重新查詢
                  THE EPISTLE TO THE COLOSSIANS
                        FROM ROME A.D. 63

                      BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION


                           GENUINENESS

        The author claims to be Paul ( Col 1:1 ) and there is no
real doubt about it in spite of Baur's denial of the Pauline
authorship which did not suit his _Tendenz_ theory of the New
Testament books. There is every mark of Paul's style and power in
the little Epistle and there is no evidence that any one else
took Paul's name to palm off this striking and vigorous polemic.

                             THE DATE

        Clearly it was sent at the same time with the Epistle to
Philemon and the one to the Ephesians since Tychicus the bearer
of the letter to Ephesus ( Eph 6:21f. ) and the one to Colossae
( Col 4:7f. ) was a companion of Onesimus ( Col 4:9 ) the bearer
of that to Philemon ( Phm 1:10-12 ). If Paul is a prisoner ( Col
4:3  Eph 6:20  Phm 1:9 ) in Rome, as most scholars hold, and not
in Ephesus as Deissmann and Duncan argue, the probable date would
be A.D. 63. I still believe that Paul is in Rome when he sends
out these epistles. If so, the time would be after the arrival in
Rome from Jerusalem as told in  Ac 28  and before the burning of
Rome by Nero in A.D. 64. If Philippians was already sent, A.D. 63
marks the last probable year for the writing of this group of
letters.

                           THE OCCASION

        The Epistle itself gives it as being due to the arrival
of Epaphras from Colossae ( Col 1:7-9  4:12f. ). He is probably
one of Paul's converts while in Ephesus who in behalf of Paul
( Col 1:7 ) evangelized the Lycus Valley (Colossae, Hierapolis,
Laodicea) where Paul had never been himself ( Col 2:1  4:13-16 ).
Since Paul's departure for Rome, the "grievous wolves" whom he
foresaw in Miletus ( Ac 20:29f. ) had descended upon these
churches and were playing havoc with many and leading them astray
much as new cults today mislead the unwary. These men were later
called Gnostics (see Ignatius) and had a subtle appeal that was
not easy to withstand. The air was full of the mystery cults like
the Eleusinian mysteries, Mithraism, the vogue of Isis, what not.
These new teachers professed new thought with a world-view that
sought to explain everything on the assumption that matter was
essentially evil and that the good God could only touch evil
matter by means of a series of aeons or emanations so far removed
from him as to prevent contamination by God and yet with enough
power to create evil matter. This jejune theory satisfied many
just as today some are content to deny the existence of sin,
disease, death in spite of the evidence of the senses to the
contrary. In his perplexity Epaphras journeyed all the way to
Rome to obtain Paul's help.

                      PURPOSE OF THE EPISTLE

        Epaphras did not come in vain, for Paul was tremendously
stirred by the peril to Christianity from the Gnostics (hoi
gn(9373)tikoi, the knowing ones). He had won his fight for freedom
in Christ against the Judaizers who tried to fasten Jewish
sacramentarianism upon spiritual Christianity. Now there is an
equal danger of the dissipation of vital Christianity in
philosophic speculation. In particular, the peril was keen
concerning the Person of Christ when the Gnostics embraced
Christianity and applied their theory of the universe to him.
They split into factions on the subject of Christ. The Docetic
(from doke(935c), to seem) Gnostics held that Jesus did not have a
real human body, but only a phantom body. He was, in fact, an
aeon and had no real humanity. The Cerinthian (followers of
Cerinthus) Gnostics admitted the humanity of the man Jesus, but
claimed that the Christ was an aeon that came on Jesus at his
baptism in the form of a dove and left him on the Cross so that
only the man Jesus died. At once this heresy sharpened the issue
concerning the Person of Christ already set forth in  Php
2:5-11 . Paul met the issue squarely and powerfully portrayed his
full-length portrait of Jesus Christ as the Son of God and the
Son of Man (both deity and humanity) in opposition to both types
of Gnostics. So then Colossians seems written expressly for our
own day when so many are trying to rob Jesus Christ of his deity.
The Gnostics took varying views of moral issues also as men do
now. There were the ascetics with rigorous rules and the
licentious element that let down all the bars for the flesh while
the spirit communed with God. One cannot understand Colossians
without some knowledge of Gnosticism such as may be obtained in
such books as Angus's _The Mystery-Religions and Christianity_,
Glover's _The Conflict of Religion in the Early Roman Empire_,
Kennedy's St. _Paul and the Mystery-Religions_, Lightfoot's
_Commentary on Colossians_.

                   SOME BOOKS ABOUT COLOSSIANS

        One may note commentaries by T. K. Abbott (_Int. Crit_.
1897), Gross Alexander (1910), Dargan (1887), Dibelius (1912),
Ellicott (1890), Ewald (1905), Griffith-Thomas (1923), Findlay
(1895), Haupt (1903), M. Jones (1923), Lightfoot (1904), Maclaren
(1888), Meinertz (1917), Moule (1900), Mullins (1913), Oltramare
(1891), Peake (1903), Radford (1931), A. T. Robertson (1926),
Rutherford (1908), E. F. Scott (1930), Von Soden (1893), F. B.
Westcott (1914), Williams (1907).


經文:

歌羅西書 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 {Of Christ Jesus} (Christou I(8873)ou). This order in the later
epistles shows that Christos is now regarded as a proper name
and not just a verbal adjective (Anointed One, Messiah). Paul
describes himself because he is unknown to the Colossians, not
because of attack as in  Ga 1:1 . {Timothy} (Timotheos).
Mentioned as in I and II Thess. when in Corinth, II Cor. when in
Macedonia, Phil. and Philemon when in Rome as here.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:2-1:2

註釋:

 {At Colossae} (en Kolossais). The spelling is uncertain,
the MSS. differing in the title (Kolassaeis) and here
(Kolossais). Colossae was a city of Phrygia on the Lycus, the
tributaries of which brought a calcareous deposit of a peculiar
kind that choked up the streams and made arches and fantastic
grottoes. In spite of this there was much fertility in the valley
with two other prosperous cities some ten or twelve miles away
(Hierapolis and Laodicea). "The church at Colossae was the least
important of any to which Paul's epistles were addressed"
(Vincent). But he had no greater message for any church than he
here gives concerning the Person of Christ. There is no more
important message today for modern men.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:3-1:3

註釋:

 {God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ} (	(9369) the(9369) patri
tou kuriou h(886d)(936e) I(8873)ou Christou). Correct text without kai
(and) as in  3:17 , though usually "the God and Father of our
Lord Jesus Christ" ( 2Co 1:3  11:31  Ro 15:6  1Pe 1:3  Re 1:6 ).
In verse  2  we have the only instance in the opening benediction
of an epistle when the name of "Jesus Christ" is not joined with
"God our Father." {Always} (pantote). Amphibolous position
between eucharistoumen (we give thanks) and proseuchomenoi
(praying). Can go with either.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:4-1:4

註釋:

 {Having heard of} (akousantes). Literary plural unless
Timothy is included. Aorist active participle of akou(935c) of
antecedent action to eucharistoumen. Epaphras (verse  8 ) had
told Paul. {Your faith in Jesus Christ} (	(886e) pistin hum(936e) en
I(8873)ou Christ(9369)). See  Eph 1:15  for similar phrase. No article
is needed before en as it is a closely knit phrase and bears
the same sense as the objective genitive in  Ga 2:16  (dia
piste(9373) Christou I(8873)ou, by faith in Christ Jesus). {Which ye
have} (h(886e) echete). Probably genuine (Aleph A C D), though B
omits it and others have the article (	(886e)). There is a real
distinction here between en (sphere or basis) and eis
(direction towards), though they are often identical in idea.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:5-1:5

註釋:

 1Ti
6:19 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ti
6' or engs='1Ti
6'
經文:

歌羅西書 1:6-1:6

註釋:

 {In all the world} (en panti t(9369) kosm(9369)). A legitimate
hyperbole, for the gospel was spreading all over the Roman
Empire. {Is bearing fruit} (estin karpophoroumenon).
Periphrastic present middle indicative of the old compound
karpophore(935c), from karpophoros ( Ac 14:17 ) and that from
karpos and pher(935c). The periphrastic present emphasizes the
continuity of the process. See the active participle
karpophorountes in verse  10 . {Increasing} (auxanomenon).
Periphrastic present middle of auxan(935c). Repeated in verse  10 .
The growing and the fruit-bearing go on simultaneously as always
with Christians (inward growth and outward expression). {Ye heard
and knew} ((886b)ousate kai epegn(9374)e). Definite aorist indicative.
They heard the gospel from Epaphras and at once recognized and
accepted (ingressive second aorist active of epigin(9373)k(935c), to
know fully or in addition). They fully apprehended the grace of
God and should be immune to the shallow vagaries of the Gnostics.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:7-1:7

註釋:

 {Of Epaphras} (apo Epaphr(835c)). "From Epaphras" who is the
source of their knowledge of Christ. {On our behalf} (huper
h(886d)(936e)). Clearly correct (Aleph A B D) and not huper hum(936e) (on
your behalf). In a true sense Epaphras was Paul's messenger to
Colossae.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:8-1:8

註釋:

 {Who also declared} (ho kai d(886c)(9373)as). Articular first
aorist active participle of d(886c)o(935c), old verb, to make manifest.
Epaphras told Paul about their "love in the Spirit," grounded in
the Holy Spirit.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:9-1:9

註釋:

 {That ye may be filled with} (hina pl(8872)(9374)h(8874)e). First
aorist (effective) passive subjunctive of pl(8872)o(935c), to fill full.
{The knowledge of his will} (	(886e) epign(9373)in tou thel(886d)atos
autou). The accusative case is retained with this passive verb.
Epign(9373)is is a _Koin(825f) word (Polybius, Plutarch, etc.) for
additional (epi) or full knowledge. The word is the keynote of
Paul's reply to the conceit of Gnosticism. The cure for these
intellectual upstarts is not ignorance, not obscurantism, but
more knowledge of the will of God. {In all spiritual wisdom and
understanding} (en pas(8869) sophi(8369) kai sunesei pneumatik(8869)). Both
pasei (all) and pneumatik(8869) (spiritual) are to be taken with
both sophi(8369) and sunesei. In  Eph 1:8  Paul uses phron(8873)ei
(from phr(886e), intellect) rather than sunesei (grasp, from
suni(886d)i, to send together). Sunesis is the faculty of
deciding in particular cases while sophia gives the general
principles (Abbott). Paul faces Gnosticism with full front and
wishes the freest use of all one's intellectual powers in
interpreting Christianity. The preacher ought to be the greatest
man in the world for he has to deal with the greatest problems of
life and death.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:10-1:10

註釋:

 {To walk worthily of the Lord} (peripat(8873)ai axi(9373) tou
Kuriou). This aorist active infinitive may express purpose or
result. Certainly this result is the aim of the right knowledge
of God. "The end of all knowledge is conduct" (Lightfoot). See
 1Th 2:12  Php 1:27  Eph 4:1  for a like use of axi(9373) (adverb)
with the genitive. {In the knowledge of God} (	(8869) epign(9373)ei tou
theou). Instrumental case, "by means of the full knowledge of
God." This is the way for fruit-bearing and growth to come. Note
both participles (karpophorountes kai auxanomenoi) together as
in verse  6 . {Unto all pleasing} (eis p(8373)an areskian). In
order to please God in all things ( 1Th 4:1 ). Areskia is late
word from areskeu(935c), to be complaisant (Polybius, Plutarch) and
usually in bad sense (obsequiousness). Only here in N.T., but in
good sense. It occurs in the good sense in the papyri and
inscriptions.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:11-1:11

註釋:

 {Strengthened} (dunamoumenoi). Present passive participle
of late verb dunamo(935c) (from dunamis), to empower, "empowered
with all power." In LXX and papyri and modern Greek. In N.T. only
here and  Heb 11:34  and MSS. in  Eph 6:10  (W H in margin).
{According to the might of his glory} (kata to kratos t(8873) dox(8873)
autou). Kratos is old word for perfect strength (cf. krate(932c)
kratilos). In N.T. it is applied only to God. Here his might is
accompanied by glory (_Shekinah_). {Unto all patience and
longsuffering} (eis p(8373)an hupomon(886e) kai makrothumian). See both
together also in  Jas 5:10f.  2Co 6:4,6  2Ti 3:10 . Hupomon(885c) is
remaining under (hupomen(935c)) difficulties without succumbing,
while makrothumia is the long endurance that does not retaliate
(Trench).

經文:

歌羅西書 1:12-1:12

註釋:

 {Who made us meet} (	(9369) hikan(9373)anti h(886d)(8373)). Or "you"
(hum(8373)). Dative case of the articular participle of hikano(935c),
late verb from hikanos and in N.T. only here and  2Co 3:6 
(which see), "who made us fit or adequate for." {To be partakers}
(eis merida). "For a share in." Old word for share or portion
(from meros) as in  Ac 8:21  16:12  2Co 6:15  (the only other
N.T. examples). {Of the inheritance} (	ou kl(8872)ou). "Of the
lot," "for a share of the lot." Old word. First a pebble or piece
of wood used in casting lots ( Ac 1:26 ), then the allotted
portion or inheritance as here ( Ac 8:21 ). Cf.  Heb 3:7-4:11 .
{In light} (en t(9369) ph(9374)i). Taken with merida (portion)
"situated in the kingdom of light" (Lightfoot).

經文:

歌羅西書 1:13-1:13

註釋:

 {Delivered} (erusato). First aorist middle indicative of

uomai, old verb, to rescue. This appositional relative clause
further describes God the Father's redemptive work and marks the
transition to the wonderful picture of the person and work of
Christ in nature and grace in verses  14-20 , a full and final
answer to the Gnostic depreciation of Jesus Christ by speculative
philosophy and to all modern efforts after a "reduced" picture of
Christ. God rescued us out from (ek) the power (exousias) of
the kingdom of darkness (skotous) in which we were held as
slaves. {Translated} (metest(8873)en). First aorist active
indicative of methist(886d)i and transitive (not intransitive like
second aorist metest(885c)). Old word. See  1Co 13:2 . Changed us
from the kingdom of darkness to the kingdom of light. {Of the Son
of his love} (	ou huiou t(8873) agap(8873) autou). Probably objective
genitive (agap(8873)), the Son who is the object of the Father's
love like agap(8874)os (beloved) in  Mt 3:17 . Others would take it
as describing love as the origin of the Son which is true, but
hardly pertinent here. But Paul here rules out the whole system
of aeons and angels that the Gnostics placed above Christ. It is
Christ's Kingdom in which he is King. He has moral and spiritual
sovereignty.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:14-1:14

註釋:

 {In whom} (en h(9369)). In Christ as in  Eph 1:7 . This great
sentence about Christ carries on by means of three relatives (en
h(9369)  14 , hos  15 , hos  18 ) and repeated personal pronoun
(autos), twice with hoti ( 15,19 ), thrice with kai
( 17,18,20 ), twice alone ( 16,20 ). {Our redemption} (	(886e)
apolutr(9373)in). See on 爹o 3:24| for this great word (_Koin(825f)), a
release on payment of a ransom for slave or debtor ( Heb 9:15 )
as the inscriptions show (Deissmann, _Light, etc._, p. 327). {The
forgiveness of our sins} (	(886e) aphesin t(936e) hamarti(936e)).
Accusative case in apposition with apolutr(9373)in as in  Eph 1:7 
({remission}, sending away, aphesis, after the {redemption}
apolutr(9373)is, buying back). Only here we have hamarti(936e) (sins,
from hamartan(935c), to miss) while in  Eph 1:7  we find
parapt(936d)at(936e) (slips, fallings aside, from parapipt(935c)).

經文:

歌羅西書 1:15-1:15

註釋:

 {The image} (eik(936e)). In predicate and no article. On
eik(936e), see  2Co 4:4  3:18  Ro 8:29  Col 3:10 . Jesus is the
very stamp of God the Father as he was before the Incarnation
( Joh 17:5 ) and is now ( Php 2:5-11  Heb 1:3 ). {Of the
invisible God} (	ou theou tou aoratou). But the one who sees
Jesus has seen God ( Joh 14:9 ). See this verbal adjective (a
privative and hora(935c)) in  Ro 1:20 . {The first born}
(pr(9374)otokos). Predicate adjective again and anarthrous. This
passage is parallel to the Logos passage in  Joh 1:1-18  and to
 Heb 1:1-4  as well as  Php 2:5-11  in which these three writers
(John, author of Hebrews, Paul) give the high conception of the
Person of Christ (both Son of God and Son of Man) found also in
the Synoptic Gospels and even in Q (the Father, the Son). This
word (LXX and N.T.) can no longer be considered purely "Biblical"
(Thayer), since it is found In inscriptions (Deissmann, _Light,
etc._, p. 91) and in the papyri (Moulton and Milligan,
_Vocabulary, etc._). See it already in  Lu 2:7  and Aleph for  Mt
1:25  Ro 8:29 . The use of this word does not show what Arius
argued that Paul regarded Christ as a creature like "all
creation" (p(8373)(8873) ktise(9373), by metonomy the _act_ regarded as
_result_). It is rather the comparative (superlative) force of
pr(9374)os that is used (first-born of all creation) as in  Col
1:18  Ro 8:29  Heb 1:6  12:23  Re 1:5 . Paul is here refuting the
Gnostics who pictured Christ as one of the aeons by placing him
before "all creation" (angels and men). Like eik(936e) we find
pr(9374)otokos in the Alexandrian vocabulary of the Logos
teaching (Philo) as well as in the LXX. Paul takes both words to
help express the deity of Jesus Christ in his relation to the
Father as eik(936e) (Image) and to the universe as pr(9374)otokos
(First-born).

經文:

歌羅西書 1:16-1:16

註釋:

 {All things} (	a panta). The universe as in  Ro 11:35 , a
well-known philosophical phrase. It is repeated at the end of the
verse. {In him were created} (en aut(9369) ektisth(885c)). Paul now
gives the reason (hoti, for) for the primacy of Christ in the
work of creation ( 16f. ). It is the constative aorist passive
indicative ektisth(885c) (from ktiz(935c), old verb, to found, to
create ( Ro 1:25 ). This central activity of Christ in the work
of creation is presented also in  Joh 1:3  Heb 1:2  and is a
complete denial of the Gnostic philosophy. The whole of creative
activity is summed up in Christ including the angels in heaven
and everything on earth. God wrought through "the Son of his
love." All earthly dignities are included. {Have been created}
(ektistai). Perfect passive indicative of ktiz(935c), "stand
created," "remain created." The permanence of the universe rests,
then, on Christ far more than on gravity. It is a Christo-centric
universe. {Through him} (di' autou). As the intermediate and
sustaining agent. He had already used en aut(9369) (in him) as the
sphere of activity. {And unto him} (kai eis auton). This is the
only remaining step to take and Paul takes it ( 1Co 15:28 ) See
 Eph 1:10  for similar use of en aut(9369) of Christ and in  Col
1:19  20  again we have en aut(9369), di' autou, eis auton used of
Christ. See  Heb 2:10  for di' hon (because of whom) and di'
hou (by means of whom) applied to God concerning the universe
(	a panta). In  Ro 11:35  we find ex autou kai di' autou kai
eis auton ta panta referring to God. But Paul does not use ex
in this connection of Christ, but only en, dia, and eis.
See the same distinction preserved in  1Co 8:6  (ex of God,
dia, of Christ).

經文:

歌羅西書 1:17-1:17

註釋:

 {Before all things} (pro pant(936e)). Pro with the ablative
case. This phrase makes Paul's meaning plain. The precedence of
Christ in time and the preeminence as Creator are both stated
sharply. See the claim of Jesus to eternal timeless existence in
 Joh 8:58  17:5 . See also  Re 23:13  where Christ calls himself
the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning (arch(885c)) and the End
(	elos). Paul states it also in  2Co 8:9  Php 2:6f . {Consist}
(sunest(886b)en). Perfect active indicative (intransitive) of
sunist(886d)i, old verb, to place together and here to cohere, to
hold together. The word repeats the statements in verse  16 ,
especially that in the form ektistai. Christ is the controlling
and unifying force in nature. The Gnostic philosophy that matter
is evil and was created by a remote aeon is thus swept away. The
Son of God's love is the Creator and the Sustainer of the
universe which is not evil.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:18-1:18

註釋:

 {The head of the body} (h(8820)kephal(8820)tou s(936d)atos). Jesus is
first also in the spiritual realm as he is in nature (verses
 18-20 ). Paul is fond of the metaphor of the body (s(936d)a) for
believers of which body Christ is the head (kephal(885c)) as seen
already in  1Co 11:3  12:12,27  Ro 12:5 . See further Col 1:24:
2:19 Eph 1:22f.  4:2,15  5:30 . {The church} (	(8873) ekkl(8873)ias)
Genitive case in explanatory apposition with 	ou s(936d)atos. This
is the general sense of ekkl(8873)ia, not of a local body,
assembly, or organization. Here the contrast is between the realm
of nature (	a panta) in verses  15-17  and the realm of spirit
or grace in verses  18-20 . A like general sense of ekkl(8873)ia
occurs in  Eph 1:22f.  5:24-32  Heb 12:23 . In  Eph 2:11-22  Paul
uses various figures for the kingdom of Christ (commonwealth
politeia, verse  12 , one new man eis hena kainon anthr(9370)on,
verse  15 , one body en heni s(936d)ati, verse  16 , family of God
oikeioi tou theou, verse  19 , building or temple oikodom(885c)
and 
aos, verses  20-22 ). {Who} (hos). Causal use of the
relative, "in that he is." {The beginning} (h(8820)arch(885c)). It is
uncertain if the article (h(885c)) is genuine. It is absolute
without it. Christ has priority in time and in power. See  Re
3:14  for his relation as arch(885c) to creation and  1Co 15:20,23 
for aparch(885c) used of Christ and the resurrection and  Ac 3:14 
for arch(8867)os used of him as the author of life and  Heb 2:10 
of Jesus and salvation and  Heb 12-2  of Jesus as the pioneer of
faith. {That in all things he might have the preeminence} (hina
gen(8874)ai en p(8373)in autos pr(9374)eu(936e)). Purpose clause with hina and
the second aorist middle subjunctive of ginomai, "that he
himself in all things (material and spiritual) may come to
(gen(8874)ai, not (8869), be) hold the first place" (pr(9374)eu(936e),
present active participle of pr(9374)eu(935c), old verb, to hold the
first place, here only in the N.T.). Christ is first with Paul in
time and in rank. See  Re 1:5  for this same use of pr(9374)otokos
with 	(936e) nekr(936e) (the dead).

經文:

歌羅西書 1:19-1:19

註釋:

 {For it was the good pleasure of the Father} (hoti
eudok(8873)en). No word in the Greek for "the Father," though the
verb calls for either ho theos or ho pat(8872) as the subject.
This verb eudoke(935c) is common in the N.T. for God's will and
pleasure ( Mt 3:17  1Co 10:5 ). {All the fulness} (p(836e) to
pl(8872)(936d)a). The same idea as in  2:9  p(836e) to pl(8872)(936d)a t(8873)
theot(8874)os (all the fulness of the Godhead). "A recognized
technical term in theology, denoting the totality of the Divine
powers and attributes" (Lightfoot). It is an old word from
pl(8872)o(935c), to fill full, used in various senses as in  Mr 8:20  of
the baskets,  Ga 4:10  of time, etc. The Gnostics distributed the
divine powers among various aeons. Paul gathers them all up in
Christ, a full and flat statement of the deity of Christ. {Should
dwell} (katoik(8873)ai). First aorist active infinitive of
katoike(935c), to make abode or home. All the divine attributes are
at home in Christ (en aut(9369)).

經文:

歌羅西書 1:20-1:20

註釋:

 {Through him} (di' autou). As the sufficient and chosen
agent in the work of reconciliation (apokatallaxai, first
aorist active infinitive of apokatallass(935c), further addition to
eudok(8873)en, was pleased). This double compound (apo, kata with
allass(935c)) occurs only here, verse  22  Eph 2:16 , and nowhere
else so far as known. Paul's usual word for "reconcile" is
katallass(935c) ( 2Co 5:18-20  Ro 5:10 ), though diallass(935c) ( Mt
5:24 ) is more common in Attic. The addition of apo here is
clearly for the idea of complete reconciliation. See on 氧Co
5:18-20| for discussion of katallass(935c), Paul's great word. The
use of 	a panta (the all things, the universe) as if the
universe were somehow out of harmony reminds us of the mystical
passage in  Ro 8:19-23  which see for discussion. Sin somehow has
put the universe out of joint. Christ will set it right. {Unto
himself} (eis auton). Unto God, though auton is not reflexive
unless written hauton. {Having made peace} (eir(886e)opoi(8873)as).
Late and rare compound ( Pr 10:10  and here only in N.T.) from
eir(886e)opoios, peacemaker ( Mt 5:9 ; here only in N.T.). In  Eph
2:15  we have poi(936e) eir(886e)(886e) (separate words) {making peace}.
Not the masculine gender, though agreeing with the idea of Christ
involved even if pl(8872)(936d)a be taken as the subject of
eudok(8873)en, a participial anacoluthon (construction according to
sense as in  2:19 ). If 	heos be taken as the subject of
eudok(8873)en the participle eir(886e)opoi(8873)as refers to Christ, not
to 	heos (God). {Through the blood of his cross} (dia tou
haimatos tou staurou autou). This for the benefit of the Docetic
Gnostics who denied the real humanity of Jesus and as clearly
stating the _causa medians_ (Ellicott) of the work of
reconciliation to be the Cross of Christ, a doctrine needed
today. {Or things in the heavens} (eite ta en tois ouranois).
Much needless trouble has been made over this phrase as if things
in heaven were not exactly right. It is rather a hypothetical
statement like verse  16  not put in categorical form (Abbott),
_universitas rerum_ (Ellicott).

經文:

歌羅西書 1:21-1:21

註釋:

 {And you} (kai hum(8373)). Accusative case in a rather loose
sentence, to be explained as the object of the infinitive
parast(8873)ai in verse  22  (note repeated hum(8373) there) or as
the anticipated object of apokat(886c)laxen if that be the genuine
form in verse  22 . It can be the accusative of general reference
followed by anacoluthon. See similar idiom in  Eph 2:1,12 .
{Being in time past alienated} (pote ontas ap(886c)lotri(936d)enous).
Periphrastic perfect passive participle (continuing state of
alienation) of apallotrio(935c), old word from Plato on, to
estrange, to render allotrios (belonging to another), alienated
from God, a vivid picture of heathenism as in  Ro 1:20-23 . Only
other N.T. examples in  Eph 2:12  4:18 . Enemies (exthrous).
Old word from echthos (hatred). Active sense here, {hostile} as
in  Mt 13:28  Ro 8:7 , not passive {hateful} ( Ro 11:28 ). {In
your mind} (	(8869) dianoi(8369)). Locative case. Dianoia (dia,
nous), mind, intent, purpose. Old word. It is always a tragedy
to see men use their minds actively against God. {In your evil
works} (en tois ergois tois pon(8872)ois). Hostile purpose finds
natural expression in evil deeds.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:22-1:22

註釋:

 {Yet now} (
uni de). Sharpened contrast with emphatic form
of 
un, "now" being not at the present moment, but in the
present order of things in the new dispensation of grace in
Christ. {Hath he reconciled} (apokat(886c)laxen). First aorist
(effective, timeless) active indicative (a sort of parenthetical
anacoluthon). Here B reads apokatallag(8874)e, be ye reconciled
like katallag(8874)e in  2Co 5:20  while D has apokatallagentes.
Lightfoot prefers to follow B here (the hard reading), though
Westcott and Hort only put it in the margin. On the word see
verse  20 . {In the body of his flesh} (en t(9369) s(936d)ati t(8873) sarkos
autou). See the same combination in  2:11  though in  Eph 2:14 
only sarki (flesh). Apparently Paul combines both s(936d)a and
sarx to make plain the actual humanity of Jesus against
incipient Docetic Gnostics who denied it. {Through death} (dia
tou thanatou). The reconciliation was accomplished by means of
Christ's death on the cross (verse  20 ) and not just by the
Incarnation (the body of his flesh) in which the death took
place. {To present} (parast(8873)ai). First aorist active
(transitive) infinitive (of purpose) of parist(886d)i, old verb, to
place beside in many connections. See it used of presenting Paul
and the letter from Lysias to Felix ( Ac 23:33 ). Repeated in
 Col 2:28 . See also  2Co 11:2  2Co 4:14 . Paul has the same idea
of his responsibility in rendering an account for those under his
influence seen in  Heb 13:17 . See  Ro 12:1  for use of living
sacrifice. {Holy} (hagious). Positively consecrated, separated
unto God. Common in N.T. for believers. Haupt holds that all
these terms have a religious and forensic sense here. {Without
blemish} (am(936d)ous). Without spot ( Php 2:15 ). Old word a
privative and m(936d)os (blemish). Common in the LXX for ceremonial
purifications. {Unreproveable} (anegkl(8874)ous). Old verbal
adjective from a privative and egkale(935c), to call to account,
to pick flaws in. These three adjectives give a marvellous
picture of complete purity (positive and negative, internal and
external). This is Paul's ideal when he presents the Colossians
"before him" (katen(9370)ion autou), right down in the eye of
Christ the Judge of all.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:23-1:23

註釋:

 {If so be that ye continue in the faith} (ei ge epimenete
t(8869) pistei). Condition of the first class (determined as
fulfilled), with a touch of eagerness in the use of ge (at
least). Epi adds to the force of the linear action of the
present tense (continue and then some). {Pistei} is in the
locative case (in faith). {Grounded} (	ethemeli(936d)enoi). Perfect
passive participle of 	hemelio(935c), old verb from 	hemelios
(adjective, from 	hema from 	ith(886d)i, laid down as a
foundation, substantive,  1Co 3:11f. ). Picture of the saint as a
building like  Eph 2:20 . {Steadfast} (hedraioi). Old adjective
from hedra (seat). In N.T. only here,  1Co 7:37  15:58 .
Metaphor of seated in a chair. {Not moved away} (m(880a)metakinoumenoi). Present passive participle (with negative m(885c))
of metakine(935c), old verb, to move away, to change location, only
here in N.T. Negative statement covering the same ground. {From
the hope of the gospel} (apo t(8873) elpidos tou euaggeliou).
Ablative case with apo. The hope given by or in the gospel and
there alone. {Which ye heard} (hou (886b)ousate). Genitive case of
relative either by attraction or after (886b)ousate. The Colossians
had in reality heard the gospel from Epaphras. {Preached}
(k(8872)uchthentos). First aorist passive participle of k(8872)uss(935c),
to herald, to proclaim. {In all creation} (en pas(8869) ktisei).
Ktisis is the act of founding ( Ro 1:20 ) from ktiz(935c) (verse
 16 ), then a created thing ( Ro 1:25 ), then the sum of created
things as here and  Re 3:14 . It is hyperbole, to be sure, but
Paul does not say that all men are converted, but only that the
message has been heralded abroad over the Roman Empire in a wider
fashion than most people imagine. {A minister} (diakonos).
General term for service (dia, konis, raising a dust by speed)
and used often as here of preachers like our "minister" today,
one who serves. Jesus used the verb diakon(8873)ai of himself ( Mr
10:45 ). Our "deacon" is this word transliterated and given a
technical meaning as in  Php 1:1 .

經文:

歌羅西書 1:24-1:24

註釋:

 2Co
11:16-33 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
11' or engs='2Co
11'
經文:

歌羅西書 1:25-1:25

註釋:

 {According to the dispensation of God} (kata t(886e) oikonomian
tou theou). "According to the economy of God." An old word from
oikonome(935c), to be a house steward (oikos, nem(935c)) as in  Lu
16:2-4  1Co 9:17  Eph 1:9  3:9 . It was by God's stewardship that
Paul was made a minister of Christ. {To fulfil the word of God}
(pl(8872)(9373)ai ton logon tou theou). First aorist active infinitive
of purpose (pl(8872)o(935c)), a fine phrase for a God-called preacher,
to fill full or to give full scope to the Word of God. The
preacher is an expert on the word of God by profession. See
Paul's ideal about preaching in  2Th 3:1 .

經文:

歌羅西書 1:26-1:26

註釋:

 {The mystery} (	o must(8872)ion). See on  1Co 2:7  for this
interesting word from must(8873) (initiate), from mue(935c), to wink,
to blink. The Gnostics talked much of "mysteries." Paul takes
their very word (already in common use,  Mt 13:11 ) and uses it
for the gospel. {Which hath been hid} (	o apokekrummenon).
Perfect passive articular participle from apokrupt(935c), old verb,
to hide, to conceal from ( 1Co 2:7  Eph 3:9 ). {But now it hath
been manifested} (
un de ephaner(9374)h(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative of phanero(935c), to make manifest (phaneros). The
construction is suddenly changed (anacoluthon) from the
participle to the finite verb.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:27-1:27

註釋:

 {God was pleased} ((8874)hel(8873)en ho theos). First aorist
active indicative of 	hel(935c), to will, to wish. "God willed" this
change from hidden mystery to manifestation. {To make known}
(gn(9372)isai). First aorist active infinitive of gn(9372)iz(935c) (from
gin(9373)k(935c)). Among the Gentiles (en tois ethnesin). This is the
crowning wonder to Paul that God had included the Gentiles in his
redemptive grace, "the riches of the glory of this mystery" (	o
ploutos t(8873) dox(8873) tou must(8872)iou toutou) and that Paul himself
has been made the minister of this grace among the Gentiles ( Eph
3:1-2 ). He feels the high honour keenly and meets the
responsibility humbly. {Which} (ho). Grammatical gender
(neuter) agreeing with must(8872)iou (mystery), supported by A B P
Vulg., though hos (who) agreeing with Christos in the
predicate is read by Aleph C D L. At any rate the idea is simply
that the personal aspect of "this mystery" is "Christ in you the
hope of glory" (Christos en humin h(8820)elpis t(8873) dox(8873)). He is
addressing Gentiles, but the idea of en here is in, not among.
It is the personal experience and presence of Christ in the
individual life of all believers that Paul has in mind, the
indwelling Christ in the heart as in  Eph 3:17 . He constitutes
also the hope of glory for he is the Shekinah of God. Christ is
our hope now ( 1Ti 1:1 ) and the consummation will come ( Ro
8:18 ).

經文:

歌羅西書 1:28-1:28

註釋:

 {Whom} (hon). That is, "Christ in you, the hope of glory."
{We proclaim} (kataggellomen). Paul, Timothy and all
like-minded preachers against the Gnostic depreciation of Christ.
This verb originally (Xenophon) meant to denounce, but in N.T. it
means to announce (aggell(935c)) throughout (kata), to proclaim
far and wide ( Ac 13:5 ). {Admonishing} (
outhetountes). Old
verb from 
outhet(8873), admonisher (from 
ous, tith(886d)i). See
already  Ac 20:31  1Th 5:12,14  2Th 3:15 , etc. Warning about
practice and teaching (didaskontes) about doctrine. Such
teaching calls for "all wisdom" {Every man} (panta anthr(9370)on).
Repeated three times. "In opposition to the doctrine of an
intellectual exclusiveness taught by the false teachers"
(Abbott). {That we may present} (hina parast(8873)(936d)en). Final use
of hina and first aorist active subjunctive of parist(886d)i, for
which see  1:22 , the final presentation to Christ. {Perfect}
(	eleion). Spiritual adults in Christ, no longer babes in
Christ ( Heb 5:14 ), mature and ripened Christians ( 4:22 ), the
full-grown man in Christ ( Eph 4:13 ). The relatively perfect
( Php 3:15 ) will on that day of the presentation be fully
developed as here ( Col 4:12  Eph 4:13 ). The Gnostics used
	eleios of the one fully initiated into their mysteries and it
is quite possible that Paul here has also a sidewise reference to
their use of the term.

經文:

歌羅西書 1:29-1:29

註釋:

 {Whereunto} (eis ho). That is "to present every man
perfect in Christ." {I labour also} (kai kopi(935c)). Late verb
kopia(935c), from kopos (toil), to grow weary from toil ( Mt
11:28 ), to toil on ( Php 2:16 ), sometimes for athletic
training. In papyri. {Striving} (ag(936e)izomenos). Present middle
participle of common verb ag(936e)izomai (from ag(936e), contest, as
in  2:1 ), to contend in athletic games, to agonize, a favourite
metaphor with Paul who is now a prisoner. {Working}
(energeian). Our word "energy." Late word from energ(8873) (en,
ergon), efficiency (at work). Play on the word here with the
present passive participle of energe(932c) energoumen(886e) (energy
energized) as in  Eph 1:19f . Paul was conscious of God's
"energy" at work in him "mightily" (en dunamei), "in power"
like dynamite.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:1-2:1

註釋:

 {How greatly I strive} (h(886c)ikon ag(936e)a ech(935c)). Literally,
"how great a contest I am having." The old adjectival relative
h(886c)ikos (like Latin _quantus_) is used for age or size in N.T.
only here and  Jas 3:5  (twice, how great, how small). It is an
inward contest of anxiety like the merimna for all the churches
( 2Co 11:28 ). Ag(936e)a carries on the metaphor of ag(936e)izomenos
in  1:29 . {For them at Laodicea} (	(936e) en Laodiki(8369)). {Supply}
huper as with huper hum(936e). Paul's concern extended beyond
Colossae to Laodicea ( 4:16 ) and to Hierapolis ( 4:13 ), the
three great cities in the Lycus Valley where Gnosticism was
beginning to do harm. Laodicea is the church described as
lukewarm in  Re 3:14 . {For as many as have not seen my face}
(hosoi ouch heorakan to pros(9370)on mou). The phrase undoubtedly
includes Hierapolis ( 4:13 ), and a few late MSS. actually insert
it here. Lightfoot suggests that Hierapolis had not yet been
harmed by the Gnostics as much as Colossae and Laodicea. Perhaps
so, but the language includes all in that whole region who have
not seen Paul's face in the flesh (that is, in person, and not in
picture). How precious a real picture of Paul would be to us
today. The antecedent to hosoi is not expressed and it would be
	out(936e) after huper. The form heorakan (perfect active
indicative of hora(935c) instead of the usual he(9372)akasin has two
peculiarities o in Paul's Epistles ( 1Co 9:1 ) instead of (935c)
(see  Joh 1:18  for he(9372)aken) and -an by analogy in place of
-asin, which short form is common in the papyri. See  Lu 9:36 
he(9372)akan.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:2-2:2

註釋:

 {May be comforted} (parakl(8874)h(9373)in). First aorist passive
subjunctive of parakale(935c) (for which see  2Co 1:3-7 ) in final
clause with hina. {Being knit together} (sunbibasthentes).
First aorist passive participle of sunbibaz(935c), old verb, causal
of ain(935c), to make go together, to coalesce in argument ( Ac
16:10 ), in spiritual growth ( Col 2:19 ), in love as here. Love
is the sundesmos ( 3:14 ) that binds all together. {Unto all
riches} (eis pan ploutos). Probably some distinction intended
between en (in love as the sphere) and eis (unto as the
goal). {Of the full assurance of understanding} (	(8873)
pl(8872)ophorias t(8873) sunese(9373)). On pl(8872)ophoria, see  1Th 1:5 .
From pl(8872)ophore(935c) (see  Lu 1:1 ) and only in N.T. ( 1Th 1:5  Col
2:2  Heb 6:11  10:22 ), Clement of Rome (_Cor_. 42) and one
papyrus example. Paul desires the full use of the intellect in
grasping the great mystery of Christ and it calls for the full
and balanced exercise of all one's mental powers. {That they may
know} (eis epign(9373)in). "Unto full knowledge." This use of
epign(9373)is (full, additional knowledge) is Paul's reply to the
Gnostics with the limited and perverted gn(9373)is (knowledge).
{The mystery of God, even Christ} (	ou must(8872)iou tou theou,
Christou). The MSS. differ widely here, but this is Westcott and
Hort's reading. Genitive (objective) with epign(9373)in and
Christou in apposition. Christ is "the mystery of God," but no
longer hidden, but manifested ( 1:26 ) and meant for us to know
to the fulness of our capacity.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:3-2:3

註釋:

 {In whom} (en h(9369)). This locative form can refer to
must(8872)iou or to Christou. It really makes no difference in
sense since Christ is the mystery of God. {All the treasures of
wisdom and knowledge} (pantes hoi th(8873)auroi t(8873) sophias kai
gn(9373)e(9373)). See on 烘t 2:11; 6:19-21| for this old word, our
thesaurus, for coffer, storehouse, treasure. Paul confronts these
pretentious intellectuals (Gnostics) with the bold claim that
Christ sums up all wisdom and knowledge. These treasures are
hidden (apokruphoi, old adjective from apokrupt(935c), to hide
away,  Mr 4:22 ) whether the Gnostics have discovered them or
not. They are there (in Christ) as every believer knows by fresh
and repeated discovery.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:4-2:4

註釋:

 {This I say} (	outo leg(935c)). Paul explains why he has made
this great claim for Christ at this point in his discussion. {May
delude} (paralogiz(8874)ai). Present middle subjunctive of
paralogizomai, old verb, only here in N.T., from para and
logizomai, to count aside and so wrong, to cheat by false
reckoning, to deceive by false reasoning (Epictetus). {With
persuasiveness of speech} (en pithanologi(8369)). Rare word (Plato)
from pithanos and logos, speech, adapted to persuade, then
speciously leading astray. Only here in N.T. One papyrus example.
The art of persuasion is the height of oratory, but it easily
degenerates into trickery and momentary and flashy deceit such as
Paul disclaimed in  1Co 2:4  (ouk en pithois sophias logois)
where he uses the very adjective pithos (persuasive) of which
pithanos (both from peith(935c)) is another form. It is curious
how winning champions of error, like the Gnostics and modern
faddists, can be with plausibility that catches the gullible.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:5-2:5

註釋:

 1Pe
5:9 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Pe
5' or engs='1Pe
5'
經文:

歌羅西書 2:6-2:6

註釋:

 {As therefore ye received} (h(9373) oun parelabete). Second
aorist active indicative of paralamban(935c) in same sense as in
 1Th 4:1  Php 4:9  (both manthan(935c) and paralamban(935c)) that is
like manthan(935c), to learn ( 1:7 ), from Epaphras and others.
{Christ Jesus the Lord} (	on Christon I(8873)oun ton Kurion). This
peculiar phrase occurs nowhere else by Paul. We have often ho
Christos (the Christ or Messiah) as in  Php 1:15 , I(8873)ous
Christos (Jesus Christ), Christos I(8873)ous (Christ Jesus), ho
Kurios I(8873)ous (the Lord Jesus, very often), but nowhere else ho
Christos I(8873)ous and I(8873)ous ho Kurios. Hence it is plain that
Paul here meets the two forms of Gnostic heresy about the Person
of Christ (the recognition of the historical Jesus in his actual
humanity against the Docetic Gnostics, the identity of the Christ
or Messiah with this historical Jesus against the Cerinthian
Gnostics, and the acknowledgment of him as Lord). "As therefore
ye received the Christ (the Messiah), Jesus the Lord." Ye were
taught right. {Walk in him} (en aut(9369) peripateite). "Go on
walking in him" (present active indicative of peripate(935c)). Stick
to your first lessons in Christ.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:7-2:7

註釋:

 {Rooted} (erriz(936d)enoi). Perfect passive participle of old
verb 
izo(935c) from 
iza, root. In N.T. only here and  Eph 3:17 .
Paul changes the figure from walk to growing tree. {Builded up in
him} (epoikodomoumenoi en aut(9369)). Present passive participle
(rooted to stay so) of epoikodome(935c), old verb, to build upon as
in  1Co 3:10,12 . The metaphor is changed again to a building as
continually going up (present tense). {Stablished}
(ebaioumenoi). Present passive participle of ebaio(935c), old
verb from ebaios (from ain(932c) bai(935c)), to make firm or stable.
{In your faith} (	(8869) pistei). Locative case, though the
instrumental case, {by your faith}, makes good sense also. {Even
as ye were taught} (kath(9373) edidachth(8874)e). First aorist passive
indicative of didask(935c), an allusion to parelabete in verse  6 
and to emathete in  1:7 . {In thanksgiving} (en
eucharisti(8369)). Hence they had no occasion to yield to the
blandishments of the Gnostic teachers.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:8-2:8

註釋:

 {Take heed} (lepete). Present active imperative second
person plural of lep(935c), common verb for warning like our "look
out," "beware," "see to it." {Lest there shall be any one} (m(880a)tis estai). Negative purpose with the future indicative, though
the aorist subjunctive also occurs as in  2Co 12:6 . {That maketh
spoil of you} (ho sulag(9367)(936e)). Articular present active
participle of sulag(9367)e(935c), late and rare (found here first) verb
(from sul(885c), booty, and ag(935c), to lead, to carry), to carry off
as booty a captive, slave, maiden. Only here in N.T. Note the
singular here. There was some one outstanding leader who was
doing most of the damage in leading the people astray. {Through
his philosophy} (dia t(8873) philosophias). The only use of the
word in the N.T. and employed by Paul because the Gnostics were
fond of it. Old word from philosophos (philos, sophos, one
devoted to the pursuit of wisdom) and in N.T. only in  Ac 17:18 .
Paul does not condemn knowledge and wisdom (see verse  2 ), but
only this false philosophy, "knowledge falsely named"
(pseud(936e)umos gn(9373)is,  1Ti 6:20 ), and explained here by the
next words. {And vain deceit} (kai ken(8873) apat(8873)). Old word for
trick, guile, like riches ( Mt 13:22 ). Descriptive of the
philosophy of the Gnostics. {Tradition} (paradosin). Old word
from paradid(936d)i, a giving over, a passing on. The word is
colourless in itself. The tradition may be good ( 2Th 2:15  3:6 )
or bad ( Mr 7:3 ). Here it is worthless and harmful, merely the
foolish theories of the Gnostics. {Rudiments} (stoicheia). Old
word for anything in a stoichos (row, series) like the letters
of the alphabet, the materials of the universe ( 2Pe 3:10,12 ),
elementary teaching ( Heb 5:12 ), elements of Jewish ceremonial
training ( Ac 15:10  Gal 4:3,9 ), the specious arguments of the
Gnostic philosophers as here with all their aeons and rules of
life. {And not after Christ} (kai ou kata Christon). Christ is
the yardstick by which to measure philosophy and all phases of
human knowledge. The Gnostics were measuring Christ by their
philosophy as many men are doing today. They have it backwards.
Christ is the measure for all human knowledge since he is the
Creator and the Sustainer of the universe.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:9-2:9

註釋:

 {For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily}
(hoti en aut(9369) katoikei p(836e) to pl(8872)(936d)a t(8873) theot(8874)os
s(936d)atik(9373)). In this sentence, given as the reason (hoti,
because) for the preceding claim for Christ as the measure of
human knowledge Paul states the heart of his message about the
Person of Christ. There dwells (at home) in Christ not one or
more aspects of the Godhead (the very essence of God, from
	heos, deitas) and not to be confused with 	heiotes in  Ro
1:20  (from 	heios, the {quality} of God, _divinitas_), here
only in N.T. as 	heiot(8873) only in  Ro 1:20 . The distinction is
observed in Lucian and Plutarch. Theiot(8873) occurs in the papyri
and inscriptions. Paul here asserts that "all the pl(8872)(936d)a of
the Godhead," not just certain aspects, dwells in Christ and in
bodily form (s(936d)atik(9373), late and rare adverb, in Plutarch,
inscription, here only in N.T.), dwells now in Christ in his
glorified humanity ( Php 2:9-11 ), "the body of his glory" (	(9369)
s(936d)ati t(8873) dox(8873)). The fulness of the God-head was in Christ
before the Incarnation ( Joh 1:1,18  Php 2:6 ), during the
Incarnation ( Joh 1:14,18  1Jo 1:1-3 ). It was the Son of God who
came in the likeness of men ( Php 2:7 ). Paul here disposes of
the Docetic theory that Jesus had no human body as well as the
Cerinthian separation between the man Jesus and the aeon Christ.
He asserts plainly the deity and the humanity of Jesus Christ in
corporeal form.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:10-2:10

註釋:

 {Ye are made full} (este pepl(8872)(936d)enoi). Periphrastic
perfect passive indicative of pl(8872)o(935c), but only one predicate,
not two. Christ is our fulness of which we all partake ( Joh
1:16  Eph 1:23 ) and our goal is to be made full of God in Christ
( Eph 3:19 ). "In Christ they find the satisfaction of every
spiritual want" (Peake). {The head} (h(8820)kaphal(885c)). There is no
other place for Christ. He is first ( 1:18 ) in time and in rank.
All rule and authority comes after Christ whether angels, aeons,
kings, what not.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:11-2:11

註釋:

 {Ye were also circumcised} (kai perietm(8874)h(8874)e). First
aorist passive indicative of peritemn(935c), to circumcise. But used
here as a metaphor in a spiritual sense as in  Ro 2:29  "the
circumcision of the heart." {Not made with hands}
(acheiropoi(8874)(9369)). This late and rare negative compound verbal
occurs only in the N.T. ( Mr 14:58  2Co 5:1  Col 2:11 ) by merely
adding a privative to the old verbal cheiropoi(8874)os ( Ac 7:48  Eph 2:11 ), possibly first in  Mr 14:58  where both words occur
concerning the temple. In  2Co 5:1  the reference is to the
resurrection body. The feminine form of this compound adjective
is the same as the masculine. {In the putting off} (en t(8869)
apekdusei). As if an old garment (the fleshly body). From
apekduomai ( Col 2:15 , possibly also coined by Paul) and
occurring nowhere else so far as known. The word is made in a
perfectly normal way by the perfective use of the two Greek
prepositions (apo, ek), "a resource available for and generally
used by any real thinker writing Greek" (Moulton and Milligan,
_Vocabulary_). Paul had as much right to mint a Greek compound as
any one and surely no one ever had more ideas to express and more
power in doing it. {Of Christ} (	ou Christou). Specifying
genitive, the kind of circumcision that belongs to Christ, that
of the heart.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:12-2:12

註釋:

 {Having been buried with him in baptism} (suntaphentes
aut(9369) en t(9369) baptismati). Second aorist passive participle of
sunthapt(935c), old word, in N.T. only here and  Ro 6:4 , followed
by associative instrumental case (aut(9369)). Thayer's Lexicon
says: "For all who in the rite of baptism are plunged under the
water, thereby declare that they put faith in the expiatory death
of Christ for the pardon of their past sins." Yes, and for all
future sins also. This word gives Paul's vivid picture of baptism
as a symbolic burial with Christ and resurrection also to newness
of life in him as Paul shows by the addition "wherein ye were
also raised with him" (en h(9369) kai sun(8867)erth(8874)e). "In which
baptism" (aptismati, he means). First aorist passive
indicative of sunegeir(935c), late and rare verb (Plutarch for
waking up together), in LXX, in N.T. only in  Col 2:12  3:1  Eph
2:6 . In the symbol of baptism the resurrection to new life in
Christ is pictured with an allusion to Christ's own resurrection
and to our final resurrection. Paul does not mean to say that the
new life in Christ is caused or created by the act of baptism.
That is grossly to misunderstand him. The Gnostics and the
Judaizers were sacramentalists, but not so Paul the champion of
spiritual Christianity. He has just given the spiritual
interpretation to circumcision which itself followed Abraham's
faith ( Ro 4:10-12 ). Cf.  Ga 3:27 . Baptism gives a picture of
the change already wrought in the heart "through faith" (dia t(8873)
piste(9373)). {In the working of God} (	(8873) energeias tou theou).
Objective genitive after piste(9373). See  1:29  for energeia.
God had power to raise Christ from the dead (	ou egeirantos,
first aorist active participle of egeir(935c), the fact here stated)
and he has power (energy) to give us new life in Christ by faith.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:13-2:13

註釋:

 {And you} (kai humas). Emphatic position, object of the
verb sunez(936f)poi(8873)en (did he quicken) and repeated (second
hum(8373)). You Gentiles as he explains. {Being dead through your
trespasses} (
ekrous ontas tois parapt(936d)asin). Moral death, of
course, as in  Ro 6:11  Eph 2:1,5 . Correct text does not have
en, but even so parapt(936d)asin (from parapipt(935c), to fall
beside or to lapse,  Heb 6:6 ), a lapse or misstep as in  Mt
6:14  Ro 5:15-18  Ga 6:1 , can be still in the locative, though
the instrumental makes good sense also. {And the uncircumcision
of your flesh} (kai t(8869) akrobousti(8369) t(8873) sarkos hum(936e)). "Dead
in your trespasses and your alienation from God, of which the
uncircumcision of your flesh was a symbol" (Abbott). Clearly so,
"the uncircumcision" used merely in a metaphorical sense. {Did he
quicken together with him} (sunez(936f)poi(8873)en sun aut(9369)). First
aorist active indicative of the double compound verb
sunz(936f)poie(935c), to make alive (z(936f)s, poie(935c)) with (sun,
repeated also with aut(9369), associative instrumental), found only
here and in  Eph 2:5 , apparently coined by Paul for this
passage. Probably 	heos (God) is the subject because expressly
so stated in  Eph 2:4f.  and because demanded by sun aut(9369) here
referring to Christ. This can be true even if Christ be the
subject of (8872)ken in verse  14 . {Having forgiven us}
(charisamenos h(886d)in). First aorist middle participle of
charizomai, common verb from charis (favour, grace). Dative
of the person common as in  3:13 . The act of forgiving is
simultaneous with the quickening, though logically antecedent.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:14-2:14

註釋:

 {Having blotted out} (exaleipsas). And so "cancelled."
First aorist active participle of old verb exaleiph(935c), to rub
out, wipe off, erase. In N.T. only in  Ac 3:19  (LXX);  Re 3:5  Col 2:14 . Here the word explains charisamenos and is
simultaneous with it. Plato used it of blotting out a writing.
Often MSS. were rubbed or scraped and written over again
(palimpsests, like Codex C). {The bond written in ordinances that
was against us} (	o kath' h(886d)(936e) cheirographon tois dogmasin).
The late compound cheirographon (cheir, hand, graph(935c)) is
very common in the papyri for a certificate of debt or bond, many
of the original cheirographa (handwriting, "chirography"). See
Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 247. The signature made a legal
debt or bond as Paul says in  Phm 1:18f. : "I Paul have written
it with mine own hand, I will repay it." Many of the papyri
examples have been "crossed out" thus X as we do today and so
cancelled. One decree is described as "neither washed out nor
written over" (Milligan, N. T. _Documents_,  p. 16). Undoubtedly
"the handwriting in decrees" (dogmasin, the Mosaic law,  Eph
2:15 ) was against the Jews ( Ex 24:3  De 27:14-26 ) for they
accepted it, but the Gentiles also gave moral assent to God's law
written in their hearts ( Ro 2:14f. ). So Paul says "against us"
(kath' h(886d)(936e)) and adds "which was contrary to us" (ho (886e)
hupenantion h(886d)in) because we (neither Jew nor Gentile) could
not keep it. Hupenantios is an old double compound adjective
(hupo, en, antios) set over against, only here in N.T. except
 Heb 10:27  when it is used as a substantive. It is striking that
Paul has connected the common word cheirographon for bond or
debt with the Cross of Christ (Deissmann, _Light, etc._, p. 332).
{And he hath taken it out of the way} (kai (8872)ken ek tou mesou).
Perfect active indicative of air(935c), old and common verb, to lift
up, to bear, to take away. The word used by the Baptist of Jesus
as "the Lamb of God that bears away (air(936e)) the sin of the
world" ( Joh 1:29 ). The perfect tense emphasizes the permanence
of the removal of the bond which has been paid and cancelled and
cannot be presented again. Lightfoot argues for Christ as the
subject of (8872)ken, but that is not necessary, though Paul does
use sudden anacolutha. God has taken the bond against us "out of
the midst" (ek tou mesou). Nailing it to the cross (pros(886c)(9373)as
auto t(9369) staur(9369)). First aorist active participle of old and
common verb pros(886c)o(935c), to fasten with nails to a thing (with
dative staur(9369)). Here alone in N.T., but in III Macc. 4:9 with
the very word staur(9369). The victim was nailed to the cross as
was Christ. "When Christ was crucified, God nailed the Law to His
cross" (Peake). Hence the "bond" is cancelled for us. Business
men today sometimes file cancelled accounts. No evidence exists
that Paul alluded to such a custom here.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:15-2:15

註釋:

 {Having put off from himself} (apekdusamenos). Only here
and  3:9  and one MS. of Josephus (apekdus). Both apodu(935c) and
ekdu(935c) occur in ancient writers. Paul simply combines the two
for expression of complete removal. But two serious problems
arise here. Is God or Christ referred to by apekdusamenos? What
is meant by "the principalities and the powers" (	as archas kai
tas exousias)? Modern scholars differ radically and no full
discussion can be attempted here as one finds in Lightfoot,
Haupt, Abbott, Peake. On the whole I am inclined to look on God
as still the subject and the powers to be angels such as the
Gnostics worshipped and the verb to mean "despoil" (American
Standard Version) rather than "having put off from himself." In
the Cross of Christ God showed his power openly without aid or
help of angels. {He made a show of them} (edeigmatisen). First
aorist active indicative of deigmatiz(935c), late and rare verb from
deigma ( Jude 1:7 ), an example, and so to make an example of.
Frequent in the papyri though later than paradeigmatiz(935c) and in
N.T. only here and  Mt 1:19  of Joseph's conduct toward Mary. No
idea of disgrace is necessarily involved in the word. The
publicity is made plain by "openly" (en parr(8873)i(8369)). {Triumphing
over them on it} (	hriambeusas autous en aut(9369)). On the Cross
the triumph was won. This late, though common verb in _Koin(825f)
writers (ekthriambeu(935c) in the papyri) occurs only twice in the
N.T., once "to lead in triumph" ( 2Co 2:14 ), here to celebrate a
triumph (the usual sense). It is derived from 	hriambos, a hymn
sung in festal procession and is kin to the Latin _triumphus_
(our triumph), a triumphal procession of victorious Roman
generals. God won a complete triumph over all the angelic
agencies (autous, masculine regarded as personal agencies).
Lightfoot adds, applying 	hriambeusas to Christ: "The convict's
gibbet is the victor's car." It is possible, of course, to take
aut(9369) as referring to cheirographon (bond) or even to Christ.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:16-2:16

註釋:

 {Let no one judge you} (m(8820)tis humas krinet(935c)). Prohibition
present active imperative third singular, forbidding the habit of
passing judgment in such matters. For krin(935c) see on 烘t 7:1|.
Paul has here in mind the ascetic regulations and practices of
one wing of the Gnostics (possibly Essenic or even Pharisaic
influence). He makes a plea for freedom in such matters on a par
with that in  1Co 8-9  Ro 14  15 . The Essenes went far beyond
the Mosaic regulations. For the Jewish feasts see on 涊a 4:10|.
Josephus (_Ant_. III. 10, 1) expressly explains the "seventh day"
as called "_sabbata_" (plural form as here, an effort to
transliterate the Aramaic _sabbathah_).

經文:

歌羅西書 2:17-2:17

註釋:

 {A shadow} (skia). Old word, opposed to substance (s(936d)a,
body). In  Heb 10:1  skia is distinguished from eik(936e)
(picture), but here from s(936d)a (body, substance). The s(936d)a
(body) casts the skia (shadow) and so belongs to Christ
(Christou, genitive case).

經文:

歌羅西書 2:18-2:18

註釋:

 {Rob you of your prize} (katabrabeuet(935c)). Late and rare
compound (kata, brabeu(935c),  Col 3:15 ) to act as umpire against
one, perhaps because of bribery in Demosthenes and Eustathius
(two other examples in Preisigke's _Worterbuch_), here only in
the N.T. So here it means to decide or give judgment against. The
judge at the games is called rabeus and the prize rabeion
( 1Co 9:24  Php 3:14 ). It is thus parallel to, but stronger
than, krinet(935c) in verse  16 . {By a voluntary humility} (	hel(936e)
en tapeinophrosun(8869)). Present active participle of 	hel(935c), to
wish, to will, but a difficult idiom. Some take it as like an
adverb for "wilfully" somewhat like 	helontas in  2Pe 3:5 .
Others make it a Hebraism from the LXX usage, "finding pleasure
in humility." The Revised Version margin has "of his own mere
will, by humility." Hort suggested en ethelotapeinophrosun(8869)
(in gratuitous humility), a word that occurs in Basil and made
like ethelothr(8873)kia in verse  23 . {And worshipping of the
angels} (kai thr(8873)kei(8369) t(936e) aggel(936e)). In  3:12  humility
(	apeinophrosun(886e)) is a virtue, but it is linked with worship
of the angels which is idolatry and so is probably false humility
as in verse  23 . They may have argued for angel worship on the
plea that God is high and far removed and so took angels as
mediators as some men do today with angels and saints in place of
Christ. {Dwelling in the things which he hath seen} (ha heoraken
embateu(936e)). Some MSS. have "not," but not genuine. This verb
embateu(935c) (from embat(8873), stepping in, going in) has given much
trouble. Lightfoot has actually proposed kenembateu(936e) (a verb
that does not exist, though kenembate(935c) does occur) with
ai(9372)a, to tread on empty air, an ingenious suggestion, but now
unnecessary. It is an old word for going in to take possession
(papyri examples also). W. M. Ramsay (_Teaching of Paul_, pp.
287ff.) shows from inscriptions in Klaros that the word is used
of an initiate in the mysteries who "set foot in" (enebateusen)
and performed the rest of the rites. Paul is here quoting the
very work used of these initiates who "take their stand on" these
imagined revelations in the mysteries. {Vainly puffed up} (eik(8869)
phusioumenos). Present passive participle of phusio(935c), late and
vivid verb from phusa, pair of bellows, in N.T. only here and
 1Co 4:6,18f.  8:1 . Powerful picture of the self-conceit of
these bombastic Gnostics.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:19-2:19

註釋:

 {Not holding fast the Head} (ou krat(936e) t(886e) kephal(886e)). Note
negative ou, not m(885c), actual case of deserting Christ as the
Head. The Gnostics dethroned Christ from his primacy ( 1:18 ) and
placed him below a long line of aeons or angels. They did it with
words of praise for Christ as those do now who teach Christ as
only the noblest of men. The headship of Christ is the keynote of
this Epistle to the Colossians and the heart of Paul's
Christology. {From whom} (ex hou). Masculine ablative rather
than ex h(8873) (kephal(8873)) because Christ is the Head. He
develops the figure of the body of which Christ is Head
( 1:18,24 ). {Being supplied} (epichor(8867)oumenon). Present
passive participle (continuous action) of epichor(8867)e(935c), for
which interesting verb see already  2Co 9:10  Ga 3:5  and further
 2Pe 1:5 . {Knit together} (sunbibazomenon). Present passive
participle also (continuous action) of sunbibaz(935c), for which see
 Col 2:2 . {Through the joints} (dia t(936e) haph(936e)). Late word
haph(885c) (from hapt(935c), to fasten together), connections
(_junctura_ and _nexus_ in the Vulgate). {And bonds} (kai
sundesm(936e)). Old word from sunde(935c), to bind together. Aristotle
and Galen use it of the human body. Both words picture well the
wonderful unity in the body by cells, muscles, arteries, veins,
nerves, skin, glands, etc. It is a marvellous machine working
together under the direction of the head. {Increaseth with the
increase of God} (auxei t(886e) aux(8873)in tou theou). Cognate
accusative (aux(8873)in) with the old verb auxei.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:20-2:20

註釋:

 {If ye died} (ei apethanete). Condition of the first
class, assumed as true, ei and second aorist active indicative
of apothn(8873)k(935c), to die. He is alluding to the picture of burial
in baptism ( 2:12 ). {From the rudiments of the world} (apo t(936e)
stoichei(936e) tou kosmou). See  2:8 . {As though living in the
world} (h(9373) z(936e)tes en kosm(9369)). Concessive use of the participle
with h(9373). The picture is that of baptism, having come out (F.
B. Meyer) on the other side of the grave, we are not to act as
though we had not done so. We are in the Land of Beulah. {Why do
ye subject yourselves to ordinances?} (	i dogmatizesthe?). Late
and rare verb (three examples in inscriptions and often in LXX)
made from dogma, decree or ordinance. Here it makes good sense
either as middle or passive. In either case they are to blame
since the bond of decrees ( 2:14 ) was removed on the Cross of
Christ. Paul still has in mind the rules of the ascetic wing of
the Gnostics ( 2:16ff. ).

經文:

歌羅西書 2:21-2:21

註釋:

 {Handle not, nor taste, nor touch} (m(8820)haps(8869) m(8864)e geus(8869)
m(8864)e thig(8869)s). Specimens of Gnostic rules. The Essenes took the
Mosaic regulations and carried them much further and the
Pharisees demanded ceremonially clean hands for all food. Later
ascetics (the Latin commentators Ambrose, Hilary, Pelagius)
regard these prohibitions as Paul's own instead of those of the
Gnostics condemned by him. Even today men are finding that the
noble prohibition law needs enlightened instruction to make it
effective. That is true of all law. The Pharisees, Essenes,
Gnostics made piety hinge on outward observances and rules
instead of inward conviction and principle. These three verbs are
all in the aorist subjunctive second person singular with m(885c), a
prohibition against handling or touching these forbidden things.
Two of them do not differ greatly in meaning. Haps(8869) is aorist
middle subjunctive of hapt(935c), to fasten to, middle, to cling to,
to handle. Thig(8869)s is second aorist active subjunctive of
	higgan(935c), old verb, to touch, to handle. In N.T. only here and
 Heb 11:28  12:20 . Geus(8869) is second aorist middle subjunctive
of geu(935c), to give taste of, only middle in N.T. to taste as
here.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:22-2:22

註釋:

 {Are to perish with the using} (estin eis phthoran t(8869)
apochr(8873)ei). Literally, "are for perishing in the using."
Phthora (from phtheir(935c)) is old word for decay, decomposition.
Apochr(8873)is (from apochraomai, to use to the full, to use up),
late and rare word (in Plutarch), here only in N.T. Either
locative case here or instrumental. These material things all
perish in the use of them.

經文:

歌羅西書 2:23-2:23

註釋:

 {Which things} (hatina). "Which very things," these
ascetic regulations. {Have indeed a show of wisdom} (estin logon
men echonta sophias). Periphrastic present indicative with
estin in the singular, but present indicative echonta in the
plural (hatina). Logon sophias is probably "the repute of
wisdom" (Abbott) like Plato and Herodotus. Men (in deed) has no
corresponding de. {In will-worship} (en ethelothr(8873)ki(8369)).
This word occurs nowhere else and was probably coined by Paul
after the pattern of ethelodouleia, to describe the voluntary
worship of angels (see  2:18 ). {And humility} (kai
tapeinophrosun(8869)). Clearly here the bad sense, "in mock
humility." {And severity to the body} (kai apheidi(8369) s(936d)atos).
Old word (Plato) from apheid(8873), unsparing (a privative,
pheidomai, to spare). Here alone in N.T. Ascetics often
practice flagellations and other hardnesses to the body. {Not of
any value} (ouk en tim(8869) tini). Tim(885c) usually means honour or
price. {Against the indulgence of the flesh} (pros pl(8873)mon(886e) t(8873)
sarkos). These words are sharply debated along with 	im(885c) just
before. It is not unusual for pros to be found in the sense of
"against" rather than "with" or "for." See pros in sense of
{against} in  3:13  Eph 6:11f.  2Co 5:12  1Co 6:1 . Pl(8873)mon(885c) is
an old word from pimpl(886d)i, to fill and means satiety. It occurs
here only in the N.T. Peake is inclined to agree with Hort and
Haupt that there is a primitive corruption here. But the
translation in the Revised Version is possible and it is true
that mere rules do not carry us very far in human conduct as
every father or mother knows, though we must have some
regulations in family and state and church. But they are not
enough of themselves.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:1-3:1

註釋:

 {If then ye were raised together with Christ} (ei oun
sun(8867)erth(8874)e t(9369) Christ(9369)). Condition of the first class,
assumed as true, like that in  2:20  and the other half of the
picture of baptism in  2:12  and using the same form
sun(8867)erth(8874)e as then which see for the verb sunegeir(935c).
Associative instrumental case of Christ(9369). {The things that are
above} (	a an(935c)). "The upward things" (cf.  Php 3:14 ), the
treasure in heaven ( Mt 6:20 ). Paul gives this ideal and goal in
place of merely ascetic rules. {Seated on the right hand of God}
(en dexi(8369) tou theou kath(886d)enos). Not periphrastic verb, but
additional statement. Christ is up there and at God's right hand.
Cf.  2:3 .

經文:

歌羅西書 3:2-3:2

註釋:

 {Set your mind on} (phroneite). "Keep on thinking about."
It does matter what we think and we are responsible for our
thoughts. {Not on the things that are upon the earth} (m(8820)ta epi
t(8873) g(8873)). Paul does not mean that we should never think the
things upon the earth, but that these should not be our aim, our
goal, our master. The Christian has to keep his feet upon the
earth, but his head in the heavens. He must be heavenly-minded
here on earth and so help to make earth like heaven.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:3-3:3

註釋:

 {For ye died} (apethanete gar). Definite event, aorist
active indicative, died to sin ( Ro 6:2 ). {Is hid}
(kekruptai). Perfect passive indicative of krupt(935c), old verb,
to hide, remains concealed, locked "together with" (sun)
Christ, "in" (en) God. No hellish burglar can break that
combination.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:4-3:4

註釋:

 {When Christ shall be manifested} (hotan ho Christos
phaner(9374)h(8869)). Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and the
first aorist passive subjunctive of phanero(935c), "whenever Christ
is manifested," a reference to the second coming of Christ as
looked for and longed for, but wholly uncertain as to time. See
this same verb used of the second coming in  1Jo 3:2 . {Ye also
together with him} (kai humeis sun aut(9369)). That is the joy of
this blessed hope. He repeats the verb about us
phaner(9374)h(8873)esthe (future passive indicative) and adds en
dox(8869) (in glory). Not to respond to this high appeal is to be
like Bunyan's man with the muck-rake.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:5-3:5

註釋:

 {Mortify} (
ekr(9373)ate). First aorist active imperative of

ekro(935c), late verb, to put to death, to treat as dead. Latin
Vulgate _mortifico_, but "mortify" is coming with us to mean
putrify. Paul boldly applies the metaphor of death ( 2:20  3:3 )
pictured in baptism ( 2:12 ) to the actual life of the Christian.
He is not to go to the other Gnostic extreme of license on the
plea that the soul is not affected by the deeds of the body.
Paul's idea is that the body is the temple of the Holy Spirit
( 1Co 6:19 ). He mentions some of these "members upon the earth"
like fornication (porneian), uncleanness (akatharsian),
passion (pathos), evil desire (epithumian kak(886e)),
covetousness (pleonexian) "the which is idolatry" (h(8874)is estin
eid(936c)olatria). See the longer list of the works of the flesh in
 Gal 5:19-21 , though covetousness is not there named, but it is
in  Eph 4:19  5:5 .

經文:

歌羅西書 3:6-3:6

註釋:

 {Cometh the wrath of God} (erchetai h(8820)org(8820)tou theou).
Paul does not regard these sins of the flesh as matters of
indifference, far otherwise. Many old MSS. do not have "upon the
sons of disobedience," genuine words in  Eph 5:6 .

經文:

歌羅西書 3:7-3:7

註釋:

 {Walked aforetime} (periepat(8873)ate pote). First aorist
(constative) indicative referring to their previous pagan state.
{When ye lived} (hote ez(8874)e). Imperfect active indicative of
za(935c), to live, "ye used to live" (customary action). Sharp
distinction in the tenses.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:8-3:8

註釋:

 {But now} (
uni de). Emphatic form of 
un in decided
contrast (to pote in verse  7 ) in the resurrection life of
 2:12  3:1 . {Put ye also away} (apothesthe kai humeis). Second
aorist middle imperative of old verb apotith(886d)i, to put away,
lay aside like old clothes. This metaphor of clothing Paul now
uses with several verbs (apothesthe here, apekdusamenoi in
verse  9 , endusamenoi in verse  10 , endusasthe in verse
 12 ). {All these} (	a panta). The whole bunch of filthy rags
(anger org(886e), wrath 	humon, malice kakian, railing
lasph(886d)ian, shameful speaking aischrologian). See somewhat
similar lists of vices in  Col 3:5  Ga 5:20  Eph 4:29-31 . These
words have all been discussed except aischrologian, an old word
for low and obscene speech which occurs here only in the N.T. It
is made from aischrologos (aischros as in  1Co 11:6  and that
from aischos, disgrace). Note also the addition of "out of your
mouth" (ek tou stomatos hum(936e)). The word was used for both
abusive and filthy talk and Lightfoot combines both ideas as
often happens. Such language should never come out of the mouth
of a Christian living the new life in Christ.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:9-3:9

註釋:

 {Lie not to another} (m(8820)pseudesthe eis all(886c)ous). Lying
(pseudos) could have been included in the preceding list where
it belongs in reality. But it is put more pointedly thus in the
prohibition (m(885c) and the present middle imperative). It means
either "stop lying" or "do not have the habit of lying." {Seeing
that ye have put off} (apekdusamenoi). First aorist middle
participle (causal sense of the circumstantial participle) of the
double compound verb apekduomai, for which see  2:15 . The
apo has the perfective sense (wholly), "having stripped clean
off." The same metaphor as apothesthe in verse  8 . {The old
man} (	on palaion anthr(9370)on). Here Paul brings in another
metaphor (mixes his metaphors as he often does), that of the old
life of sin regarded as "the ancient man" of sin already
crucified ( Ro 6:6 ) and dropped now once and for all as a mode
of life (aorist tense). See same figure in  Eph 4:22 . Palaios
is ancient in contrast with 
eos (young, new) as in  Mt 9:17 
or kainos (fresh, unused) as in  Mt 13:52 . {With his doings}
(sun tais praxesin autou). Practice must square with
profession.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:10-3:10

註釋:

 {And have put on} (kai endusamenoi). First aorist middle
participle (in causal sense as before) of endun(935c), old and
common verb (Latin _induo_, English endue) for putting on a
garment. Used of putting on Christ ( Ga 3:27  Ro 13:14 ). {The
new man} (	on neon). "The new (young as opposed to old
palaion) man" (though anthr(9370)on is not here expressed, but
understood from the preceding phrase). In  Eph 4:24  Paul has
endusasthai ton kainon (fresh as opposed to worn out)
anthr(9370)on. {Which is being renewed} (	on anakainoumenon).
Present passive articular participle of anakaino(935c). Paul
apparently coined this word on the analogy of ananeomai.
Anakainiz(935c) already existed ( Heb 6:6 ). Paul also uses
anakain(9373)is ( Ro 12:2  Tit 3:5 ) found nowhere before him. By
this word Paul adds the meaning of kainos to that of 
eos
just before. It is a continual refreshment (kainos) of the new
(
eos, young) man in Christ Jesus. {Unto knowledge} (eis
epign(9373)in). "Unto full (additional) knowledge," one of the
keywords in this Epistle. {After the image} (kat' eikona). An
allusion to  Ge 1:26,28 . The restoration of the image of God in
us is gradual and progressive ( 2Co 3:18 ), but will be complete
in the final result ( Ro 8:29  1Jo 3:2 ).

經文:

歌羅西書 3:11-3:11

註釋:

 {Where} (hopou). In this "new man" in Christ. Cf.  Ga
3:28 . {There cannot be} (ouk eni). Eni is the long
(original) form of en and estin is to be understood. "There
does not exist." This is the ideal which is still a long way
ahead of modern Christians as the Great War proved. Race
distinctions (Greek Hell(886e) and Jew Ioudaios) disappear in
Christ and in the new man in Christ. The Jews looked on all
others as Greeks (Gentiles). Circumcision (peritom(885c)) and
uncircumcision (akrobustia) put the Jewish picture with the
cleavage made plainer (cf.  Eph 2 ). The Greeks and Romans
regarded all others as barbarians (arbaroi,  Ro 1:14 ), users
of outlandish jargon or gibberish, onomatopoetic repetition
(ar-bar). {A Scythian} (Skuth(8873)) was simply the climax of
barbarity, _bar-baris barbariores_ (Bengel), used for any rough
person like our "Goths and Vandals." {Bondman} (doulos, from
de(935c), to bind), {freeman} (eleutheros, from erchomai, to
go). Class distinctions vanish in Christ. In the Christian
churches were found slaves, freedmen, freemen, masters. Perhaps
Paul has Philemon and Onesimus in mind. But labour and capital
still furnish a problem for modern Christianity. {But Christ is
all} (alla panta Christos). Demosthenes and Lucian use the
neuter plural to describe persons as Paul does here of Christ.
The plural panta is more inclusive than the singular p(836e)
would be. {And in all} (kai en p(8373)in). Locative plural and
neuter also. "Christ occupies the whole sphere of human life and
permeates all its developments" (Lightfoot). Christ has
obliterated the words barbarian, master, slave, all of them and
has substituted the word adelphos (brother).

經文:

歌羅西書 3:12-3:12

註釋:

 {Put on therefore} (endusasthe oun). First aorist middle
imperative of endun(935c) (verse  10 ). He explains and applies
(oun therefore) the figure of "the new man" as "the new
garment." {As God's elect} (h(9373) eklektoi tou theou). Same
phrase in  Ro 8:33  Tit 1:1 . In the Gospels a distinction exists
between kl(8874)os and eklektos ( Mt 24:22,24,31 ), but no
distinction appears in Paul's writings. Here further described as
"holy and beloved" (hagioi kai (8867)ap(886d)enoi). The items in the
new clothing for the new man in Christ Paul now gives in contrast
with what was put off ( 3:8 ). The garments include a heart of
compassion (splagchna oiktirmou, the nobler _viscera_ as the
seat of emotion as in  Lu 1:78  Php 1:8 ), kindness
(chr(8873)tot(8874)a, as in  Ga 5:22 ), humility (	apeinophrosun(886e),
in the good sense as in  Php 2:3 ), meekness (praut(8874)a, in  Ga
5:23  and in  Eph 4:2  also with 	apeinophrosun(885c)),
long-suffering (makrothumian, in  Ga 5:22  Col 1:11  Jas
5:10 ).

經文:

歌羅西書 3:13-3:13

註釋:

 {Forbearing one another} (anechomenoi all(886c)(936e)). Present
middle (direct) participle of anech(935c) with the ablative case
(all(886c)(936e)), "holding yourselves back from one another."
{Forgiving each other} (charizomenoi heautois). Present middle
participle also of charizomai with the dative case of the
reflexive pronoun (heautois) instead of the reciprocal just
before (all(886c)(936e)). {If any man have} (ean tis ech(8869)). Third
class condition (ean and present active subjunctive of ech(935c)).
{Complaint} (momph(886e)). Old word from memphomai, to blame.
Only here in N.T. Note pros here with 	ina in the sense of
against for comparison with pros in  2:31 . {Even as the Lord}
(kath(9373) kai ho Kurios). Some MSS. read Christos for Kurios.
But Christ's forgiveness of us is here made the reason for our
forgiveness of others. See  Mt 6:12,14f.  where our forgiveness
of others is made by Jesus a prerequisite to our obtaining
forgiveness from God.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:14-3:14

註釋:

 {And above all these things} (epi p(8373)in de toutois). "And
upon all these things." {Put on love} (	(886e) agap(886e)). See  Lu
3:20 . The verb has to be supplied (endusasthe) from verse  12 
as the accusative case agap(886e) shows. {Which is} (ho estin).
Neuter singular of the relative and not feminine like agap(885c)
(the antecedent) nor masculine like sundesmos in the predicate.
However, there are similar examples of ho estin in the sense of
_quod est_ (_id est_), "that is," in  Mr 14:42  15:42 , without
agreement in gender and number. So also  Eph 5:5  where ho
estin = "which thing." {The bond of perfectness} (sundesmos t(8873)
teleiot(8874)os). See  2:19  for sundesmos. Here it is apparently
the girdle that holds the various garments together. The genitive
(	eleiot(8874)os) is probably that of apposition with the girdle of
love. In a succinct way Paul has here put the idea about love set
forth so wonderfully in  1Co 13 .

經文:

歌羅西書 3:15-3:15

註釋:

 {The peace of Christ} (h(8820)eir(886e)(8820)tou Christou). The peace
that Christ gives ( Joh 14:27 ). {Rule} (rabeuet(935c)). Imperative
active third singular of rabeu(935c), to act as umpire (rabeus),
old verb, here alone in N.T. See  1Co 7:15  for called in peace.
{In one body} (en heni s(936d)ati). With one Head (Christ) as in
 1:18,24 . {Be ye thankful} (eucharistoi ginesthe). "Keep on
becoming thankful." Continuous obligation.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:16-3:16

註釋:

 {The word of Christ} (ho logos tou Christou). This precise
phrase only here, though "the word of the Lord" in  1Th 1:8  4:15  2Th 3:1 . Elsewhere "the word of God." Paul is exalting
Christ in this Epistle. Christou can be either the subjective
genitive (the word delivered by Christ) or the objective genitive
(the word about Christ). See  1Jo 2:14 . {Dwell} (enoikeit(935c)).
Present active imperative of enoike(935c), to make one's home, to be
at home. {In you} (en humin). Not "among you." {Richly}
(plousi(9373)). Old adverb from plousios (rich). See  1Ti 6:17 .
The following words explain plousi(9373). {In all wisdom} (en
pas(8869) sophi(8369)). It is not clear whether this phrase goes with
plousi(9373) (richly) or with the participles following
(didaskontes kai nouthetountes, see  1:28 ). Either punctuation
makes good sense. The older Greek MSS. had no punctuation. There
is an anacoluthon here. The participles may be used as
imperatives as in  Ro 12:11f.,16 . {With psalms} (psalmois, the
Psalms in the Old Testament originally with musical
accompaniment), {hymns} (humnois, praises to God composed by
the Christians like  1Ti 3:16 ), {spiritual songs} ((9369)dais
pneumatikais, general description of all whether with or without
instrumental accompaniment). The same song can have all three
words applied to it. {Singing with grace} (en chariti
(8369)dontes). In God's grace ( 2Co 1:12 ). The phrase can be taken
with the preceding words. The verb (8369)d(935c) is an old one ( Eph
5:19 ) for lyrical emotion in a devout soul. {In your hearts}
(en tais kardiais hum(936e)). Without this there is no real worship
"to God" (	(9369) the(9369)). How can a Jew or Unitarian in the choir
lead in the worship of Christ as Saviour? Whether with instrument
or with voice or with both it is all for naught if the adoration
is not in the heart.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:17-3:17

註釋:

 {Whatsoever ye do} (p(836e) hoti ean poi(8874)e). Indefinite
relative (everything whatever) with ean and the present active
subjunctive, a common idiom in such clauses. {Do all} (panta).
The imperative poieite has to be supplied from poi(8874)e in the
relative clause. Panta is repeated from p(836e) (singular), but
in the plural (all things). P(836e) is left as a nominative
absolute as in  Mt 10:32  Lu 12:10 . This is a sort of Golden
Rule for Christians "in the name of the Lord Jesus" (en onomati
Kuriou I(8873)ou), in the spirit of the Lord Jesus ( Eph 5:20 ).
What follows (directions to the various groups) is in this same
vein. Sociological problems have always existed. Paul puts his
finger on the sore spot in each group with unerring skill like a
true diagnostician.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:18-3:18

註釋:

 {Wives} (kai gunaikes). The article here distinguishes
class from class and with the vocative case can be best rendered
"Ye wives." So with each group. {Be in subjection to your
husbands} (hupotassesthe tois andrasin). "Own" (idiois) is
genuine in  Eph 5:22 , but not here. The verb hupotassomai has
a military air, common in the _Koin(825f) for such obedience.
Obedience in government is essential as the same word shows in
 Ro 13:1,5 . {As is fitting in the Lord} (h(9373) an(886b)en en
Kuri(9369)). This is an idiomatic use of the imperfect indicative
with verbs of propriety in present time (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
919). Wives have rights and privileges, but recognition of the
husband's leadership is essential to a well-ordered home, only
the assumption is that the husband has a head and a wise one.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:19-3:19

註釋:

 {Love your wives} (agap(8374)e tas gunaikas). Present active
imperative, "keep on loving." That is precisely the point. {Be
not bitter} (m(8820)pikrainesthe). Present middle imperative in
prohibition: "Stop being bitter" or "do not have the habit of
being bitter." This is the sin of husbands. Pikrain(935c) is an old
verb from pikros (bitter). In N.T. only here and  Re 8:11  10:9f . The bitter word rankles in the soul.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:20-3:20

註釋:

 {Obey your parents} (hupakouete tois goneusin). Old verb
to listen under (as looking up), to hearken, to heed, to obey.
{In all things} (kata panta). This is the hard part for the
child, not occasional obedience, but continual. Surely a
Christian father or mother will not make unreasonable or unjust
demands of the child. Nowhere does modern civilization show more
weakness than just here. Waves of lawlessness sweep over the
world because the child was not taught to obey. Again Paul argues
that this is "in the Lord" (en Kuri(9369)).

經文:

歌羅西書 3:21-3:21

註釋:

 {Provoke not} (m(8820)erethizete). Present imperative of old
verb from ereth(935c), to excite. Only twice in N.T., here in bad
sense, in good sense in  2Co 9:2  (to stimulate). Here it means
to nag and as a habit (present tense). {That they be not
discouraged} (hina m(8820)athum(9373)in). Negative purpose (hina m(885c))
with the present subjunctive (continued discouragement) of
athume(935c), old verb, but only here in N.T., from athumos
(dispirited, a privative, 	humos, spirit or courage). One
does not have to read _Jane Eyre_ or _Oliver Twist_ to know
something of the sorrows of childhood as is witnessed by runaway
children and even child suicides.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:22-3:22

註釋:

 {Your masters according to the flesh} (	ois kata sarka
kuriois). "Lords" really, but these Christian slaves (douloi)
had Christ as lord, but even so they were to obey their lords in
the flesh. {Not with eye-service} (m(8820)en ophthalmodouliais).
Another Pauline word (here only and  Eph 6:6 ), elsewhere only in
Christian writers after Paul, an easy and expressive compound,
service while the master's eye was on the slave and no longer.
{Men-pleasers} (anthr(9370)areskoi). Late compound only in LXX and
Paul (here and  Eph 6:6 ). {In singleness of heart} (en
haplot(8874)i kardias). So in  Eph 6:5 . Old and expressive word
from haplous (simple, without folds). See  2Co 11:3 . {Fearing
the Lord} (phoboumenoi ton Kurion). Rather than the lords
according to the flesh.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:23-3:23

註釋:

 {Whatsoever ye do} (ho ean poi(8874)e). See same idiom in
 3:17  except ho instead of p(836e) hoti. {Heartily} (ek
psuch(8873)). From the soul and not with mere eye service. In  Eph
6:7  Paul adds met' eunoias (with good will) in explanation of
ek psuch(8873). {As unto the Lord} (h(9373) t(9369) Kuri(9369)). Even when
unto men. This is the highest test of worthwhile service. If it
were only always true!

經文:

歌羅西書 3:24-3:24

註釋:

 {Ye shall receive} (apol(886d)psesthe). Future middle
indicative of apolamban(935c), old verb, to get back (apo), to
recover. {The recompense} (antapodosin). "The full recompense,"
old word, in LXX, but only here in N.T., but antapodoma twice
( Lu 14:12  Ro 11:9 ). Given back (apo) in return (anti). {Ye
serve the Lord Christ} (	o Kuri(9369) Christ(9369) douleuete). As his
slaves and gladly so. Perhaps better as imperatives, keep on
serving.

經文:

歌羅西書 3:25-3:25

註釋:

 {Shall receive again for the wrong that he hath done}
(komisetai ho (8864)ik(8873)en). It is not clear whether ho adik(936e)
(he that doeth wrong) is the master or the slave. It is true of
either and Lightfoot interprets it of both, "shall receive back
the wrong which he did." This is a general law of life and of God
and it is fair and square. {There is no respect of persons} (ouk
estin pros(9370)ol(886d)psia). There is with men, but not with God. For
this word patterned after the Hebrew see  Ro 2:11  Eph 6:9  Jas
2:1  The next verse should be in this chapter also.

經文:

歌羅西書 4:1-4:1

註釋:

 {That which is just and equal} (	o dikaion kai t(886e)
isot(8874)a). Paul changes from 	o ison (like 	o dikaion, neuter
singular adjective with article for abstract idea) to the
abstract substantive isot(8873), old word, in N.T. only here and
 2Co 8:13f . If employers always did this, there would be no
labour problem. {A Master in heaven} (Kurion en ouran(9369)). A
wholesome reminder to the effect that he keeps his eye on the
conduct of masters of men here towards their employees.

經文:

歌羅西書 4:2-4:2

註釋:

 {Continue steadfastly} (proskartereite). See  Mr 3:9  Ac
2:42,46  for this interesting word from pros and karteros
(strong), common in the _Koin(825f). {Watching} (gr(8867)orountes).
Present active participle of gr(8867)ore(935c), late present made on
perfect active stem egr(8867)ora with loss of e-, found first in
Aristotle.

經文:

歌羅西書 4:3-4:3

註釋:

 {Withal} (hama). At the same time. {That God may open}
(hina ho theos anoix(8869)). Common use of hina and the
subjunctive (aorist), the sub-final use so common in the N.T. as
in the _Koin(825f). {A door for the word} (	huran tou logou).
Objective genitive, a door for preaching. It is comforting to
other preachers to see the greatest of all preachers here asking
prayer that he may be set free again to preach. He uses this
figure elsewhere, once of a great and open door with many
adversaries in Ephesus ( 1Co 16:9 ), once of an open door that he
could not enter in Troas ( 2Co 2:12 ). {The mystery of Christ}
(	o must(8872)ion tou Christou). The genitive of apposition, the
mystery which is Christ ( 2:2 ), one that puts out of comparison
the foolish "mysteries" of the Gnostics. {For which I am also in
bonds} (di' ho kai dedemai). Perfect passive indicative of
de(935c). Paul is always conscious of this limitation, this chain.
At bottom he is a prisoner because of his preaching to the
Gentiles.

經文:

歌羅西書 4:4-4:4

註釋:

 {As I ought to speak} (h(9373) dei me lal(8873)ai). Wonderful as
Paul's preaching was to his hearers and seems to us, he was never
satisfied with it. What preacher can be?

經文:

歌羅西書 4:5-4:5

註釋:

 {Toward them that are without} (pros tous ex(935c)). A Pauline
phrase for those outside the churches ( 1Th 5:12  1Co 5:12f. ).
It takes wise walking to win them to Christ. {Redeeming the time}
(	on kairon exagorazomenoi). We all have the same time. Paul
goes into the open market and buys it up by using it rightly. See
the same metaphor in  Eph 5:16 .

經文:

歌羅西書 4:6-4:6

註釋:

 {Seasoned with salt} (halati (8872)tumenos). The same verb
artu(935c) (old verb from air(935c), to fit, to arrange) about salt in
 Mr 9:50  Lu 14:34 . Nowhere else in the N.T. Not too much salt,
not too little. Plutarch uses salt of speech, the wit which
flavours speech (cf. Attic salt). Our word salacious is this same
word degenerated into vulgarity. Grace and salt (wit, sense) make
an ideal combination. Every teacher will sympathize with Paul's
desire "that ye know how ye must answer each one" (eidenai p(9373)
dei humas heni ekast(9369) apokrinesthai). Who does know?

經文:

歌羅西書 4:7-4:7

註釋:

 {All my affairs} (	a kat' eme panta). "All the things
relating to me." The accusative case the object of gn(9372)isei.
The same idiom in  Ac 25:14  Php 1:2 . {Tychicus} (Tuchikos).
Mentioned also in  Eph 6:21  as the bearer of that Epistle and
with the same verb gn(9372)isei (future active of gn(9372)iz(935c)) and
with the same descriptive epithet as here (ho agap(8874)os adelphos
kai pistos diakonos en Kuri(9369), the beloved brother and faithful
minister in the Lord) except that here we have also kai
sundoulos (and fellow-servant). Abbott suggests that Paul adds
sundoulos because he had used it of Epaphras in  1:7 . Perhaps
pistos goes with both substantives and means faithful to Paul
as well as to Christ.

經文:

歌羅西書 4:8-4:8

註釋:

 {I have sent} (epempsa). Epistolary aorist active
indicative of pemp(935c) as in  Eph 6:22 . {That ye may know} (hina
gn(9374)e). Second aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive of
gin(9373)k(935c), "that ye may come to know." This the correct text, not
gn(9369) (third singular). {Our estate} (	a peri h(886d)(936e)). "The
things concerning us." {May comfort} (parakales(8869)). First
aorist active subjunctive. Proper rendering here and not "may
exhort."

經文:

歌羅西書 4:9-4:9

註釋:

 {Together with Onesimus} (sun On(8873)im(9369)). Co-bearer of the
letter with Tychicus and praised on a par with him, runaway slave
though he is. {Who is one of you} (hos estin ex hum(936e)). Said
not as a reproach to Colossae for having such a man, but as a
privilege to the church in Colossae to give a proper welcome to
this returning converted slave and to treat him as a brother as
Paul argues to Philemon.

經文:

歌羅西書 4:10-4:10

註釋:

 {Aristarchus} (Aristarchos). He was from Thessalonica and
accompanied Paul to Jerusalem with the collection ( Ac 19:29  20:4 ) and started with Paul to Rome ( Ac 27:2  Phm 1:24 ).
Whether he has been with Paul all the time in Rome we do not
know, but he is here now. {My fellow-prisoner} (ho
sunaichmal(9374)os mou). One of Paul's compounds, found elsewhere
only in Lucian. Paul uses it of Epaphras in  Phm 1:23 , but
whether of actual voluntary imprisonment or of spiritual
imprisonment like sunstrati(9374)es (fellow-soldier) in  Php 2:25  Phm 1:2  we do not know. Abbott argues for a literal imprisonment
and it is possible that some of Paul's co-workers (sun-ergoi)
voluntarily shared imprisonment with him by turns. {Mark}
(Markos). Once rejected by Paul for his defection in the work
( Ac 15:36-39 ), but now cordially commended because he had made
good again. {The cousin of Barnabas} (ho anepsios Barnab(835c)). It
was used for "nephew" very late, clearly "cousin" here and common
so in the papyri. This kinship explains the interest of Barnabas
in Mark ( Ac 12:25  13:5  15:36-39 ). {If he come unto you,
receive him} (ean elth(8869) pros humas dexasthe auton). This third
class conditional sentence (ean and second aorist active
subjunctive of erchomai) gives the substance of the commands
(entolas) about Mark already sent, how we do not know. But
Paul's commendation of Mark is hearty and unreserved as he does
later in  2Ti 4:11 . The verb dechomai is the usual one for
hospitable reception ( Mt 10:14  Joh 4:45 ) like prosdechomai
( Php 2:29 ) and hupodechomai ( Lu 10:38 ).

經文:

歌羅西書 4:11-4:11

註釋:

 {Jesus which is called Justus} (I(8873)ous ho legomenos
Ioustos). Another illustration of the frequency of the name
Jesus (Joshua). The surname Justus is the Latin _Justus_ for the
Greek Dikaios and the Hebrew _Zadok_ and very common as a
surname among the Jews. The name appears for two others in the
N.T. ( Ac 1:23  18:7 ). {Who are of the circumcision} (hoi ontes
ek peritom(8873)). Jewish Christians certainly, but not necessarily
Judaizers like those so termed in  Ac 11:3  (hoi ek peritom(8873).
Cf.  Ac 35:1,5 ). {These only} (houtoi monoi). "Of the
circumcision" (Jews) he means. {A comfort unto me} (moi
par(8867)oria). Ethical dative of personal interest. Par(8867)oria is
an old word (here only in N.T.) from par(8867)ore(935c), to make an
address) and means solace, relief. A medical term. Curiously
enough our word paregoric comes from it (par(8867)orikos).

經文:

歌羅西書 4:12-4:12

註釋:

 {Epaphras who is one of you} (Epaphr(8373) ho ex hum(936e)). See
 1:7  for previous mention of this brother who had brought Paul
news from Colossae. {Always striving for you} (pantote
ag(936e)izomenos huper h(886d)(936e)). See  1:29  of Paul. {That ye may
stand} (hina stath(8874)e). Final clause, first aorist passive
subjunctive (according to Aleph B) rather than the usual second
aorist active subjunctives (st(8874)e) of hist(886d)i (according to A
C D). {Fully assured} (pepl(8872)ophor(886d)enoi). Perfect passive
participle of pl(8872)ophore(935c), late compound, for which see  Lu
1:1  Ro 14:5 .

經文:

歌羅西書 4:13-4:13

註釋:

 {And for them in Hierapolis} (kai t(936e) en Hier(8369) Polei).
The third of the three cities in the Lycus Valley which had not
seen Paul's face ( 2:1 ). It was across the valley from Laodicea.
Probably Epaphras had evangelized all three cities and all were
in peril from the Gnostics.

經文:

歌羅西書 4:14-4:14

註釋:

 {Luke, the beloved physician} (Loukas ho iatros ho
agap(8874)os). Mentioned also in  Phm 1:24  2Ti 4:11 . The author of
the Gospel and the Acts. Both Mark and Luke are with Paul at this
time, possibly also with copies of their Gospels with them. The
article here (repeated) may mean "my beloved physician." It would
seem certain that Luke looked after Paul's health and that Paul
loved him. Paul was Luke's hero, but it was not a one-sided
affection. It is beautiful to see preacher and physician warm
friends in the community. {Demas} (D(886d)as). Just his name here
(a contraction of Demetrius), but in  2Ti 4:10  he is mentioned
as one who deserted Paul.

經文:

歌羅西書 4:15-4:15

註釋:

 {Nymphas} (Numphan). That is masculine, if autou (his)
is genuine (D E K L) after kat' oikon, but Numpha (feminine)
if aut(8873) (her) is read (B 67). Aleph A C P read aut(936e)
(their), perhaps including adelphous (brethren) and so locating
this church (ekkl(8873)ia) in Laodicea. It was not till the third
century that separate buildings were used for church worship. See
 Ro 16:5  for Prisca and Aquila. It is not possible to tell
whether it is "her" or "his" house here.

經文:

歌羅西書 4:16-4:16

註釋:

 {When this epistle hath been read among you} (hotan
anagn(9373)th(8869) par' humin h(8820)epistol(885c)). Indefinite temporal clause
with hotan (hote an) and the first aorist passive subjunctive
of anagin(9373)k(935c). The epistle was read in public to the church
( Re 1:3 ). {Cause that} (poi(8873)ate hina). Same idiom in  Joh
11:37  Re 13:15 . Old Greek preferred hop(9373) for this idiom. See
 1Th 5:27  for injunction for public reading of the Epistle.
{That ye also read} (kai humeis anagn(9374)e). Second aorist active
subjunctive of anagin(9373)k(935c), to read. {And the epistle from
Laodicea} (kai t(886e) ek Laodikias). The most likely meaning is
that the so-called Epistle to the Ephesians was a circular letter
to various churches in the province of Asia, one copy going to
Laodicea and to be passed on to Colossae as the Colossian letter
was to be sent on to Laodicea. This was done usually by copying
and keeping the original. See  Eph 1:1  for further discussion of
this matter.

經文:

歌羅西書 4:17-4:17

註釋:

 {Take heed} (lepe). Keep an eye on. {Thou hast received
in the Lord} (parelabes en Kuri(9369)). Second aorist active
indicative of paralamban(935c), the verb used by Paul of getting his
message from the Lord ( 1Co 15:3 ). Clearly Archippus had a call
"in the Lord" as every preacher should have. {That thou fulfil
it} (hina aut(886e) pl(8872)ois). Present active subjunctive of
pl(8872)o(935c), "that thou keep on filling it full." It is a life-time
job.

重新查詢