(936e) with the point implied rather than stated
see  Mt 6:25  Lu 10:31  12:23  Heb 3:3 . {Than Cain} (para
Kain). For this use of para after comparative see  1:4,9 . For
the incident see  Ge 4:4 . {Through which} (di' h(8873)). The
sacrifice (	husia). {He had Witness borne to him}
(emartur(8874)h(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of marture(935c) as
in verse  2 , "he was witnessed to." {That he was righteous}
(einai dikaios). Infinitive in indirect discourse after
emartur(8874)h(885c), personal construction of dikaios (predicate
nominative after einai) agreeing with the subject of
emartur(8874)h(885c) (cf.  Ro 1:22 , einai sophoi). {God bearing
witness} (marturountos tou theou). Genitive absolute with
present active participle of marture(935c). {Through it} (di'
aut(8873)). Through his faith (as shown by his sacrifice). Precisely
why Abel's sacrifice was better than that of Cain apart from his
faith is not shown. {Being dead} (apothan(936e)). Second aorist
active participle of apothn(8873)k(935c), "having died." {Yet speaketh}
(eti lalei). Cf.  Ge 4:10  Heb 12:24 . Speaks still through his
faith.

經文:

希伯來書 11:5-11:5

註釋:

 {Was translated} (meteteth(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative of metatith(886d)i, old verb to transpose, to change as
in  7:12  Ac 7:16 . {That he should not see death} (	ou m(8820)idein
thanaton). Here again 	ou with the infinitive usually
expresses purpose, but in this case result is the idea as in  Mt
21:23  Ro 1:24  7:3 , etc. (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1002). {He
was not found} (ouch h(8875)risketo). Imperfect passive of
heurisk(935c) from  Ge 5:24 . Was still not found. {Translated}
(meteth(886b)en). First aorist active of same verb as meteteth(885c)
just before. {Translation} (metathese(9373)). Substantive from the
same verb metatith(886d)i, used already in  7:12  for change. See
also  12:27 . Our very word "metathesis." {He hath had witness
borne him} (memartur(8874)ai). Perfect passive indicative of
marture(935c), stands on record still, "he has been testified to."
{That he had been well-pleasing unto God} (euarest(886b)enai t(9369)
the(9369)). Perfect active infinitive of euareste(935c), late compound
from euarestos (well-pleasing), in N.T. only in  Heb 11:5f.  13:16 . With dative case 	he(9369). Quoted here from  Ge 5:22,24 .
The word is common of a servant pleasing his master.

經文:

希伯來書 11:6-11:6

註釋:

 {Impossible} (adunaton). Strong word as in  6:4,18 . See
 Ro 8:8  for same idea with aresai (aresk(935c),  Ga 1:10 ). {Must
believe} (pisteusai dei). Moral necessity to have faith (trust,
pisteu(935c)). This is true in business also (banks, for instance).
{That he is} (hoti estin). The very existence of God is a
matter of intelligent faith ( Ro 1:19ff. ) So that men are left
without excuse. {He is a rewarder} (misthapodot(8873) ginetai).
Rather, "becomes a rewarder" (present middle indicative of
ginomai, not of eimi). Only N.T. example of misthapodot(8873),
late and rare double compound (one papyrus example, from
misthos (reward) and apodid(936d)i (to pay back) like
misthapodosia ( 10:35  11:26 ). {Seek after} (ekz(8874)ousin).
That seek out God.

經文:

希伯來書 11:7-11:7

註釋:

 {Being warned of God} (chr(886d)atistheis). First aorist
passive participle of chr(886d)atiz(935c), old word for oracular or
divine communications as already in  8:5  (cf.  Mt 2:12,22 ,
etc.). {Moved with godly fear} (eulab(8874)h(885c)). First aorist
passive indicative of eulabeomai, old verb from eulab(8873) (from
eu and labein, to take hold well or carefully), to show
oneself eulab(8873), to act circumspectly or with reverence, here
only in N.T. (save Textus Receptus in  Ac 23:10 ), often in LXX.
{An ark} (kib(9374)on).  Ge 6:15  Mt 24:38 . Shaped like a box (cf.
 Heb 9:4 ). {Through which} (di' h(8873)). Through his faith as
shown in building the ark. {The world} (	on kosmon). Sinful
humanity as in verse  38 . {Heir} (kl(8872)onomos). In  2Pe 2:5 
Noah is called "a preacher of righteousness" as here "heir of
righteousness." He himself believed his message about the flood.
Like Enoch he walked with God ( Ge 6:9 ).

經文:

希伯來書 11:8-11:8

註釋:

 {Not knowing whither he went} (m(8820)epistamenos pou
erchetai). Usual negative m(885c) with a participle (present middle
from epistamai, old and common verb to put the mind on).
Present middle indicative (erchetai) preserved in the indirect
question after the secondary tense ex(886c)then (went out) from
which epistamenos gets its time. Abraham is a sublime and
graphic example of faith. He did not even know where the land was
that he was going to receive "as an inheritance" (eis
kl(8872)onomian).

經文:

希伯來書 11:9-11:9

註釋:

 {Became a sojourner} (par(9369)k(8873)en). First aorist active
indicative of paroike(935c), old verb to dwell (oike(935c)) beside
(para), common in LXX, in N.T. only here and  Lu 24:18 . Called
paroikon (sojourner) in  Ac 7:6 . {In the land of promise}
(eis g(886e) t(8873) epaggelias). Literally, "land of the promise." The
promise made by God to him ( Ge 12:7  13:15  17:8 ). {As in a
land not his own} (h(9373) allotrian). For allotrios (belonging
to another) see  9:25  11:34 . {The heirs with him of the same
promise} (	(936e) sunkl(8872)omen(936e) t(8873) epaggelias t(8873) aut(8873)). Late
double compound (sun, kl(8872)os, nemomai), found in Philo,
inscriptions and papyri, in N.T. only here,  Ro 8:17  Eph 3:6  1Pe 3:7 . "Co-heirs" with Abraham.

經文:

希伯來書 11:10-11:10

註釋:

 {He looked for} (exedecheto). Imperfect middle of
ekdechomai (see on 氣0:13|) picturesque progressive imperfect,
his steady and patient waiting in spite of disappointment. {The
foundations} (	ous themelious). Not just "tents" (sk(886e)ais,
verse  9 ). Ahraham set his steady gaze on heaven as his real
home, being a mere pilgrim (paroikos) on earth. {Builder}
(	echnit(8873)). Old word from 	echn(885c) (craft) or trade ( Ac
17:29  18:3 ), craftsman, artificer, in N.T. only here and  Ac
19:24,38 . {Maker} (d(886d)iourgos). Old word from d(886d)ios
(public) and ergon, a worker for the public, artisan, framer,
here only in N.T.

經文:

希伯來書 11:11-11:11

註釋:

 {To conceive seed} (eis katabol(886e) spermatos). For deposit
of seed. See  4:3  for katabol(885c). {Past age} (para kairon
h(886c)ikias). Beyond (para with the accusative) the season of
age. {Since she counted him faithful who had promised} (epei
piston h(8867)(8873)ato ton epaggeilamenon). Sarah herself
(aut(882d)-Sarra). Even Sarah, old as she was, believed God who had
promised. Hence she received power.

經文:

希伯來書 11:12-11:12

註釋:

 {And that as good as dead} (kai tauta nenekr(936d)enou).
Accusative of general reference (	auta), sometimes singular as
in  1Co 6:8 . The perfect passive participle from 
ekro(935c), late
verb to make dead, to treat as dead ( Ro 4:19 ), here by
hyperbole. {By the sea shore} (para to cheilos t(8873) thalass(8873)).
"Along the lip of the sea" (from  Ge 22:17 ), cheilos here
alone in this sense in the N.T. {Innumerable} (anarithm(8874)os).
Old compound verbal adjective (alpha privative and arithme(935c), to
number), here alone in N.T.

經文:

希伯來書 11:13-11:13

註釋:

 {In faith} (kata pistin). Here a break in the routine
pistei (by faith), "according to faith," either for literary
variety "or to suggest pistis as the sphere and standard of
their characters" (Moffatt). {These all} (houtoi pantes). Those
in verses  9-12  (Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Jacob). {Not having the
promises} (m(8820)komisamenoi tas epaggelias). First aorist middle
participle of komiz(935c), to obtain, as in  10:36  11:39 . And yet
the author mentions Abraham ( 6:15 ) as having obtained the
promise. He received the promise of the Messiah, but did not live
to see the Messiah come as we have done. It is in this sense that
we have "better promises." {Greeted them} (aspasamenoi). First
aorist middle participle of aspazomai, to salute ( Mt 5:47 ).
Abraham rejoiced to see Christ's day in the dim distance ( Joh
8:56 ). {Strangers} (zenoi). Foreigners. "To reside abroad
carried with it a certain stigma" (Moffatt). But they "confessed"
it ( Ge 23:4  47:9 ). {Pilgrims} (parepid(886d)oi). Late double
compound (para, epi, d(886d)os), a sojourner from another land, in
N.T. only here and  1Pe 1:1  2:11 .

經文:

希伯來書 11:14-11:14

註釋:

 {A country of their own} (patrida). Land of the fathers
(pat(8872)), one's native land ( Joh 4:44 ). Cf. our patriotic,
patriotism.

經文:

希伯來書 11:15-11:15

註釋:

 {Had been mindful} (emn(886d)oneuon)-- {would have had}
(eichon an). Condition of second class (note an in
conclusion) with the imperfect (not aorist) in both condition and
conclusion. So it means: "If they had continued mindful, they
would have kept on having (linear action in both cases in past
time). {Opportunity to return} (kairon anakampsai). Old verb
anakampt(935c) to bend back, to turn back ( Mt 2:12 ), here first
aorist active infinitive. Continual hankering would have found a
way. Cf. the Israelites in the wilderness yearning after Egypt.

經文:

希伯來書 11:16-11:16

註釋:

 {They desire} (oregontai). Present middle indicative of
oreg(935c), old word for stretching out after, yearning after as in
 1Ti 3:1 . {Their God} (	heos aut(936e)). Predicate nominative with
the epexegetic infinitive epikaleisthai (to be called) used
with ouk epaischunetai (is not ashamed).

經文:

希伯來書 11:17-11:17

註釋:

 {Being tried} (peirazomenos). Present passive participle
of peiraz(935c). The test was still going on. {Offered up}
(prosen(886e)ochen). Perfect active indicative of prospher(935c), the
verb so often used in this Epistle. The act was already
consummated so far as Abraham was concerned when it was
interrupted and it stands on record about him. See  Ge 22:1-18 .
{He that had gladly received the promises} (ho tas epaggelias
anadexamenos). Anadechomai is old verb to welcome, to
entertain, in N.T. only here and  Ac 28:7 . It seemed the death
of his hopes. {Was offering up} (prosepheren). It is the
imperfect of an interrupted action like ekaloun in  Lu 1:59 .

經文:

希伯來書 11:18-11:18

註釋:

 {To whom it was said} (pros elal(8874)h(885c)). First aorist
passive indicative of lale(935c) ( Ge 21:12 ). God's very words were
in the heart of Abraham now about Isaac "his only son" (	on
monogen(885c). Cf.  Lu 7:12 ).

經文:

希伯來書 11:19-11:19

註釋:

 {Accounting} (logisamenos). First aorist middle
participle of logizomai. Abraham had God's clear command that
contravened God's previous promise. This was his solution of his
difficult situation. {God is able} (dunatai ho theos). God had
given him Isaac in his old age. God can raise him from the dead.
It was Abraham's duty to obey God. {In a parable} (en
parabol(8869)). See already  9:9  for parabol(885c). Because of
(hothen, whence) Abraham's superb faith Isaac was spared and so
he received him back (ekomisato) as almost from the dead. This
is the test that Abraham stood of which James speaks ( Jas
2:23 ).

經文:

希伯來書 11:20-11:20

註釋:

 {Even concerning things to come} (kai peri mellont(936e)). As
told in Ge  27:28-40  when Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau.

經文:

希伯來書 11:21-11:21

註釋:

 {Leaning upon the top of his staff} (epi to akron t(8873)
rabdou autou). From  Ge 47:31 , but no word for "leaning." The
quotation is from the LXX, the Hebrew having "the head of the
bed," but the Hebrew word allows either meaning with different
vowel points.

經文:

希伯來書 11:22-11:22

註釋:

 {When his end was nigh} (	eleut(936e)). Present active
participle of 	eleuta(935c), to finish or close ( Mt 2:19 ),
"finishing his life." {Of the departure} (peri t(8873) exodou).
Late compound for way out, exit as here, metaphorically of death
as here ( Lu 9:31  2Pe 1:15 ). {Concerning his bones} (peri t(936e)
oste(936e) autou). Uncontracted form as in  Mt 23:27 .

經文:

希伯來書 11:23-11:23

註釋:

 {Was hid} (ekrub(885c)). Second aorist passive indicative of
krupt(935c), to hide, as in  Mt 5:14 . {Three months} (	rim(886e)on).
Old adjective used as neuter substantive in accusative case for
extent of time, here only in N.T. {A goodly child} (asteion to
paidion). Literally, "the child was goodly" (predicate
adjective). Old adjective from astu (city), "of the city"
("citified"), of polished manners, genteel. In N.T. only here and
 Ac 7:20 , about Moses both times. Quoted from  Ex 2:2f.  {The
king's commandment} (	o diatagma tou basile(9373)). Late compound
for injunction from diatass(935c), only here in the N.T.

經文:

希伯來書 11:24-11:24

註釋:

 {When he was grown up} (megas genomenos). "Having become
great" (from  Ex 2:11 ). {Refused} ((8872)nesato). First aorist
middle indicative of arneomai, to deny, to refuse. He was of
age and made his choice not from ignorance. {Son} (huios).
Predicate nominative with legesthai (to be spoken of, present
passive infinitive, of leg(935c)).

經文:

希伯來書 11:25-11:25

註釋:

 {Choosing rather} (mallon helomenos). "Rather having
chosen" (second aorist middle of haire(935c), to take for oneself a
position). {To be entreated with} (sunkakoucheisthai). Present
passive infinitive of the double compound sunkakouche(935c) (from
sun, kakos, ech(935c)), to treat ill with (associative instrumental
case), only known example save one in the papyri (second century
A.D.), though kakouche(935c) in  Heb 11:37  13:3 . {To enjoy the
pleasures of sin for a season} (proskairon echein hamartias
apolausin). Literally, "to have temporary pleasure of sin."
Apolausis is old word from apolau(935c), to enjoy, in N.T. only
here and  1Ti 6:17 . Proskairos (from pros, kairos) is a
common _Koin(825f) word as the antithesis to ai(936e)ios (eternal) as
in  Mt 13:21  Mr 4:17  2Co 4:18  (only N.T. examples). To have
been disloyal to God's people would have brought enjoyment to
Moses in the Egyptian Court for a short while only.

經文:

希伯來書 11:26-11:26

註釋:

 {The reproach of Christ} (	on oneidismon tou Christou).
See  Ps 89:51  for the language where "the Messiah" ("The
Anointed One") is what is meant by 	ou Christou, here rightly
applied by the writer to Jesus as the Messiah who had his own
shame to bear ( 12:2  13:12 ). There is today as then ( Heb
13:13 ) a special reproach (oneidismos, already,  10:33 ) in
being a follower of Jesus Christ. Moses took this obloquy as
"greater riches" (meizona plouton) than "the treasures of
Egypt" (	(936e) Aiguptou th(8873)aur(936e), ablative case after comparative
meizona, for which see  Mt 6:19f. ). Moses was laying up
treasure in heaven. {For he looked unto the recompense of reward}
(apeblepen gar eis t(886e) misthapodosian). In perfect active of
apoblep(935c), "for he was looking away (kept on looking away)." For
misthapodosia see  10:35 .

經文:

希伯來書 11:27-11:27

註釋:

 {Not fearing} (m(8820)phob(8874)heis). Negative m(885c) with first
aorist passive participle of phobe(935c) here used transitively with
the accusative as in  Mt 10:26 . Moses did flee from Egypt after
slaying the Egyptian ( Ex 2:15 ), but the author omits that
slaughter and ignores it as the dominant motive in the flight of
Moses. Thumon (wrath) is common in the N.T. ( Lu 4:28 ), though
here only in Hebrews. {He endured} (ekarter(8873)en). First aorist
(constative) active indicative of kartere(935c), old word from
karteros, strong, here only in N.T. Moses had made his choice
before slaying the Egyptian. He stuck to its resolutely. {As
seeing him who is invisible} (	on aoraton h(9373) hor(936e)). This is
the secret of his choice and of his loyalty to God and to God's
people. This is the secret of loyalty in any minister today who
is the interpreter of God to man ( 2Co 4:16-18 ).

經文:

希伯來書 11:28-11:28

註釋:

 {He kept} (pepoi(886b)en). Perfect active indicative of
poie(935c), to make, "he has made," emphasizing the permanent nature
of the feast. {The sprinkling of the blood} (	(886e) proschusin tou
haimatos). Rather, "the pouring of the blood" (proschusis from
prosche(935c), to pour upon), only here in the N.T. (earliest known
example). An allusion to the command in  Ex 12:7,22  but in the
LXX prosche(935c) is the usual term for the act ( Ex 24:6  29:16  Le
1:5,11  De 16:6 ). {That the destroyer of the first-born should
not touch them} (hina m(8820)ho olothreu(936e) ta pr(9374)otoka thig(8869)
aut(936e)). Negative final clause with hina m(885c) and the second
aorist active subjunctive of 	higgan(935c), old verb to touch with
genitive, in the N.T. only here,  12:20  Col 2:21 . The articular
participle ho olothreu(936e) is from  Ex 11:23 . For pr(9374)otoka
see  Lu 2:7  Ex 12:29 .

經文:

希伯來書 11:29-11:29

註釋:

 {Which assaying to do} (h(8873) pieran labontes). Literally,
"of which taking trial" (second aorist active participle of
lamban(935c), to take). The idiom peiran lambanein occurs in  De
28:56 , in N.T. only here and verse  36 , though a classical
idiom (Demosthenes, etc.). {Were swallowed up} (katepoth(8873)an).
First aorist passive indicative of katapin(935c), to drink down, to
swallow down ( Mt 23:24 ).

經文:

希伯來書 11:30-11:30

註釋:

 {Fell down} (epesan). "Fell," second aorist active
indicative of pipt(935c) with first aorist endings as often in the
_Koin(825f). {After they had been compassed} (kukl(9374)henta). First
aorist passive participle of kuklo(935c), old verb to encircle (from
kuklos, circle) as in  Ac 14:20 . Antecedent action here.

經文:

希伯來書 11:31-11:31

註釋:

 {Having received the spies with peace} (dexamen(8820)tous
kataskopous met' eir(886e)(8873)). First aorist middle participle of
dechomai, to welcome ( Lu 10:8,10 ). Kataskopos is an old
compound (kataskope(935c),  Ga 2:4 ), used of scout or spy, in LXX,
here only in N.T.

經文:

希伯來書 11:32-11:32

註釋:

 {And what shall I more say?} (Kai ti eti leg(933b)).
Deliberative present active subjunctive (same form as indicative,
leg(935c)). It is both a literary and an oratorical idiom here. He
feels helpless to go on in the same style as he has done from
Abel to Rahab ( 11:4-31 ). {Will fail me if I tell about}
(epileipsei me di(8867)oumenon peri). Literally, "will leave me
telling about." Present middle participle of di(8867)eomai, to lead
through, carry a discussion through, and masculine (disposing of
Priscilla as possible author) with me. Vivid and picturesque
description of the author's embarrassment of riches as he
contemplates the long list of the heroes of faith during the long
years in Palestine. He mentions six names (Gideon, Barak, Samson,
Jephtha, David, Samuel) and then summarizes the rest under "the
prophets" (	(936e) proph(8874)(936e), the for-speakers for God) of whom
Samuel was the leader.

經文:

希伯來書 11:33-11:33

註釋:

 {Through faith} (dia piste(9373)). Change thus from the
routine pistei used so far. {Subdued kingdoms} (kat(8867)(936e)isanto
basileias). First aorist middle indicative of katag(936e)izomai,
_Koin(825f) verb to struggle against, to overcome, here alone in the
N.T. Used by Josephus of David's conquests. The author has here
(verses  33,34 ), "nine terse clauses" (Moffatt) with no
connective (asyndeton) with great rhetorical and oratorical force
(sledge-hammer style). For "wrought righteousness" ((8872)gasanto
dikaiosun(886e), first aorist middle indicative of ergazomai) see
 Ac 10:35 . {Obtained promises} (epetuchon epaggeli(936e)). Second
aorist active indicative of epitugchan(935c), old verb (already in
 6:15 ) with genitive. But they did not see the fulfilment of the
Messianic promise ( 11:39f. ). {Stopped the mouths of lions}
(ephraxan stomata leont(936e)). First aorist active indicative of
phrass(935c), old verb to fence in, to block up. See  Da 6:18-23 .

經文:

希伯來書 11:34-11:34

註釋:

 {Quenched the power of fire} (esbesan dunamin puros).
First aorist active indicative of sbennumi ( Mt 12:20 ). See
 Da 3:19-28 . {Escaped the edge of the sword} (ephugon stomata
machair(8873)). Second aorist active indicative of pheug(935c), old
verb to flee. "Mouths (stomata) of the sword" ( Lu 21:24 ). See
 1Sa 18:11  1Ki 19:2 . {Were made strong} (edunam(9374)h(8873)an).
First aorist passive indicative of dunamo(935c), late verb from
dunamis as in  Col 1:11 . {Waxed mighty in war} (egen(8874)h(8873)an
ischuroi en polem(9369)). "Became strong in battle" ( Ps 18:34ff. ).
{Armies of aliens} (parembolas allotri(936e)). Late compound
(para, en, ball(935c)) for encampment (Polybius, Plutarch), barracks
( Ac 21:34,37 ), armies in battle line ( Re 20:9  and here as in
LXX and Polybius). Apparently a reference to the campaigns of
Judas Maccabeus.

經文:

希伯來書 11:35-11:35

註釋:

 {By a resurrection} (ex anastase(9373)). Cf.  1Ki 17:17ff.  2Ki 4:8-37 . {Were tortured} (etumpanisth(8873)an). First aorist
passive indicative of 	umpaniz(935c), late verb from 	umpanon
(kettledrum, drumstick), to beat the drum, to beat to death (cf.
II Macc. 7 about Eleazar and the Mother and the seven sons), once
in LXX ( 1Sa 21:13 ). {Not accepting their deliverance} (ou
prosdexamenoi t(886e) apolutr(9373)in). Offered at the price of
disloyalty as in II Macc. 6:21-27. {That they might obtain a
better resurrection} (hina kreittonos anastase(9373) tuch(9373)in).
Purpose clause with hina and the second aorist active
subjunctive of 	ugchan(935c) to obtain with the genitive case. A
"better resurrection" than the temporary ones alluded to in this
verse by the women.

經文:

希伯來書 11:36-11:36

註釋:

 {Of mockings and scourgings} (empaigm(936e) kai mastig(936e)).
Empaigmos is from empaiz(935c) ( Mt 20:19 ), late word, in LXX,
here alone in N.T. Mastig(936e) (mastix, a whip, a scourge) is
old and common enough ( Ac 22:24 ).

經文:

希伯來書 11:37-11:37

註釋:

 {They were stoned} (elithasth(8873)an). Like Zechariah son of
Jehoiada ( 2Ch 24:20 ). "A characteristic Jewish punishment"
(Vincent). First aorist passive indicative of lithaz(935c) ( Joh
10:31 ). {They were sawn asunder} (epristh(8873)an). First aorist
passive indicative of pri(935c) or priz(935c), old verb (prion, a
saw). Cruel Jewish punishment ( Am 1:3 ) said to have been
inflicted on Isaiah. {They were tempted} (epeirasth(8873)an). First
aorist passive indicative of peiraz(935c). The MSS. vary greatly in
the text here and the order of these two items. This mild word
seems an anticlimax after epristh(8873)an. One of the seven
brothers was fried (II Macc. 7:4) and so epr(8873)thesan (were
burned) from pimpra(935c) ( Ac 28:6 ) has been suggested. {With the
sword} (en phon(9369) machair(8873)). "In (by) slaughter of the sword"
(Ionic form of the genitive machaires as in  Ex 17:13  Nu
21:24 ). The fate of unpopular prophets ( 1Ki 10:10  Jer 26:23 ).
{They went about} (peri(886c)thon). Constative aorist active
indicative of perierchomai (picturesque compound verb). Here
the sufferings of the living. {In sheep skins} (en m(886c)(9374)ais).
Late word from m(886c)on (sheep), rough garment of prophets as
Elijah ( 1Ki 19:13,19 ), here only in N.T. In Byzantine Greek a
monk's garb. {In goatskins} (en aigeiois dermasin). Derma,
old word from der(935c), to flay ( Mt 21:35 ), here only in N.T.
Aigeios, old adjective (from aix, goat), here only in N.T.
{Being destitute} (husteroumenoi). Present passive participle
of hustere(935c), old verb to be left behind, used by Paul of
himself ( 2Co 11:9 ). {Afflicted} (	hlibomenoi). Present
passive participle of 	hlib(935c), common verb to oppress. {Evil
entreated} (kakouchoumenoi). Present passive participle of
kakouche(935c), late compound verb from obsolete kakouchos
(kakos and ech(935c)), in LXX ( 1Ki 2:26 ), in N.T. only here and
 13:3 . See sunkakoucheisthai in  11:25 .

經文:

希伯來書 11:38-11:38

註釋:

 {Of whom the world was not worthy} (h(936e) ouk (886e) axios ho
kosmos) Graphic picture in a short parenthetical relative clause
(h(936e), genitive plural with axios), a phrase to stir the blood
of the readers. {Wandering} (plan(936d)enoi). Present middle
participle of plana(935c), like lost sheep, hunted by wolves.
{Caves} (sp(886c)aiois). Old word from speos (cavern) as in  Mt
21:13 . {Holes} (opais). Old word, perhaps from ops (root of
hora(935c), to see), opening, in N.T. only here and  Jas 3:11 . Cf.
 1Ki 18:4 ; II Macc. 5:27; 10:6 (about Judas Maccabeus and
others).

經文:

希伯來書 11:39-11:39

註釋:

 {These all} (houtoi pantes). The whole list in verses
 5-38 . Cf. verse  13 . {Through their faith} (dia piste(9373)).
Here rather than pistei as so often. {Received not the promise}
(ouk ekomisanto t(886e) epaggelian). First aorist middle of
komiz(935c). The Messianic promise they did not live to see
( 11:13 ), though they had individual special promises fulfilled
as already shown ( 11:33 ).

經文:

希伯來書 11:40-11:40

註釋:

 {God having provided} (	ou theou problepsamenou).
Genitive absolute with first aorist middle participle of
problep(935c), late compound to foresee, here only in the N.T. {Some
better thing} (kreitton ti). "Something better," "the better
promises" of  8:6 . {That apart from us they should not be made
perfect} (hina m(8820)ch(9372)is h(886d)(936e) telei(9374)h(9373)in). Negative purpose
clause with hina m(885c) and the first aorist passive subjunctive of
	eleio(935c). But this glorious and gracious purpose (foresight) of
God is not due to any special merit in us. It is simply the
fulness of the time in God's dispensation of grace of which we
are the beneficiaries. But all the same and all the more
(_noblesse oblige_), we should prove worthy of our heritage and
of God's goodness to us and be loyal to Christ.

經文:

希伯來書 12:1-12:1

註釋:

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經文:

希伯來書 12:2-12:2

註釋:

 {Looking unto} (aphor(936e)tes eis). Present active participle
of aphora(935c), old verb to look away, "looking away to Jesus." In
N.T. only here and  Php 2:23 . Fix your eyes on Jesus, after a
glance at "the cloud of witnesses," for he is the goal. Cf. Moses
in  11:26  (apeblepen). {The author} (	on arch(8867)on). See
 2:10  for this word. "The pioneer of personal faith" (Moffatt).
{Perfecter} (	elei(9374)(886e)). A word apparently coined by the writer
from 	eleio(935c) as it has been found nowhere else. Vulgate has
_consummator_. {For the joy} (anti t(8873) charas). Answering to,
in exchange for (verse  16 ), at the end of the race lay the joy
"set before him" (prokeimen(8873) aut(9369)), while here was the Cross
(stauron) at this end (the beginning of the race) which he
endured (hupemeinen, aorist active indicative of hupomen(935c)),
{despising shame} (aischun(8873) kataphron(8873)as). The cross at his
time brought only shame (most shameful of deaths, "yea, the death
of the cross"  Php 2:8 ). But Jesus despised that, in spite of
the momentary shrinking from it, and did his Father's will by
submitting to it. {Hath sat down} (kekathiken). Perfect active
indicative of kathiz(935c), and still is there ( 1:3 ).

經文:

希伯來書 12:3-12:3

註釋:

 {Consider} (analogisasthe). First aorist middle imperative
of analogizomai, old word to reckon up, to compare, to weigh,
only here in the N.T. See katano(8873)ate in  3:1 . Understanding
Jesus is the key to the whole problem, the cure for doubt and
hesitation. {Endured} (hupomemen(886b)ota). Perfect active
participle of the same verb hupomen(935c) used in verse  2 .
{Gainsaying} (antilogian). Old word from antilogos (from
antileg(935c)), already in  6:16  7:7 . {Of sinners} (hupo t(936e)
hamart(936c)(936e)). "By sinners." {Against themselves} (eis
heautous). Against their better selves if a genuine reading. But
eis heauton (against himself), against Christ, is far more
likely correct. {That ye wax not weary} (hina m(8820)kam(8874)e).
Negative final clause with hina m(885c) and the second aorist active
subjunctive of kamn(935c), old verb to be weary as here or sick as
in  Jas 5:15 . {Fainting in your souls} (	ais psuchais hum(936e)
ekluomenoi). Present passive participle of eklu(935c), old verb to
loosen out, to set free, and in passive to be enfeebled, to be
tired out (here in soul with locative case), as in verse  5 . The
rest of the Epistle drives home the argument.

經文:

希伯來書 12:4-12:4

註釋:

 {Resisted} (antikatest(8874)e). Second aorist active
indicative (intransitive) of the double compound
antikathist(886d)i, old verb to stand in opposition against in line
of battle, intransitively to stand face to face (anti) against
(kata), here only in the N.T. {Unto blood} (mechris
haimatos). "Up to blood." As was true of Jesus and many of the
other heroes of faith in chapter  Heb 11 . {Striving}
(antag(936e)izomenoi). Present middle participle of
antag(936e)izomai, old verb with the same figure in
antikatest(8874)e. {Against sin} (pros hamartian). Face to face
with sin as in verse  1 .

經文:

希伯來書 12:5-12:5

註釋:

 {Ye have forgotten} (eklel(8873)the). Perfect middle
indicative of eklanthan(935c), to cause to forget, old verb, here
only in the N.T. with genitive case as usual. {Reasoneth with
you} (humin dialegetai). Present middle indicative of
dialegomai, old verb to ponder different (dia-) things, to
converse, with dative. Cf.  Ac 19:8f . The quotation is from  Pr
3:11f . {Regard not lightly} (m(8820)olig(9372)ei). Prohibition with
m(885c) and the present active imperative of olig(9372)e(935c), old verb
from olig(9372)os and this from oligos (little) and h(9372)a
(hour), old verb, here only in N.T. {Chastening} (paideias).
Old word from paideu(935c), to train a child (pais), instruction
( 2Ti 3:16 ), which naturally includes correction and punishment
as here. See also  Eph 6:4 . {Nor faint} (m(8864)e ekluou).
Prohibition with m(885c) and present passive imperative of eklu(935c)
(see verse  3 ).

經文:

希伯來書 12:6-12:6

註釋:

 {Scourgeth} (mastigoi). Present active indicative of
mastigo(935c), old verb from mastix (whip). This is a hard lesson
for God's children to learn and to understand. See  5:7  about
Jesus.

經文:

希伯來書 12:7-12:7

註釋:

 {That ye endure} (hupomenete). Present active indicative
or present active imperative and so just "endure for chastening."
{Dealeth with you} (humin prospheretai). Present middle
indicative of prospher(935c), but this sense of bearing oneself
towards one with the dative here only in the N.T., though often
in the older Greek. {What} (	is). Interrogative. {Whom}
(hon). Relative. Cf.  Mt 7:9 .

經文:

希伯來書 12:8-12:8

註釋:

 {If ye are without chastening} (ei ch(9372)is este paideias).
Condition of first class, determined as fulfilled. Note position
of este (are) between the preposition ch(9372)is and paideias
(ablative case). {Have been made} (gegonasin). Perfect active
indicative of ginomai. {Partakers} (metochoi). Partners
( 3:14 ). {Then} (ara). Accordingly, correspondingly.
{Bastards} (
othoi). Old word, here only in N.T. Illegitimate.

經文:

希伯來書 12:9-12:9

註釋:

 {Furthermore} (eita). The next step in the argument ( Mr
4:17 ). {We had} (eichomen). Imperfect indicative of customary
action, "we used to have." {To chasten us} (paideutas).
Predicate accusative after eichomen, "as chasteners." Old word
from paideu(935c), as agent (-t(8873)). Only once in LXX ( Ho 5:2 )
and twice in N.T. (here and  Ro 2:20 ). {We gave them reverence}
(enetrepometha). Imperfect middle of old word entrep(935c), to
turn in or at. Here "we turned ourselves to" as in  Mt 21:37 ,
habitual attitude of reverence. {Shall we be in subjection}
(hupotag(8873)ometha). Second future passive of hupotass(935c). There
is no de here to correspond to men in the first part of the
verse. {Unto the father of spirits} (	(9369) patri t(936e) pneumat(936e)).
Rather, "Unto the Father of our spirits" (note article 	on). As
God is.

經文:

希伯來書 12:10-12:10

註釋:

 1Co
12:7 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
12' or engs='1Co
12'
經文:

希伯來書 12:11-12:11

註釋:

 {For the present} (pros to paron). A classical phrase
(Thucydides), pros with the accusative neuter singular
articular participle of pareimi, to be beside. {Not joyous, but
grievous} (ou charas, alla lup(8873)). Predicate ablative
(springing from) or predicate genitive (marked by). Either makes
sense, but note predicate ablative in  2Co 4:7  (kai tou theou
kai m(8820)ex h(886d)(936e)). {Peaceable fruit} (karpon eir(886e)ikon). Old
adjective from eir(886e)(885c) (peace), in N.T. only here and  Jas
3:17 . Peaceable after the chastening is over. {Exercised
thereby} (di' aut(8873) gegumnasmenois). Perfect passive participle
(dative case) of gumnaz(935c), state of completion, picturing the
discipline as a gymnasium like  5:14  1Ti 4:17 .

經文:

希伯來書 12:12-12:12

註釋:

 {Wherefore} (dio). Because of the chastening. {Lift up}
(anorth(9373)ate). First aorist active imperative of anortho(935c),
old compound (from ana, orthos) to make straight, in N.T. here
and  Lu 13:13  Ac 15:16 . {Hang down} (pareimenas). Perfect
passive participle of pari(886d)i, old verb to let pass, to relax,
in N.T. only here and  Lu 11:42 . {Palsied} (paralelumena).
Perfect passive participle of paralu(935c), old verb to loosen on
the side, to dissolve, to paralyze ( Lu 5:18,24 ).

經文:

希伯來書 12:13-12:13

註釋:

 {Straight paths} (	rochias orthas). Track of a wheel
(	rochos,  Jas 3:6  from 	rech(935c), to run), here only in N.T.
"Straight (orthas) wheel tracks." {Be not turned out of the
way} (hina m(8820)ektrap(8869)). Negative final clause with hina m(885c)
and second aorist passive of ektrep(935c), old verb to turn out, to
twist, to put out of joint. So  1Ti 1:6 . Vivid picture of
concern for the lame (ch(936c)on, as in  Mt 11:5 ). Graphic picture
of concern for the weak, a good argument for prohibition also.

經文:

希伯來書 12:14-12:14

註釋:

 {Follow after peace} (eir(886e)(886e) di(936b)ete). Give peace a
chase as if in a hunt. {With all men} (meta pant(936e)). Like
Paul's use of di(936b)(935c) with eir(886e)(886e) in  Ro 14:19  and his to ex
hum(936e) (so far as proceeds from you) in  12:18 . This lesson the
whole world needs including Christians. {Sanctification}
(hagiasmon). Consecration as in  1Th 4:7  Ro 6:19 , etc.
{Without which} (hou ch(9372)is). Ablative case of the relative
with ch(9372)is (post positive here). About seeing God compare  Mt
5:8  where we have katharoi.

經文:

希伯來書 12:15-12:15

註釋:

 {Looking carefully} (episkopountes). Present active
participle of episkope(935c), to have oversight, in N.T. only here
and  1Pe 5:2 . Cf. episcopos (bishop). {Lest there be any man}
(m(8820)tis). Negative purpose clause with ei (present active
subjunctive) omitted. {Falleth short of} (huster(936e) apo).
Present active participle of hustere(935c) (see  4:1 ) agreeing with
	is. Followed here by apo and the ablative. {Root of
bitterness}. (
iza pikrias). Quoted from  De 29:18 . Vivid
picture. {Springing up} (an(9320)phuousa). Present active
participle of phu(935c), to sprout. Pictured here as a quick
process. Also from  De 29:18 . {Trouble} (enochl(8869)). Present
active subjunctive (in final clause with m(8820)tis) of enochle(935c),
old verb to trouble with a crowd, to annoy. In N.T. only here and
 Lu 6:18 . {Be defiled} (mianth(9373)in). First aorist passive
subjunctive (in final clause with m(885c)) of mian(935c), old verb to
dye, to stain, to defile as in  Tit 1:15  (the conscience). The
contagion of sin is terrible as any disease.

經文:

希伯來書 12:16-12:16

註釋:

 1Ti
1:9 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ti
1' or engs='1Ti
1'
經文:

希伯來書 12:17-12:17

註釋:

 {Ye know} (iste). Regular form for the second person of
oida rather than the _Koin(825f) oidate. {He was rejected}
(apedokimasth(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of
apodokimaz(935c), old verb to disapprove ( Mt 21:42 ). {Place of
repentance} (metanoias topon). Metanoia is change of mind and
purpose, not sorrow though he had tears (meta dakru(936e))
afterwards as told in  Ge 27:38 . He sought it (aut(886e), the
blessing eulogian) with tears, but in vain. There was no change
of mind in Isaac. The choice was irrevocable as Isaac shows ( Ge
27:33 ). Esau is a tragic example of one who does a wilful sin
which allows no second chance ( Heb 6:6  10:26 ). The author
presses the case of Esau as a warning to the Christians who were
tempted to give up Christ.

經文:

希伯來書 12:18-12:18

註釋:

 {Ye are not come} (ou prosel(886c)uthate). Perfect active
indicative of proserchomai. There is no word here in the Greek
for "a mount" like orei in verses  20,22  (and  Ex 19:12f.  De
4:11 ), but it is clearly understood since the dative participles
agree with it unless they be taken as descriptive of puri ("a
palpable and kindled fire " when puri would be the dative case
after prosel(886c)uthate). {That might be touched}
(ps(886c)aph(936d)en(9369)). Present passive participle (dative case) of
ps(886c)apha(935c), old verb to handle, to touch ( Lu 24:39 ). {That
burned with fire} (kekaumen(9369) puri). Perfect passive participle
of kai(935c), old verb to burn, with instrumental case puri
(fire), unless the other view (above) is correct.

經文:

希伯來書 12:19-12:19

註釋:

 2Pe
2:4,15 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Pe
2' or engs='2Pe
2'
經文:

希伯來書 12:20-12:20

註釋:

 {For they could not endure} (ouk epheron gar). Imperfect
active of pher(935c), "for they were not enduring (bearing)." {That
which was enjoined} (	o diastellomenon). Present passive
articular participle of diastell(935c), old verb to distinguish, to
dispose, to order. The quotation is from  Ex 19:12f . The people
appealed to Moses ( Ex 20:19 ) and the leaders did so also ( De
5:23f. ), both in terror. {If even} (kan). "Even if." Condition
of third class with second aorist active subjunctive of
	higgan(935c) as in  11:28 , followed by genitive orous
(mountain). {It shall be stoned} (lithobol(8874)h(8873)etai). From  Ex
19:13 . Late compound verb from lithobolos (from lithos,
ball(935c)) as in  Mt 21:35 .

經文:

希伯來書 12:21-12:21

註釋:

 {Fearful} (phoberon). As in  10:27,31 , only in Heb. in
N.T. {The appearance} (	o phantazomenon). Present passive
articular participle of phantaz(935c), old verb from phain(935c), to
make visible, here only in N.T. "The manifestation." {I
exceedingly fear and quake} (ekphobos eimi kai entromos). "I am
terrified (ekphobos, late compound like ekphobe(935c), to
frighten,  Mr 9:6 ) and trembling" (entromos, late compound
like entrem(935c), to tremble at, as in  Ac 7:32  16:29 ).
Ekphobos is quoted from  De 9:19 .

經文:

希伯來書 12:22-12:22

註釋:

 {But} (alla). Sharp contrast to verse  18  with same form
prosel(886c)uthate. {Unto Mount Zion} (Si(936e) orei). Dative case of
oros, as with the other substantives. In contrast to Mount
Sinai (verses  18-21 ). Paul has contrasted Mount Sinai (present
Jerusalem) with the Jerusalem above (heaven) in  Ga 4:21-31 .
{City} (polei). As in  11:10,16 . Heaven is termed thus a
spiritual mountain and city. {The heavenly Jerusalem}
(Ierousalem epourani(9369)). See  11:10,16  Isa 60:14 .
{Innumerable hosts of angels} (muriasin aggel(936e)). "Myriads of
angels." Murias is an old word (from murios,  1Co 4:15 ) as
in  Lu 12:1 .

經文:

希伯來書 12:23-12:23

註釋:

 {To the general assembly} (pan(8867)urei). Old word (from
pas and aguris, ageir(935c)). Here only in N.T. Pan(8867)uriz(935c)
occurs in  Isa 66:10  for keeping a festal holiday. Possibly to
be connected with aggel(936e), though not certain. {Church of the
firstborn} (ekkl(8873)i(8369) pr(9374)otok(936e)). Probably an additional item
besides the angelic host as the people of Israel are called
firstborn ( Ex 4:22 ). The word ekkl(8873)ia here has the general
sense of all the redeemed, as in  Mt 16:18  Col 1:18  Eph
5:24-32 , and equivalent to the kingdom of God. {Who are enrolled
in heaven} (apogegrammen(936e) en ouranois). Perfect passive
participle of apograph(935c), old verb to write off, to copy, to
enroll as in  Lu 2:1,3,5  (only N.T. examples). Enrolled as
citizens of heaven even while on earth ( Lu 10:20  Php 1:27  3:20  4:3  Re 13:8 , etc.). {To God the Judge of all} (krit(8869)
the(9369) pant(936e)). All these chief substantives in the dative case.
People should not forget that God is the Judge of all men. {Made
perfect} (	etelei(936d)en(936e)). Perfect passive participle of
	eleio(935c), perfected at last ( 11:40 ).

經文:

希伯來書 12:24-12:24

註釋:

 {To Jesus} (I(8873)ou). This great fact is not to be
overlooked ( Php 2:10f. ). He is there as Lord and Saviour and
still "Jesus." {The mediator of a new covenant} (diath(886b)(8873) neas
mesit(8869)). As already shown ( 7:22  8:6,8,9,10  9:15 ) and now
gloriously consummated. {To the blood of sprinkling} (haimati
rantismou). As in  9:19-28 . {Than Abel} (para ton Abel).
Accusative as in  1:4 . {Better} (kreitton). Comparative of
kalos. Abel's blood still speaks ( 11:4 ), but it is as nothing
compared to that of Jesus.

經文:

希伯來書 12:25-12:25

註釋:

 {See} (lepete). Earnest word as in  3:12 . Driving home
the whole argument of the Epistle by this powerful contrast
between Mount Zion and Mount Sinai. The consequences are dreadful
to apostates now, for Zion has greater terrors than Sinai, great
as those were. {That ye refuse not} (m(8820)parait(8873)(8873)the).
Negative purpose with m(885c) and the first aorist middle
subjunctive of paraiteomai, the same verb used in verse  19 
about the conduct of the Israelites at Sinai and also below. {Him
that speaketh} (	on lalounta). Present active articular
participle of lale(935c) as in verse  24  (Jesus speaking by his
blood). {For if they did not escape} (ei gar ekeinoi ouk
exephugon). Condition of first class with ei and second aorist
active indicative of ekpheug(935c), to escape. Direct reference to
Sinai with use of the same verb again (parait(8873)amenoi, when
they refused). {Him that warned} (	on chr(886d)atizonta). That is
Moses. For chr(886d)atiz(935c) see  8:5  11:7 . {Much more we} (polu
mallon h(886d)eis). Argument from the less to the greater, polu,
adverbial accusative case. The verb has to be supplied from the
condition, "We shall not escape." Our chance to escape is far
less, "we who turn away (apostrephomenoi, middle participle,
turn ourselves away from) the one from heaven (	on ap'
ouran(936e))," God speaking through his Son ( 1:2 ).

經文:

希伯來書 12:26-12:26

註釋:

 {Then shook} (esaleusen tote). Old verb as in  Mt 11:7 .
{He hath promised} (ep(8867)geltai). Perfect middle indicative of
epaggell(935c) and it still holds. He quotes  Hag 2:6 . {Will I make
to tremble} (seis(935c)). Old and strong verb (here future active)
sei(935c), to agitate, to cause to tremble as in  Mt 21:10 . The
author applies this "yet once more" (eti hapax) and the
reference to heaven (	on ouranon) to the second and final
"shaking" at the Second Coming of Jesus Christ for judgement
( 9:28 ).

經文:

希伯來書 12:27-12:27

註釋:

 {And this word} (	o de). He uses the article to point out
"eti hapax" which he explains (d(886c)oi, signifies, present
active indicative of d(886c)o(935c)). {The removing} (	(886e) metathesin).
For this word see  7:12  11:5 . For the transitory nature of the
world see  1Co 7:31  1Jo 2:17 . "There is a divine purpose in the
cosmic catastrophe" (Moffatt). {Made} (pepoi(886d)en(936e)). Perfect
passive participle of poie(935c). Made by God, but made to pass
away. {That those things which are not shaken may remain} (hina
mein(8869) ta m(8820)saleuomena). Final clause with m(885c) and the first
aorist active subjunctive of men(935c). The Kingdom of God is not
shaken, fearful as some saints are about it.

經文:

希伯來書 12:28-12:28

註釋:

 {Wherefore} (dio). Ground for loyalty to Christ and for
calm trust in God. {That cannot be shaken} (asaleuton). Old
compound with alpha privative and the verbal adjective from
saleu(935c) just used. In N.T. only here and  Ac 27:41 . {Let us
have grace} (ech(936d)en charin). Present active volitive
subjunctive of ech(935c), "Let us keep on having grace" as in
 4:16 , though it can mean "Let us keep on having gratitude" as
in  Lu 17:9 . {Whereby} (di' h(8873)). That is dia charitos. {We
may offer service} (latreu(936d)en). This subjunctive in a relative
clause can be volitive like ech(936d)en just before (cf. imperative
st(8874)e in  1Pe 5:12 ) or it might be the futuristic subjunctive
as in  8:3  (ho prosenegk(8869)). {Well pleasing} (euarest(9373)).
Old compound adverb, here only in N.T. {With reverence and awe}
(meta eulabeias kai deous). For eulabeia see  5:7  11:7 .
Deos is apprehension of danger as in a forest. "When the voice
and tread of a wild beast are distinctly heard close at hand the
deos becomes phobos" (Vincent).

經文:

希伯來書 12:29-12:29

註釋:

 {A consuming fire} (pur katanaliskon). From  De 4:24 .
Present active participle of katanalisk(935c), old compound verb,
here only in the N.T. This verse is to be coupled with  10:31 .

經文:

希伯來書 13:1-13:1

註釋:

 {Brotherly love} (philadelphia). Late word from
philadelphos ( 1Pe 3:8 ). See  1Th 4:9 . It is always in order
in a church. {To show love unto strangers} (	(8873) philoxenias).
Old word for hospitality, from philoxenos ( 1Ti 3:2 ), in N.T.
only here and  Ro 12:3 . In genitive case with epilanthanesthe
(present middle imperative, cf.  Heb 6:10 ). {Have entertained
angels unawares} (elathon xenisantes aggelous). Second aorist
active indicative of lanthan(935c), old verb to escape notice and
first aorist active participle of xeniz(935c), old verb to entertain
a guest (xenos, stranger), according to a classic idiom seen
with lanthan(932c) tugchan(932c) phthan(935c), by which the chief idea is
expressed by the participle (supplementary participle), here
meaning, "some escaped notice when entertaining angels." The
reference is to  Ge 18  19  (Abraham and Sarah did this very
thing).

經文:

希伯來書 13:2-13:2

註釋:

 {As bound with them} (h(9373) sundedemenoi). Perfect passive
participle of sunde(935c), old verb, here only in N.T. For sympathy
with prisoners see  10:34 . {As being yourselves also in the
body} (h(9373) kai autoi ontes en s(936d)ati). And so subject to evil
treatment. See  11:37  for kakouche(935c) and  11:25  for
sunkakouche(935c).

經文:

希伯來書 13:4-13:4

註釋:

 {Let marriage be} (ho gamos). No verb in the Greek. The
copula can be supplied either estin (is) or est(935c) (let be,
imperative). {Had in honour} (	imios). Old adjective from
	im(885c) (honour) as in  Ac 5:34 . Gamos elsewhere in the N.T.,
means the wedding or wedding feast ( Mt 22:29  Joh 2:1 ).
{Undefiled} (amiantos). Old compound word (alpha privative and
verbal of miain(935c), to defile), already in  Heb 7:26 . Miain(930a)t(886e) koit(886e) is a common expression for adultery. {Fornicators}
(pornous). Unmarried and impure. {Adulterers} (moichous).
Impure married persons. God will judge both classes whether men
do or not.

經文:

希伯來書 13:5-13:5

註釋:

 {Be ye free from the love of money} (aphilarguros ho
tropos). No copula, but supply esto: "Let your manner of life
(	ropos, way,  Mt 23:37 ), be without love of money"
(aphilarguros, double compound), once found only in the N.T.,
here and  1Ti 3:3 , but now several times--or the adverb
aphilargur(9373) --in papyri and inscriptions (Deissmann, _Light_,
etc., pp. 85f.). Alpha privative and philos and arguros. The
N.T. is full of the peril of money on the character as modern
life is also. {Content with such things as ye have} (arkoumenoi
tois parousin). Present passive participle of arke(935c), to
suffice, to be content as in  Lu 3:14 . Cf. autark(8873) in  Php
4:11 . Here in the nominative plural with no substantive or
pronoun (anacoluthon, as in  2Co 1:7 ) or the participle used as
a principal verb as in  Ro 12:16 . "Contented with the present
things" (	ois parousin, associative instrumental case of 	a
paronta, present active neuter plural participle of pareimi,
to be present or on hand). {For himself hath said} (autos gar
eir(886b)en). God himself as in  Ac 20:33  of Christ. Perfect active
indicative as in  1:13  4:3f.  10:9 . The quotation is a free
paraphrase of  Ge 28:15  De 31:8  Jos 1:5  1Ch 28:20 . Philo (de
Confus. Ling. 32) has it in this form, "a popular paraphrase"
(Moffatt). Note the five negatives strengthening each other (ou
m(885c) with the second aorist active subjunctive an(935c) from
ani(886d)i, to relate, as in  Ac 16:26 ; oud' ou m(885c) with second
aorist active subjunctive egkatalip(935c) from egkataleip(935c), to
leave behind, as in  Mt 27:46  2Ti 4:10 ). A noble promise in
times of depression.

經文:

希伯來書 13:6-13:6

註釋:

 {So that we say} (h(9373)te h(886d)as legein). The usual
construction (the infinitive) with h(9373)te in the _Koin(825f) even
when the idea is result instead of purpose. The accusative
h(886d)as is that of general reference. {With good courage}
(	harrountas). Present active participle of 	harre(935c) (Ionic
and early Attic 	harse(935c),  Mt 9:2 ) as in  2Co 5:6,8 . The
accusative agreeing with h(886d)as, "being of good courage." The
quotation is from  Ps 118:6 . {My helper} (emoi bo(8874)hos).
"Helper to me" (ethical dative emoi). Bo(8874)hos is old
adjective (cf. o(8874)he(935c), to help,  2:18 ), often in LXX as
substantive, here only in N.T. {I will not fear} (ou
phob(8874)h(8873)omai). Volitive first future passive of phobeomai.

經文:

希伯來書 13:7-13:7

註釋:

 {Remember} (mn(886d)oneuete). Present active imperative of
mn(886d)oneu(935c), old verb to be _mindful_ of (from mn(886d)(936e), mindful)
with genitive ( Joh 15:20 ) or accusative ( Mt 16:9 ). "Keep in
mind." Cf.  11:22 . {Them that had the rule over you} (	(936e)
h(8867)oumen(936e) hum(936e)). Present middle participle of h(8867)eomai with
genitive of the person (hum(936e)) as in verses  17,24 . The author
reminds them of the founders of their church in addition to the
long list of heroes in chapter  Ac 11 . See a like exhortation to
respect and follow their leaders in  1Th 5:12f . Few lessons are
harder for the average Christian to learn, viz., good following.
{The word of God} (	on logon tou theou). The preaching of these
early disciples, apostles, and prophets ( 1Co 1:17 ). {And
considering the issue of their life} (h(936e) anathe(9372)ountes t(886e)
ekbasin t(8873) anastroph(8873)). No "and" in the Greek, but the
relative h(936e) (whose) in the genitive case after anastroph(8873),
"considering the issue of whose life." Present active participle
of anathe(9372)e(935c), late compound, to look up a subject, to
investigate, to observe accurately, in N.T. only here and  Ac
17:23 . Ekbasis is an old word from ekbain(935c), to go out ( Heb
11:15 , here only in N.T.), originally way out ( 1Co 10:13 ), but
here (only other N.T. example) in sense of end or issue as in
several papyri examples (Moulton and Milligan, _Vocabulary_).
{Imitate their faith} (mimeisthe t(886e) pistin). Present middle
imperative of mimeomai, old verb (from mimos, actor, mimic),
in N.T. only here,  2Th 3:7,9  3Jo 1:11 . Keep on imitating the
faith of the leaders.

經文:

希伯來書 13:8-13:8

註釋:

 {Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today, yea and
forever} (I(8873)ous Christos echthes kai s(886d)eron ho autos kai eis
tous ai(936e)as). There is no copula in the Greek. Vincent insists
that estin be supplied between I(8873)ous and Christos, "Jesus
is Christ," but it more naturally comes after Christos as the
Revised Version has it. The old adverb echthes is rare in the
N.T. ( Joh 4:52  Ac 7:28  Heb 13:8 ). Here it refers to the days
of Christ's flesh ( 2:3  5:7 ) and to the recent work of the
leaders ( 13:7 ). "Today" (s(886d)eron,  3:15 ) is the crisis which
confronts them. "Forever" (eis tous ai(936e)as) is eternity as well
as the Greek can say it. Jesus Christ is eternally "the same"
( 1:12 ) and the revelation of God in him ( 1:1f. ) is final and
never to be superseded or supplemented (Moffatt). Hence the peril
of apostasy from the only hope of man.

經文:

希伯來書 13:9-13:9

註釋:

 {Be not carried away} (m(8820)parapheresthe). Prohibition with
m(885c) and present passive imperative of parapher(935c), old verb to
lead along ( Jude 1:12 ), to carry past ( Mr 14:36 ), to lead
astray as here. {By divers and strange teachings} (didachais
poikilais kai xenais). For poikilos (many coloured) see  2:4 .
Xenos for guest we have had in  11:13 , but here as adjective
meaning unheard of ( 1Pe 4:12 ) as in older Greek also. The new
is not always wrong any more than the old is always right ( Mt
13:52 ). But the air was already full of new and strange
teachings that fascinated many by their very novelty. The warning
here is always needed. Cf.  Ga 1:6-9  2Ti 3:16 . {That the heart
be established by grace} (chariti bebaiousthai t(886e) kardian).
Present passive infinitive of ebaio(935c) (from ain(935c)) to make
stable with the instrumental case chariti (by grace) and the
accusative of general reference (	(886e) kardian). How true it is
that in the atmosphere of so many windy theories only the heart
is stable that has an experience of God's grace in Christ. {That
occupied themselves} (hoi peripatountes). "That walked" in the
ritualistic Jewish rules about meats. {Were not profited} (ouk
(9370)hel(8874)h(8873)an). First aorist passive indicative of (9370)hele(935c), to
help. Mere Jewish ceremonialism and ritualism failed to build up
the spiritual life. It was sheer folly to give up Christ for
Pharisaism or for Moses.

經文:

希伯來書 13:10-13:10

註釋:

 {We have an altar} (echomen thusiast(8872)ion). We Christians
have a spiritual altar (	husiast(8872)ion), not a literal one
( 7:13 ). This metaphor is carried out. {Whereof} (ex hou). Our
spiritual altar. {The tabernacle} (	(8869) sk(886e)(8869)). Dative case
with latreuontes (serve), sk(886e)(885c) being used for "the whole
ceremonial economy" (Vincent) of Judaism.

經文:

希伯來書 13:11-13:11

註釋:

 {Of those beasts whose blood} (h(936e) z(9393)n to haima tout(936e)).
The antecedent (z(9393)n) of h(936e) is here incorporated and
attracted into the case of the relative, "the blood of which
beasts" and then 	out(936e) (genitive demonstrative) is added, "of
these." Cf.  Le 4:12f.,21  16:27  for the Old Testament ritual in
such cases. This is the only example in the LXX or N.T. where
z(9393)n (animal) is used of a sacrificial victim. See also  Ex
29:14  32:26f.  for burning without the camp.

經文:

希伯來書 13:12-13:12

註釋:

 {Wherefore Jesus also} (dio kai I(8873)ous). The parallel is
drawn between the O.T. ritual and the better sacrifice of Jesus
already discussed ( 9:13-10:18 ). The purpose of Jesus is shown
(hina hagias(8869), hina and the first aorist active subjunctive
of hagiaz(935c), to sanctify), the means employed (dia tou idiou
haimatos, by his own blood), the place of his suffering
(epathen, as in  5:8 ) is also given (ex(9320)t(8873) pul(8873), outside
the gate, implied in  Joh 19:17 ) which phrase corresponds to
"outside the camp" of verse  11 .

經文:

希伯來書 13:13-13:13

註釋:

 {Let us therefore go forth to him} (	oinun exerch(936d)etha
pros auton). Inferential particle (	oi, nun), usually
post-positive ( Lu 20:25  1Co 9:26 ) only N.T. examples. Present
middle volitive subjunctive of exerchomai. "Let us keep on
going out there to him." If a separation has to come between
Judaism and Christianity, let us give up Judaism, and go out to
Christ "outside the camp" and take our stand with him there on
Golgotha, "bearing his reproach (	on oneidismon autou
pherontes) as Jesus himself endured the Cross despising the
shame ( 12:2 ) and as Moses accepted "the reproach of the
Messiah" ( 11:26 ) in his day. The only decent place for the
follower of Christ is beside the Cross of Christ with the
reproach and the power ( Ro 8:1f. ) in it. This is the great
passionate plea of the whole Epistle.

經文:

希伯來書 13:14-13:14

註釋:

 {An abiding city} (menousan polin). Jerusalem has lost
its charm for followers of Christ. Vincent rightly argues that
the Epistle must have been written before the destruction of
Jerusalem else a reference to that event could hardly have been
avoided here. We are now where Abraham was once ( 11:10 ).

經文:

希伯來書 13:15-13:15

註釋:

 {Through him} (di' autou). That is Jesus. He is our
Priest and Sacrifice, the only efficient and sufficient one. {Let
us offer up} (anapher(936d)en). Present active volitive subjunctive
of anapher(935c), "let us keep on offering up." Jesus is living and
let us go to him. {A sacrifice of praise} (	husian ainese(9373)).
This phrase occurs in  Le 7:12  Ps 54:8 . The word ainesis
(from aine(935c), to praise), common in LXX, is only here in N.T.
{The fruit of lips} (karpon cheile(936e)). In apposition (	out
'estin) and explanation of 	husian ainese(9373). Cf.  Ho 14:3  Isa
57:19 . {Which made confession to his name} (homologount(936e) t(9369)
onomati autou). This use of homologe(935c) with the dative in the
sense of praise like exomologe(935c) is unique, though the papyri
furnish examples in the sense of gratitude (Moulton and Milligan,
_Vocabulary_).

經文:

希伯來書 13:16-13:16

註釋:

 {To do good} (	(8873) eupoiias). Genitive case. Late compound
from eupoios (eupoie(935c)), common in Epictetus, but here only in
N.T., a doing good. {To communicate} (koin(936e)ias). Genitive
case. See  2Co 9:13  for use for contribution, beneficence.
Moffatt notes that the three great definitions of worship and
religious service in the N.T. (here,  Ro 12:1f.  Jas 1:27 ) are
all inward and ethical. {Forget not} (m(8820)epilanthanesthe).
Prohibition with m(885c) and the present middle imperative of
epilanthan(935c) ( 6:10  13:2 ). Here with the genitive case. {Is
well pleased} (euaresteitai). Present passive indicative of
euareste(935c) ( Heb 11:5 ). With the associative instrumental case
	husiais (sacrifices).

經文:

希伯來書 13:17-13:17

註釋:

 {Obey} (peithesthe). Present middle imperative of
peith(935c) with dative case. {Submit} (hupeikete). Present active
imperative of hupeik(935c), old compound to yield under, to give up.
Here only in N.T. {They watch} (agrupnousin). Present active
indicative of agrupne(935c) old verb (from agre(935c), to search,
hupnos, sleep), to seek after sleep, to be sleepless, be
watchful ( Mr 13:33 ). {As they that shall give account} (h(9373)
logon apod(9373)ontes). Regular Greek idiom with h(9373) and the
future participle. For logon apodid(936d)i, to render account, see
 Mt 12:36 . These leaders as good shepherds recognize keenly
their responsibility for the welfare of the flock. {And not with
grief} (kai m(8820)stenazontes). "And not groaning" (cf.  Ro
8:23 ). {Unprofitable} (alusiteles). Old double compound
adjective (alpha privative and lusitel(8873) and this from lu(935c),
to pay, and 	elos, tax, useful or profitable as  Lu 17:2 ), not
profitable, not advantageous, by _litotes_, hurtful, pernicious.
Common rhetorical _litotes_, here only in N.T.

經文:

希伯來書 13:18-13:18

註釋:

 {Honestly} (kal(9373)). Nobly, honourably. Apparently the
writer is conscious that unworthy motives have been attributed to
him. Cf. Paul in  1Th 2:18  2Co 1:11f.,17f .

經文:

希伯來書 13:19-13:19

註釋:

 {That I may be restored to you the sooner} (hina tacheion
apokatastath(9320)humin). Purpose clause with hina and the first
aorist passive subjunctive of apokathist(886d)i, an old double
compound as in  Mt 12:13 . What is meant by 	acheion ( Joh
13:27  20:4 ) we do not know, possibly sickness. See verse  23 
also for 	acheion.

經文:

希伯來書 13:20-13:20

註釋:

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經文:

希伯來書 13:21-13:21

註釋:

 {Make you perfect} (katartisai). First aorist active
optative of katartiz(935c), to equip, as in  10:5 . A wish for the
future. See  1Co 1:10  2Co 13:11  2Ti 3:17 . {Working in us}
(poi(936e) en hemin). "Doing in us." Some MSS. read "in you."
{Well-pleasing} (euareston). Compound adjective (eu,
arestos). Usually with the dative ( Ro 12:2 ), here with
en(9370)ion autou more like the Hebrew. This is one of the noblest
doxologies in the N.T.

經文:

希伯來書 13:22-13:22

註釋:

 {Bear with} (anechesthe). Present middle imperative (some
MSS. have anechesthai, infinitive) of anech(935c) with the
ablative, "hold yourselves back from" as in  Col 3:13 . {The word
of exhortation} (	ou logou t(8873) parakl(8873)e(9373)). His description of
the entire Epistle. It certainly is that, a powerful appeal in
fact. {I have written} (epesteila). First aorist active
indicative (epistolary aorist) of epistell(935c), old word to send a
letter (epistol(885c)) as in  Ac 15:20 . {In few words} (dia
brache(936e)). Common Greek idiom, here only in N.T. (from
rachus, brief, short). Cf. di' olig(936e) egrapsa in  1Pe 5:12 .

經文:

希伯來書 13:23-13:23

註釋:

 {Hath been set at liberty} (apolelumenon). Perfect
passive participle of apolu(935c), to set free, in indirect
discourse after gin(9373)kete. Possibly from prison if he came to
Rome at Paul's request ( 2Ti 4:11,21 ). {Shortly} (	acheion).
Same comparative as in verse  19 , "sooner" than I expect (?).

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