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 2Th
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經文:

羅馬書 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 {To the Romans} (pros R(936d)aious). This is the title in Aleph
A B C, our oldest Greek MSS. for the Epistle. We do not know
whether Paul gave any title at all. Later MSS. add other words up
to the Textus Receptus: The Epistle of Paul to the Romans. The
Epistle is put first in the MSS. because it is the most important
of Paul's Epistles.

{Paul} (Paulos). Roman name (Paulus). See on 涉c 13:9| for
the origin of this name by the side of Saul. {Servant}
(doulos). Bond-slave of Jesus Christ (or Christ Jesus as some
MSS. give it and as is the rule in the later Epistles) for the
first time in the Epistles in the opening sentence, though the
phrase already in  Ga 1:10 . Recurs in  Php 1:1  and desmios
(bondsman) in  Phm 1:1 . {Called to be an apostle} (kl(8874)os
apostolos). An apostle by vocation (Denney) as in  1Co 1:1 . In
 Ga 1:1  kl(8874)os is not used, but the rest of the verse has the
same idea. {Separated} (aph(9372)ismenos). Perfect passive
participle of aphoriz(935c) for which verb see on 涊a 1:15|. Paul is
a spiritual Pharisee (etymologically), separated not to the oral
tradition, but to God's gospel, a chosen vessel ( Ac 9:15 ). By
man also ( Ac 13:2 ). Many of Paul's characteristic words like
euaggelion have been already discussed in the previous Epistles
that will call for little comment from now on.

經文:

羅馬書 1:2-1:2

註釋:

 {He promised afore} (proep(8867)geilato). First aorist middle
of proepaggell(935c) for which verb see on 氧Co 9:5|. {By} (dia).
Through, by means of, intermediate agency like  Mt 1:22  which
see. {In the holy scriptures} (en graphais hagiais). No
article, yet definite. Perhaps the earliest use of the phrase
(Sanday and Headlam). Paul definitely finds God's gospel in the
Holy Scriptures.

經文:

羅馬書 1:3-1:3

註釋:

 {Concerning his Son} (peri tou huiou autou). Just as Jesus
found himself in the O.T. ( Lu 24:27,46 ). The deity of Christ
here stated. {According to the flesh} (kata sarka). His real
humanity alongside of his real deity. For the descent from David
see  Mt 1:1,6,20  Lu 1:27  Joh 7:42  Ac 13:23 , etc.

經文:

羅馬書 1:4-1:4

註釋:

 {Who was declared} (	ou horisthentos). Articular participle
(first aorist passive) of horiz(935c) for which verb see on 烊u
22:22; Ac 2:23|. He was the Son of God in his preincarnate state
( 2Co 8:9  Php 2:6 ) and still so after his Incarnation (verse
 3 , "of the seed of David"), but it was the Resurrection of the
dead (ex anastase(9373) nekr(936e), the general resurrection implied by
that of Christ) that definitely marked Jesus off as God's Son
because of his claims about himself as God's Son and his prophecy
that he would rise on the third day. This event (cf.  1Co 15 )
gave God's seal "with power" (en dunamei), "in power," declared
so in power ( 2Co 13:4 ). The Resurrection of Christ is the
miracle of miracles. "The resurrection only declared him to be
what he truly was" (Denney). {According to the spirit of
holiness} (kata pneuma hagi(9373)un(8873)). Not the Holy Spirit, but a
description of Christ ethically as kata sarka describes him
physically (Denney). Hagi(9373)un(885c) is rare ( 1Th 3:13  2Co 7:1  in
N.T.), three times in LXX, each time as the attribute of God.
"The pneuma hagi(9373)un(8873), though not the Divine nature, is that
in which the Divinity or Divine Personality Resided " (Sanday and
Headlam). {Jesus Christ our Lord} (I(8873)ou Christou tou kuriou
h(886d)(936e)). These words gather up the total personality of Jesus
(his deity and his humanity).

經文:

羅馬書 1:5-1:5

註釋:

 {Unto obedience of faith} (eis hupako(886e) piste(9373)).
Subjective genitive as in  16:26 , the obedience which springs
from faith (the act of assent or surrender).

經文:

羅馬書 1:6-1:6

註釋:

 {Called to be Jesus Christ's} (kl(8874)oi I(8873)ou Christou).
Predicate genitive after kl(8874)oi (verbal adjective from kale(935c),
to call), though it is possible to consider it the ablative case,
"called of (or from) Jesus Christ."

經文:

羅馬書 1:7-1:7

註釋:

 {In Rome} (en R(936d)(8869)). One late uncial (G of tenth century)
and a cursive omit these words here and one or two other late
MSS. omit en R(936d)(8869) in verse  15 . This possibly proves the
Epistle was circulated as a circular to a limited extent, but the
evidence is late and slight and by no means shows that this was
the case in the first century. It is not comparable with the
absence of en Ephes(9369) in  Eph 1:1  from Aleph and B (the two
oldest and best MSS.). {Beloved of God} (agap(8874)ois theou).
Ablative case of 	heou after the verbal adjective like
didaktoi theou (taught of God) in  Joh 6:45  (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 516). {From God our Father and the Lord Jesus
Christ} (apo theou patros h(886d)(936e) kai kuriou I(8873)ou Christou).
"St. Paul, if not formally enunciating a doctrine of the Divinity
of Christ, held a view which cannot really be distinguished from
it" (Sanday and Headlam). Paul's theology is clearly seen in the
terms used in verses  1-7 .

經文:

羅馬書 1:8-1:8

註釋:

 {First} (pr(9374)on men). Adverb in the accusative case, but no
epeita de (in the next place) as in  Heb 7:2  or epeita as in
 Jas 3:17  follows. The rush of thoughts crowds out the balanced
phraseology as in  Ro 3:2  1Co 11:18 . {Through} (dia). As the
mediator or medium of thanksgiving as in  7:25 . {For} (peri).
Concerning, about. {That} (hoti). Or because. Either
declarative or causal hoti makes sense here. {Your faith} (h(880a)pistis hum(936e)). "Your Christianity" (Sanday and Headlam). {Is
proclaimed} (kataggelletai). Present passive indicative of
kataggell(935c), to announce (aggell(935c)) up and down (kata). See
also anaggell(935c), to bring back news ( Joh 5:15 ), apaggell(935c),
to announce from one as the source ( Mt 2:8 ), prokataggell(935c),
to announce far and wide beforehand ( Ac 3:18 ). {Throughout all
the world} (en hol(9369) t(9369) kosm(9369)). Natural hyperbole as in  Col
1:6  Ac 17:6 . But widely known because the church was in the
central city of the empire.

經文:

羅馬書 1:9-1:9

註釋:

 {I serve} (latreu(935c)). Old verb from latron, hire, and
latris, hireling, so to serve for hire, then to serve in
general gods or men, whether sacred services ( Heb 9:9  10:2 ) or
spiritual service as here. Cf.  Ro 12:1  Php 3:3 . {Unceasingly}
(adialeipt(9373)). Late adverb for which see  1Th 1:2f.  2:13  5:17 , only other N.T. examples. {Always} (pantote). One might
think that Paul prayed for no others, but he uses both adverbs in
 1Th 1:2 . He seems to have had prayer lists. He never omitted
the Romans.

經文:

羅馬書 1:10-1:10

註釋:

 {If by any means now at length} (ei p(9373) (8864)(8820)pote). A
condition of the first class in the form of an indirect question
(aim) or elliptical condition like  Ac 27:12  (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 1024). Note the four particles together to express
Paul's feelings of emotion that now at length somehow it may
really come true. {I may be prospered} (euod(9374)h(8873)omai). First
future passive indicative of euodo(935c) for which verb see on 氣Co
16:2|. {By the will of God} (en t(9369) thel(886d)ati tou theou).
Paul's way lay "in" God's will.

經文:

羅馬書 1:11-1:11

註釋:

 {Impart} (metad(935c)). Second aorist active subjunctive of
metadid(936d)i, to share with one. See on 烊u 3:11; 1Th 2:8|. {To
the end ye may be established} (eis to st(8872)ichth(886e)ai humas).
Final clause (common in Paul) with eis to and the first aorist
passive infinitive of st(8872)iz(935c) for which verb see on 烊u 22:32;
1Th 3:3,13|.

經文:

羅馬書 1:12-1:12

註釋:

 {That is} (	outo de estin). "An explanatory correction"
(Denney). The de should not be ignored. Instead of saying that
he had a spiritual gift for them, he wishes to add that they also
have one for him. {That I with you may be comforted}
(sunparakl(8874)h(886e)ai en humin). "My being comforted in you (en
humin) together (sun-) with you," a mutual blessing to each
party (you and me).

經文:

羅馬書 1:13-1:13

註釋:

 {Oftentimes I purposed} (pollakis proethem(886e)). Second
aorist middle of protith(886d)i, old verb to place, to propose to
oneself, in N.T. only here,  3:25  Eph 1:9 . See  Ac 19:21  for
this purpose. {And was hindered} (kai ek(936c)uth(886e)). "But was
hindered," adversative use of kai. {That I might have some
fruit} (hina tina karpon sch(935c)). Second aorist (ingressive),
active of ech(935c), to have, and here means "might get (ingressive
aorist) some fruit."

經文:

羅馬書 1:14-1:14

註釋:

 On {debtor} (opheilet(8873)) see  Ga 5:3 . {Both to Greeks and
to Barbarians} (Hell(8873)in te kai barbarois). The whole human
race from the Greek point of view, Jews coming under arbarois.
On this word see  Ac 18:2,4  1Co 4:11  Col 3:11  (only N.T.
instances). The Greeks called all others barbarians and the Jews
termed all others Gentiles. Did Paul consider the Romans as
Greeks? They had absorbed the Greek language and culture.

經文:

羅馬書 1:15-1:15

註釋:

 {So as much as in me is I am ready} (hout(9320)to kat' eme
prothumon). Literally, "Thus the according to me affair is
ready" (prothumos, old adjective, pro, thumos). It is an
awkward idiom like to ex hum(936e) in  12:18 . The plural 	a kat'
eme we find in  Php 1:12  Col 4:7  Eph 6:21 .

經文:

羅馬書 1:16-1:16

註釋:

 {It is the power of God} (dunamis theou estin). This Paul
knew by much experience. He had seen the dynamite of God at work.
{To the Jew first, and also to the Greek} (Ioudai(9369) te pr(9374)on
kai Hell(886e)i). Jesus had taught this ( Joh 4:22  10:16  Lu 24:47  Ac 1:8 ). The Jew is first in privilege and in penalty ( Ro
2:9f. ). It is not certain that pr(9374)on is genuine, but it is in
 2:9f .

經文:

羅馬書 1:17-1:17

註釋:

 {For therein} (gar en aut(9369)). In the gospel (verse  16 )
of which Paul is not ashamed. {A righteousness of God}
(dikaiosun(8820)theou). Subjective genitive, "a God kind of
righteousness," one that each must have and can obtain in no
other way save "from faith unto faith" (ek piste(9373) eis pistin),
faith the starting point and faith the goal (Lightfoot). {Is
revealed} (apokaluptetai). It is a revelation from God, this
God kind of righteousness, that man unaided could never have
conceived or still less attained. In these words we have Paul's
statement in his own way of the theme of the Epistle, the content
of the gospel as Paul understands it. Every word is important:
s(9374)(8872)ian (salvation), euaggelion (gospel), apokaluptetai
(is revealed), dikaiosun(8820)theou (righteousness of God),
pistis (faith) and pisteuonti (believing). He grounds his
position on  Hab 2:4  (quoted also in  Ga 3:11 ). By
"righteousness" we shall see that Paul means both "justification"
and "sanctification." It is important to get a clear idea of
Paul's use of dikaiosun(885c) here for it controls the thought
throughout the Epistle. Jesus set up a higher standard of
righteousness (dikaiosun(885c)) in the Sermon on the Mount than the
Scribes and Pharisees taught and practised ( Mt 5:20 ) and proves
it in various items. Here Paul claims that in the gospel, taught
by Jesus and by himself there is revealed a God kind of
righteousness with two ideas in it (the righteousness that God
has and that he bestows). It is an old word for quality from
dikaios, a righteous man, and that from dik(885c), right or
justice (called a goddess in  Ac 28:4 ), and that allied with
deiknumi, to show, to point out. Other allied words are
dikaio(935c), to declare or make dikaios ( Ro 3:24,26 ),
dikai(936d)a, that which is deemed dikaios (sentence or ordinance
as in  1:32  2:26  8:4 ), dikai(9373)is, the act of declaring
dikaios (only twice in N.T.,  4:25  5:18 ). Dikaiosun(885c) and
dikaio(935c) are easy to render into English, though we use justice
in distinction from righteousness and sanctification for the
result that comes after justification (the setting one right with
God). Paul is consistent and usually clear in his use of these
great words.

經文:

羅馬書 1:18-1:18

註釋:

 {For the wrath of God is revealed} (apokaluptetai gar org(880a)theou). Note in Romans Paul's use of gar, now argumentative,
now explanatory, now both as here. There is a parallel and
antecedent revelation (see verse  17 ) of God's wrath
corresponding to the revelation of God's righteousness, this an
unwritten revelation, but plainly made known. Org(885c) is from
orga(935c), to teem, to swell. It is the temper of God towards sin,
not rage, but the wrath of reason and law (Shedd). The revelation
of God's righteousness in the gospel was necessary because of the
failure of men to attain it without it, for God's wrath justly
rested upon all both Gentiles ( 1:18-32 ) and Jews ( 2:1-3:20 ).
{Ungodliness} (asebeian). Irreligion, want of reverence toward
God, old word (cf.  2Ti 2:16 ). {Unrighteousness} (adikian).
Lack (a privative and dik(885c)) of right conduct toward men,
injustice ( Ro 9:14  Lu 18:6 ). This follows naturally from
irreverence. The basis of ethical conduct rests on the nature of
God and our attitude toward him, otherwise the law of the jungle
(cf. Nietzsche, "might makes right"). {Hold down the truth} (	(886e)
al(8874)heian katechont(936e)). Truth (al(8874)heia, al(8874)h(8873), from a
privative and l(8874)h(935c) or lanthan(935c), to conceal) is out in the
open, but wicked men, so to speak, put it in a box and sit on the
lid and "hold it down in unrighteousness." Their evil deeds
conceal the open truth of God from men. Cf.  2Th 2:6f.  for this
use of katech(935c), to hinder.

經文:

羅馬書 1:19-1:19

註釋:

 {Because} (dioti). Gives the reason (dia, hoti like our
"for that") for the revelation of God's wrath. {That which may be
known of God} (	o gn(9373)ton tou theou). Verbal adjective from
gin(9373)k(935c), either "the known" as elsewhere in N.T. ( Ac 1:19  15:18 , etc.) or "the knowable" as usual in ancient Greek, that
is "the knowledge" (h(8820)gn(9373)is) of God. See  Php 3:8 . Cf. same
use of the verbal chr(8873)ton in  Ro 2:4 , ametatheton in  Heb
6:17 . {Manifest in them} (phaneron en autois). In their hearts
and consciences. {God manifested} (ho theos ephaner(9373)en). First
aorist active indicative of phanero(935c). Not mere tautology. See
 2:14-16 .

經文:

羅馬書 1:20-1:20

註釋:

 {The invisible things of him} (	a aorata autou). Another
verbal adjective (a privative and hora(935c), to see), old word,
either unseen or invisible as here and elsewhere in N.T. ( Col
1:15f. , etc.). The attributes of God's nature defined here as
"his everlasting power and divinity" (h(8820)te aidios autou dunamis
kai theiot(8873)). Aidios is for aeidios from aei (always),
old word, in N.T. only here and  Jude 1:6 , common in Philo (z(9388)
aidios), elsewhere ai(936e)ios. Theiot(8873) is from 	heios (from
	heos) quality of 	heos and corresponds more to Latin
_divinitas_ from _divus_, divine. In  Col 2:9  Paul uses
	heot(8873) (Latin _deitas_ from _deus_) {deity}, both old words
and nowhere else in the N.T. Theot(8873) is Divine Personality,
	heiot(8873), Divine Nature and properties (Sanday and Headlam).
{Since the creation of the world} (apo ktise(9373) kosmou). He
means by God and unto God as antecedent to and superior to the
world (cf.  Col 1:15f . about Christ). {Are clearly seen}
(kathoratai). Present passive indicative of kathora(935c)
(perfective use of kata-), old word, only here in N.T., with
direct reference to aorata. {Being perceived} (
ooumena).
Present passive participle of 
oe(935c), to use the 
ous
(intellect). {That they may be without excuse} (eis to einai
autous anapolog(8874)ous). More likely, "so that they are without
excuse." The use of eis to and the infinitive (with accusative
of general reference) for result like h(9373)te is reasonably clear
in the N.T. (Moulton, _Prolegomena_, p. 219; Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 1003). Anapolog(8874)ous is another verbal with an
from apologeomai. Old word, in N.T. only here and  Ro 2:1 
("inexcusable" here).

經文:

羅馬書 1:21-1:21

註釋:

 {Because that} (dioti). As in verse  19 . {Knowing God}
(gnontes ton theon). Second aorist active participle of
gin(9373)k(935c), to know by personal experience. Definite statement
that originally men had some knowledge of God. No people, however
degraded, have yet been found without some yearning after a god,
a seeking to find the true God and get back to him as Paul said
in Athens ( Ac 17:27 ). {Glorified not as God} (ouch h(9373) theon
edoxasan). They knew more than they did. This is the reason for
the condemnation of the heathen ( 2:12-16 ), the failure to do
what they know. {Their senseless heart} (h(8820)asunetos aut(936e)
kardia). Kardia is the most comprehensive term for all our
faculties whether feeling ( Ro 9:2 ), will ( 1Co 4:5 ), intellect
( Ro 10:6 ). It may be the home of the Holy Spirit ( Ro 5:5 ) or
of evil desires ( 1:24 ). See  Mr 7:21f.  for list of vices that
come "out of the heart." Asunetos is a verbal adjective from
suni(886d)i, to put together, and a privative, unintelligent, not
able to put together the manifest evidence about God (verse
 20 ). So darkness settled down on their hearts (eskotisth(885c),
first aorist ingressive passive of skotiz(935c), to darken).

經文:

羅馬書 1:22-1:22

註釋:

 {Professing themselves to be wise} (phaskontes einai
sophoi). Sophoi is predicate nominative with einai in
indirect discourse agreeing with phaskontes (old verb, from
ph(886d)i, to say, rare in N.T.) in case and number according to
regular Greek idiom (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1038). {Became
vain} (ematai(9374)h(8873)an). Ingressive first aorist passive
indicative of mataio(935c) from mataios (empty). Empty reasonings
as often today. {Became fools} (em(9372)anth(8873)an). Ingressive first
aorist passive of m(9372)ain(935c), to be a fool, old word from m(9372)os,
a fool. An oxymoron or sharp saying, true and one that cuts to
the bone. {For the likeness of an image} (en homoi(936d)ati
eikonos). Both words, "a likeness which consists in an image or
copy" (Lightfoot). See  Php 2:7  for "likeness of men" and  Col
1:15  for "image of God." Paul shows indignant contempt for these
grotesque efforts to present pictures of a deity that had been
lost (Denney). Why is it that heathen images of gods in the form
of men and beasts are so horrible to look upon?

經文:

羅馬書 1:24-1:24

註釋:

 1Co
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6'
經文:

羅馬書 1:25-1:25

註釋:

 {Exchanged} (met(886c)laxan). First aorist active indicative
of metallass(935c), old word for exchanging trade, only here and
verse  26  in N.T. What a bargain they made, "the truth of God
for (en) the (	(9369)) lie." "The price of mythology" (Bengel).
{Worshipped} (esebasth(8873)an). First aorist passive (used
transitively) of sebazomai, old verb, used in late Greek like
sebomai, to worship. {Rather than the Creator} (para ton
ktisanta). Placed side by side (para, the Creator and the
creature, ktisis) they preferred the creature. {Who is blessed
forever. Amen} (hos estin eulog(8874)os. Am(886e)). One of Paul's
doxologies which may come at any moment when he is greatly
stirred, as in  9:5 . Eulog(8874)os is verbal of euloge(935c).

經文:

羅馬書 1:26-1:26

註釋:

 {Unto vile passions} (eis path(8820)atimias). Unto passions of
dishonour. Pathos, old word from pasch(935c), to experience,
originally meant any feeling whether good or bad, but in N.T.
always in bad sense as here,  1Th 4:5  Col 3:5  (only N.T.
examples). {That which is against nature} (	(886e) para phusin).
The degradation of sex is what Paul here notes as one of the
results of heathenism (the loss of God in the life of man). They
passed by the Creator.

經文:

羅馬書 1:27-1:27

註釋:

 {Turned} (exekauth(8873)an). First aorist passive indicative,
causative aorist, of ekkai(935c), old verb, to burn out, to set on
fire, to inflame with anger or lust. Here only in N.T. {Lust}
(orexei). Only here in N.T. {Unseemliness} (asch(886d)osun(886e)).
Old word from asch(886d)on (deformed). In N.T. only here and  Re
16:15 . {Recompense} (antimisthian). See on 氧Co 6:13| for only
other N.T. instance of this late Pauline word, there in good
sense, here in bad. {Which was due} (h(886e) edei). Imperfect
active for obligation still on them coming down from the past.
This debt will be paid in full (apolambanontes, pay back as in
 Lu 6:34 , and due as in  Lu 23:41 ). Nature will attend to that
in their own bodies and souls.

經文:

羅馬書 1:28-1:28

註釋:

 {And even as they refused} (kai kath(9373) ouk edokimasan).
"And even as they rejected" after trial just as dokimaz(935c) is
used of testing coins. They tested God at first and turned aside
from him. {Knowledge} (epign(9373)ei). Full knowledge (epi
additional, gn(9373)is). They had a dim memory that was a
caricature. {Unto a reprobate mind} (eis adokimon noun). Play
on ouk edokimasan. They rejected God and God rejected their
mental attitude and gave them over (verses  24,26,28 ). See this
adjective already in  1Co 9:27  2Co 13:5-7 . Like an old
abandoned building, the home of bats and snakes, left "to do
those things which are not fitting" (poiein ta m(8820)kath(886b)onta),
like the night clubs of modern cities, the dives and dens of the
underworld, without God and in the darkness of unrestrained
animal impulses. This was a technical term with Stoics (II Macc.
6:4).

經文:

羅馬書 1:29-1:29

註釋:

 {Being called with} (pepl(8872)(936d)enous). Perfect passive
participle of the common verb pl(8872)o(935c), state of completion,
"filled to the brim with" four vices in the associative
instrumental case (adiki(8369), unrighteousness as in verse  18 ,
pon(8872)i(8369), active wickedness as in  Mr 7:22 , pleonexi(8369),
covetousness as in  1Th 2:5  Lu 12:15 , kaki(8369), maliciousness
or inward viciousness of disposition as in  1Co 5:8 ). Note
asyndeton, no connective in the lists in verses  29-31 . Dramatic
effect. The order of these words varies in the MSS. and
pornei(8369), fornication, is not genuine here (absent in Aleph A B
C). {Full of} (mestous). Paul changes from participle to
adjective. Old adjective, rare in the N.T., like mesto(935c), to
fill full (only in  Ac 2:13  in N.T.), stuffed full of (with
genitive). Five substantives in the genitive (phthonou, envy,
as in  Ga 5:21 , phonou, murder, and so a paronomasia or
combination with phthonou, of like sounding words, eridos,
strife, as in  2Co 12:16 , kako(8874)hias, malignity, and here only
in N.T. though old word from kako(8874)h(8873) and that from kakos
and (8874)hos, a tendency to put a bad construction on things,
depravity of heart and malicious disposition.

經文:

羅馬書 1:30-1:30

註釋:

 2Co
12:20 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
12' or engs='2Co
12'
經文:

羅馬書 1:31-1:31

註釋:

 {Without understanding} (asunetous). Same word in verse
 21 . {Covenant-breakers} (asunthetous). Another paronomasia or
pun. A privative and verbal sunthetos from suntith(886d)i, to
put together. Old word, common in LXX ( Jer 3:7 ), men "false to
their engagements" (Sanday and Headlam), who treat covenants as
"a scrap of paper." {Without natural affection} (astorgous).
Late word, a privative and storg(885c), love of kindred. In N.T.
only here and  2Ti 3:3 . {Unmerciful} (anele(886d)onas). From a
privative and ele(886d)(936e), merciful. Late word, only here in N.T.
Some MSS. add aspondous, implacable, from  2Ti 3:3 . It is a
terrible picture of the effects of sin on the lives of men and
women. The late Dr. R. H. Graves of Canton, China, said that a
Chinaman who got hold of this chapter declared that Paul could
not have written it, but only a modern missionary who had been to
China. It is drawn to the life because Paul knew Pagan
Graeco-Roman civilization.

經文:

羅馬書 1:32-1:32

註釋:

 {The ordinance of God} (	o dikai(936d)a tou theou). The
heathen knows that God condemns such evil practices. {But also
consent with them} (alla kai suneudokousin). Late verb for
hearty approval as in  Lu 11:48  Ac 8:1  1Co 7:12 . It is a
tragedy of American city government that so many of the officials
are proven to be hand in glove with the underworld of
law-breakers.

經文:

羅馬書 2:1-2:1

註釋:

 {Wherefore} (dio). See  1:24,26  for this relative
conjunction, "because of which thing." {Without excuse}
(anapolog(8874)os). See on 氣:21|. {Whosoever thou art that
judgest} (pas ho krin(936e)). Literally, "every one that judgest,"
vocative case in apposition with anthr(9370)e. Paul begins his
discussion of the failure of the Jew to attain to the God-kind of
righteousness ( 2:1-3:20 ) with a general statement applicable to
all as he did ( 1:18 ) in the discussion of the failure of the
Gentiles (Lightfoot). The Gentile is readily condemned by the Jew
when he sins and equally so is the Jew condemned by the Gentile
in like case. Krin(935c) does not of itself mean to condemn, but to
pick out, separate, approve, determine, pronounce judgment,
condemn (if proper). {Another} (	on heteron). Literally, "the
other man." The notion of two in the word, one criticizing the
other. {Thou condemnest thyself} (seauton katakrineis). Note
kata here with krin(935c), to make plain the adverse judgment.
{For} (gar). Explanatory reason for the preceding statement.
The critic {practises} (prasseis, not single acts poie(935c), but
the habit prass(935c)) the same things that he condemns.

經文:

羅馬書 2:2-2:2

註釋:

 {Judgment} (krima). Decision rendered whether good or bad.
{According to} (kata with accusative). As the rule of measure.
Cf.  Joh 7:24 .

經文:

羅馬書 2:3-2:3

註釋:

 {And doest the same} (kai poi(936e) auta). "And doest them
occasionally." {That thou shalt escape} (su ekpheux(8869)).
Emphasis on su, "thou conceited Jew expecting to escape God's
krima because thou art a Jew." Cf.  Mt 3:8f . Paul justifies
the bitter words of the Baptist to the Pharisees and Sadducees.
The future middle of the old verb ekpheug(935c) (cf.  1Th 5:3 ). The
Jew posed as immune to the ordinary laws of ethics because a Jew.
Alas, some Christians affect the same immunity.

經文:

羅馬書 2:4-2:4

註釋:

 {Or despiseth thou?} ((8820)kataphroneis?). Another
alternative, that of scorn of God's kindness (chr(8873)tot(8874)os,
 2Co 6:6 ) and forbearance (anoch(8873), old word, holding back
from anech(935c), only here in N.T.) and longsuffering
(makrothumias, late word for which see  2Co 6:4,6 ).
Kataphrone(935c) is old verb to think down on (kata, phrone(935c)) as
in  Mt 6:24  1Co 11:22 . This upstart Jew actually thinks down on
God. And then "the riches" (	ou ploutou) of all that comes from
God. {Leadeth thee to repentance} (eis metanoian se agei). The
very kindness (	o chr(8873)ton, the kindly quality) of God is
trying to lead (conative present agei) thee to a right-about
face, a change of mind and attitude (metanoian) instead of a
complacent self-satisfaction and pride of race and privilege.

經文:

羅馬書 2:5-2:5

註釋:

 {After thy hardness} (kata t(886e) skl(8872)ot(8874)a sou). "According
to thy hardness (old word from skl(8872)os, hard, stiff, only here
in N.T.) will God's judgment be." {And impenitent heart} (kai
ametano(8874)on kardian). See metanoian just before. "Thy
unreconstructed heart," "with no change in the attitude of thy
heart." {Treasurest up for thyself} (	h(8873)aurizeis seaut(9369)). See
for 	h(8873)auriz(935c) on  Mt 6:19f.  Lu 12:21  2Co 12:14 . Dative case
seaut(9369) (for thyself) with a touch of irony (Vincent). {Wrath}
(org(886e)). For such a Jew as already stated for the Gentile
( 1:18 ). There is a revelation (apokalupse(9373)) of God's wrath
for both in the day of wrath and righteous judgment
(dikaiokrisias, a late compound word, in LXX, two examples in
the Oxyrhynchus papyri, only here in N.T.). See  2Th 1:5  for
dikaias krise(9373). Paul looks to the judgment day as certain (cf.
 2Co 5:10-12 ), the day of the Lord ( 2Co 1:14 ).

經文:

羅馬書 2:6-2:6

註釋:

 {Who will render} (hos apod(9373)ei). Paul quotes  Pr 24:12  as
in  2Ti 4:14 . See also  Mt 16:27  Re 22:12 . The rendering will
be in accord with the facts.

經文:

羅馬書 2:7-2:7

註釋:

 {To them that seek} (	ois men--z(8874)ousin). Dative plural of
the articular present active participle of z(8874)e(935c) with men on
the one hand. {Eternal life} (z(9388)n ai(936e)ion). Accusative case
object of apod(9373)ei above.

經文:

羅馬書 2:8-2:8

註釋:

 {But unto them that are factious and obey not the truth but
obey unrighteousness} (	ois de ex eritheias kai apeithousin t(8869)
al(8874)hei(8369) peithomenois de adiki(8369)). The other side with de and
the articular present participles in the dative again, only with
ex eritheias, there is no participle ousin. But the
construction changes and the substantives that follow are not the
object of apod(9373)ei like z(9388)n ain(936e)ion above, but are in the
nominative as if with esontai (shall be) understood (anger and
wrath, both org(885c) and 	humos, tribulation and anguish, again a
pair 	hlipsis kai stenoch(9372)ia on which see  2Co 5:4  12:10 ).

經文:

羅馬書 2:9-2:9

註釋:

 {Every soul of man} (pasan psuch(886e) anthr(9370)ou). See  13:1 
for this use of psuch(885c) for the individual. {Of the Jew first
and also of the Greek} (Ioudaiou te pr(9374)on kai Hell(886e)os). See
on 氣:16|. First not only in penalty as here, but in privilege
also as in  2:11  1:16 .

經文:

羅馬書 2:11-2:11

註釋:

 {Respect of persons} (pros(9370)ol(886d)psia). Milligan
(_Vocabulary_) considers this word (in N.T. only here,  Col 3:25  Eph 6:9 ) and pros(9370)ol(886d)pt(8873) ( Ac 10:34 ) and pros(9370)ol(886d)pte(935c)
( Jas 2:9 ) the earliest definitely known Christian words, not in
LXX or non-Christian writings. See on 涉c 10:34| for the
formation in imitation of the Hebrew to take note of the face
(pros(9370)on, lamban(935c)), to judge by the face or appearance.

經文:

羅馬書 2:12-2:12

註釋:

 {Have sinned} (h(886d)arton). Constative aorist active
indicative, "sinned," a timeless aorist. {Without law}
(anom(9373)). Old adverb "contrary to law," "unjustly," but here in
ignorance of the Mosaic law (or of any law). Nowhere else in N.T.
{Shall also perish without law} (anom(9373) kai apolountai). Future
middle indicative of apollumi, to destroy. This is a very
important statement. The heathen who sin are lost, because they
do not keep the law which they have, not because they do not have
the Mosaic law or Christianity. {Under law} (en nom(9369)). In the
sphere of the Mosaic law. {By the law} (dia nomou). The Jew has
to stand or fall by the Mosaic law.

經文:

羅馬書 2:13-2:13

註釋:

 {Not the hearers--but the doers} (ou gar hoi akroatai--all'
hoi poi(8874)ai). The law was read in the synagogue, but there was
no actual virtue in listening. The virtue is in doing. See a like
contrast by James between "hearers" and "doers" of the gospel
( Jas 1:22-25 ). {Before God} (para t(9369) the(9369)). By God's side,
as God looks at it. {Shall be justified} (dikai(9374)h(8873)ontai).
Future passive indicative of dikaio(935c), to declare righteous, to
set right. "Shall be declared righteous." Like  Jas 1:22-25 .

經文:

羅馬書 2:14-2:14

註釋:

 {That have no law} (	a m(8820)nomon echonta). Better, "that
have not the law" (the Mosaic law). {By nature} (phusei).
Instrumental case of phusis, old word from phu(935c), to beget.
The Gentiles are without the Mosaic law, but not without some
knowledge of God in conscience and when they do right "they are a
law to themselves" (heautois eisin nomos). This is an obvious
reply to the Jewish critic.

經文:

羅馬書 2:15-2:15

註釋:

 1Co
10:25 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
10' or engs='1Co
10'
經文:

羅馬書 2:16-2:16

註釋:

 {According to my gospel} (kata to euaggelion mou). What
Paul preaches ( 1Co 15:1 ) and which is the true gospel

經文:

羅馬書 2:17-2:17

註釋:

 {Bearest the name} (eponomaz(8869)). Present passive
indicative in condition of first class of eponomaz(935c), old word,
to put a name upon (epi), only here in N.T. "Thou art surnamed
Jew" (Lightfoot). Jew as opposed to Greek denoted nationality
while Hebrew accented the idea of language. {Restest upon the
law} (epanapau(8869) nom(9369)). Late and rare double compound, in LXX
and once in the Didache. In N.T. only here and  Lu 10:6  which
see. It means to lean upon, to refresh oneself back upon
anything, here with locative case (
om(9369)). It is the picture of
blind and mechanical reliance on the Mosaic law. {Gloriest in
God} (kauch(8373)ai en the(9369)). _Koin(825f) vernacular form for
kauch(8369) (kauchaesai, kauch(8373)ai) of kauchaomai as in verse
 23  1Co 4:7  and katakauch(8373)ai in  Ro 11:18 . The Jew gloried
in God as a national asset and private prerogative ( 2Co 10:15  Ga 6:13 ). {Approvest the things that are excellent} (dokimazeis
ta diapheronta). Originally, "Thou testest the things that
differ," and then as a result comes the approval for the
excellent things. As in  Php 1:10  it is difficult to tell which
stage of the process Paul has in mind. {Instructed out of the
law} (kat(8863)houmenos ek tou nomou). Present passive participle
of kat(8863)he(935c), a rare verb to instruct, though occurring in the
papyri for legal instruction. See on 烊u 1:4; 1Co 14:19|. The
Jew's "ethical discernment was the fruit of catechetical and
synagogical instruction in the Old Testament" (Shedd).

經文:

羅馬書 2:19-2:19

註釋:

 {A guide of the blind} (hod(8867)on tuphl(936e)). Accusative
hod(8867)on in predicate with einai to agree with seauton,
accusative of general reference with infinitive einai in
indirect discourse after pepoithas. Late word (Polybius,
Plutarch) from hodos, way, and h(8867)eomai, to lead, one who
leads the way. Tuphl(936e) is objective genitive plural. The Jews
were meant by God to be guides for the Gentiles, for salvation is
of the Jews ( Joh 4:22 ). {A light} (ph(9373)). "A light for those
in darkness" (	(936e) en skotei, objective genitive again). But
this intention of God about the Jews had resulted in conceited
arrogance on their part.

經文:

羅馬書 2:20-2:20

註釋:

 {A corrector of the foolish} (paideut(886e) aphron(936e)). Old
word (from paideu(935c)) for instructor, in Plato, and probably so
here, though corrector or chastiser in  Heb 12:9  (the only N.T.
instances). See  Lu 23:16 . Late inscriptions give it as
instructor (Preisigke). Aphron(936e) is a hard word for Gentiles,
but it is the Jewish standpoint that Paul gives. Each termed the
other "dogs." {Of babes} (
(8870)i(936e)). Novitiates or proselytes to
Judaism just as in  Ga 4:1 . Paul used it of those not of legal
age. {The form} (	(886e) morph(9373)in). Rare word only in Theophrastus
and Paul (here and  2Ti 3:5 ). Pallis regards it as a Stoical
term for education. Lightfoot considers the morph(9373)is as "the
rough-sketch, the pencilling of the morph(885c)," the outline or
framework, and in  2Ti 3:5  "the outline without the substance."
This is Paul's picture of the Jew as he sees himself drawn with
consummate skill and subtle irony.

經文:

羅馬書 2:21-2:21

註釋:

 {Thou therefore that teachest another} (ho oun didask(936e)
heteron). Paul suddenly breaks off (anacoluthon) the long
sentence that began in verse  17  and starts over again with a
phrase that gathers it all up in small compass (teachest) and
drives it home (therefore) on the Jew (thyself). {Not to steal}
(m(8820)kleptein). Infinitive with m(885c) in indirect command
(indirect discourse) after keruss(936e). {Dost thou steal?}
(klepteis?). The preaching (keruss(936e)) was fine, but the
practice? A home-thrust. {Should not commit adultery} (m(880a)moicheuein). Infinitive in direct command again after leg(936e).
"The Talmud charges the crime of adultery upon the three most
illustrious Rabbins" (Vincent).

經文:

羅馬書 2:22-2:22

註釋:

 {That abhorrest} (ho bdelussomenos). Old word to make
foul, to stink, to have abhorrence for. In LXX, in N.T. only here
and  Re 21:8 . The very word used by Jesus to express their
horror of idols (eid(936c)a, see on 涉c 7:41; 1Co 12:2|). See  Mt
24:15  for "abomination." {Dost thou rob temples?}
(hierosuleis?). Old verb from hierosulos ( Ac 19:37 ) and
that from hieron, temple, and sula(935c), to rob. The town clerk
( Ac 19:37 ) said that these Jews (Paul and his companions) were
"not robbers of temples," proof that the charge was sometimes
made against Jews, though expressly forbidden the Jews (Josephus,
_Ant_. IV. 8, 10). Paul refers to the crime of robbing idol
temples in spite of the defilement of contact with idolatry.

經文:

羅馬書 2:23-2:23

註釋:

 {Through thy transgression of the law} (dia t(8873) parabase(9373)
tou nomou). Old word for stepping across a line. Trench calls
attention to "the mournfully numerous group of words" for the
varieties of sin like agno(886d)a, ignorance, anomia, violation
of law, hamartia, missing the mark, hett(886d)a, falling short,
parabasis, passing over the line, parako(885c), disobedience to a
voice, paranomia, putting the law aside, parapt(936d)a, falling
down, pl(886d)meleia, discord.

經文:

羅馬書 2:24-2:24

註釋:

 {Because of you} (di' humas). Free quotation from the LXX
of  Isa 52:5 . The Jews were jealous for the Name of God and
would not pronounce the Tetragrammaton and yet acted so that the
Gentiles blasphemed that Name.

經文:

羅馬書 2:25-2:25

註釋:

 {If thou be a doer of the law} (ean nomon prasseis).
Condition of third class and the present (continued action)
subjunctive of prass(935c), a verb meaning to do as a habit. {Is
become uncircumcision} (akrobustia gegonen). The Jew is then
like the Gentile, with no privilege at all. Circumcision was
simply the seal of the covenant relation of Israel with God.

經文:

羅馬書 2:26-2:26

註釋:

 {Keep} (phulass(8869)). Present subjunctive with ean,
condition of third class, mere supposition like that in verse
 25 , "keep on keeping" perfectly, Paul means. {For} (eis). As
often in N.T.

經文:

羅馬書 2:27-2:27

註釋:

 {If it fulfill the law} (	on nomon telousa). Present
active participle (conditional use of the participle) of 	ele(935c),
to finish, continually fulfilling to the end (as would be
necessary). {Judge thee} (krinei--se). Unusual position of se
(thee) so far from the verb krinei. {With the letter and
circumcision} (dia grammatos kai peritom(8873)). Dia means here
accompanied by, with the advantage of.

經文:

羅馬書 2:28-2:28

註釋:

 {Which is one outwardly} (ho en t(9369) phaner(9369)). Ioudaios
(Jew) has to be repeated (ellipse) with the article, "the in the
open Jew" (circumcision, phylacteries, tithes, etc.). Likewise
repeat peritom(885c) (circumcision).

經文:

羅馬書 2:29-2:29

註釋:

 {Who is one inwardly} (ho en t(9369) krupt(9369)). Repeat
Ioudaios (Jew) here also, "the in the inward part Jew"
(circumcision of the heart peritom(8820)kardias and not a mere
surgical operation as in  Col 2:11 , in the spirit en pneumati,
with which compare  2Co 3:3,6 ). This inward or inside Jew who
lives up to his covenant relation with God is the high standard
that Paul puts before the merely professional Jew described
above. {Whose praise} (hou ho epainos). The antecedent of the
relative hou is Ioudaios (Jew). Probably (Gifford) a
reference to the etymology of Judah (praise) as seen in  Ga
49:8 .

經文:

羅馬書 3:1-3:1

註釋:

 {What advantage then hath the Jew?} (	i oun to perisson tou
Ioudaiou?). Literally, "What then is the overplus of the Jew?"
What does the Jew have over and above the Gentile? It is a
pertinent question after the stinging indictment of the Jew in
chapter 2. {The profit} (h(8820)(9370)helia). The help. Old word, only
here in N.T. See  Mr 8:36  for (9370)helei, the verb to profit.

經文:

羅馬書 3:2-3:2

註釋:

 1Co
11:18 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
11' or engs='1Co
11'
經文:

羅馬書 3:3-3:3

註釋:

 {For what if?} (	i gar ei?). But Westcott and Hort print
it, Ti gar? ei. See  Php 1:18  for this exclamatory use of 	i
gar (for how? How stands the case?). {Some were without faith}
((8870)ist(8873)an). First aorist active indicative of apiste(935c), old
verb, to disbelieve. This is the common N.T. meaning ( Lu
24:11,41  Ac 28:24  Ro 4:20 ). Some of them "disbelieved," these
"depositaries and guardians of revelation" (Denney). But the word
also means to be unfaithful to one's trust and Lightfoot argues
for that idea here and in  2Ti 2:13 . The Revised Version renders
it "faithless" there. Either makes sense here and both ideas are
true of some of the Jews, especially concerning the Messianic
promises and Jesus. {The faithfulness of God} (	(886e) pistin tou
theou). Undoubtedly pistis has this sense here and not
"faith." God has been faithful ( 2Ti 2:13 ) whether the Jews
(some of them) were simply disbelievers or untrue to their trust.
Paul can use the words in two senses in verse  3 , but there is
no real objection to taking (8870)ist(8873)an, apistian, pistin, all to
refer to faithfulness rather than just faith.

經文:

羅馬書 3:4-3:4

註釋:

 {Let God be found true} (ginesth(9320)ho theos al(8874)h(8873)). "Let
God continue to be true" (present middle imperative). {But every
man a liar} (p(8373) de anthr(9370)os pseust(8873)). The contrast in de
really means, "though every man be found a liar." Cf.  Ps
116:12 . {As it is written} (kath(9373) gegraptai).  Ps 51:6 .
{That thou mightest be justified} (hop(9373) an dikai(9374)h(8869)s).
Hop(9373) rather than the common hina for purpose and an with
the first aorist passive subjunctive of dikaio(935c). Used of God
this verb here has to mean "declared righteous," not "made
righteous." {Mightest prevail} (
ik(8873)eis). Future active
indicative with hop(9373) of 
ika(935c), to win a victory, though B L
have 
ik(8873)(8869)s (first aorist active subjunctive, the usual
construction). {When thou comest into judgement} (en t(9369)
krinesthai se). "In the being judged as to thee" (present
passive infinitive or, if taken as middle, "in the entering upon
trial as to thee"). Common construction in the LXX from the
Hebrew infinitive construct.

經文:

羅馬書 3:5-3:5

註釋:

 {What shall we say?} (	i eroumen?). Rhetorical question,
common with Paul as he surveys the argument. {Commendeth}
(sunist(8873)in). This common verb sunist(886d)i, to send together,
occurs in the N.T. in two senses, either to introduce, to commend
( 2Co 3:1  4:2 ) or to prove, to establish ( 2Co 7:11  Ga 2:18  Ro 5:8 ). Either makes good sense here. {Who visiteth the wrath}
(ho epipher(936e) t(886e) org(886e)). "Who brings on the wrath," "the
inflicter of the anger" (Vaughan). {I speak as a man} (kata
anthr(9370)on). See  Ga 3:15  for same phrase. As if to say, "pardon
me for this line of argument." Tholuck says that the rabbis often
used kata anthr(9370)on and 	i eroumen. Paul had not forgotten
his rabbinical training.

經文:

羅馬書 3:6-3:6

註釋:

 {For then how} (epei p(9373)). There is a suppressed condition
between epei and p(9373), an idiom occurring several times in the
N.T. ( 1Co 15:29  Ro 11:6,22 ). "Since, if that were true, how."

經文:

羅馬書 3:7-3:7

註釋:

 {Through my lie} (en t(9369) em(9369) pseusmati). ] Old word from
pseudomai, to lie, only here in N.T. Paul returns to the
imaginary objection in verse  5 . The MSS. differ sharply here
between ei de (but if) and ei gar (for if). Paul "uses the
first person from motives of delicacy" (Sanday and Headlam) in
this supposable case for argument's sake as in  1Co 4:6 . So here
he "transfers by a fiction" (Field) to himself the objection.

經文:

羅馬書 3:8-3:8

註釋:

 {And why not} (kai m(885c)). We have a tangled sentence which
can be cleared up in two ways. One is (Lightfoot) to supply
gen(8874)ai after m(885c) and repeat 	i (kai ti m(8820)gen(8874)ai,
deliberative subjunctive in a question): And why should it not
happen? The other way (Sanday and Headlam) is to take m(885c) with
poi(8873)(936d)en and make a long parenthesis of all in between. Even
so it is confusing because hoti also (recitative hoti) comes
just before poi(8873)(936d)en. The parenthesis is necessary anyhow, for
there are two lines of thought, one the excuse brought forward by
the unbeliever, the other the accusation that Paul affirms that
very excuse that we may do evil that good may come. Note the
double indirect assertion (the accusative and the infinitive
h(886d)(8373) legein after phasin and then the direct quotation with
recitative hoti after legein, a direct quotation dependent on
the infinitive in indirect quotation. {Let us do evil that good
may come} (poi(8873)(936d)en ta kaka hina elth(8869) ta agatha). The
volitive aorist subjunctive (poi(8873)(936d)en) and the clause of
purpose (hina and the aorist subjunctive elth(8869)). It sounds
almost uncanny to find this maxim of the Jesuits attributed to
Paul in the first century by Jews. It was undoubtedly the
accusation of Antinomianism because Paul preached justification
by faith and not by works.

經文:

羅馬書 3:9-3:9

註釋:

 {What then?} (	i oun?). Paul's frequent query, to be taken
with verses  1,2 . {Are we in worse case than they?}
(proechometha?). The American Revisers render it: "Are we in
better case than they?" There is still no fresh light on this
difficult and common word though it occurs alone in the N.T. In
the active it means to have before, to excel. But here it is
either middle or passive. Thayer takes it to be middle and to
mean to excel to one's advantage and argues that the context
demands this. But no example of the middle in this sense has been
found. If it is taken as passive, Lightfoot takes it to mean,
"Are we excelled" and finds that sense in Plutarch. Vaughan takes
it as passive but meaning, "Are we preferred?" This suits the
context, but no other example has been found. So the point
remains unsettled. The papyri throw no light on it. {No, in no
wise} (ou pant(9373)). "Not at all." See  1Co 5:10 . {We before
laid to the charge} (pro(8869)tiasametha). First aorist middle
indicative of proaitiaomai, to make a prior accusation, a word
not yet found anywhere else. Paul refers to  1:18-32  for the
Greeks and  2:1-29  for the Jews. The infinitive einai with the
accusative pantas is in indirect discourse. {Under sin} (hupo
hamartian). See  Ga 3:22  Ro 7:14 .

經文:

羅馬書 3:10-3:10

註釋:

 {As it is written} (kath(9373) gegraptai hoti). Usual formula
of quotation as in verse  4  with recitative hoti added as in
verse  8 . Paul here uses a catena or chain of quotations to
prove his point in verse  9  that Jews are in no better fix than
the Greeks for all are under sin. Dr. J. Rendel Harris has shown
that the Jews and early Christians had _Testimonia_ (quotations
from the Old Testament) strung together for certain purposes as
proof-texts. Paul may have used one of them or he may have put
these passages together himself. Verses  10-12  come from  Ps
14:1-3 ; first half of  13  as far as edoliousan from  Ps 4:9 ,
the second half from  Ps 140:3 ; verse  14  from  Ps 10:7 ;
 15-17  from an abridgment of  Isa 59:7f. ; verse  18  from  Ps
35:1 . Paul has given compounded quotations elsewhere ( 2Co 6:16  Ro 9:25f.,27f  11:26f.,34f.  12:19f. ). Curiously enough this
compounded quotation was imported bodily into the text (LXX) of
 Ps 14  after verse 4 in Aleph B, etc. {There is none righteous,
no, not one} (ouk estin dikaios oude heis). "There is not a
righteous man, not even one." This sentence is like a motto for
all the rest, a summary for what follows.

經文:

羅馬書 3:11-3:11

註釋:

 {That understandeth} (suni(936e)). Present active participle
of suni(935c), late omega form of -mi verb suni(886d)i, to send
together, to grasp, to comprehend. Some MSS. have the article
ho before it as before ekz(8874)(936e) (seeking out).

經文:

羅馬書 3:12-3:12

註釋:

 {They are together become unprofitable} (hama
(8863)hre(9374)h(8873)an). First aorist passive indicative of achreo(935c).
Late word in Polybius and Cilician inscription of first century
A.D. Some MSS. read (8863)hrei(9374)h(8873)an from achreios, useless (a
privative and chreios, useful) as in  Lu 17:10  Mt 25:30 , but
Westcott and Hort print as above from the rarer spelling
achreos. Only here in N.T. The Hebrew word means to go bad,
become sour like milk (Lightfoot). {No, not so much as one} (ouk
estin he(9373) henos). "There is not up to one."

經文:

羅馬書 3:13-3:13

註釋:

 {Throat} (larugx). Old word, larynx. {Open sepulchre}
(	aphos ane(9369)gmenos). Perfect passive participle of anoig(935c),
"an opened grave." Their mouth (words) like the odour of a newly
opened grave. "Some portions of Greek and Roman literature stink
like a newly opened grave" (Shedd). {They have used deceit}
(edoliousan). Imperfect (not perfect or aorist as the English
implies) active of dolio(935c), only in LXX and here in the N.T.
from the common adjective dolios, deceitful ( 2Co 11:13 ). The
regular form would be edolioun. The -osan ending for third
plural in imperfect and aorist was once thought to be purely
Alexandrian because so common in the LXX, but it is common in the
Boeotian and Aeolic dialects and occurs in eichosan in the N.T.
( Joh 15:22,24 ). "They smoothed their tongues" in the Hebrew.
{Poison} (ios). Old word both for rust ( Jas 5:3 ) and poison
( Jas 3:8 ). {Of asps} (aspid(936e)). Common word for round bowl,
shield, then the Egyptian cobra (a deadly serpent). Often in LXX.
Only here in the N.T. The poison of the asp lies in a bag under
the lips (cheil(885c)), often in LXX, only here in N.T. Genitive
case after gemei (is full).

經文:

羅馬書 3:15-3:15

註釋:

 {To shed} (ekcheai). First aorist active infinitive of
ekche(935c), to pour out, old verb with aorist active exechea.

經文:

羅馬書 3:16-3:16

註釋:

 {Destruction} (suntrimma). Rare word from suntrib(935c), to
rub together, to crush. In  Le 21:19  for fracture and so in
papyri. Only here in N.T. {Misery} (	alaip(9372)ia). Common word
from 	alaip(9372)os ( Ro 7:24 ), only here in the N.T.

經文:

羅馬書 3:17-3:17

註釋:

 {The way of peace} (hodon eir(886e)(8873)). Wherever they go they
leave a trail of woe and destruction (Denney).

經文:

羅馬書 3:18-3:18

註釋:

 {Before} (apenanti). Late double compound (apo, en,
anti) adverbial preposition in LXX and Polybius, papyri and
inscriptions. With genitive as here.

經文:

羅馬書 3:19-3:19

註釋:

 {That every mouth may be stopped} (hina p(836e) stoma
phrag(8869)). Purpose clause with hina and second aorist passive
subjunctive of phrass(935c), old verb to fence in, to block up. See
 2Co 11:10 . Stopping mouths is a difficult business. See  Tit
1:11  where Paul uses epistomizein (to stop up the mouth) for
the same idea. Paul seems here to be speaking directly to Jews
(	ois en t(9369) nom(9369)), the hardest to convince. With the previous
proof on that point he covers the whole ground for he made the
case against the Gentiles in  1:18-32 . {May be brought under the
judgement of God} (hupodikos gen(8874)ai t(9369) the(9369)). "That all the
world (Jew as well as Gentile) may become (gen(8874)ai) answerable
(hupodikos, old forensic word, here only in N.T.) to God
(dative case 	(9369) the(9369))." Every one is "liable to God," in
God's court.

經文:

羅馬書 3:20-3:20

註釋:

 {Because} (dioti, again, dia, hoti). {By the works of
the law} (ex erg(936e) nomou). "Out of works of law." Mosaic law
and any law as the source of being set right with God. Paul
quotes  Ps 43:2  as he did in  Ga 2:16  to prove his point. {The
knowledge of sin} (epign(9373)is hamartias). The effect of law
universally is rebellion to it ( 1Co 15:56 ). Paul has shown this
carefully in  Ga 3:19-22 . Cf.  Heb 10:3 . He has now proven the
guilt of both Gentile and Jew.

經文:

羅馬書 3:21-3:21

註釋:

 {But now apart from the law} (
uni de ch(9372)is nomou). He
now (
uni emphatic logical transition) proceeds carefully in
verses  21-31  the {nature} of the God-kind of righteousness
which stands manifested (dikaiosun(8820)theou pephaner(9374)ai, perfect
passive indicative of phanero(935c), to make manifest), the
{necessity} of which he has shown in  1:18-3:20 . This God kind
of righteousness is "apart from law" of any kind and all of grace
(chariti) as he will show in verse  24 . But it is not a new
discovery on the part of Paul, but "witnessed by the law and the
prophets" (marturoumen(885c), present passive participle, hupo tou
nomou kai t(936e) proph(8874)(936e)), made plain continuously by God
himself.

經文:

羅馬書 3:22-3:22

註釋:

 {Even} (de). Not adversative here. It defines here.
{Through faith in Jesus Christ} (dia piste(9373) [I(8873)ou] Christou).
Intermediate agency (dia) is faith and objective genitive, "in
Jesus Christ," not subjective "of Jesus Christ," in spite of
Haussleiter's contention for that idea. The objective nature of
faith in Christ is shown in  Ga 2:16  by the addition eis
Christon I(8873)oun episteusamen (we believed in Christ), by 	(8873)
eis Christon piste(9373) hum(936e) (of your faith in Christ) in  Col
2:5 , by en pistei t(8869) en Christ(9369) I(8873)ou (in faith that in
Christ Jesus) in  1Ti 3:13 , as well as here by the added words
"unto all them that believe" (eis pantas tous pisteuontas) in
Jesus, Paul means. {Distinction} (diastol(885c)). See on 氣Co 14:7|
for the difference of sounds in musical instruments. Also in  Ro
10:12 . The Jew was first in privilege as in penalty ( 2:9f. ),
but justification or setting right with God is offered to both on
the same terms.

經文:

羅馬書 3:23-3:23

註釋:

 {Sinned} (h(8872)marton). Constative second aorist active
indicative of hamartan(935c) as in  5:12 . This tense gathers up the
whole race into one statement (a timeless aorist). {And fall
short} (kai husterountai). Present middle indicative of
hustere(935c), to be husteros (comparative) too late, continued
action, still fall short. It is followed by the ablative case as
here, the case of separation.

經文:

羅馬書 3:24-3:24

註釋:

 {Being justified} (dikaioumenoi). Present passive
participle of dikaio(935c), to set right, repeated action in each
case, each being set right. {Freely} (d(9372)ean). As in  Ga 2:21 .
{By his grace} (	(8869) autou chariti). Instrumental case of this
wonderful word charis which so richly expresses Paul's idea of
salvation as God's free gift. {Through the redemption} (dia t(8873)
apolutr(9373)e(9373)). A releasing by ransom (apo, lutr(9373)is from
lutro(935c) and that from lutron, ransom). God did not set men
right out of hand with nothing done about men's sins. We have the
words of Jesus that he came to give his life a ransom (lutron)
for many ( Mr 10:45  Mt 20:28 ). Lutron is common in the papyri
as the purchase-money in freeing slaves (Deissmann, _Light from
the Ancient East_, pp. 327f.). {That is in Christ Jesus} (	(8869) en
Christ(9369) I(8873)ou). There can be no mistake about this redemption.
It is like  Joh 3:16 .

經文:

羅馬書 3:25-3:25

註釋:

 1Jo
2:2 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
2' or engs='1Jo
2'
經文:

羅馬書 3:26-3:26

註釋:

 {For the shewing} (pros t(886e) endeixin). Repeats point of
eis endeixin of  25  with pros instead of eis. {At this
present season} (en t(9369) nun kair(9369)). "In the now crisis," in
contrast with "done aforetime." {That he might himself be} (eis
to einai auton). Purpose with eis to and the infinitive
einai and the accusative of general reference. {Just and the
justifier of} (dikaion kai dikaiounta). "This is the key phrase
which establishes the connexion between the dikaiosun(8820)theou
and the dikaiosun(8820)ek piste(9373)" (Sanday and Headlam). Nowhere
has Paul put the problem of God more acutely or profoundly. To
pronounce the unrighteous righteous is unjust by itself ( Ro
4:5 ). God's mercy would not allow him to leave man to his fate.
God's justice demanded some punishment for sin. The only possible
way to save some was the propitiatory offering of Christ and the
call for faith on man's part.

經文:

羅馬書 3:27-3:27

註釋:

 {It is excluded} (exekleisth(885c)). First aorist (effective)
passive indicative. "It is completely shut out." Glorying is on
man's part. {Nay; but by a law of faith} (ouchi, alla dia nomou
piste(9373)). Strong negative, and note "law of faith," by the
principle of faith in harmony with God's love and grace.

經文:

羅馬書 3:28-3:28

註釋:

 {We reckon therefore} (logizometha oun). Present middle
indicative. Westcott and Hort read gar instead of oun. "My
fixed opinion" is. The accusative and infinitive construction
occurs after logizometha here. On this verb logizomai, see
 2:3  4:3f.  8:18  14:14 . Paul restates verses  21f .

經文:

羅馬書 3:29-3:29

註釋:

 {Of Gentiles also} (kai ethn(936e)). Jews overlooked it then
and some Christians do now.

經文:

羅馬書 3:30-3:30

註釋:

 {If so be that God is one} (eiper heis ho theos). Correct
text rather than epeiper. It means "if on the whole." "By a
species of rhetorical politeness it is used of that about which
there is no doubt" (Thayer. Cf.  1Co 8:5  15:15  Ro 8:9 . {By
faith} (ek piste(9373)). "Out of faith," springing out of. {Through
faith} (dia t(8873) piste(9373)). "By means of the faith" (just
mentioned). Ek denotes source, dia intermediate agency or
attendant circumstance.

經文:

羅馬書 3:31-3:31

註釋:

 {Nay, we establish the law} (alla nomon histanomen).
Present indicative active of late verb histan(935c) from hist(886d)i.
This Paul hinted at in verse  21 . How he will show in chapter 4
how Abraham himself is an example of faith and in his life
illustrates the very point just made. Besides, apart from Christ
and the help of the Holy Spirit no one can keep God's law. The
Mosaic law is only workable by faith in Christ.

經文:

羅馬書 4:1-4:1

註釋:

 {What then shall we say?} (	i oun eroumen?). Paul is fond
of this rhetorical question ( 4:1  6:1  7:7  8:31  9:14,30 ).
{Forefather} (propatora). Old word, only here in N.T.
Accusative case in apposition with Abraam (accusative of
general reference with the infinitive). {Hath found}
(heur(886b)enai). Westcott and Hort put heur(886b)enai in the margin
because B omits it, a needless precaution. It is the perfect
active infinitive of heurisk(935c) in indirect discourse after
eroumen. The MSS. differ in the position of kata sarka.

經文:

羅馬書 4:2-4:2

註釋:

 {The Scripture} (h(8820)graph(885c)).  Ge 15:6 . {Was justified by
works} (ex erg(936e) edikai(9374)h(885c)). Condition of first class, assumed
as true for the sake of argument, though untrue in fact. The
rabbis had a doctrine of the merits of Abraham who had a
superfluity of credits to pass on to the Jews ( Lu 3:8 ). {But
not towards God} (all' ou pros theon). Abraham deserved all the
respect from men that came to him, but his relation to God was a
different matter. He had _there_ no ground of boasting at all.

經文:

羅馬書 4:3-4:3

註釋:

 {It was reckoned unto him for righteousness} (elogisth(8820)eis
dikaiosun(886e)). First aorist passive indicative of logizomai,
old and common verb to set down accounts (literally or
metaphorically). It was set down on the credit side of the ledger
"for" (eis as often) righteousness. What was set down? His
believing God (episteusen t(9369) the(9369)).

經文:

羅馬書 4:4-4:4

註釋:

 {But as of debt} (alla kata opheil(886d)a). An illustration of
the workman (ergazomen(9369)) who gets his wages due him, "not as
of grace" (ou kata charin).

經文:

羅馬書 4:5-4:5

註釋:

 {That justifieth the ungodly} (	on dikaiounta ton aseb(885c)).
The impious, irreverent man. See  1:25 . A forensic figure
(Shedd). The man is taken as he is and pardoned. "The whole
Pauline gospel could be summed up in this one word-- God who
justifies the ungodly" (Denney).

經文:

羅馬書 4:6-4:6

註釋:

 {Pronounceth blessing} (legei ton makarismon). old word
from makariz(935c), to pronounce blessed ( Lu 1:48 ), felicitation,
congratulation, in N.T. only here, verse  9  Ac 4:15 .

經文:

羅馬書 4:7-4:7

註釋:

 {Blessed} (makarioi). See on  Mt 5:3 . {Are forgiven}
(apheth(8873)an). First aorist passive indicative of aphi(886d)i,
without augment (apheith(8873)an, regular form). Paul quotes  Ps
32:1f.  and as from David. Paul thus confirms his interpretation
of  Ge 15:6 . {Iniquities} (anomiai). Violations of law whereas
hamartiai (sins) include all kinds. {Are covered}
(epekaluphth(8873)an). First aorist passive of epikalupt(935c), old
verb, to cover over (upon, epi) as a shroud. Only here in N.T.

經文:

羅馬書 4:8-4:8

註釋:

 {To whom} (h(9369)). But the best MSS. read hou like the LXX
and so Westcott and Hort, "whose sin." {Will not reckon} (ou m(880a)logis(8874)ai). Strong negation by double negative and aorist middle
subjunctive.

經文:

羅馬書 4:9-4:9

註釋:

 {Is this blessing then pronounced?} (ho makarismos oun
houtos?). "Is this felicitation then?" There is no verb in the
Greek. Paul now proceeds to show that Abraham was said in  Ge
15:6  to be set right with God by faith _before_ he was
circumcised.

經文:

羅馬書 4:10-4:10

註釋:

 {When he was in circumcision} (en peritom(8869) onti). Dative
masculine singular of the present active participle of eimi;
"to him being in a state of circumcision or in a state of
uncircumcision?" A pertinent point that the average Jew had not
noticed.

經文:

羅馬書 4:11-4:11

註釋:

 1Co
9:2 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
9' or engs='1Co
9'
經文:

羅馬書 4:12-4:12

註釋:

 {The father of circumcision} (patera peritom(8873)). The
accusative with eis to einai to be repeated from verse  11 .
Lightfoot takes it to mean, not "a father of a circumcised
progeny," but "a father belonging to circumcision," a less
natural interpretation. {But who also walk} (alla kai tois
stoichousin). The use of 	ois here is hard to explain, for ou
monon and alla kai both come after the preceding 	ois. All
the MSS. have it thus. A primitive error in a copyist is
suggested by Hort who would omit the second 	ois. Lightfoot
regards it less seriously and would repeat the second 	ois in
the English: "To those who are, I do not say of circumcision
only, but also to those who walk." {In the steps} (	ois
ichnesin). Locative case. See on 氧Co 12:18|. Stoiche(935c) is
military term, to walk in file as in  Ga 5:25  Php 3:16 .

經文:

羅馬書 4:13-4:13

註釋:

 {That he should be the heir of the world} (	o kl(8872)onomon
auton einai kosmou). The articular infinitive (	o einai) with
the accusative of general reference in loose apposition with h(880a)epaggelia (the promise). But where is that promise? Not just  Ge
12:7 , but the whole chain of promises about his son, his
descendants like the stars in heaven, the Messiah and the
blessing to the world through him. In these verses ( 13-17 ) Paul
employs (Sanday and Headlam) the keywords of his gospel (faith,
promise, grace) and arrays them against the current Jewish
theology (law, works, merit).

經文:

羅馬書 4:14-4:14

註釋:

 {Be heirs} (kl(8872)onomoi). No predicate in the Greek
(eisin). See on 涊a 4:1|. If legalists are heirs of the
Messianic promise to Abraham (condition of first class, assumed
as true for argument's sake), the faith is emptied of all meaning
(keken(9374)ai, perfect passive indicative of keno(935c)) and the
promise to Abraham is made permanently idle (kat(8872)g(8874)ai).

經文:

羅馬書 4:15-4:15

註釋:

 {Worketh wrath} (org(886e) katergazetai). Because of
disobedience to it. {Neither is there transgression} (oude
parabasis). There is no responsibility for the violation of a
non-existent law.

經文:

羅馬書 4:16-4:16

註釋:

 {Of faith} (ek piste(9373)). As the source. {According to
grace} (kata charin). As the pattern. {To the end that} (eis
to einai). Purpose again as in  11 . {Sure} (ebaian). Stable,
fast, firm. Old adjective from ain(935c), to walk. {Not to that
only which is of the law} (ou t(9369) ek tou nomou monon). Another
instance where monon (see verse  12 ) seems in the wrong place.
Normally the order would be, ou monon t(9369) ek tou nomou, alla kai
ktl.

經文:

羅馬書 4:17-4:17

註釋:

 {A father of many nations} (patera poll(936e) ethn(936e)).
Quotation from  Ge 17:5 . Only true in the sense of spiritual
children as already explained, father of believers in God.
{Before him whom he believed even God} (katenanti hou episteusen
theou). Incorporation of antecedent into the relative clause and
attraction of the relative h(9369) into hou. See  Mr 11:2  for
katenanti, "right in front of." {Calleth the things that are
not as though they were} (kalountos ta m(8820)onta h(9373) onta).
"Summons the non-existing as existing." Abraham's body was old
and decrepit. God rejuvenated him and Sarah ( Heb 11:19 ).

經文:

羅馬書 4:18-4:18

註釋:

 {In hope believed against hope} (par' elpida ep' elpidi
episteusen). "Past hope in (upon) hope he trusted." Graphic
picture. {To the end that he might become} (eis to genesthai
auton). Purpose clause again with eis to and the infinitive as
in verses  11-16 .

經文:

羅馬書 4:19-4:19

註釋:

 {Without being weakened in faith} (m(8820)asthen(8873)as t(8869)
pistei). "Not becoming weak in faith." Ingressive first aorist
active participle with negative m(885c). {Now as good as dead} ((8864)(880a)nenekr(936d)enon). Perfect passive participle of 
ekro(935c), "now
already dead." B omits (8864)(885c). He was, he knew, too old to become
father of a child. {About} (pou). The addition of pou
(somewhere, about) "qualifies the exactness of the preceding
numeral" (Vaughan). The first promise of a son to Abraham and
Sarah came ( Ge 15:3f. ) before the birth of Ishmael (86 when
Ishmael was born). The second promise came when Abraham was 99
years old ( Ge 17:1 ), calling himself 100 ( Ge 17:17 ).

經文:

羅馬書 4:20-4:20

註釋:

 {He wavered not through unbelief} (ou diekrith(8820)t(8869)
apisti(8369)). First aorist passive indicative of old and common
verb diakrin(935c), to separate, to distinguish between, to decide
between, to desert, to dispute, to be divided in one's own mind.
This last sense occurs here as in  Mt 21:22  Mr 11:23  Ro 14:23  Jas 1:6 . "He was not divided in his mind by unbelief"
(instrumental case). {Waxed strong through faith} (enedunam(9374)h(880a)t(8869) pistei). First aorist passive again of endunamo(935c), late
word to empower, to put power in, in LXX and Paul and  Ac 9:22 .

經文:

羅馬書 4:21-4:21

註釋:

 {Being fully assured} (pl(8872)ophor(8874)heis). First aorist
passive participle of pl(8872)ophore(935c), from pl(8872)ophoros and this
from pl(8872)(8873) and pher(935c), to bear or bring full (full measure),
to settle fully. Late word, first in LXX but frequent in papyri
in sense of finishing off or paying off. See on 烊u 1:1; Ro
14:5|. {What he had promised} (ho ep(8867)geltai). Perfect middle
indicative of epaggellomai, to promise, retained in indirect
discourse according to usual Greek idiom. {He was able} (dunatos
estin). Present active indicative retained in indirect
discourse. The verbal adjective dunatos with estin is here
used in sense of the verb dunatai ( Lu 14:31  Ac 11:17 ).

經文:

羅馬書 4:23-4:23

註釋:

 {That} (hoti). Either recitative or declarative hoti. It
makes sense either way.

經文:

羅馬書 4:24-4:24

註釋:

 {Him that raised up Jesus} (	on egeiranta I(8873)oun). First
aorist active articular participle of egeir(935c), to raise up. The
fact of the Resurrection of Jesus is central in Paul's gospel
( 1Co 15:4ff. ).

經文:

羅馬書 4:25-4:25

註釋:

 {For our justification} (dia t(886e) dikai(9373)in h(886d)(936e)). The
first clause (paredoth(8820)dia ta parapt(936d)ata) is from  Isa
53:12 . The first dia with parapt(936d)ata is probably
retrospective, though it will make sense as prospective (to make
atonement for our transgressions). The second dia is quite
clearly prospective with a view to our justification. Paul does
not mean to separate the resurrection from the death of Christ in
the work of atonement, but simply to show that the resurrection
is at one with the death on the Cross in proof of Christ's
claims.

經文:

羅馬書 5:1-5:1

註釋:

 {Being therefore justified by faith} (dikai(9374)hentes oun ek
piste(9373)). First aorist passive participle of dikaio(935c), to set
right and expressing antecedent action to the verb ech(936d)en. The
oun refers to the preceding conclusive argument (chapters 1 to
4) that this is done by faith. {Let us have peace with God}
(eir(886e)(886e) ech(936d)en pros ton theon). This is the correct text
beyond a doubt, the present active subjunctive, not echomen
(present active indicative) of the Textus Receptus which even the
American Standard Bible accepts. It is curious how perverse many
real scholars have been on this word and phrase here. Godet, for
instance. Vincent says that "it is difficult if not impossible to
explain it." One has only to observe the force of the _tense_ to
see Paul's meaning clearly. The mode is the volitive subjunctive
and the present tense expresses linear action and so does not
mean "make peace" as the ingressive aorist subjunctive eir(886e)(886e)
sch(936d)en would mean. A good example of sch(936d)en occurs in  Mt
21:38  (sch(936d)en t(886e) kl(8872)onomian autou) where it means: "Let us
get hold of his inheritance." Here eir(886e)(886e) ech(936d)en can only
mean: "Let us enjoy peace with God" or "Let us retain peace with
God." We have in  Ac 9:31  eichen eir(886e)(886e) (imperfect and so
linear), the church "enjoyed peace," not "made peace." The
preceding justification (dikai(9374)hentes) "made peace with God."
Observe pros (face to face) with 	on theon and dia
(intermediate agent) with 	ou kuriou.

經文:

羅馬書 5:2-5:2

註釋:

 {We have had} (esch(886b)amen). Perfect active indicative of
ech(935c) (same verb as ech(936d)en), still have it. {Our access}
(	en prosag(9367)(886e)). Old word from prosag(935c), to bring to, to
introduce. Hence "introduction," "approach." Elsewhere in N.T.
only  Eph 2:18  3:12 . {Wherein we stand} (en h(8869) hest(886b)amen).
Perfect active (intransitive) indicative of hist(886d)i. Grace is
here present as a field into which we have been introduced and
where we stand and we should enjoy all the privileges of this
grace about us. {Let us rejoice} (kauch(936d)etha). "Let us exult."
Present middle subjunctive (volitive) because ech(936d)en is
accepted as correct. The exhortation is that we keep on enjoying
peace with God and keep on exulting in hope of the glory of God.

經文:

羅馬書 5:3-5:3

註釋:

 {But let us also rejoice in our tribulations} (alla kai
kauch(936d)etha en tais thlipsesin). Present middle subjunctive of
same verb as in verse  2 . Kauch(936d)ai is more than "rejoice,"
rather "glory," "exult." These three volitive subjunctives
(ech(936d)en, kauch(936d)etha, twice) hold up the high ideal for the
Christian after, and because of, his being set right with God. It
is one thing to submit to or endure tribulations without
complaint, but it is another to find ground of glorying in the
midst of them as Paul exhorts here.

經文:

羅馬書 5:4-5:4

註釋:

 {Knowing} (eidotes). Second perfect participle of eidon
(oida), giving the reason for the previous exhortation to glory
in tribulations. He gives a linked chain, one linking to the
other (tribulation 	hlipsis, patience hupomon(885c), experience
dokim(885c), hope elpis) running into verse  5 . On dokim(885c), see
 2Co 2:9 .

經文:

羅馬書 5:5-5:5

註釋:

 {Hath been shed abroad} (ekkechutai). Perfect passive
indicative of ekche(935c), to pour out. "Has been poured out" in our
hearts.

經文:

羅馬書 5:6-5:6

註釋:

 {For} (eti gar). So most documents, but B reads ei ge
which Westcott and Hort use in place of gar. {While we were yet
weak} (ont(936e) h(886d)(936e) asthen(936e) eti). Genitive absolute. The second
eti (yet) here probably gave rise to the confusion of text over
eti gar above. {In due season} (kata kairon). Christ came
into the world at the proper time, the fulness of the time ( Ga
4:4  Eph 1:10  Tit 1:3 ). {I or the ungodly} (huper aseb(936e)). In
behalf, instead of. See about huper on  Ga 3:13  and also verse
 7  here.

經文:

羅馬書 5:7-5:7

註釋:

 {Scarcely} (molis). Common adverb from molos, toil. See
on  Ac 14:18 . As between dikaios, righteous, and agathos,
good, Lightfoot notes "all the difference in the world" which he
shows by quotations from Plato and Christian writers, a
difference of sympathy mainly, the dikaios man being
"absolutely without sympathy" while the agathos man "is
beneficent and kind." {Would even dare} (kai tolm(8369)). Present
active indicative of 	olma(935c), to have courage. "Even dares to."
Even so in the case of the kindly sympathetic man courage is
called for to make the supreme sacrifice. {Perhaps} (	acha).
Common adverb (perhaps instrumental case) from 	achus (swift).
Only here in N.T.

經文:

羅馬書 5:8-5:8

註釋:

 {His own love} (	(886e) heautou agap(886e)). See  Joh 3:16  as the
best comment here. {While we were yet sinners} (eti hamart(936c)(936e)
ont(936e)). Genitive absolute again. Not because we were Jews or
Greeks, rich or poor, righteous or good, but plain sinners. Cf.
 Lu 18:13 , the plea of the publican, "moi t(9369) hamart(936c)(9369)."

經文:

羅馬書 5:9-5:9

註釋:

 {Much more then} (poll(9369) oun mallon). Argument from the
greater to the less. The great thing is the justification in
Christ's blood. The final salvation (s(9374)h(8873)ometha, future
passive indicative) is less of a mystery.

經文:

羅馬書 5:10-5:10

註釋:

 {We were reconciled to God} (kat(886c)lag(886d)en t(9369) the(9369)).
Second aorist passive indicative of katallass(935c) for which great
Pauline word see on 氧Co 5:18f|. The condition is the first
class. Paul does not conceive it as his or our task to reconcile
God to us. God has attended to that himself ( Ro 3:25f. ). We
become reconciled to God by means of the death of God's Son.
"Much more" again we shall be saved "by his life" (en t(8869) z(9388)i
autou). "In his life," for he does live, "ever living to
intercede for them" ( Heb 7:25 ).

經文:

羅馬書 5:11-5:11

註釋:

 {But also glorying in God} (alla kai kauch(936d)enoi en t(9369)
the(9369)). Basis of all the exultation above (verses  1-5 ).
{Through whom we have now received the reconciliation} (di hou
nun t(886e) katallag(886e) elabomen). Second aorist active indicative of
lamban(935c), looked at as a past realization, "now" (
un) in
contrast with the future consummation and a sure pledge and
guarantee of it.

經文:

羅馬書 5:12-5:12

註釋:

 {Therefore} (dia touto). "For this reason." What reason?
Probably the argument made in verses  1-11 , assuming our
justification and urging exultant joy in Christ because of the
present reconciliation by Christ's death and the certainty of
future final salvation by his life. {As through one man} (h(9373)per
di' henos anthr(9370)ou). Paul begins a comparison between the
effects of Adam's sin and the effects of the redemptive work of
Christ, but he does not give the second member of the comparison.
Instead of that he discusses some problems about sin and death
and starts over again in verse  15 . The general point is plain
that the effects of Adam's sin are transmitted to his
descendants, though he does not say how it was done whether by
the natural or the federal headship of Adam. It is important to
note that Paul does not say that the whole race receives the full
benefit of Christ's atoning death, but only those who do. Christ
is the head of all believers as Adam is the head of the race. In
this sense Adam "is a figure of him that was to come." {Sin
entered into the world} (h(8820)hamartia eis ton kosmon eis(886c)then).
Personification of sin and represented as coming from the outside
into the world of humanity. Paul does not discuss the origin of
evil beyond this fact. There are some today who deny the fact of
sin at all and who call it merely "an error of mortal mind" (a
notion) while others regard it as merely an animal inheritance
devoid of ethical quality. {And so death passed unto all men}
(kai hout(9373) eis pantas anthr(9370)ous di(886c)then). Note use of
dierchomai rather than eiserchomai, just before, second
aorist active indicative in both instances. By "death" in  Ge
2:17  3:19  physical death is meant, but in verses  17,21 
eternal death is Paul's idea and that lurks constantly behind
physical death with Paul. {For that all sinned} (eph' h(9369) pantes
h(886d)arton). Constative (summary) aorist active indicative of
hamartan(935c), gathering up in this one tense the history of the
race (committed sin). The transmission from Adam became facts of
experience. In the old Greek eph' h(9369) usually meant "on
condition that," but "because" in N.T. (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
963).

經文:

羅馬書 5:13-5:13

註釋:

 {Until the law} (achri nomou). Until the Mosaic law. Sin
was there before the Mosaic law, for the Jews were like Gentiles
who had the law of reason and conscience ( 2:12-16 ), but the
coming of the law increased their responsibility and their guilt
( 2:9 ). {Sin is not imputed} (hamartia de ouk ellogeitai).
Present passive indicative of late verb elloga(935c) (-e(935c)) from
en and logos, to put down in the ledger to one's account,
examples in inscription and papyri. {When there is no law} (m(880a)ontos nomou). Genitive absolute, no law of any kind, he means.
There was law _before_ the Mosaic law. But what about infants and
idiots in case of death? Do they have responsibility? Surely not.
The sinful nature which they inherit is met by Christ's atoning
death and grace. No longer do men speak of "elect infants."

經文:

羅馬書 5:14-5:14

註釋:

 {Even over them that had not sinned after the likeness of
Adam's transgression} (kai epi tous m(8820)hamart(8873)antas epi t(9369)
homoi(936d)ati t(8873) parabase(9373) Adam). Adam violated an express
command of God and Moses gave the law of God clearly. And yet sin
and death followed all from Adam on till Moses, showing clearly
that the sin of Adam brought terrible consequences upon the race.
Death has come upon infants and idiots also as a result of sin,
but one understands Paul to mean that they are not held
responsible by the law of conscience. {A figure} (	upos). See
on 涉c 7:43; 1Th 1:7; 2Th 3:9; 1Co 10:6| for this word. Adam is a
type of Christ in holding a relation to those affected by the
headship in each case, but the parallel is not precise as Paul
shows.

經文:

羅馬書 5:15-5:15

註釋:

 {But not as the trespass} (all' ouch h(9373)). It is more
contrast than parallel: "the trespass" (	o parapt(936d)a, the slip,
fall to one side) over against the free gift (	o charisma, of
grace charis). {Much more} (poll(9369) mallon). Another _a
fortiori_ argument. Why so? As a God of love he delights {much
more} in showing mercy and pardon than in giving just punishment
(Lightfoot). The gift surpasses the sin. It is not necessary to
Paul's argument to make "the many" in each case correspond, one
relates to Adam, the other to Christ.

經文:

羅馬書 5:16-5:16

註釋:

 {Through one that sinned} (di' henos hamart(8873)antos).
"Through one having sinned." That is Adam. Another contrast,
difference in source (ek). {Of one} (ex henos). Supply
parapt(936d)atos, Adam's one transgression. {Of many trespasses}
(ek poll(936e) parapt(936d)at(936e)). The gift by Christ grew out of
manifold sins by Adam's progeny. {Justification} (dikai(936d)a).
Act of righteousness, result, ordinance ( 1:32  2:26  8:4 ),
righteous deed ( 5:18 ), verdict as here (acquittal).

經文:

羅馬書 5:17-5:17

註釋:

 {Much more} (poll(9369) mallon). Argument _a fortiori_ again.
Condition of first class assumed to be true. Note balanced words
in the contrast (transgression parapt(936d)ati, grace charitos;
death 	hanatos, life z(9388)i; the one or {Adam} 	ou henos, the
one {Jesus Christ}; reign asileu(935c) in both).

經文:

羅馬書 5:18-5:18

註釋:

 {So then} (ara oun). Conclusion of the argument. Cf.
 7:3,25  8:12 , etc. Paul resumes the parallel between Adam and
Christ begun in verse  12  and interrupted by explanation
( 13f. ) and contrast ( 15-17 ). {Through one trespass} (di'
henos parapt(936d)atos). That of Adam. {Through one act of
righteousness} (di' henos dikai(936d)atos). That of Christ. The
first "unto all men" (eis pantas anthr(9370)ous) as in verse  12 ,
the second as in verse  17  "they that receive, etc."

經文:

羅馬書 5:19-5:19

註釋:

 2Co
10:6 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
10' or engs='2Co
10'
經文:

羅馬書 5:20-5:20

註釋:

 1Ti
1:14 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ti
1' or engs='1Ti
1'
經文:

羅馬書 5:21-5:21

註釋:

 {That--even so grace might reign} (hina--houtos kai h(880a)charis basileus(8869)). Final hina here, the purpose of God and
the goal for us through Christ. Lightfoot notes the force of the
aorist indicative (ebasileusen, established its throne) and the
aorist subjunctive (asileus(8869), might establish its throne),
the ingressive aorist both times. "This full rhetorical close has
almost the value of a doxology" (Denney).


經文:

羅馬書 6:1-6:1

註釋:

 {What shall we say then?} (	i oun eroumen?). "A debater's
phrase" (Morison). Yes, and an echo of the rabbinical method of
question and answer, but also an expression of exultant victory
of grace versus sin. But Paul sees the possible perversion of
this glorious grace. {Shall we continue in sin?} (epimen(936d)en t(8869)
hamarti(8369)?). Present active deliberative subjunctive of
epimen(935c), old verb to tarry as in Ephesus ( 1Co 16:8 ) with
locative case. The practice of sin as a habit (present tense) is
here raised. {That grace may abound} (hina h(8820)charis
pteonas(8869)). Final clause with ingressive aorist subjunctive, to
set free the superfluity of grace alluded to like putting money
in circulation. Horrible thought (m(8820)genoito) and yet Paul
faced it. There are occasionally so-called pietists who actually
think that God's pardon gives them liberty to sin without penalty
(cf. the sale of indulgences that stirred Martin Luther).

經文:

羅馬書 6:2-6:2

註釋:

 {Died to sin} (apethanomen t(8869) hamarti(8369)). Second aorist
active of apothn(8873)k(935c) and the dative case. When we surrendered
to Christ and took him as Lord and Saviour. Qualitative relative
(hoitines, we the very ones who). {How} (p(9373)). Rhetorical
question.

經文:

羅馬書 6:3-6:3

註釋:

 {Were baptized into Christ} (ebaptisth(886d)en eis Christon).
First aorist passive indicative of aptiz(935c). Better, "were
baptized unto Christ or in Christ." The translation "into" makes
Paul say that the union with Christ was brought to pass by means
of baptism, which is not his idea, for Paul was not a
sacramentarian. Eis is at bottom the same word as en. Baptism
is the public proclamation of one's inward spiritual relation to
Christ attained before the baptism. See on 涊a 3:27| where it is
like putting on an outward garment or uniform. {Into his death}
(eis ton thanaton autou). So here "unto his death," "in
relation to his death," which relation Paul proceeds to explain
by the symbolism of the ordinance.

經文:

羅馬書 6:4-6:4

註釋:

 {We were buried therefore with him by means of baptism unto
death} (sunetaph(886d)en oun aut(9369) dia tou baptismatos eis ton
thanaton). Second aorist passive indicative of sunthapt(935c), old
verb to bury together with, in N.T. only here and  Col 2:12 .
With associative instrumental case (aut(9369)) and "by means of
baptism unto death" as in verse  3 . {In newness of life} (en
kainot(8874)i z(9388)s). The picture in baptism points two ways,
backwards to Christ's death and burial and to our death to sin
(verse  1 ), forwards to Christ's resurrection from the dead and
to our new life pledged by the coming out of the watery grave to
walk on the other side of the baptismal grave (F. B. Meyer).
There is the further picture of our own resurrection from the
grave. It is a tragedy that Paul's majestic picture here has been
so blurred by controversy that some refuse to see it. It should
be said also that a symbol is not the reality, but the picture of
the reality.

經文:

羅馬書 6:5-6:5

註釋:

 {For if we have become united with him by the likeness of his
death} (ei gar sumphutoi gegonamen t(9369) homoi(936d)ati tou thanatou
autou). Condition of the first class, assumed to be true.
Sumphutoi is old verbal adjective from sumphu(935c), to grow
together. Baptism as a picture of death and burial symbolizes our
likeness to Christ in his death. {We shall be also united in the
likeness of his resurrection} (alla kai t(8873) anastase(9373)
esometha). The conclusion to the previous condition introduced
by alla kai as often and 	oi homoi(936d)ati (in the likeness)
must be understood before 	(8873) anastase(9373) (of his resurrection).
Baptism is a picture of the past and of the present and a
prophecy of the future, the matchless preacher of the new life in
Christ.

經文:

羅馬書 6:6-6:6

註釋:

 {Our old man} (ho palaios h(886d)(936e) anthr(9370)os). Only in Paul
(here,  Col 3:9  Eph 4:22 ). {Was crucified with him}
(sunestaur(9374)h(885c)). See on 涊a 2:19| for this boldly picturesque
word. This took place not at baptism, but only pictured there. It
took place when "we died to sin" (verse  1 ). {The body of sin}
(	o s(936d)a t(8873) hamartias). "The body of which sin has taken
possession" (Sanday and Headlam), the body marked by sin. {That
so we should no longer be in bondage to sin} (	ou m(886b)eti
douleuein h(886d)as t(8869) hamarti(8369)). Purpose clause with 	ou and
the present active infinitive of douleu(935c), continue serving sin
(as slaves). Adds "slavery" to living in sin (verse  2 ).

經文:

羅馬書 6:7-6:7

註釋:

 {Is justified} (dedikai(9374)ai). Perfect passive indicative of
dikaio(935c), stands justified, set free from, adding this great
word to death and life of verses  1,2 .

經文:

羅馬書 6:8-6:8

註釋:

 {With Christ} (sun Christ(9369)). As pictured by baptism, the
crucifixion with Christ of verse  6 .

經文:

羅馬書 6:9-6:9

註釋:

 {Dieth no more} (ouketi apothn(8873)kei). "Christ's particular
death occurs but once" (Shedd). See  Heb 10:10 . A complete
refutation of the "sacrificial" character of the "mass."

經文:

羅馬書 6:10-6:10

註釋:

 {The death that he died} (ho apethanen). Neuter relative,
cognative accusative with apethanen. {Once} (ephapax). Once
and once only ( Heb 9:26f. ), not pote (once upon a time). {The
life that he liveth} (ho z(8869)). Cognate accusative of the
relative.

經文:

羅馬書 6:11-6:11

註釋:

 {Reckon ye also yourselves} (kai humeis logizesthe).
Direct middle imperative of logizomai and complete proof that
Paul does not mean that baptism makes one dead to sin and alive
to God. That is a spiritual operation "in Christ Jesus" and only
pictured by baptism. This is a plea to live up to the ideal of
the baptized life.

經文:

羅馬書 6:12-6:12

註釋:

 {Reign} (asileuet(935c)). Present active imperative, "let not
sin continue to reign" as it did once ( 5:12 ). {Mortal}
(	hn(8874)oi). Verbal adjective from 	hn(8873)k(935c), subject to death.
The reign of sin is over with you. Self-indulgence is
inconsistent with trust in the vicarious atonement. {That ye
should obey} (eis to hupakouein). With a view to obeying.

經文:

羅馬書 6:13-6:13

註釋:

 {Neither present} (m(8864)e paristanete). Present active
imperative in prohibition of paristan(935c), late form of
parist(886d)i, to place beside. Stop presenting your members or do
not have the habit of doing so, "do not go on putting your
members to sin as weapons of unrighteousness." {Instruments}
(hopla). Old word for tools of any kind for shop or war ( Joh
18:3  2Co 6:7  10:4  Ro 13:12 ). Possibly here figure of two
armies arrayed against each other ( Ga 5:16-24 ), and see hopla
dikaiosun(8873) below. The two sets of hopla clash. {But present
yourselves unto God} (alla parast(8873)ate heautous t(9369) the(9369)).
First aorist active imperative of parist(886d)i, same verb, but
different tense, do it now and completely. Our "members" (mel(885c))
should be at the call of God "as alive from the dead."

經文:

羅馬書 6:14-6:14

註釋:

 {Shall not have dominion} (ou kurieusei). Future active
indicative of kurieu(935c), old verb from kurios, "shall not lord
it over you," even if not yet wholly dead. Cf.  2Co 1:24 .

經文:

羅馬書 6:15-6:15

註釋:

 {What then?} (	i oun?). Another turn in the argument about
the excess of grace. {Shall we sin?} (hamartes(936d)en?). First
aorist active deliberative subjunctive of hamartan(935c). "Shall we
commit sin" (occasional acts of sin as opposed to the life of sin
as raised by epimen(936d)en t(8869) hamarti(8369) in verse  1 )? {Because}
(hoti). The same reason as in verse  1  and taken up from the
very words in verse  14 . Surely, the objector says, we may take
a night off now and then and sin a little bit "since we are under
grace."

經文:

羅馬書 6:16-6:16

註釋:

 {His servants ye are whom ye obey} (douloi este h(9369)
hupakouete). Bondservants, slaves of the one whom ye obey,
whatever one's profession may be, traitors, spies sometimes they
are called. As Paul used the figure to illustrate death to sin
and resurrection to new life in Christ and not in sin, so now he
uses slavery against the idea of occasional lapses into sin.
Loyalty to Christ will not permit occasional crossing over to the
other side to Satan's line.

經文:

羅馬書 6:17-6:17

註釋:

 {Whereas ye were} ((8874)e). Imperfect but no "whereas" in the
Greek. Paul is not grateful that they were once slaves of sin,
but only that, though they once were, they turned from that
state. {To that form of doctrine whereunto ye were delivered}
(eis hon paredoth(8874)e tupon didach(8873)). Incorporation of the
antecedent (	upon didach(8873)) into the relative clause: "to which
form of doctrine ye were delivered." See on 氤:14| for 	upon.
It is hardly proper to take "form" here to refer to Paul's gospel
( 2:16 ), possibly an allusion to the symbolism of baptism which
was the outward sign of the separation.

經文:

羅馬書 6:18-6:18

註釋:

 {Ye became servants of righteousness} (edoul(9374)h(8874)e t(8869)
dikaiosun(8869)). First aorist passive indicative of doulo(935c), to
enslave. "Ye were made slaves to righteousness." You have simply
changed masters, no longer slaves of sin (set free from that
tyrant), but ye are slaves of righteousness. There is no middle
ground, no "no man's land" in this war.

經文:

羅馬書 6:19-6:19

註釋:

 {I speak after the manner of men} (anthr(9370)inon leg(935c)). "I
speak a human word." He begs pardon for using "slaving" in
connection with righteousness. But it is a good word, especially
for our times when self-assertiveness and personal liberty bulk
so large in modern speech. See  3:5  Ga 3:15  where he uses kata
anthr(9370)on. {Because of the infirmity of your flesh} (dia t(886e)
astheneian t(8873) sarkos hum(936e)). Because of defective spiritual
insight largely due to moral defects also. {Servants to
uncleanness} (doula t(8869) akatharsi(8369)). Neuter plural form of
doulos to agree with mel(885c) (members). Patently true in sexual
sins, in drunkenness, and all fleshly sins, absolutely slaves
like narcotic fiends. {So now} (hout(9373) nun). Now that you are
born again in Christ. Paul uses twice again the same verb
parist(886d)i, to present (parest(8873)ate, parast(8873)ate). {Servants
to righteousness} (doula t(8869) dikaiosun(8869)). Repeats the idea of
verse  18 . {Unto sanctification} (eis hagiasmon). This the
goal, the blessed consummation that demands and deserves the new
slavery without occasional lapses or sprees (verse  15 ). This
late word appears only in LXX, N.T., and ecclesiastical writers
so far. See on  1Th 4:3  1Co 1:30 . Paul includes sanctification
in his conception of the God-kind ( 1:17 ) of righteousness (both
justification,  1:18-5:21  and sanctification, chapters  6-8 ).
It is a life process of consecration, not an instantaneous act.
Paul shows that we ought to be sanctified ( 6:1-7:6 ) and
illustrates the obligation by death ( 6:1-14 ), by slavery
( 6:15-23 ), and by marriage ( 7:1-6 ).

經文:

羅馬書 6:20-6:20

註釋:

 {Free in regard of righteousness} (eleutheroi t(8869)
dikaiosun(8869)). Ye wore no collar of righteousness, but freely did
as ye pleased. They were "free." Note dative case, personal
relation, of dikaiosun(8869).

經文:

羅馬書 6:21-6:21

註釋:

 {What fruit then had ye at that time?} (	ina oun karpon
eichete tote?). Imperfect active, used to have. A pertinent
question. Ashes in their hands now. They are ashamed now of the
memory of them. The end of them is death.

經文:

羅馬書 6:22-6:22

註釋:

 {Ye have your fruit unto sanctification} (echete ton karpon
hum(936e) eis hagiasmon). Freedom from sin and slavery to God bring
permanent fruit that leads to sanctification. {And the end
eternal life} (	o de telos z(9388)n ai(936e)ion). Note accusative case
z(9388)n ai(936e)ion, object of echete (ye have), though 	hanatos
in contrast above is nominative.

經文:

羅馬書 6:23-6:23

註釋:

 {Wages} (ops(936e)ia). Late Greek for wages of soldier, here
of sin. See on 烊u 3:14; 1Co 9:7; 2Co 11:8|. Sin pays its wages
in full with no cut. But eternal life is God's gift (charisma),
not wages. Both 	hanatos and z(9388)n are {eternal} (ai(936e)ion).

經文:

羅馬書 7:1-7:1

註釋:

 {To men that know the law} (gin(9373)kousin nomon). Dative
plural of present active participle of gin(9373)k(935c). The Romans,
whether Jews or Gentiles, knew the principle of law. {A man}
(	ou anthr(9370)ou). "The person," generic term anthr(9370)os, not
an(8872).

經文:

羅馬書 7:2-7:2

註釋:

 {The wife that hath a husband} (h(8820)hupandros gun(885c)). Late
word, under (in subjection to) a husband. Here only in N.T. {Is
bound} (dedetai). Perfect passive indicative, stands bound. {By
law} (
om(9369)). Instrumental case. {To the husband while he
liveth} (	(9369) z(936e)ti andri). "To the living husband," literally.
{But if the husband die} (ean de apothan(8869) ho an(8872)). Third
class condition, a supposable case (ean and the second aorist
active subjunctive). {She is discharged} (kat(8872)g(8874)ai). Perfect
passive indicative of katarge(935c), to make void. She stands free
from the law of the husband. Cf.  6:6 .

經文:

羅馬書 7:3-7:3

註釋:

 {While the husband liveth} (z(936e)tos tou andros). Genitive
absolute of present active participle of za(935c). {She shall be
called} (chr(886d)atisei). Future active indicative of
chr(886d)atiz(935c), old verb, to receive a name as in  Ac 11:26 , from
chr(886d)a, business, from chraomai, to use, then to give an
oracle, etc. {An adulteress} (moichalis). Late word, in
Plutarch, LXX. See on 烘t 12:39|. {If she be joined} (ean
gen(8874)ai). Third class condition, "if she come to." {So that she
is no adulteress} (	ou m(8820)einai aut(886e) moichalida). It is a fact
that 	ou and the infinitive is used for result as we saw in
 1:24 . Conceived result may explain the idiom here.

經文:

羅馬書 7:4-7:4

註釋:

 {Ye also were made to the law} (kai humeis ethanat(9374)h(8874)e).
First aorist indicative passive of 	hanato(935c), old verb, to put
to death ( Mt 10:21 ) or to make to die (extinct) as here and  Ro
8:13 . The analogy calls for the death of the law, but Paul
refuses to say that. He changes the structure and makes them dead
to the law as the husband ( 6:3-6 ). The relation of marriage is
killed "through the body of Christ" as the "propitiation"
( 3:25 ) for us. Cf.  Col 1:22 . {That we should be joined to
another} (eis to genesthai heter(9369)). Purpose clause with eis
to and the infinitive. First mention of the saints as wedded to
Christ as their Husband occurs in  1Co 6:13  Ga 4:26 . See
further  Eph 5:22-33 . {That we might bring forth fruit unto God}
(hina karpophor(8873)(936d)en t(9369) the(9369)). He changes the metaphor to
that of the tree used in  6:22 .

經文:

羅馬書 7:5-7:5

註釋:

 {In the flesh} (en t(8869) sarki). Same sense as in  6:19  and
 7:18,25 . The "flesh" is not inherently sinful, but is subject
to sin. It is what Paul means by being "under the law." He uses
sarx in a good many senses. {Sinful passions} (	a path(886d)ata
t(936e) hamarti(936e)). "Passions of sins" or marked by sins. {Wrought}
(energeito). Imperfect middle of energe(935c), "were active." {To
bring forth fruit unto death} (eis to karpophor(8873)ai t(9369)
thanat(9369)). Purpose clause again. Vivid picture of the seeds of
sin working for death.

經文:

羅馬書 7:6-7:6

註釋:

 {But now} (
uni de). In the new condition. {Wherein we were
holden} (en h(9369) kateichometha). Imperfect passive of katech(935c),
picture of our former state (same verb in  1:18 ). {In newness of
spirit} (en kainot(8874)i pneumatos). The death to the letter of
the law (the old husband) has set us free to the new life in
Christ. So Paul has shown again the obligation on us to live for
Christ.

經文:

羅馬書 7:7-7:7

註釋:

 {Is the law sin?} (ho nomos hamartia?). A pertinent query
in view of what he had said. Some people today oppose all
inhibitions and prohibitions because they stimulate violations.
That is half-baked thinking. {I had not known sin} (	(886e)
hamartian ouk egn(936e)). Second aorist indicative of gin(9373)k(935c), to
know. It is a conclusion of a second class condition, determined
as unfulfilled. Usually an is used in the conclusion to make it
plain that it is second class condition instead of first class,
but occasionally it is not employed when it is plain enough
without as here ( Joh 16:22,24 ). See on 涊a 4:15|. So as to {I
had not known coveting} (lust), epithumian ouk (8869)dein. But all
the same the law is not itself sin nor the cause of sin. Men with
their sinful natures turn law into an occasion for sinful acts.

經文:

羅馬書 7:8-7:8

註釋:

 {Finding occasion} (aphorm(886e) labousa). See  2Co 5:12  11:12  Ga 5:13  for aphorm(886e), a starting place from which to
rush into acts of sin, excuses for doing what they want to do.
Just so drinking men use the prohibition laws as "occasions" for
violating them. {Wrought in me} (kateirgasato en emoi). First
aorist active middle indicative of the intensive verb
katergazomai, to work out (to the finish), effective aorist.
The command not to lust made me lust more. {Dead} (
ekra).
Inactive, not non-existent. Sin in reality was there in a dormant
state.

經文:

羅馬書 7:9-7:9

註釋:

 {I was alive} (ez(936e)). Imperfect active. Apparently, "the
lost paradise in the infancy of men" (Denney), before the
conscience awoke and moral responsibility came, "a seeming life"
(Shedd). {Sin revived} (h(8820)hamartia anez(8873)en). Sin came back to
life, waked up, the blissful innocent stage was over, "the
commandment having come" (elthous(8873) t(8873) entol(8873), genitive
absolute). {But I died} (eg(9320)de apethanon). My seeming life was
over for I was conscious of sin, of violation of law. I was dead
before, but I did not know. Now I found out that I was
spiritually dead.

經文:

羅馬書 7:10-7:10

註釋:

 {This I found unto death} (heureth(8820)moi--haut(8820)eis
thanaton). Literally, "the commandment the one for (meant for)
life, this was found for me unto death." First aorist (effective)
passive indicative of heurisk(935c), to find, not active as the
English has it. It turned out so for me (ethical dative).

經文:

羅馬書 7:11-7:11

註釋:

 {Beguiled me} (ex(8870)at(8873)en me). First aorist active
indicative of exapata(935c), old verb, completely (ex) made me
lose my way (a privative, pate(935c), to walk). See on 氣Co 3:18;
2Co 11:3|. Only in Paul in N.T. {Slew me} (apekteinen). First
aorist active indicative of apoktein(935c), old verb. "Killed me
off," made a clean job of it. Sin here is personified as the
tempter ( Ge 3:13 ).

經文:

羅馬書 7:12-7:12

註釋:

 {Holy, and righteous, and good} (hagia kai dikaia kai
agath(885c)). This is the conclusion (wherefore, h(9373)te) to the
query in verse  7 . The commandment is God's and so holy like
Him, just in its requirements and designed for our good. The
modern revolt against law needs these words.

經文:

羅馬書 7:13-7:13

註釋:

 {Become death unto me?} (emoi egeneto thanatos?). Ethical
dative emoi again. New turn to the problem. Admitting the
goodness of God's law, did it issue in death for me? Paul repels
(m(8820)genoito) this suggestion. It was sin that (But sin, alla
h(8820)hamartia) "became death for me." {That it might be shown}
(hina phan(8869)). Final clause, hina and second aorist passive
subjunctive of phain(935c), to show. The sinfulness of sin is
revealed in its violations of God's law. {By working death to me}
(moi katergazomen(8820)thanaton). Present middle participle, as an
incidental result. {Might become exceedingly sinful} (gen(8874)ai
kath' huperbol(886e) hamart(936c)os). Second aorist middle subjunctive
of ginomai with hina in final clause. On kath' huperbol(886e),
see on 氣Co 12:31|. Our _hyperbole_ is the Greek huperbol(885c). The
excesses of sin reveal its real nature. Only then do some people
get their eyes opened.

經文:

羅馬書 7:14-7:14

註釋:

 {Spiritual} (pneumatikos). Spirit-caused and spirit-given
and like the Holy Spirit. See  1Co 10:3f . {But I am carnal}
(eg(9320)de sarkinos eimi). "Fleshen" as in  1Co 3:1  which see,
more emphatic even than sarkikos," a creature of flesh." {Sold
under sin} (pepramenos hupo t(886e) hamartian). Perfect passive
participle of piprask(935c), old verb, to sell. See on 烘t 13:46; Ac
2:45|, state of completion. Sin has closed the mortgage and owns
its slave.

經文:

羅馬書 7:15-7:15

註釋:

 {I know not} (ou gin(9373)k(935c)). "I do not recognize" in its
true nature. My spiritual perceptions are dulled, blinded by sin
( 2Co 4:4 ). The dual life pictured here by Paul finds an echo in
us all, the struggle after the highest in us ("what I really
wish," ho thel(935c), to practise it steadily, prass(935c)) and the
slipping into doing (poi(935c)) "what I really hate" (ho mis(935c)) and
yet sometimes do. There is a deal of controversy as to whether
Paul is describing his struggle with sin before conversion or
after it. The words "sold under sin" in verse  14  seem to turn
the scale for the pre-conversion period. "It is the unregenerate
man's experience, surviving at least in memory into regenerate
days, and read with regenerate eyes" (Denney).

經文:

羅馬書 7:16-7:16

註釋:

 {I consent unto the law} (sunph(886d)i t(9369) nom(9369)). Old verb,
here only in N.T., with associative instrumental case. "I speak
with." My wanting (	hel(935c)) to do the opposite of what I do
proves my acceptance of God's law as good (kalos).

經文:

羅馬書 7:17-7:17

註釋:

 {So now} (
uni de). A logical contrast, "as the case
really stands." {But sin that dwelleth in me} (all' h(8820)enoikousa
en emoi hamartia). "But the dwelling in me sin." Not my true
self, my higher personality, but my lower self due to my slavery
to indwelling sin. Paul does not mean to say that his whole self
has no moral responsibility by using this paradox. "To be saved
from sin, a man must at the same time own it and disown it"
(Denney).

經文:

羅馬書 7:18-7:18

註釋:

 {In me} (en emoi). Paul explains this by "in my flesh"
(en t(8869) sarki mou), the unregenerate man "sold under sin" of
verse  14 . {No good thing} (ouk--agathon). "Not absolutely
good." This is not a complete view of man even in his
unregenerate state as Paul at once shows. {For to will is present
with me} (	o gar thelein parakeitai moi). Present middle
indicative of parakeimai, old verb, to lie beside, at hand,
with dative moi. Only here in N.T. {The wishing} is the better
self, {the doing not} the lower self.

經文:

羅馬書 7:19-7:19

註釋:

 {But the evil which I would not} (alla ho ou thel(9320)kakon).
Incorporation of the antecedent into the relative clause, "what
evil I do not wish." An extreme case of this practise of evil is
seen in the drunkard or the dope-fiend.

經文:

羅馬書 7:20-7:20

註釋:

 {It is no more I that do it} (ouketi eg(9320)katergazomai
auto). Just as in verse  17 , "no longer do I do it" (the real
Ego, my better self), and yet there is responsibility and guilt
for the struggle goes on.

經文:

羅馬書 7:21-7:21

註釋:

 {The law} (	on nomon). The principle already set forth
(ara, accordingly) in verses  18,19 . This is the way it works,
but there is no surcease for the stings of conscience.

經文:

羅馬書 7:22-7:22

註釋:

 {For I delight in} (sun(8864)omai gar). Old verb, here alone
in N.T., with associative instrumental case, "I rejoice with the
law of God," my real self "after the inward man" (kata ton es(930a)anthr(9370)on) of the conscience as opposed to "the outward man"
( 2Co 4:16  Eph 3:16 ).

經文:

羅馬書 7:23-7:23

註釋:

 {A different law} (heteron nomon). For the distinction
between heteros and allos, see  Ga 1:6f . {Warring against}
(antistrateuomenon). Rare verb (_Xenophon_) to carry on a
campaign against. Only here in N.T. {The law of my mind} (	(9369)
nom(9369) tou noos). The reflective intelligence Paul means by

oos, "the inward man" of verse  22 . It is this higher self
that agrees that the law of God is good ( 12,16,22 ). {Bringing
me into captivity} (aichmal(9374)izonta). See on this late and
vivid verb for capture and slavery  Lu 21:24  2Co 10:5 . Surely
it is a tragic picture drawn by Paul with this outcome, "sold
under sin" ( 14 ), "captivity to the law of sin" ( 23 ). The
ancient writers (Plato, Ovid, Seneca, Epictetus) describe the
same dual struggle in man between his conscience and his deeds.

經文:

羅馬書 7:24-7:24

註釋:

 {O wretched man that I am} (	alaip(9372)os eg(9320)anthr(9370)os).
"Wretched man I." Old adjective from 	la(935c), to bear, and
p(9372)os, a callus. In N.T. only here and  Re 3:17 . "A
heart-rending cry from the depths of despair" (Sanday and
Headlam). {Out of the body of this death} (ek tou s(936d)atos tou
thanatou toutou). So the order of words demands. See verse  13 
for "death" which finds a lodgment in the body (Lightfoot). If
one feels that Paul has exaggerated his own condition, he has
only to recall  1Ti 1:15  when he describes himself a chief of
sinners. He dealt too honestly with himself for Pharisaic
complacency to live long.

經文:

羅馬書 7:25-7:25

註釋:

 {I thank God} (charis t(9369) the(9369)). "Thanks to God." Note of
victory over death through Jesus Christ our Lord." {So then I
myself} (ara oun autos eg(935c)). His whole self in his unregenerate
state gives a divided service as he has already shown above. In
 6:1-7:6  Paul proved the obligation to be sanctified. In
 7:7-8:11  he discusses the possibility of sanctification, only
for the renewed man by the help of the Holy Spirit.

經文:

羅馬書 8:1-8:1

註釋:

 {Therefore now} (ara nun). Two particles. Points back to
the triumphant note in  7:25  after the preceding despair. {No
condemnation} (ouden katakrima). As sinners we deserved
condemnation in our unregenerate state in spite of the struggle.
But God offers pardon "to those in Christ Jesus (	ois en
Christ(9369) I(8873)ou). This is Paul's Gospel. The fire has burned on
and around the Cross of Christ. There and there alone is safety.
Those in Christ Jesus can lead the consecrated, the crucified,
the baptized life.

經文:

羅馬書 8:2-8:2

註釋:

 {The law of the Spirit of life} (ho nomos tou pneumatos t(8873)
z(9388)s). The principle or authority exercised by the Holy Spirit
which bestows life and which rests "in Christ Jesus." {Made me
free} ((886c)euther(9373)en me). First aorist active indicative of the
old verb eleuthero(935c) for which see  Ga 5:1 . Aleph B have se
(thee) instead of me. It matters little. We are pardoned, we
are free from the old law of sin and death ( 7:7-24 ), we are
able by the help of the Holy Spirit to live the new life in
Christ.

經文:

羅馬書 8:3-8:3

註釋:

 {That the law could not do} (	o adunaton tou nomou).
Literally, "the impossibility of the law" as shown in  7:7-24 ,
either nominative absolute or accusative of general reference. No
syntactical connection with the rest of the sentence. {In that}
(en h(9369)). "Wherein." {It was weak} ((8873)thenei). Imperfect
active, continued weak as already shown. {In the likeness of
sinful flesh} (en homoi(936d)ati sarkos hamartias). For "likeness"
see  Php 2:7 , a real man, but more than man for God's "own Son."
Two genitives "of flesh of sin" (marked by sin), that is the
flesh of man is, but not the flesh of Jesus. {And for sin} (kai
peri hamartias). Condensed phrase, God sent his Son also
concerning sin (our sin). {Condemned sin in the flesh}
(katekrine t(886e) hamartian en t(8869) sarki). First aorist active
indicative of katakrin(935c). He condemned the sin of men and the
condemnation took place in the flesh of Jesus. If the article
	(886e) had been repeated before en t(8869) sarki Paul would have
affirmed sin in the flesh of Jesus, but he carefully avoided that
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 784).

經文:

羅馬書 8:4-8:4

註釋:

 {The ordinance of the law} (	o dikai(936d)a tou nomou). "The
requirement of the law." {Might be fulfilled} (hina pler(9374)h(8869)).
Purpose of the death of Christ by hina and first aorist passive
subjunctive of pl(8872)o(935c). Christ met it all in our stead
( 3:21-26 ). {Not after the flesh, but after the Spirit} (m(880a)kata sarka alla kata pneuma). The two laws of life (kata sarka
in  7:7-24 , kata pneuma  8:1-11 ). Most likely the Holy Spirit
or else the renewed spirit of man.

經文:

羅馬書 8:5-8:5

註釋:

 {Do mind} (phronousin). Present active indicative of
phrone(935c), to think, to put the mind (phr(886e)) on. See  Mt 16:23  Ro 12:16 . For the contrast between sarx and pneuma, see  Ga
5:16-24 .

經文:

羅馬書 8:6-8:6

註釋:

 {The mind} (	o phron(886d)a). The bent or will of the flesh is
death as shown in  7:7-24 . {Life} (z(9388)). In contrast with
"death." {Peace} (eir(886e)(885c)). As seen in  5:1-5 .

經文:

羅馬書 8:7-8:7

註釋:

 {Is not subject} (ouch hupotassetai). Present passive
indicative of hupotass(935c), late verb, military term for
subjection to orders. Present tense here means continued
insubordination. {Neither indeed can it be} (oude gar dunatai).
"For it is not even able to do otherwise." This helpless state of
the unregenerate man Paul has shown above apart from Christ. Hope
lies in Christ ( 7:25 ) and the Spirit of life ( 8:2 ).

經文:

羅馬書 8:8-8:8

註釋:

 {Cannot please God} (	he(9369) aresai ou dunantai). Because of
the handicap of the lower self in bondage to sin. This does not
mean that the sinner has no responsibility and cannot be saved.
He is responsible and can be saved by the change of heart through
the Holy Spirit.

經文:

羅馬書 8:9-8:9

註釋:

 {Not in the flesh} (ouk en sarki). Not sold under sin
( 7:14 ) any more. {But in the spirit} (alla en pneumati).
Probably, "in the Holy Spirit." It is not Pantheism or Buddhism
that Paul here teaches, but the mystical union of the believer
with Christ in the Holy Spirit. {If so be that} (eiper). "If as
is the fact" (cf.  3:30 ). {The Spirit of Christ} (pneuma
Christou). The same as "the Spirit of God" just before. See also
 Php 1:19  1Pe 1:11 . Incidental argument for the Deity of Christ
and probably the meaning of  2Co 3:18  "the Spirit of the Lord."
Condition of first class, assumed as true.

經文:

羅馬書 8:10-8:10

註釋:

 {The body is dead} (	o men s(936d)a nekron). Has the seeds of
death in it and will die "because of sin." {The spirit is life}
(	o de pneuma z(9388)). The redeemed human spirit. He uses z(9388)
(life) instead of z(9373)a (living), "God-begotten, God-sustained
life" (Denney), if Christ is in you.

經文:

羅馬書 8:11-8:11

註釋:

 {Shall quicken} (z(936f)poi(8873)ei). Future active indicative of
z(936f)poie(935c), late verb from z(936f)poios, making alive. See on 氣Co
15:22|. {Through his Spirit} (dia tou pneumatos). B D L have
dia to pneuma (because of the Spirit). Both ideas are true,
though the genitive is slightly more probably correct.

經文:

羅馬書 8:12-8:12

註釋:

 {We are debtors} (opheiletai esmen). See on 涊a 5:3; Ro
1:14|. {Not to the flesh} (ou t(8869) sarki). Negative ou goes
with preceding verb and 	(8869) sarki, not with the infinitive 	ou
z(8869)n.

經文:

羅馬書 8:13-8:13

註釋:

 {Ye must die} (mellete apothn(8873)kein). Present indicative
of mell(935c), to be about to do and present active infinitive of
apothn(8873)k(935c), to die. "Ye are on the point of dying." Eternal
death. {By the spirit} (pneumati). Holy Spirit, instrumental
case. {Ye shall live} (z(8873)esthe). Future active indicative of
za(935c). Eternal life.

經文:

羅馬書 8:14-8:14

註釋:

 {Sons of God} (huioi theou). In the full sense of this
term. In verse  16  we have 	ekna theou (children of God).
Hence no great distinction can be drawn between huios and
	eknon. The truth is that huios is used in various ways in
the New Testament. In the highest sense, not true of any one
else, Jesus Christ is God's Son ( 8:3 ). But in the widest sense
all men are "the offspring" (genos) of God as shown in  Ac
17:28  by Paul. But in the special sense here only those are
"sons of God" who are led by the Spirit of God, those born again
(the second birth) both Jews and Gentiles, "the sons of Abraham"
(huioi Abraam,  Ga 3:7 ), the children of faith.

經文:

羅馬書 8:15-8:15

註釋:

 {The spirit of adoption} (pneuma huiothesias). See on this
term huiothesia,  Ga 4:5 . Both Jews and Gentiles receive this
"adoption" into the family of God with all its privileges.
"{Whereby we cry, Abba, Father}" (en h(8869) krazomen Abb(8320)ho
pat(8872)). See  Ga 4:6  for discussion of this double use of Father
as the child's privilege.

經文:

羅馬書 8:16-8:16

註釋:

 1Jo
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5'
經文:

羅馬書 8:17-8:17

註釋:

 {Joint-heirs with Christ} (sunkl(8872)onomoi Christou). A late
rare double compound, in Philo, an Ephesian inscription of the
imperial period (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p.
92), papyri of the Byzantine period. See  8:29  for this idea
expanded. Paul is fond of compounds of sun, three in this verse
(sunkl(8872)onomoi, sunpasch(936d)en, sundoxasth(936d)en). The last (first
aorist passive subjunctive of sundoxaz(935c) with hina (purpose),
late and rare, here only in N.T.

經文:

羅馬書 8:18-8:18

註釋:

 {To us-ward} (eis h(886d)(8373)). We shall be included in the
radiance of the coming glory which will put in the shadow the
present sufferings. Precisely the same idiom here with mellousan
doxan (aorist passive infinitive of apokaluphth(886e)ai) occurs in
 Ga 3:23  with mellousan pistin, which see.

經文:

羅馬書 8:19-8:19

註釋:

 {The earnest expectation of creation} (h(8820)apokaradokia t(8873)
ktise(9373)). This substantive has so far been found nowhere save
here and  Php 1:20 , though the verb apokaradoke(935c) is common in
Polybius and Plutarch. Milligan (_Vocabulary_) thinks that Paul
may have made the substantive from the verb. It is a double
compound (apo, off from, kara, head, doke(935c), Ionic verb, to
watch), hence to watch eagerly with outstretched head. {Waiteth
for} (apekdechetai). See on 氣Co 1:7; Ga 5:5| for this rare
word (possibly formed by Paul, Milligan). "To wait it out"
(Thayer). {The revealing of the sons of God} (	(886e) apokalupsin
t(936e) hui(936e) tou theou). Cf.  1Jo 3:2  2Th 2:8  Col 3:4 . This
mystical sympathy of physical nature with the work of grace is
beyond the comprehension of most of us. But who can disprove it?

經文:

羅馬書 8:20-8:20

註釋:

 {Was subjected} (hupetag(885c)). Second aorist passive
indicative of hupatass(935c) (cf. verse  7 ). {To vanity} (	(8869)
mataiot(8874)i). Dative case. Rare and late word, common in LXX.
From mataios, empty, vain.  Eph 4:17  2Pe 2:18 . {Not of its
own will} (ouch hekousa). Common adjective, in N.T. only here
and  1Co 9:27 . It was due to the effect of man's sin. {But by
reason of him} (alla dia ton). Because of God. {In hope that}
(eph' helpidi hoti). Note the form helpidi rather than the
usual elpidi and so eph'. Hoti can be causal "because"
instead of declarative "that."

經文:

羅馬書 8:21-8:21

註釋:

 {The creation itself} (aut(8820)h(8820)ktisis). It is the hope of
creation, not of the Creator. Nature "possesses in the feeling of
her unmerited suffering a sort of presentiment of her future
deliverance" (Godet).

經文:

羅馬書 8:22-8:22

註釋:

 {Groaneth and travaileth in pain} (sunstenazei kai
sun(9364)inei). Two more compounds with sun. Both rare and both
here alone in N.T. Nature is pictured in the pangs of childbirth.

經文:

羅馬書 8:23-8:23

註釋:

 {The first fruits} (	(886e) aparch(886e)). Old and common
metaphor. {Of the Spirit} (	ou pneumatos). The genitive of
apposition. The Holy Spirit came on the great Pentecost and his
blessings continue as seen in the "gifts" in  1Co 12-14 , in the
moral and spiritual gifts of  Ga 5:22f . And greater ones are to
come ( 1Co 15:44ff. ). {Even we ourselves} (kai autoi). He
repeats for emphasis. We have our "groaning" (stenazomen) as
well as nature. {Waiting for} (apekdechomenoi). The same verb
used of nature in verse  19 . {Our adoption} (huiothesian). Our
full "adoption" (see verse  15 ), "the redemption of our body"
(	(886e) apolutr(9373)in tou s(936d)atos h(886d)(936e)). That is to come also. Then
we shall have complete redemption of both soul and body.

經文:

羅馬書 8:24-8:24

註釋:

 {For by hope were we saved} (	(8869) gar elpidi es(9374)h(886d)en).
First aorist passive indicative of s(937a)(935c). The case of elpidi
is not certain, the form being the same for locative,
instrumental and dative. Curiously enough either makes good sense
in this context: "We were saved in hope, by hope, for hope" (of
the redemption of the body).

經文:

羅馬書 8:25-8:25

註釋:

 {With patience} (di' hupomon(8873)). Paul repeats the verb
apekdechomai of verse  23 .

經文:

羅馬書 8:26-8:26

註釋:

 {Helpeth our infirmity} (sunantilambanetai t(8869) asthenei(8369)
h(886d)(936e)). Present middle indicative of sunantilambanomai, late
and striking double compound (Diodorus, LXX, Josephus, frequent
in inscriptions, Deissmann, _Light, etc._, p. 87), to lend a hand
together with, at the same time with one. Only twice in N.T.,
here and  Lu 10:40  in Martha's plea for Mary's help. Here
beautifully Paul pictures the Holy Spirit taking hold at our side
at the very time of our weakness (associative instrumental case)
and before too late. {How to pray} (	o ti proseux(936d)etha).
Articular clause object of oidamen (we know) and indirect
question with the deliberative aorist middle subjunctive
proseux(936d)etha, retained in the indirect question. {As we ought}
(katho dei). "As it is necessary." How true this is of all of
us in our praying. {Maketh intercession} (huperentugchanei).
Present active indicative of late double compound, found only
here and in later ecclesiastical writers, but entugchan(935c) occurs
in verse  27  (a common verb). It is a picturesque word of rescue
by one who "happens on" (entugchanei) one who is in trouble and
"in his behalf" (huper) pleads "with unuttered groanings"
(instrumental case) or with "sighs that baffle words" (Denney).
This is work of our Helper, the Spirit himself.

經文:

羅馬書 8:27-8:27

註釋:

 {He that searcheth} (ho eraun(936e)). God ( 1Sa 16:7 ).
{According to the will of God} (kata theon). See  2Co 7:9-11 
for this phrase kata theon (according to God). The Holy Spirit
is the "other Paraclete" ( Joh 14:16 ) who pleads God's cause
with us as Christ is our Paraclete with the Father ( 1Jo 2:1 ).
But more is true as here, for the Holy Spirit interprets our
prayers to God and "makes intercession for us in accord with
God's will."

經文:

羅馬書 8:28-8:28

註釋:

 {All things work together} (panta sunergei). A B have ho
theos as the subject of sunergei (old verb, see on 氣Co 16:16;
2Co 6:1|). That is the idea anyhow. It is God who makes "all
things work together" in our lives "for good" (eis agathon),
ultimate good. {According to his purpose} (kata prothesin). Old
word, seen already in  Ac 27:13  and for "shewbread" in  Mt
12:4 . The verb protith(886d)i Paul uses in  3:24  for God's
purpose. Paul accepts fully human free agency but behind it all
and through it all runs God's sovereignty as here and on its
gracious side ( 9:11  3:11  2Ti 1:9 ).

經文:

羅馬書 8:29-8:29

註釋:

 {Foreknew} (proegn(935c)). Second aorist active indicative of
progin(9373)k(935c), old verb as in  Ac 26:5 . See  Ps 1:6  (LXX) and
 Mt 7:23 . This fore-knowledge and choice is placed in eternity
in  Eph 1:4 . {He foreordained} (pro(9372)isen). First aorist
active indicative of prooriz(935c), late verb to appoint beforehand
as in  Ac 4:28  1Co 2:7 . Another compound with pro- (for
eternity). {Conformed to the image} (summorphous t(8873) eikonos).
Late adjective from sun and morph(885c) and so an inward and not
merely superficial conformity. Eik(936e) is used of Christ as the
very image of the Father ( 2Co 4:4  Col 1:15 ). See  Php 2:6f. 
for morph(885c). Here we have both morph(885c) and eik(936e) to express
the gradual change in us till we acquire the likeness of Christ
the Son of God so that we ourselves shall ultimately have the
family likeness of sons of God. Glorious destiny. {That he might
be} (eis to einai auton). Common idiom for purpose. {First born
among many brethren} (pr(9374)otokon en pollois adelphois). Christ
is "first born" of all creation ( Col 1:15 ), but here he is
"first born from the dead" ( Col 1:18 ), the Eldest Brother in
this family of God's sons, though "Son" in a sense not true of
us.

經文:

羅馬書 8:30-8:30

註釋:

 {Called} (ekalesen) {--Justified} (edikai(9373)en)
{--Glorified} (edoxasen). All first aorist active indicatives
of common verbs (kale(932c) dikaio(932c) doxaz(935c)). But the glorification
is stated as already consummated (constative aorists, all of
them), though still in the future in the fullest sense. "The step
implied in edoxasen is both complete and certain in the Divine
counsels" (Sanday and Headlam).

經文:

羅馬書 8:31-8:31

註釋:

 {For these things} (pros tauta). From  8:12  on Paul has
made a triumphant presentation of the reasons for the certainty
of final sanctification of the sons of God. He has reached the
climax with glorification (edoxasen in verse  30 ). But Paul
lets the objector have his say as he usually does so that in
verses  31-39  he considers the objections. {If God is for us,
who is against us?} (ei ho theos huper h(886d)(936e), tis kath'
h(886d)(936e)?). This condition of the first class carries Paul's
challenge to all doubters. There is no one on a par with God.
Note the two prepositions in contrast (huper, over, kata,
down or against).

經文:

羅馬書 8:32-8:32

註釋:

 {He that} (hos ge). "Who as much as this" (ge here
magnifying the deed, intensive particle). {Spared not} (ouk
epheisato). First aorist middle of pheidomai, old verb used
about the offering of Isaac in  Ge 22:16 . See  Ac 20:29 . {Also
with him} (kai sun aut(9369)). The gift of "his own son" is the
promise and the pledge of the all things for good of verse  28 .
Christ is all and carries all with him.

經文:

羅馬書 8:33-8:33

註釋:

 {Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect?} (	is
egkalesei kata eklekt(936e) theou?). Future active indicative of
egkale(935c), old verb, to come forward as accuser (forensic term)
in case in court, to impeach, as in  Ac 19:40  23:29  26:2 , the
only N.T. examples. Satan is the great Accuser of the brethren.
{It is God that justifieth} (	heos ho dikai(936e)). God is the
Judge who sets us right according to his plan for justification
( 3:21-31 ). The Accuser must face the Judge with his charges.

經文:

羅馬書 8:34-8:34

註釋:

 {Shall condemn} (katakrin(936e)). Can be either present active
participle (condemns) or the future (shall condemn). It is a bold
accuser who can face God with false charges or with true ones for
that matter for we have an "Advocate" at God's Court ( 1Jo 2:1 ),
"who is at the right hand of God" (hos estin en dexi(8369) tou
theou) "who also maketh intercession for us" (hos kai
entugchanei huper h(886d)(936e)). Our Advocate paid the debt for our
sins with his blood. The score is settled. We are free ( 8:1 ).

經文:

羅馬書 8:35-8:35

註釋:

 {Shall separate} (ch(9372)isei). Future active of old verb
choriz(935c) from adverb ch(9372)is and that from ch(9372)a, space. Can
any one put a distance between Christ's love and us (objective
genitive)? Can any one lead Christ to cease loving us? Such
things do happen between husband and wife, alas. Paul changes the
figure from "who" (	is) to "what" (	i). The items mentioned
will not make Christ love us less. Paul here glories in
tribulations as in  5:3ff .

經文:

羅馬書 8:36-8:36

註釋:

 {Even as it is written} (kath(9373) gegraptai). He quotes  Ps
44:23 . {We are killed} (	hanatoumetha). Present passive
indicative of 	hanato(935c) for which see on 浪:4|. Same idea of
continuous martyrdom in  1Co 15:31 . {As sheep for the slaughter}
(h(9373) probata sphag(8873)). Objective genitive (sphag(8873)).

經文:

羅馬書 8:37-8:37

註釋:

 {Nay} (alla). On the contrary, we shall not be separated.
{We are more than conquerors} (hupernik(936d)en). Late and rare
compound. Here only in N.T. "We gain a surpassing victory through
the one who loved us."

經文:

羅馬書 8:38-8:38

註釋:

 {For I am persuaded} (pepeismai gar). Perfect passive
participle of peith(935c), "I stand convinced." The items mentioned
are those that people dread (life, death, supernatural powers,
above, below, any creature to cover any omissions).

經文:

羅馬書 8:39-8:39

註釋:

 {To separate us} (h(886d)(8373) ch(9372)isai). Aorist active
infinitive of choriz(935c) (same verb as in  35 ). God's love is
victor over all possible foes, "God's love that is in Christ
Jesus." Paul has reached the mountain top. He has really
completed his great argument concerning the God-kind of
righteousness save for its bearing on some special problems. The
first of these concerns the fact that the Jews (God's chosen
people) have so largely rejected the gospel (chapters  9-11 ).

經文:

羅馬書 9:1-9:1

註釋:

 {In Christ} (en Christ(9369)). Paul really takes a triple oath
here so strongly is he stirred. He makes a positive affirmation
in Christ, a negative one (not lying), the appeal to his
conscience as co-witness (sunmarturous(8873), genitive absolute as
in  2:15  which see) "in the Holy Spirit."

經文:

羅馬書 9:2-9:2

註釋:

 {Sorrow} (lup(885c)). Because the Jews were rejecting Christ the
Messiah. "We may compare the grief of a Jew writing after the
fall of Jerusalem" (Sanday and Headlam). {Unceasing pain in my
heart} (adialeiptos odun(8820)t(8869) kardi(8369)). Like _angina pectoris_.
Odun(885c) is old word for consuming grief, in N.T. only here and
and  1Ti 6:10 . {Unceasing} (adialeiptos). Late and rare
adjective (in an inscription 1 cent. B.C.), in N.T. only here and
 2Ti 1:3 . Two rare words together and both here only in N.T. and
I and II Timothy (some small argument for the Pauline authorship
of the Pastoral Epistles).

經文:

羅馬書 9:3-9:3

註釋:

 {I could wish} ((8875)chom(886e)). Idiomatic imperfect, "I was on
the point of wishing." We can see that euchomai (I do wish)
would be wrong to say. An (8875)chom(886e) would mean that he does not
wish (conclusion of second class condition). An (8875)chom(886e) would
be conclusion of fourth class condition and too remote. He is
shut up to the imperfect indicative (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
886). {Anathema} (anathema). See for this word as distinct from
anath(886d)a (offering)  1Co 12:3  Ga 1:8f.  {I myself} (autos
eg(935c)). Nominative with the infinitive einai and agreeing with
subject of (8875)chom(886e). {According to the flesh} (kata sarka).
As distinguished from Paul's Christian brethren.

經文:

羅馬書 9:4-9:4

註釋:

 {Who} (hoitines). The very ones who, inasmuch as they.
{Israelites} (Isra(886c)eitai). Covenant name of the chosen people.
{Whose} (h(936e)). Predicate genitive of the relative, used also
again with hoi pateres. For "the adoption" (h(8820)huiothesia)
see  8:15 . {The glory} (h(8820)doxa). The Shekinah Glory of God
( 3:23 ) and used of Jesus in  Jas 2:1 . {The covenants} (hai
diath(886b)ai). Plural because renewed often ( Ge 6:18  9:9  15:18  17:2,7,9  Ex 2:24 ). {The giving of the law} (h(8820)nomothesia).
Old word, here only in N.T., from 
omos and 	ith(886d)i. {The
service} (h(8820)latreia). The temple service ( Heb 9:1,6 ). {The
fathers} (hoi pateres). The patriarchs ( Ac 3:13  7:32 ).

經文:

羅馬書 9:5-9:5

註釋:

 {Of whom} (ex h(936e)). Fourth relative clause and here with
ex and the ablative. {Christ} (ho Christos). The Messiah. {As
concerning the flesh} (	o kata sarka). Accusative of general
reference, "as to the according to the flesh." Paul limits the
descent of Jesus from the Jews to his human side as he did in
 1:3f . {Who is over all, God blessed for ever} (ho on epi
pant(936e) theos eulog(8874)os). A clear statement of the deity of
Christ following the remark about his humanity. This is the
natural and the obvious way of punctuating the sentence. To make
a full stop after sarka (or colon) and start a new sentence for
the doxology is very abrupt and awkward. See  Ac 20:28  Tit 2:13 
for Paul's use of 	heos applied to Jesus Christ.

經文:

羅馬書 9:6-9:6

註釋:

 {But it is not as though} (ouch hoion de hoti). Supply
estin after ouch: "But it is not such as that," an old idiom,
here alone in N.T. {Hath come to nought} (ekpept(936b)en). Perfect
active indicative of ekpipt(935c), old verb, to fall out. {For they
are not all Israel, which are of Israel} (ou gar pantes hoi ex
Isra(886c) houtoi Isra(886c)). "For not all those out of Israel (the
literal Jewish nation), these are Israel (the spiritual Israel)."
This startling paradox is not a new idea with Paul. He had
already shown ( Ga 3:7-9 ) that those of faith are the true sons
of Abraham. He has amplified that idea also in  Ro 4 . So he is
not making a clever dodge here to escape a difficulty. He now
shows how this was the original purpose of God to include only
those who believed. {Seed of Abraham} (sperma Abraam). Physical
descent here, but spiritual seed by promise in verse  8 . He
quotes  Ge 21:12f .

經文:

羅馬書 9:8-9:8

註釋:

 {The children of the promise} (	a tekna t(8873) epaggelias).
Not through Ishmael, but through Isaac. Only the children of the
promise are "children of God" (	ekna tou theou) in the full
sense. He is not speaking of Christians here, but simply showing
that the privileges of the Jews were not due to their physical
descent from Abraham. Cf.  Lu 3:8 .

經文:

羅馬書 9:9-9:9

註釋:

 {A word of promise} (epaggelias ho logos houtos).
Literally, "this word is one of promise." Paul combines  Ge
18:10,14  from the LXX.

經文:

羅馬書 9:10-9:10

註釋:

 {Having conceived of one} (ex henos koit(886e) echousa). By
metonomy with cause for the effect we have this peculiar idiom
(koit(885c) being bed, marriage bed), "having a marriage bed from
one" husband. One father and twins.

經文:

羅馬書 9:11-9:11

註釋:

 {The children being not yet born} (m(8870)(9320)genn(8874)hent(936e)).
Genitive absolute with first aorist passive participle of
genna(935c), to beget, to be born, though no word for children nor
even the pronoun aut(936e) (they). {Neither having done anything
good or bad} (m(8864)e praxant(936e) ti agathon (8820)phaulon). Genitive
absolute again with first active participle of prass(935c). On
phaulon, see  2Co 5:10 . {The purpose of God} (h(8820)prothesis
tou theou). See  8:28  for prothesis. {According to election}
(kat' eklog(886e)). Old word from ekleg(935c), to select, to choose
out. See  1Th 1:4 . Here it is the purpose (prothesis) of God
which has worked according to the principles of election. {Not of
works} (ouk ex erg(936e)). Not of merit.

經文:

羅馬書 9:12-9:12

註釋:

 {But of him that calleth} (all' ek tou kalountos). Present
active articular participle of kale(935c) in the ablative case after
ek. The source of the selection is God himself. Paul quotes  Ge
25:33  (LXX).

經文:

羅馬書 9:13-9:13

註釋:

 Paul quotes  Mal 1:2f . {But Esau I hated} (	on de Esau
emis(8873)a). This language sounds a bit harsh to us. It is possible
that the word mise(935c) did not always carry the full force of what
we mean by "hate." See  Mt 6:24  where these very verbs (mise(935c)
and agapa(935c)) are contrasted. So also in  Lu 14:26  about
"hating" (mise(935c)) one's father and mother if coming between one
and Christ. So in  Joh 12:25  about "hating" one's life. There is
no doubt about God's preference for Jacob and rejection of Esau,
but in spite of Sanday and Headlam one hesitates to read into
these words here the intense hatred that has always existed
between the descendants of Jacob and of Esau.

經文:

羅馬書 9:14-9:14

註釋:

 {Is there unrighteousness with God?} (m(8820)adikia para t(9369)
the(9369)?). Paul goes right to the heart of the problem. M(885c)
expects a negative answer. "Beside" (para) God there can be no
injustice to Esau or to any one because of election.

經文:

羅馬書 9:15-9:15

註釋:

 {For he says to Moses} (	(9369) M(9375)sei gar legei). He has an
Old Testament illustration of God's election in the case of
Pharaoh ( Ex 33:19 ). {On whom I have mercy} (hon an ele(935c)).
Indefinite relative with an and the present active subjunctive
of elea(935c), late verb only here and  Jude 1:23  in N.T. "On
whomsoever I have mercy." The same construction in hon an
oikteir(935c), "on whomsoever I have compassion."

經文:

羅馬書 9:16-9:16

註釋:

 {So then} (ara oun). In view of this quotation. {It is not
of} (ou). We must supply estin eleos with ou. "Mercy is not
of." The articular participles (	ou thelontos, tou trechontos,
tou ele(936e)tos) can be understood as in the genitive with eleos
understood (mercy is not a quality of) or as the predicate
ablative of source like epiluse(9373) in  2Pe 1:20 . Paul is fond
of the metaphor of running.

經文:

羅馬書 9:17-9:17

註釋:

 {To Pharaoh} (	(9369) Phara(935c)). There is a national election as
seen in verses  7-13 , but here Paul deals with the election of
individuals. He "lays down the principle that God's grace does
not necessarily depend upon anything but God's will" (Sanday and
Headlam). He quotes  Ex 9:16 . {Might be published}
(diaggel(8869)). Second aorist passive subjunctive of diaggell(935c).

經文:

羅馬書 9:18-9:18

註釋:

 {He hardeneth} (skl(8872)unei). Pharaoh hardened his own heart
also ( Ex 8:15,32  9:34 ), but God gives men up also
( 1:24,26,28 ). This late word is used by the Greek physicians
Galen and Hippocrates. See on 涉c 19:9|. Only here in Paul.

經文:

羅馬書 9:19-9:19

註釋:

 {Why doth he still find fault?} (	i eti memphetai?). Old
verb, to blame. In N.T. only here and  Heb 8:8 . Paul's imaginary
objector picks up the admission that God hardened Pharaoh's
heart. "Still" (eti) argues for a change of condition since
that is true. {Withstandeth his will} (	(9369) boul(886d)ati autou
anthest(886b)en). Perfect active indicative of anthist(886d)i, old
verb, maintains a stand (the perfect tense). Many have attempted
to resist God's will (oul(886d)a, deliberate purpose, in N.T. only
here and  Ac 27:43  1Pe 4:3 ). Elsewhere 	hel(886d)a ( Mt 6:10 ).

經文:

羅馬書 9:20-9:20

註釋:

 {Nay, but, O man, who art thou?} (O anthr(9370)e, men oun ge su
tis ei?). "O man, but surely thou who art thou?" Unusual and
emphatic order of the words, prolepsis of su (thou) before
	is (who) and men oun ge (triple particle, men, indeed,
oun, therefore, ge, at least) at the beginning of clause as
in  Ro 10:18  Php 3:8  contrary to ancient idiom, but so in
papyri. {That repliest} (ho antapokrinomenos). Present middle
articular participle of double compound verb antapokrinomai, to
answer to one's face (anti-) late and vivid combination, also
in  Lu 14:6 , nowhere else in N.T., but in LXX. {The thing
formed} (	o plasma). Old word (Plato, Aristophanes) from
plass(935c), to mould, as with clay or wax, from which the aorist
active participle used here (	(9369) plasanti) comes. Paul quotes
these words from  Isa 29:16  verbatim. It is a familiar idea in
the Old Testament, the absolute power of God as Creator like the
potter's use of clay ( Isa 44:8  45:8-10  Jer 18:6 ). M(885c)
expects a negative answer. {Why didst thou make me thus?} (	i me
epoi(8873)as hout(9373)?). The original words in Isaiah dealt with the
nation, but Paul applies them to individuals. This question does
not raise the problem of the origin of sin for the objector does
not blame God for that but why God has used us as he has, made
some vessels out of the clay for this purpose, some for that.
Observe "thus" (hout(9373)). The potter takes the clay as he finds
it, but uses it as he wishes.

經文:

羅馬書 9:21-9:21

註釋:

 {Or hath not the potter a right over the clay?} ((8820)ouk
echei exousian ho kerameus tou p(886c)ou?). This question, expecting
an affirmative answer, is Paul's reply to the previous one, "Why
didst thou make me thus?" P(886c)os, old word for clay, is mud or
wet clay in  Joh 9:6,11,14f . The old word for potter
(kerameus) in N.T. only here and  Mt 27:7,10 . {Lump}
(phuramatos). Late word from phura(935c), to mix (clay, dough,
etc.). {One part} (ho men) {--another} (ho de). Regular idiom
for contrast (men--de) with the old demonstrative ho (this),
"this vessel (skeuos, old word as in  Mr 11:16 ) for honour,
that for dishonour." Paul thus claims clearly God's sovereign
right (exousian, power, right, authority, from exesti) to use
men (already sinners) for his own purpose.

經文:

羅馬書 9:22-9:22

註釋:

 2Th
2:3 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Th
2' or engs='2Th
2'
經文:

羅馬書 9:23-9:23

註釋:

 {Vessels of mercy} (skeu(8820)eleous). Objective genitive like
skeu(8820)org(8873). {Afore prepared} (pro(8874)oimasen). First aorist
active indicative of proetoimaz(935c), old verb to make ready (from
hetoimos, ready) and pro, before, in N.T. only here and  Eph
2:10 . But same idea in  Ro 8:28-30 .

經文:

羅馬書 9:24-9:24

註釋:

 {But also from the Gentiles} (alla kai ex ethn(936e)). Paul
had already alluded to this fact in  9:6f.  (cf.  Ga 3:7-9 ). Now
he proceeds to prove it from the Old Testament.

經文:

羅馬書 9:25-9:25

註釋:

 {In Hosea} (en t(9369) H(9373)(8865)). He quotes  2:23  with some
freedom. Hosea refers to the ten tribes and Paul applies the
principle stated there to the Gentiles. Hosea had a son named
_Lo-ammi_ = ou laos. So here ho ou laos mou "the not people
of mine." Ou with substantives obliterates the meaning of the
substantive, an idiom seen in Thucydides and other Greek writers.
See also  Ro 10:19  1Pe 2:10 . {Which was not beloved} (	(886e) ouk
(8867)ap(886d)en(886e)). The LXX rendering of _Lo-ruhamah_ (not mercy,
without mercy or love), name of Hosea's daughter. The use of
ouk with the perfect passive participle is emphatic, since m(885c)
is the usual negative of the participle in the _Koin(825f).

經文:

羅馬書 9:26-9:26

註釋:

 {Ye are not my people} (ou laos mou humeis). Quotation
from  Ho 1:10  (LXX  Ho 2:1 ). {There} (ekei). Palestine in the
original, but Paul applies it to scattered Jews and Gentiles
everywhere.

經文:

羅馬書 9:27-9:27

註釋:

 {Isaiah} (Esaias). Shortened quotation from  Isa 10:22 
(LXX). {It is the remnant that shall be saved} (	o hupoleimma
s(9374)h(8873)etai). First future passive of s(937a)(935c). Literally, "the
remnant will be saved." Late word from hupoleip(935c), to leave
behind ( 11:3 ), here only in N.T. Textus Receptus has
kataleimma, but Aleph A B have hupoleimma. Isaiah cries in
anguish over the outlook for Israel, but sees hope for the
remnant.

經文:

羅馬書 9:28-9:28

註釋:

 {Finishing it and cutting it short} (suntel(936e) kai
suntemn(936e)). Present active participles and note sun- with each
(perfective use of the preposition, finishing completely as in
 Lu 4:13 , cutting off completely or abridging and here only in
N.T.) The quotation is from  Isa 28:22 .

經文:

羅馬書 9:29-9:29

註釋:

 {Hath said before} (proeir(886b)en). Perfect active indicative
of proeipon (defective verb). Stands on record in  Isa 1:9 .
{Had left} (egkatelipen). Second aorist active indicative of
old verb egkataleip(935c), to leave behind. Condition of second
class, determined as unfulfilled, with an egen(8874)h(886d)en and an
h(936d)oi(9374)h(886d)en as the conclusions (both first aorist passives of
ginomai and homoio(935c), common verbs). {A seed} (sperma). The
remnant of verse  27 .

經文:

羅馬書 9:30-9:30

註釋:

 {Attained} (katelaben). Second aorist active indicative of
katalamban(935c), old verb, to grasp, to seize, to overtake
(carrying out the figure in di(936b)(935c) (to pursue). It was a curious
paradox. {Which is of faith} (	(886e) ek piste(9373)). As Paul has
repeatedly shown, the only way to get the God-kind of
righteousness.

經文:

羅馬書 9:31-9:31

註釋:

 2Co
10:14 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
10' or engs='2Co
10'
經文:

羅馬書 9:32-9:32

註釋:

 We must supply the omitted verb edi(9378)a (pursued) from
verse  31 . That explains the rest. {They stumbled at the stone
of stumbling} (prosekopsan t(9369) lith(9369) tou proskommatos). The
quotation is from  Isa 8:14 . Proskopt(935c) means to cut (kopt(935c))
against (pros) as in  Mt 4:6  Joh 11:9f . The Jews found Christ
a skandalon ( 1Co 1:23 ).

經文:

羅馬書 9:33-9:33

註釋:

 Paul repeats the phrase just used in the whole quotation
from  Isa 8:14  with the same idea in "a rock of offence"
(petran skandalou, "a rock of snare," a rock which the Jews
made a cause of stumbling). The rest of the verse is quoted from
 Isa 28:16 . However, the Hebrew means "shall not make haste"
rather than "shall not be put to shame." In  1Pe 2:8  we have the
same use of these Scriptures about Christ. Either Peter had read
Romans or both Paul and Peter had a copy of Christian
_Testimonia_ like Cyprian's later.

經文:

羅馬書 10:1-10:1

註釋:

 {Desire} (eudokia). No papyri examples of this word,
though eudok(8873)is occurs, only in LXX and N.T., but no example
for "desire" unless this is one, though the verb eudoke(935c) is
common in Polybius, Diodorus, Dion, Hal. It means will, pleasure,
satisfaction ( Mt 11:26  2Th 1:11  Php 1:15  2:13  Eph 1:5,9 ).
{Supplication} (de(8873)is). Late word from deomai, to want, to
beg, to pray. In the papyri. See  Lu 1:13 . It is noteworthy
that, immediately after the discussion of the rejection of Christ
by the Jews, Paul prays so earnestly for the Jews "that they may
be saved" (eis s(9374)(8872)ian), literally "unto salvation." Clearly
Paul did not feel that the case was hopeless for them in spite of
their conduct. Bengel says: _Non orasset Paul si absolute
reprobati essent_ (Paul would not have prayed if they had been
absolutely reprobate). Paul leaves God's problem to him and pours
out his prayer for the Jews in accordance with his strong words
in  9:1-5 .

經文:

羅馬書 10:2-10:2

註釋:

 {A zeal for God} (z(886c)on theou). Objective genitive like
 Php 3:9 , "through faith in Christ" (dia piste(9373) Christou).
{But not according to knowledge} (all' ou kat' epign(9373)in). They
had knowledge of God and so were superior to the Gentiles in
privilege ( 2:9-11 ), but they sought God in an external way by
rules and rites and missed him ( 9:30-33 ). They became zealous
for the letter and the form instead of for God himself.

經文:

羅馬書 10:3-10:3

註釋:

 {Being ignorant of God's righteousness} (agnoountes t(886e) tou
theou dikaiosun(886e)). A blunt thing to say, but true as Paul has
shown in  2:1-3:20 . They did not understand the God-kind of
righteousness by faith ( 1:17 ). They misconceived it ( 2:4 ).
{They did not subject themselves} (ouch hupetag(8873)an). Second
aorist passive indicative of hupotass(935c), common _Koin(825f) verb, to
put oneself under orders, to obey, here the passive in sense of
the middle ( Jas 4:7 ) like apekrith(886e), I answered.

經文:

羅馬書 10:4-10:4

註釋:

 {The end of the law} (	elos nomou). Christ put a stop to
the law as a means of salvation ( 6:14  9:31  Eph 2:15  Col
2:14 ) as in  Lu 16:16 . Christ is the goal or aim of the law
( Gal 3:24 ). Christ is the fulfilment of the law ( Mt 5:17  Ro
13:10  1Ti 1:5 ). But here (Denney) Paul's main idea is that
Christ ended the law as a method of salvation for "every one that
believeth" whether Jew or Gentile. Christ wrote _finis_ on law as
a means of grace.

經文:

羅馬書 10:5-10:5

註釋:

 {Thereby} (en aut(8869)). That is by or in "the righteousness
that is from law." He stands or falls with it. The quotation is
from  Le 18:5 .

經文:

羅馬書 10:6-10:6

註釋:

 {Saith thus} (hout(9373) legei). Paul personifies "the from
faith righteousness" (h(8820)ek piste(9373) dikaiosun(885c)). A free
reproduction from  De 30:11-14 . Paul takes various phrases from
the LXX and uses them for "his inspired conviction and
experiences of the gospel" (Denney). He does not quote Moses as
saying this or meaning this. {Say not in thy heart} (m(8820)eip(8869)s
en t(8869) kardi(8369) sou). Second aorist active subjunctive with m(885c)
like  De 8:17 . To say in the heart is to think ( Mt 3:9 ). {That
is, to bring Christ down} (	out' estin Christon katagagein).
Second aorist active infinitive of the common verb katag(935c), to
bring or lead down. It is dependent on the preceding verb
anab(8873)etai (shall ascend). Tout' estin (that is) is what is
called _Midrash_ or interpretation as in  9:8 . It occurs three
times here (verses  6-8 ). Paul applies the words of Moses to
Christ. There is no need for one to go to heaven to bring Christ
down to earth. The Incarnation is already a glorious fact. Today
some men scout the idea of the Deity and Incarnation of Christ.

經文:

羅馬書 10:7-10:7

註釋:

 {Into the abyss} (eis t(886e) abusson). See  Lu 8:31  for this
old Greek word (a privative and ussos) bottomless like sea
( Ps 106:26 ), our abyss. In  Re 9:1  it is the place of torment.
Paul seems to refer to Hades or Sheol ( Ac 2:27,31 ), the other
world to which Christ went after death. {To bring Christ up}
(Christon anagagein). Second aorist active infinitive of
anag(935c) and dependent on katab(8873)etai (shall descend). Christ
has already risen from the dead. The deity and resurrection of
Christ are precisely the two chief points of attack today on the
part of sceptics.

經文:

羅馬書 10:8-10:8

註釋:

 {But what saith it?} (alla ti legei?). That is "the from
faith righteousness." {The word of faith} (	o r(886d)a t(8873)
piste(9373)). The gospel message concerning faith (objective
genitive). Only here. In contrast to the law. {Which we preach}
(ho k(8872)ussomen). The living voice brings home to every one the
faith kind of righteousness. Paul seizes upon the words of Moses
with the orator's instinct and with rhetorical skill (Sanday and
Headlam) applies them to the facts about the gospel message about
the Incarnation and Resurrection of Christ.

經文:

羅馬書 10:9-10:9

註釋:

 {If thou shalt confess} (ean homolog(8873)(8869)s). Third class
condition (ean and first aorist active subjunctive of
homologe(935c)). {With thy mouth Jesus as Lord} (en t(9369) stomati sou
Kurion I(8873)oun). This is the reading of nearly all the MSS. But B
71 Clem of Alex. read 	o r(886d)a en t(9369) stomati sou hoti Kurios
I(8873)ous (the word in thy mouth that Jesus is Lord). The idea is
the same, the confession of Jesus as Lord as in  1Co 12:3  Php
2:11 . No Jew would do this who had not really trusted Christ,
for Kurios in the LXX is used of God. No Gentile would do it
who had not ceased worshipping the emperor as Kurios. The word
Kurios was and is the touchstone of faith. {And shalt believe}
(kai pisteus(8869)s). Same construction. Faith precedes confession,
of course.

經文:

羅馬書 10:10-10:10

註釋:

 {Man believeth} (pisteuetai). Impersonal construction,
"it is believed" (present passive indicative of pisteu(935c)). The
order is reversed in this verse and the true order (faith, then
confession). {Confession is made} (homologeitai). Impersonal
construction again, "it is confessed," "man confesses." Both
kardi(8369) (heart) and stomati (mouth) are in the instrumental
case.

經文:

羅馬書 10:11-10:11

註釋:

 {Every one} (p(8373)). Paul adds this word to the quotation
from  Isa 28:16  already made in  9:33 .

經文:

羅馬書 10:12-10:12

註釋:

 {Distinction} (diastol(885c)). See on this word  3:22 . Here
it is followed by the ablative case Ioudaiou te kai Hell(886e)os
(between Jew and Greek). {Lord of all} (Kurios pant(936e)). See  Ga
3:28 . {Rich} (plout(936e)). Present active participle of
ploute(935c). See  Eph 3:8  "the unsearchable riches of Christ."

經文:

羅馬書 10:13-10:13

註釋:

 Paul here quotes  Joe 3:5  ( Joe 2:32  LXX).

經文:

羅馬書 10:14-10:14

註釋:

 {How then shall they call?} (p(9373) oun epikales(936e)tai?).
Deliberative subjunctive (first aorist middle) of epikaleomai
(see verses  12,13 ). The antecedent of eis hon (in whom) is
not expressed. {How shall they believe?} (pos pisteus(9373)in?).
Deliberative subjunctive again (first aorist active of pisteu(935c)
just used). Each time Paul picks up the preceding verb and
challenges that. Here again the antecedent eis touton before
hon is not expressed. {How shall they hear?} (pos
akous(9373)in?). Deliberative subjunctive (first aorist active of
akou(935c)). {Without a preacher?} (ch(9372)is k(8872)ussontos?).
Preposition ch(9372)is with ablative singular masculine present
active participle of k(8872)uss(935c), "without one preaching." {How
shall they preach?} (p(9373) k(8872)ux(9373)in?). Deliberative subjunctive
again (first aorist active k(8872)uss(935c), to preach). {Except they be
sent?} (ean m(8820)apostal(9373)in?). Second aorist passive
deliberative subjunctive of apostell(935c), to send, from which verb
apostolos apostle comes. Negative condition of third class. In
graphic style Paul has made a powerful plea for missions. It is
just as true today as then.

經文:

羅馬書 10:15-10:15

註釋:

 {How beautiful} (H(9373) h(9372)aioi). A quotation from  Isa
52:7  more like the Hebrew than the LXX, picturing the messengers
of the restoration from the Jewish captivity. Paul assumes that
the missionaries (apostoloi) have been sent as implied in verse
 14 .

經文:

羅馬書 10:16-10:16

註釋:

 {But they did not all hearken} (ou pantes hup(886b)ousan).
They heard, but did not heed. Some disbelieve now ( 3:3 ) as they
did then. On obedience and disobedience see  5:19  1Th 2:13  Ga
3:2 . He quotes  Isa 53:1  to show how Isaiah felt. {Report}
(ako(8869)). Literally, "hearing" ( Mt 14:1  Mr 13:7 ).

經文:

羅馬書 10:17-10:17

註釋:

 {By the word of Christ} (dia r(886d)atos Christou). "By the
word about Christ" (objective genitive).

經文:

羅馬書 10:18-10:18

註釋:

 {Did they not hear?} (m(8820)ouk (886b)ousan?). Rather, "Did they
fail to hear?" (expecting the negative answer m(885c), while ouk
blends with the verb). See on 氣Co 9:5| for this construction.
{Yea, verily} (menounge). Triple particle (men, oun, ge) as
in  9:20 . {Sound} (phthoggos). Vibration of a musical string.
See on 氣Co 14:7|. Only two N.T. examples. {The world} (	(8873)
oikoumen(8873)). The inhabited earth as in  Lu 2:1 .

經文:

羅馬書 10:19-10:19

註釋:

 {Did Israel not know?} (m(8820)Israel ouk egn(933f)). "Did Israel
fail to know?" See above. {First} (pr(9374)os). Moses first before
any one else. LXX quotation  De 32:21 . See on 氣Co 10:22| for
paraz(886c)(9373)(935c) (I will provoke you to jealousy). {With that which
is no nation} (ep' ouk ethnei). The Jews had worshipped
"no-gods" and now God shows favours to a "no-nation" (people).
{Will I anger you} (parorgi(9320)humas). Future active (Attic
future) of parorgiz(935c), rare word, to rouse to wrath.

經文:

羅馬書 10:20-10:20

註釋:

 {Is very bold} (apotolm(8369)). Present active indicative of
apotolma(935c), old word, to assume boldness (apo, off) and only
here in N.T. Isaiah "breaks out boldly" (Gifford). Paul cites
 Isa 65:1  in support of his own courage against the prejudice of
the Jews. See  9:30-33  for illustration of this point. {I was
found} (heureth(886e)). First aorist passive indicative of
heurisk(935c).

經文:

羅馬書 10:21-10:21

註釋:

 {All the day long} (hol(886e) t(886e) h(886d)eran). Accusative of
extent of time. He quotes  Isa 65:2 . {Did I spread out}
(exepetasa). First aorist active indicative of ekpetannumi,
old verb, to stretch out, bold metaphor, only here in N.T. {Unto
a disobedient and a gainsaying people} (pros laon apeithounta
kai antilegonta). "Unto a people disobeying and talking back."
The two things usually go together. Contrary and contradictory
( Lu 13:34f. ).


經文:

羅馬書 11:1-11:1

註釋:

 {I say then} (leg(9320)oun). As in verse  11 . Oun looks
back to  9:16-33  and  10:19-21 . {Did God cast off?} (m(880a)ap(9373)ato ho theos?). An indignant negative answer is called for
by m(885c) and emphasized by m(8820)genoito (God forbid). Paul refers
to the promise in the O.T. made three times:  1Sa 12:22  Ps
94:14  ( Ps 93:14  LXX);  Ps 94:4 . First aorist middle
indicative (without augment) of ap(9374)he(935c), to push away, to
repel, middle, to push away from one as in  Ac 7:27 . {For I
also} (kai gar eg(935c)). Proof that not all the Jews have rejected
Christ. See  Php 3:5  for more of Paul's pedigree.

經文:

羅馬書 11:2-11:2

註釋:

 {Whom he foreknew} (hon proegn(935c)). The same form and sense
as in  8:29 , which see. Probably the Hebrew sense of choice
beforehand. The nation of Israel was God's chosen people and so
all the individuals in it could not be cast off. {Wot ye not?}
(ouk oidate?). "Know ye not?" Why keep the old English "wot"?
{Of Elijah} (en Elei(8369)). "In the case of Elijah." Cf. "in the
bush" ( Mr 12:26 ). {He pleadeth} (entugchanei). See on 涕:27|.
Entugchan(935c) means to happen on one and so to converse with ( Ac
25:24 ), to plead for ( Ro 8:27,34 ), to plead against as here
with kata, but the "against" is in kata.

經文:

羅馬書 11:3-11:3

註釋:

 {They have digged down} (kateskapsan). First aorist active
indicative of kataskapt(935c), to dig under or down. Old verb, here
only in N.T. (critical text). LXX has katheilan "pulled down."
Paul has reversed the order of the LXX of  1Ki 19:10,14,18 .
{Altars} (	husiast(8872)ia). Late word (LXX, Philo, Josephus, N.T.
eccl. writers) from 	husiaz(935c), to sacrifice. See  Ac 17:23 .
{And I am left alone} (kag(9320)hupeleiphth(886e) monos). First aorist
passive indicative of hupoleip(935c), old word, to leave under or
behind, here only in N.T. Elijah's mood was that of utter
dejection in his flight from Jezebel. {Life} (psuch(886e)). It is
not possible to draw a clear distinction between psuch(885c) (soul)
and pneuma (spirit). Psuch(885c) is from psuch(935c), to breathe or
blow, pneuma from pne(935c), to blow. Both are used for the
personality and for the immortal part of man. Paul is usually
dichotomous in his language, but sometimes trichotomous in a
popular sense. We cannot hold Paul's terms to our modern
psychological distinctions.

經文:

羅馬書 11:4-11:4

註釋:

 {The answer of God} (ho chr(886d)atismos). An old word in
various senses like chr(886d)atiz(935c), only here in N.T. See this use
of the verb in  Mt 2:12,22  Lu 2:26  Ac 10:22 . {To Baal} (	(8869)
Baal). Feminine article. In the LXX the name Baal is either
masculine or feminine. The explanation is that the Jews put
_Bosheth_ (aischun(885c), shame) for Baal and in the LXX the
feminine article occurs because aischun(885c) is so, though here the
LXX has the masculine 	(9369).

經文:

羅馬書 11:5-11:5

註釋:

 {Remnant} (limma). Old word, but only here in N.T., but in
papyri also and with this spelling rather than leimma. From
leip(935c), to leave. {According to the election of grace} (kat'
eklog(886e) charitos). As in  9:6-13 . The election is all of God.
Verse  6  explains it further.

經文:

羅馬書 11:6-11:6

註釋:

 {Otherwise} (epei). Ellipse after epei (since), "since,
in that case." {Is no more} (ouketi ginetai). "No longer
becomes" grace, loses its character as grace. Augustine: _Gratia
nisi gratis sit gratia non est_.

經文:

羅馬書 11:7-11:7

註釋:

 {What then?} (	i oun?). Since God did not push Israel away
(verse  1 ), what is true? {The election} (h(8820)eklog(885c)). Abstract
for concrete (the elect). {Obtained} (epetuchen). Second aorist
active indicative of epitugchan(935c), old verb, to hit upon, only
here in Paul. See  9:30-33  for the failure of the Jews. {Were
hardened} (ep(9372)(9374)h(8873)an). First aorist passive indicative of
p(9372)o(935c), late verb, to cover with thick skin (p(9372)os). See on
 2Co 3:14  Mr 3:5 .

經文:

羅馬書 11:8-11:8

註釋:

 {A spirit of stupor} (pneuma katanuxe(9373)). The quotation is
a combination of  De 19:4  Isa 29:10  6:9f . This phrase is from
 Isa 29:10 . Katanuxis is a late and rare word from
katanuss(935c), to prick or stick ( Ac 2:37 ), in LXX, here only in
N.T., one example in _Pelagia-Legende_. The torpor seems the
result of too much sensation, dulled by incitement into apathy.
{That they should not see} (	ou m(8820)blepein). Genitive articular
infinitive of negative purpose. {That they should not hear} (	ou
m(8820)akouein). So here also. See Stephen's speech ( Ac 7:51f. ).

經文:

羅馬書 11:9-11:9

註釋:

 {David says} (Daueid legei). From  Ps 69:23f ; ( 68:23f 
LXX);  34:8  28:4  (combined quotation). {Table} (	rapeza). For
what is on the table, "a feast." {A snare} (eis pagida). From
p(8867)numi, to make fast, old word for snares for birds and
beasts. See on 烊u 21:35|. Eis in predicate with ginomai is a
translation-Hebraism. {A trap} (eis th(8872)an). Old word for
hunting of wild beasts, then a trap. Only here in N.T. {A
stumbling-block} (eis skandalon). A third word for trap, snare,
trap-stick or trigger over which they fall. See on 氣Co 1:23; Ro
9:33|. {A recompense} (eis antapodoma). Late word from double
compound verb antapodid(936d)i, to repay (both anti and apo).
Ancient Greeks used antapodosis. In LXX and Didache. In N.T.
only here (bad sense) and  Lu 14:12  (good sense).

經文:

羅馬書 11:10-11:10

註釋:

 {Let their eyes be darkened} (skotisth(8874)(9373)an hoi
ophthalmoi aut(936e)). First aorist passive imperative of skotiz(935c),
to darken. A terrible imprecation. {That they may not see} (	ou
m(8820)blepein). Repeated from verse  8 . {Bow down} (sunkampson).
First aorist active imperative of sunkampt(935c), old verb, to bend
together as of captives whose backs (
(9374)on, another old word,
only here in N.T.) were bent under burdens. Only here in N.T.

經文:

羅馬書 11:11-11:11

註釋:

 1Co
10:26,28 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
10' or engs='1Co
10'
經文:

羅馬書 11:13-11:13

註釋:

 {To you that are Gentiles} (humin tois ethnesin). "To you
the Gentiles." He has a serious word to say to them. {Inasmuch
then} (eph' hoson men oun). Not temporal, _quamdiu_, "so long
as" ( Mt 9:15 ), but qualitative _quatenus_ "in so far then as"
( Mt 25:40 ). {I glorify my ministry} (	(886e) diakonian mou
doxaz(935c)). As apostle to the Gentiles (ethn(936e) apostolos,
objective genitive). Would that every minister of Christ
glorified his ministry. {If by any means} (ei p(9373)). This use of
ei with purpose or aim is a kind of indirect discourse. {I may
provoke} (paraz(886c)(9373)(935c)). Either future active indicative or first
aorist active subjunctive, see same uncertainty in  Php 3:10 
katant(8873)(935c), but in  3:11  katalab(935c) after ei is subjunctive.
The future indicative is clear in  Ro 1:10  and the optative in
 Ac 27:12 . Doubtful whether future indicative or aorist
subjunctive also in s(9373)(935c) (save).

經文:

羅馬書 11:15-11:15

註釋:

 {The casting away of them} (h(8820)apobol(8820)aut(936e)). Objective
genitive (aut(936e)) with apobol(885c), old word from apoball(935c), to
throw off ( Mr 10:50 ), in N.T. only here and  Ac 27:22 . {The
reconciling of the world} (katallag(8820)kosmou). See  5:10f.  for
katallag(885c) (reconciling). It explains verse  12 . {The
receiving} (h(8820)prosl(886d)psis). Old word from proslamban(935c), to
take to oneself, only here in N.T. {Life from the dead} (z(9388) ek
nekr(936e)). Already the conversion of Jews had become so difficult.
It is like a miracle of grace today, though it does happen. Many
think that Paul means that the general resurrection and the end
will come when the Jews are converted. Possibly so, but it is by
no means certain. His language may be merely figurative.

經文:

羅馬書 11:16-11:16

註釋:

 {First fruit} (aparch(885c)). See on 氣Co 15:20,23|. The
metaphor is from  Nu 15:19f . The LXX has aparch(886e) phuramatos,
first of the dough as a heave offering. {The lump} (	o
phurama). From which the first fruit came. See on 消:21|.
Apparently the patriarchs are the first fruit. {The root} (h(880a)riza). Perhaps Abraham singly here. The metaphor is changed, but
the idea is the same. Israel is looked on as a tree. But one must
recall and keep in mind the double sense of Israel in  9:6f .
(the natural and the spiritual).

經文:

羅馬書 11:17-11:17

註釋:

 {Branches} (klad(936e)). From kla(935c), to break. {Were broken
off} (exeklasth(8873)an). First aorist passive indicative of
ekkla(935c). Play on the word klados (branch) and ekkla(935c), to
break off. Condition of first class, assumed as true. Some of the
individual Jews (natural Israel) were broken off the stock of the
tree (spiritual Israel). {And thou} (kai su). An individual
Gentile. {Being a wild olive} (agrielaios (936e)). This word, used
by Aristotle, occurs in an inscription. Ramsay (_Pauline
Studies_, pp. 219ff.) shows that the ancients used the wild-olive
graft upon an old olive tree to reinvigorate the tree precisely
as Paul uses the figure here and that both the olive tree and the
graft were influenced by each other, though the wild olive graft
did not produce as good olives as the original stock. But it
should be noted that in verse  24  Paul expressly states that the
grafting of Gentiles on to the stock of the spiritual Israel was
"contrary to nature" (para phusin). {Wast grafted in}
(enekentristh(8873)). First aorist passive indicative of
enkentriz(935c), to cut in, to graft, used by Aristotle. Belongs "to
the higher _Koin(825f)" (literary _Koin(825f)) according to Milligan.
{Partaker} (sunkoin(936e)os). Co-partner. {Fatness} (piot(8874)os).
Old word from pi(936e) (fat), only here in N.T. Note three
genitives here "of the root of the fatness of the olive."

經文:

羅馬書 11:18-11:18

註釋:

 {Glory not over the branches} (m(8820)katakauch(9320)t(936e) klad(936e)).
Genitive case after kata. Present middle imperative second
person singular of katakauchaomai with negative m(885c), "stop
glorying" or "do not have the habit of glorying over the
branches." The conclusion of the preceding condition. {Gloriest}
(katakauch(8373)ai). Late form -aesai retaining s. {Not thou}
(ou su). Very emphatic position. The graft was upon the stock
and root, though each affected the other.

經文:

羅馬書 11:19-11:19

註釋:

 {Thou wilt say then} (ereis oun). A presumptuous Gentile
speaks. {That I might be grafted in} (hina eg(9320)enkentristh(935c)).
Purpose clause with hina and first aorist passive subjunctive.
He shows contempt for the cast-off Jews.

經文:

羅馬書 11:20-11:20

註釋:

 {Well} (kal(9373)). Perhaps ironical, though Paul may simply
admit the statement (cf.  Mr 12:32 ) and show the Gentile his
real situation. {By unbelief} (	(8869) apisti(8369)) {--by faith}
(pistei). Instrumental case with both contrasted words (by
unbelief, by belief).

經文:

羅馬書 11:21-11:21

註釋:

 {Be not highminded} (m(8820)hups(886c)a phronei). "Stop thinking
high (proud) thoughts." {Of God spared not} (ei gar ho theos ouk
epheisato). It is not ei m(885c) (unless), but the ouk negatives
the verb epheisato (first aorist middle indicative of
pheidomai, to spare. Condition of first class.

經文:

羅馬書 11:22-11:22

註釋:

 {The goodness and the severity of God} (chr(8873)tot(8874)a kai
apotomian theou). See on  Ro 2:2  for chr(8873)tot(8873), kindness of
God. Apotomia (here alone in the N.T.) is from apotomos, cut
off, abrupt, and this adjective from apotemn(935c), to cut off. This
late word occurs several times in the papyri. {If thou continue}
(ean epimen(8869)s). Third class condition, ean and present
active subjunctive. {Otherwise} (epei). Ellipse after epei,
"since if thou dost not continue." {Thou also} (kai su).
Precisely as the Jewish branches of verse  17  were. {Shalt be
cut off} (ekkop(8873)(8869)). Second future passive of ekkopt(935c), to
cut out.

經文:

羅馬書 11:23-11:23

註釋:

 {If they continue not in their unbelief} (ean m(8820)epimen(9373)i
t(8869) apisti(8369)). Third class condition with the same verb used in
verse  22  of the Gentile. Locative case of apisti(8369) here (same
form as the instrumental in verse  20 ). {For God is able}
(dunatos gar estin ho theos). See this use of dunatos estin
in  4:21  rather than dunatai. This is the crux of the whole
matter. God is able.

經文:

羅馬書 11:24-11:24

註釋:

 {Contrary to nature} (para phusin). This is the gist of
the argument, the power of God to do what is contrary to natural
processes. He put the wild olive (Gentile) into the good olive
tree (the spiritual Israel) and made the wild olive (contrary to
nature) become the good olive (kallielaios, the garden olive,
kallos and elaia in Aristotle and a papyrus). {Into their own
olive tree} (	(8869) idi(8369) elai(8369)). Dative case. Another argument
_a fortiori_, "how much more" (poll(9369) mallon). God can graft
the natural Israel back upon the spiritual Israel, if they become
willing.

經文:

羅馬書 11:25-11:25

註釋:

 {This mystery} (	o must(8872)ion touto). Not in the pagan
sense of an esoteric doctrine for the initiated (from mue(935c), to
blink, to wink), unknown secrets ( 2Th 2:7 ), or like the mystery
religions of the time, but the revealed will of God now made
known to all ( 1Co 2:1,7  4:1 ) which includes Gentiles also ( Ro
16:25  Col 1:26f.  Eph 3:3f. ) and so far superior to man's
wisdom ( Col 2:2  4:13  Eph 3:9  5:32  6:19  Mt 13:11  Mr 4:11 ).
Paul has covered every point of difficulty concerning the failure
of the Jews to accept Jesus as the Messiah and has shown how God
has overruled it for the blessing of the Gentiles with a ray of
hope still held out for the Jews. "In early ecclesiastical Latin
must(8872)ion was rendered by _sacramentum_, which in classical
Latin means _the military oath_. The explanation of the word
_sacrament_, which is so often founded on this etymology, is
therefore mistaken, since the meaning of sacrament belongs to
must(8872)ion and not to _sacramentum_ in the classical sense"
(Vincent). {Wise in your own conceits} (en heautois phronimoi).
"Wise in yourselves." Some MSS. read par' heautois (by
yourselves). Negative purpose here (hina m(8820)(8874)e), to prevent
self-conceit on the part of the Gentiles who have believed. They
had no merit in themselves {A hardening} (p(9372)(9373)is). Late word
from p(9372)o(935c) ( 11:7 ). Occurs in Hippocrates as a medical term,
only here in N.T. save  Mr 3:5  Eph 4:18 . It means obtuseness of
intellectual discernment, mental dulness. {In part} (apo
merous). Goes with the verb gegonen (has happened in part).
For apo merous, see  2Co 1:14  2:5  Ro 15:24 ; for ana meros,
see  1Co 14:27 ; for ek merous, see  1Co 12:27  13:9 ; for
kata meros, see  Heb 9:5 ; for meros ti (adverbial
accusative) partly see  1Co 11:18 . Paul refuses to believe that
no more Jews will be saved. {Until the fulness of the Gentiles be
come in} (achri hou to pl(8872)(936d)a t(936e) ethn(936e) eiselth(8869)). Temporal
clause with achri hou (until which time) and the second aorist
active subjunctive of eiserchomai, to come in ( Mt 7:13,21 ).
{For fulness of the Gentiles} (	o pl(8872)(936d)a t(936e) ethn(936e)) see on
verse 氣2|, the complement of the Gentiles.

經文:

羅馬書 11:26-11:26

註釋:

 {And so} (kai hout(9373)). By the complement of the Gentiles
stirring up the complement of the Jews (verses  11f. ). {All
Israel} (p(8373) Isra(886c)). What does Paul mean? The immediate
context (use of p(8373) in contrast with apo merous, pl(8872)(936d)a here
in contrast with pl(8872)(936d)a in verse  12 ) argues for the Jewish
people "as a whole." But the spiritual Israel (both Jews and
Gentiles) may be his idea in accord with  9:6  ( Ga 6:16 ) as the
climax of the argument. At any rate we should strive for and pray
for the conversion of Jews as a whole. Paul here quotes from  Isa
59:20f.  27:9 . {The Deliverer} (ho ruomenos). Present middle
articular participle of 
uomai, to rescue, to deliver. See on
氣Th 1:10; 2Co 1:10|. The Hebrew _Goel_, the Avenger, the
Messiah, the Redeemer ( De 25:5-10  Job 19:25  Ru 3:12f. ). Paul
interprets it of Jesus as Messiah.

經文:

羅馬書 11:27-11:27

註釋:

 {My covenant} (h(8820)par' emou diath(886b)(885c)). "The from me
covenant," "my side of the covenant I have made with them"
(Sanday and Headlam). Cf.  Jer 31:31ff . Not a political
deliverance, but a religious and ethical one. {When I shall take
away} (hotan aphel(936d)ai). Second aorist middle subjunctive of
aphaire(935c), old and common verb, to take away.

經文:

羅馬書 11:28-11:28

註釋:

 {As touching the gospel} (kata to euaggelion). "According
to (kata with the accusative) the gospel" as Paul has shown in
verses  11-24 , the gospel order as it has developed. {Enemies}
(echthroi). Treated as enemies (of God), in passive sense,
because of their rejection of Christ (verse  10 ), just as
agap(8874)oi (beloved) is passive. {As touching the election}
(kata t(886e) eklog(886e)). "According to the election" (the principle
of election, not as in verses  5f.  the elect or abstract for
concrete). {For the fathers' sake} (dia tous pateras). As in
 9:4  11:16f .

經文:

羅馬書 11:29-11:29

註釋:

 {Without repentance} (ametamel(8874)a). See on  2Co 7:10  for
this word (a privative and metamelomai, to be sorry
afterwards). It is not ametano(8874)on ( Ro 2:5 ) from a
privative and metanoe(935c), to change one's mind. God is not sorry
for his gifts to and calling of the Jews ( 9:4f. ).

經文:

羅馬書 11:30-11:30

註釋:

 {Ye in time past} (humeis pote). Ye Gentiles ( 1:18-32 ).
{Were disobedient} (epeith(8873)ate). First aorist active
indicative of apeithe(935c), to disbelieve and then to disobey. "Ye
once upon a time disobeyed God." {By their disobedience} (	(8869)
tout(936e) apeithi(8369)). Instrumental case, "by the disobedience of
these" (Jews). Note "now" (
un) three times in this sentence.

經文:

羅馬書 11:31-11:31

註釋:

 {By the mercy shown to you} (	(9369) humeter(9369) eleei).
Objective sense of humeteros (possessive pronoun, your).
Proleptic position also for the words go with ele(8874)h(9373)in (first
aorist passive subjunctive of elee(935c), from eleos with hina,
purpose clause). God's purpose is for the Jews to receive a
blessing yet.

經文:

羅馬書 11:32-11:32

註釋:

 {Hath shut up} (sunekleisen). First aorist active
indicative of sunklei(935c), to shut together like a net ( Lu 5:6 ).
See  Ga 3:22  for this word with hupo hamartian (under sin).
This is a resultant (effective) aorist because of the disbelief
and disobedience of both Gentile ( 1:17-32 ) and Jew
( 2:1-3:20 ). {All} (	ous pantas). "The all" (both Gentiles and
Jews). {That he might have mercy} (hina--ele(8873)(8869)). Purpose with
hina and aorist active subjunctive. No merit in anyone, but all
of grace. "The all" again, who receive God's mercy, not that
"all" men are saved.

經文:

羅馬書 11:33-11:33

註釋:

 {O the depth} (O bathos). Exclamation with omega and the
nominative case of athos (see on 氧Co 8:2; Ro 8:39|). Paul's
argument concerning God's elective grace and goodness has carried
him to the heights and now he pauses on the edge of the precipice
as he contemplates God's wisdom and knowledge, fully conscious of
his inability to sound the bottom with the plummet of human
reason and words. {Unsearchable} (anexeraun(8874)a). Double
compound (a privative and ex) verbal adjective of ereuna(935c)
(old spelling -eu-), late and rare word (LXX, Dio Cassius,
Heraclitus), only here in N.T. Some of God's wisdom can be known
( 1:20f. ), but not all. {Past tracing out} (anexichniastoi).
Another verbal adjective from a privative and exichniaz(935c), to
trace out by tracks (ichnos  Ro 4:12 ). Late word in Job ( Job
5:9  9:10  34:24 ) from which use Paul obtained it here and  Eph
3:8  (only N.T. examples). Also in ecclesiastical writers. Some
of God's tracks he has left plain to us, but others are beyond
us.

經文:

羅馬書 11:34-11:34

註釋:

 1Co
2:16 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
2' or engs='1Co
2'
經文:

羅馬書 11:35-11:35

註釋:

 {First driven to him} (proed(936b)en aut(9369)). First aorist
active indicative of prodid(936d)i, to give beforehand or first.
Old verb, here alone in N.T. From  Job 41:11 , but not like the
LXX, Paul's own translation. {Shall be recompensed}
(antapodoth(8873)etai). First future passive of double compound
antapodid(936d)i, to pay back (both anti and apo), old word in
good sense, as here and  Lu 14:14  1Th 3:9  and in bad sense as
 2Th 1:6  Ro 12:19 .

經文:

羅馬書 11:36-11:36

註釋:

 {Of him} (ex autou), {through him} (di' autou), {unto
him} (eis auton). By these three prepositions Paul ascribes the
universe (	a panta) with all the phenomena concerning creation,
redemption, providence to God as the {Source} (ex), the {Agent}
(di), the {Goal} (eis). {For ever} (eis tous ai(936e)as). "For
the ages." Alford terms this doxology in verses  33-36  "the
sublimest apostrophe existing even in the pages of inspiration
itself."

經文:

羅馬書 12:1-12:1

註釋:

 {Therefore} (oun). This inferential participle gathers up
all the great argument of chapters  1-11 . Now Paul turns to
exhortation (parakal(935c)), "I beseech you." {By the mercies} (dia
t(936e) oiktirm(936e)). "By means of the mercies of God" as shown in his
argument and in our lives. See  2Co 1:3  for "the Father of
mercies." {To present} (parast(8873)ai). First aorist active
infinitive of parist(886d)i, for which verb see  6:13 , a technical
term for offering a sacrifice (Josephus, _Ant_. IV. 6, 4), though
not in the O.T. Used of presenting the child Jesus in the temple
( Lu 2:22 ), of the Christian presenting himself ( Ro 6:13 ), of
God presenting the saved ( Eph 5:27 ), of Christ presenting the
church ( Col 1:28 ). {Bodies} (s(936d)ata). So literally as in
 6:13,19  2Co 5:10  and in contrast with 
ous (mind) in verse
 2 . {A living sacrifice} (	husian z(9373)an). In contrast with the
Levitical sacrifices of slain animals. Cf.  6:8,11,13 . Not a
propitiatory sacrifice, but one of praise. {Acceptable}
(euareston). "Well-pleasing." See on 氧Co 5:9|. {Which is your
reasonable service} (	(886e) logik(886e) hum(936e) latreian). "Your
rational (spiritual) service (worship)." For latreia, see on
消:4|. Logikos is from logos, reason. The phrase means here
"worship rendered by the reason (or soul)." Old word, in N.T.
only here and  1Pe 2:2  	o logikon gala (not logical milk, but
the milk nourishing the soul).

經文:

羅馬書 12:2-12:2

註釋:

 {Be not fashioned} (m(8820)sunsch(886d)atizesthe). Present passive
imperative with m(885c), stop being fashioned or do not have the
habit of being fashioned. Late Greek verb susch(886d)atiz(935c), to
conform to another's pattern ( 1Co 7:31  Php 2:7f. ). In N.T.
only here and  1Pe 1:14 . {According to this world} (	(9369) ai(936e)i
tout(9369)). Associative instrumental case. Do not take this age as
your fashion plate. {Be ye transformed} (metamorphousthe).
Present passive imperative of metamorpho(935c), another late verb,
to transfigure as in  Mt 17:2  ( Mr 9:2 );  2Co 3:18 , which see.
On the distinction between sch(886d)a and morph(885c), see  Php 2:7 .
There must be a radical change in the inner man for one to live
rightly in this evil age, "by the renewing of your mind" (	(8869)
anakain(9373)ei tou noos). Instrumental case. The new birth, the new
mind, the new (kainos) man. {That ye may prove} (eis to
dokimazein). Infinitive of purpose with eis to, "to test" what
is God's will, "the good and acceptable and perfect" (	o agathon
kai euareston kai teleion).

經文:

羅馬書 12:3-12:3

註釋:

 {Not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think}
(m(8820)huperphronein par' ho dei phronein). Indirect negative
command after leg(935c) (I say). Play on the two infinitives
phronein, to think, and huperphronein (old verb from
huperphr(936e), over-proud, here only in N.T.) to "over-think" with
par' ho (beyond what) added. Then another play on phronein
and s(9370)hronein (old verb from s(9370)hr(936e), sober-minded), to be
in one's right mind ( Mr 5:15  2Co 5:13 ). Self-conceit is here
treated as a species of insanity. {A measure of faith} (metron
piste(9373)). Accusative case, the object of the verb emerisen.
Each has his gift from God ( 1Co 3:5  4:7 ). There is no occasion
for undue pride. {To each man} (hekast(9369)). Emphatic position
before h(9373) (as) and emphasizes the diversity.

經文:

羅馬書 12:4-12:4

註釋:

 {The same office} (	(886e) aut(886e) praxin). Mode of acting or
function. Cf.  Ac 19:18  Ro 8:13 .

經文:

羅馬書 12:5-12:5

註釋:

 {And severally} (	o de kath' heis). A difficult late idiom
where the preposition kath' (kata) is treated adverbially
with no effect on the nominative case heis like huper eg(935c)
( 2Co 11:23 ). So heis kath' heis ( Mr 14:19 ) and in Modern
Greek katheis as a distributive pronoun. But we have kath'
hena in  1Co 14:31 . The use of the neuter article here 	o
with kath' heis is probably the accusative of general
reference, "as to each one."

經文:

羅馬書 12:6-12:6

註釋:

 {Differing} (diaphora). Old adjective from diapher(935c), to
differ, to vary. So  Heb 9:10 . {According to the proportion of
our faith} (kata t(886e) analogian t(8873) piste(9373)). The same use of
pistis (faith) as in verse  3  "the measure of faith." Old
word. analogia (our word "analogy") from analogos (analogous,
conformable, proportional). Here alone in N.T. The verb
proph(8874)eu(936d)en (present active volitive subjunctive, let us
prophesy) must be supplied with which echontes agrees. The
context calls for the subjective meaning of "faith" rather than
the objective and outward standard though pistis does occur in
that sense ( Ga 1:23  3:23 ).

經文:

羅馬書 12:7-12:7

註釋:

 1Th
5:12 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
5' or engs='1Th
5'
經文:

羅馬書 12:9-12:9

註釋:

 {Without hypocrisy} (anupokritos). Late double compound
adjective for which see  2Co 6:6 . Hypocritical or pretended love
is no love at all as Paul describes agap(885c) in  1Co 13 . {Abhor}
(apostugountes). Old verb with intensive (apo) dislike, only
here in N.T. The present active participle is here employed in
the sense of the present active indicative as sometimes happens
with the independent participle (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp.
1132ff.). This same idiom appears with koll(936d)enoi (cleaving)
for which verb see on 氣Co 6:17|, with pro(8867)oumenoi
(preferring) in verse  10  (old verb here only in N.T.), and with
the participles in verses  11-13  and again in verses  16-18 .
One can supply este if he prefers.

經文:

羅馬書 12:10-12:10

註釋:

 {In love of the brethren} (	(8869) philadelphi(8369)). Late word
for brotherly love for which see  1Th 4:9 . {Tenderly
affectioned} (philostorgoi). Old compound adjective from
philos and storg(885c) (mutual love of parents and children), here
alone in N.T.

經文:

羅馬書 12:11-12:11

註釋:

 {Slothful} (okn(8872)oi). Old adjective from okne(935c), to
hesitate, to be slow. Slow and "poky" as in  Mt 25:26 .

經文:

羅馬書 12:12-12:12

註釋:

 {Patient in tribulation} (	(8869) thlipsei hupomenontes). So
soon this virtue became a mark of the Christians.

經文:

羅馬書 12:13-12:13

註釋:

 1Ti
3:2 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ti
3' or engs='1Ti
3'
經文:

羅馬書 12:14-12:14

註釋:

 {And curse not} (kai m(8820)katar(8373)the). Present middle
imperative with m(885c). Like  Mt 5:44  in spirit, not a quotation,
but a reminiscence of the words of Jesus. The negative addition
gives emphasis. See  Lu 6:28  for the old verb kataraomai from
katara (curse).

經文:

羅馬書 12:15-12:15

註釋:

 {Rejoice} (chairein). Present active infinitive of
chair(935c), absolute or independent use of the infinitive as if a
finite verb as occurs sometimes (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp.
1092ff.). Literally here, "Rejoicing with rejoicing people,
weeping with weeping people."

經文:

羅馬書 12:16-12:16

註釋:

 {Be of the same mind} (	o auto phronountes). Absolute or
independent use of the participle again as with all the
participles through verse  18 , "thinking the same thing." {Set
not your mind on high things} (m(8820)ta hups(886c)a phronountes). "Not
thinking the high things" (hups(886c)os from hupsos, height). Cf.
 1Co 13:5 . {Condescend to things that are lowly} (	ois
tapeinois sunapagomenoi). "Be carried away with (borne along
with) the lowly things" (in contrast with 	a hups(886c)a, though
the associative instrumental case may be masculine, "with lowly
men." See  Ga 2:13  2Pe 3:17  for the only other N.T. examples of
this old verb. {Be not wise} (m(8820)ginesthe phronimoi). "Do not
have the habit of becoming (ginesthe) wise in your own
conceits" (par' heautois, beside yourselves). Note the
imperative in the midst of infinitives and participles.

經文:

羅馬書 12:17-12:17

註釋:

 2Co
8:21 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
8' or engs='2Co
8'
經文:

羅馬書 12:18-12:18

註釋:

 {As much as in you lieth} (	o ex hum(936e)). Accusative of
general reference, "so far as what proceeds from you" ("the from
you part"). See 	o kat' eme in  1:15 . This phrase explains "if
it be possible" (ei dunaton). "All _your_ part is to be peace"
(Alford). For "be at peace" (eir(886e)euontes) see  2Co 13:11 .

經文:

羅馬書 12:19-12:19

註釋:

 {Avenge not} (m(8820)ekdikountes). Independent participle
again of late verb ekdike(935c) from ekdikos, exacting justice
( 13:4 ). See already  Lu 18:5  2Co 10:6 . {But give place unto
wrath} (alla dote topon t(8869) org(8869)). Second aorist active
imperative of did(936d)i, to give. "Give room for the (note article
as in  5:9  1Th 2:16 ) wrath" of God instead of taking vengeance
in your own hands. See  Eph 4:27  for didote topon. Paul quotes
 De 32:35  (the Hebrew rather than the LXX). So have  Heb 10:30 
and the Targum of Onkelos, but the relation between them and Paul
we cannot tell. Socrates and Epictetus condemned personal
vindictiveness as Paul does here. {I will recompense}
(antapod(9373)(935c)). Future active of the double compound verb quoted
also in  11:35 .

經文:

羅馬書 12:20-12:20

註釋:

 {Feed him} (ps(936d)ize auton). Quotation from LXX text of
 Pr 25:21f . Present active imperative of verb from ps(936d)os, a
morsel, and so to feed crumbs to babies, then to feed in general.
In N.T. only here and  1Co 13:3 . {Thou shalt heap}
(s(9372)euseis). Future active of old verb s(9372)eu(935c) from s(9372)os, a
heap. In N.T. only here and  2Ti 3:6 . {Coals of fire}
(anthrakas puros). That is, burning or live coals. {Anthrax}
(our "anthracite") is an old word, only here in N.T. It is a
metaphor for keen anguish. The Arabs have a proverb "coals in the
heart," "fire in the liver." Such kindness may lead to repentance
also.

經文:

羅馬書 12:21-12:21

註釋:

 {Be not overcome of evil} (m(8820)nik(9320)hupo tou kakou).
Present passive imperative of 
ika(935c), to conquer. "Stop being
conquered by the evil (thing or man)," {But overcome evil with
good} (alla nika en t(9369) agath(9369) to kakon). "But keep on
conquering the evil in the good." Drown the evil in the good.
Seneca: _Vincit malos pertinax bonitas_.

經文:

羅馬書 13:1-13:1

註釋:

 {Every soul} (p(8373)a psuch(885c)). As in  2:9  Ac 2:43 . A
Hebraism for p(8373) anthr(9370)os (every man). {To the higher powers}
(exousiais huperechousais). Abstract for concrete. See  Mr
2:10  for exousia. Huperech(935c) is an old verb to have or hold
over, to be above or supreme, as in  1Pe 2:13 . {Except by God}
(ei m(8820)hupo theou). So the best MSS. rather than apo theou
(from God). God is the author of order, not anarchy. {The powers
that be} (hai ousai). "The existing authorities" (supply
exousiai). Art ordained (	etagmenai eisin). Periphrastic
perfect passive indicative of 	ass(935c), "stand ordained by God."
Paul is not arguing for the divine right of kings or for any
special form of government, but for government and order. Nor
does he oppose here revolution for a change of government, but he
does oppose all lawlessness and disorder.

經文:

羅馬書 13:2-13:2

註釋:

 {He that resisteth} (ho antitassomenos). Present middle
articular participle of antitass(935c), old verb to range in battle
against as in  Ac 18:6 , "he that lines himself up against."
{Withstandeth} (anthest(886b)en). Perfect active indicative of
anthist(886d)i and intransitive, "has taken his stand against."
{The ordinance of God} (	(8869) tou theou diatag(8869)). Late word, but
common in papyri (Deissmann, _Light, etc._, p. 89), in N.T. only
here and  Ac 7:53 . Note repetition of root of 	ass(935c). {To
themselves} (heautois). Dative of disadvantage. See  Mr 12:40 
for "shall receive a judgment" (krina l(886d)psontai). Future
middle of lamban(935c).

經文:

羅馬書 13:3-13:3

註釋:

 {A terror} (phobos). This meaning in  Isa 8:13 . Paul does
not approve all that rulers do, but he is speaking generally of
the ideal before rulers. Nero was Emperor at this time. {From the
same} (ex aut(8873)). "From it" (exousia, personified in verse
 4 ).

經文:

羅馬書 13:4-13:4

註釋:

 {A minister of God} (	heou diakonos). General sense of
diakonos. Of course even Nero was God's minister "to thee
(soi ethical dative) for good (eis to agathon, for the
good)." That is the ideal, the goal. {Beareth} (phorei).
Present active indicative of phore(935c), old frequentative form of
pher(935c), to bear, to wear. {But if thou do} (ean de poi(8869)s).
Condition of third class, ean and present active subjunctive of
poie(935c), "if thou continue to do." {Sword} (machairan). Symbol
of authority as to-day policemen carry clubs or pistols. "The
Emperor Trajan presented to a provincial governor on starting for
his province, a dagger, with the words, '_For me_. If I deserve
it, _in_ me'" (Vincent). {An avenger} (ekdikos). Old adjective
from ek and dik(885c) (right), "outside of penalty," unjust, then
in later Greek "exacting penalty from one," in N.T. only here and
 1Th 4:6 .

經文:

羅馬書 13:5-13:5

註釋:

 {Ye must needs} (anagk(885c)). "There is necessity," both
because of the law and because of conscience, because it is right
( 2:15  9:1 ).

經文:

羅馬書 13:6-13:6

註釋:

 {Ye pay} (	eleite). Present active indicative (not
imperative) of 	ele(935c), to fulfil. {Tribute} (phorous). Old
word from pher(935c), to bring, especially the annual tax on lands,
etc. ( Lu 20:22  23:1 ). Paying taxes recognizes authority over
us. {Ministers of God's service} (leitourgoi theou). Late word
for public servant (unused leitos from Attic le(9373), people,
and erg(935c), to work). Often used of military servants, servants
of the king, and temple servants ( Heb 8:2 ). Paul uses it also
of himself as Christ's leitourgos ( Ro 15:16 ) and of
Epaphroditus as a minister to him ( Php 2:25 ). See 	heou
diakonos in verse  4 . {Attending continually}
(proskarterountes). Present active participle of the late verb
proskartere(935c) (pros and kartere(935c) from kartos or kratos,
strength) to persevere. See on 涉c 2:42; 8:13|.

經文:

羅馬書 13:7-13:7

註釋:

 {Dues} (opheilas). Debts, from opheil(935c), to owe. Often so
in the papyri, though not in Greek authors. In N.T. only here,
 Mt 18:32  1Co 7:3 . Paying debts needs emphasis today, even for
ministers. {To whom tribute is due} (	(9369) ton phoron). We must
supply a participle with the article 	(9369) like apaitounti ("to
the one asking tribute"). So with the other words (to whom
custom, 	(9369) to telos apaitounti; to whom fear, 	(9369) ton phobon
apaitounti; to whom honour, 	(9369) t(886e) tim(886e) apaitounti).
Phoros is the tribute paid to a subject nation ( Lu 20:22 ),
while 	elos is tax for support of civil government ( Mt
17:25 ).

經文:

羅馬書 13:8-13:8

註釋:

 {Save to love one another} (ei m(8820)to all(886c)ous agap(8369)n).
"Except the loving one another." This articular infinitive is in
the accusative case the object of opheilete and partitive
apposition with m(8864)en (nothing). This debt can never be paid
off, but we should keep the interest paid up. {His neighbour}
(	on heteron). "The other man," "the second man." "Just as in
the relations of man and God pistis has been substituted for

omos, so between man and man agap(885c) takes the place of
definite legal relations" (Sanday and Headlam). See  Mt 22:37-40 
for the words of Jesus on this subject. Love is the only solution
of our social relations and national problems.

經文:

羅馬書 13:9-13:9

註釋:

 {For this} (	o gar). For the article (	o) pointing to a
sentence see  8:26 , here to the quotation. The order of the
commandments here is like that in  Lu 18:20  Jas 2:11  and in B
for  De 5 , but different from that of the Hebrew in  Ex 20  De
5 . The use of ou with the volitive future in prohibitions in
place of m(885c) and the imperative or subjunctive is a regular
Greek idiom. {And if there be any other} (kai ei tis hetera).
Paul does not attempt to give them all. {It is summed up}
(anakephalaioutai). Present passive indicative of
anakephalaio(935c), late literary word or "rhetorical term" (ana,
kephalaion, head or chief as in  Heb 8:1 ). Not in the papyri,
but kephalaion, quite common for sum or summary. In N.T. only
here and  Eph 1:10 . {Namely} (en t(9369)). See 	o gar at the
beginning of the verse, though omitted by B F. The quotation is
from  Le 19:18 . Quoted in  Mt 5:43  22:39  Mr 12:31  Lu 10:27  Ga 5:14  Jas 2:8  it is called asilikos nomos (royal law).
{Thy neighbour} (	on pl(8873)ion sou). Pl(8873)ion is an adverb and
with the article it means "the one near thee." See on 烘t 5:43|.

經文:

羅馬書 13:10-13:10

註釋:

 {The fulfilment of the law} (pl(8872)(936d)a nomou). "The filling
up or complement of the law" like pepl(8872)(936b)en (perfect active
indicative of pl(8872)o(935c), stands filled up) in verse  8 . See  1Co
13  for the fuller exposition of this verse.

經文:

羅馬書 13:11-13:11

註釋:

 {And this} (kai touto). Either nominative absolute or
accusative of general reference, a common idiom for "and that
too" ( 1Co 6:6,8 , etc.). {Knowing} (eidotes). Second perfect
active participle, nominative plural without a principal verb.
Either we must supply a verb like poi(8873)(936d)en (let us do it) or
poi(8873)ate (do ye do it) or treat it as an independent participle
as in  12:10f . {The season} (	on kairon). The critical period,
not chronos (time in general). {High time} (h(9372)a). Like our
the "hour" has come, etc. MSS. vary between h(886d)as (us) and
hum(8373) (you), accusative of general reference with egerth(886e)ai
(first aorist passive infinitive of egeir(935c), to awake, to wake
up), "to be waked up out of sleep" (ex hupnou). {Nearer to us}
(egguteron h(886d)(936e)). Probably so, though h(886d)(936e) can be taken
equally well with h(8820)s(9374)(8872)ia (our salvation is nearer). Final
salvation, Paul means, whether it comes by the second coming of
Christ as they all hoped or by death. It is true of us all.

經文:

羅馬書 13:12-13:12

註釋:

 {Is far spent} (proekopsen). First aorist active
indicative of prokopt(935c), to cut forward, to advance, old word
for making progress. See  Lu 2:52  Ga 1:14  2Ti 2:16  3:9 . {Is
at hand} ((8867)giken). Perfect active indicative, "has drawn
nigh." Vivid picture for day-break. {Let us therefore cast off}
(apoth(936d)etha oun). Aorist middle subjunctive (volitive) of
apotith(886d)i, to put off from oneself "the works of darkness"
(	a erga tou skotous) as we do our night-clothes. {Let us put
on} (endus(936d)etha). Aorist middle subjunctive (volitive) of
endu(935c), to put on. For this same contrast between putting off
(apotith(886d)i and apekdu(935c)) and putting on (endu(935c)) see  Col
3:8-12 . {The armour of light} (	a hopla tou photos). The
weapons of light, that belong to the light (to the day time). For
the metaphor of the Christian armour see  1Th 5:8  2Co 6:7  Ro
6:13  Eph 6:13ff .

經文:

羅馬書 13:13-13:13

註釋:

 1Co
12:32 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
12' or engs='1Co
12'
經文:

羅馬書 13:14-13:14

註釋:

 {But ye on} (endusasthe). The same metaphor as in verse
 12 . The Lord Jesus Christ is the garment that we all need. See
 Ga 3:27  with baptism as the symbol. {Provision} (pronoian).
Old word for forethought (from pronoos). In N.T. only here and
 Ac 24:2 . {For the flesh} (	(8873) sarkos). Objective genitive.
{To fulfil the lusts thereof} (eis epithumias). "For lusts." No
verb.

經文:

羅馬書 14:1-14:1

註釋:

 {Him that is weak} (	on asthenounta). See on 氣Co 8:7-12;
9:22; Ro 4:19|. {Receive ye} (proslambanesthe). Present middle
imperative (indirect), "take to yourselves." {Yet not to doubtful
disputations} (m(8820)eis diakriseis dialogism(936e)). "Not for
decisions of opinions." Note dia (between, two or duo) in
both words. Discriminations between doubts or hesitations. For
diakrisis, see  1Co 12:10  Heb 5:14  (only N.T. examples). For
dialogismos see  Lu 2:35  24:38  Php 2:14 . The "strong"
brother is not called upon to settle all the scruples of the
"weak" brother. But each takes it on himself to do it.

經文:

羅馬書 14:2-14:2

註釋:

 {One man} (hos men). "This one," demonstrative pronoun
hos with men. {Hath faith} (pisteuei). Like echei pistin
( Ac 14:9 ). {But he that is weak} (ho de asthen(936e)). One would
expect hos de (but that one) in contrast with hos men. Ho
is demonstrative with de sometimes, but here is probably just
the article with asthen(936e). {Herbs} (lachana). From lachan(935c),
to dig. Hence garden herbs or vegetables. Denney feels certain
that Paul has in mind a party of vegetarians in Rome.

經文:

羅馬書 14:3-14:3

註釋:

 {Set at nought} (exoutheneit(935c)). Present active imperative
of exouthene(935c), to treat as nothing and so with contempt ( Lu
23:11  1Th 5:20 ). {Judge} (krinet(935c)). Present active imperative
of krin(935c), criticize. One side (the meat-eaters) despises the
vegetarians, while the vegetarians criticize the meat-eaters.
{Received him} (auton proselabeto). Aorist middle (indirect) of
proslamban(935c), same verb used in verse  1 . God took both sides
into his fellowship without requiring that they be vegetarians or
meat-eaters.

經文:

羅馬書 14:4-14:4

註釋:

 {Who art thou?} (su tis ei?). Proleptic position of su,
"thou who art thou?" {The servant of another} (allotrion
oiket(886e)). Not another (allon) servant (household servant,
oiket(886e)), but "another's servant." For the adjective
allotrios, see  Lu 16:12  2Co 10:15f . {Shall be made to stand}
(stath(8873)etai). Future passive of hist(886d)i. In spite of your
sharp criticisms of one another. {Hath power} (dunatei). Verb
found only in Paul ( 2Co 9:8  13:3  Ro 14:4 ), from verbal
adjective dunatos.

經文:

羅馬書 14:5-14:5

註釋:

 {One man} (hos men), {another} (hos de). Regular idiom
of contrasted demonstratives (this one, that one). {One day above
another} (h(886d)eran par' h(886d)eran). "Day beyond day." For this use
of para (beside) in comparison see  1:25  Lu 13:2 . {Be fully
assured} (pl(8872)ophoreisth(935c)). Present passive imperative of
pl(8872)ophore(935c), late compound verb for which see on 烊u 1:1; Ro
4:21|. {In his own mind} (en t(9369) idi(9369) noi). Intelligent and
honest decision according to the light possessed by each.

經文:

羅馬書 14:6-14:6

註釋:

 {Regardeth} (phronei). "Thinks of," "esteems," "observes,"
"puts his mind on" (from phr(886e), mind). The Textus Receptus has
also "he that regardeth not," but it is not genuine. {Unto the
Lord} (kuri(9369)). Dative case. So as to 	(9369) the(9369) (unto God).
He eats unto the Lord, he eats not unto the Lord. Paul's
principle of freedom in non-essentials is most important. The
Jewish Christians still observed the Seventh day (the Sabbath).
The Gentile Christians were observing the first day of the week
in honour of Christ's Resurrection on that day. Paul pleads for
liberty.

經文:

羅馬書 14:7-14:7

註釋:

 {To himself} (heaut(9369)). Dative of advantage again. But to
the Lord as he shows in verse  8 . Life and death focus in the
Lord.

經文:

羅馬書 14:8-14:8

註釋:

 {Whether--or} (ean te--ean te). "Both if--and if"
(condition of third class with present subjunctive
(z(936d)en--apothn(8873)k(936d)en). Both living and dying are "to the
Lord." Paul repeats the idiom (ean te--ean te) with the
conclusion "we are the Lord's (	ou kuriou esmen). Predicate
genitive, "we belong to the Lord."

經文:

羅馬書 14:9-14:9

註釋:

 {And lived again} (kai ez(8873)en). First ingressive aorist
active indicative of za(935c), "he came to life." {Might be lord of}
(kurieusei). Ingressive aorist active subjunctive of kurieu(935c),
"become Lord of." Purpose clause with hina (that). Old verb
from kurios, lord. See  Lu 22:25  Ro 6:9 .

經文:

羅馬書 14:10-14:10

註釋:

 {But thou, why dost thou judge?} (su de ti su krineis?).
Referring to the conduct of the "weak" brother in verse  3 . {Or
thou again} ((8820)kai su). Referring to the "strong" brother.
{Shall stand before} (parast(8873)ometha). Future middle of
parist(886d)i and intransitive, to stand beside (para) with the
locative case (	(9369) bemati, the judgment seat) as in  Ac 27:24 .
See the same figure of God in  2Co 5:10 .

經文:

羅馬書 14:11-14:11

註釋:

 {As I live} (z(9320)eg(935c)). "I live." The LXX here ( Isa
45:23 ) has kat' emautou omnnu(935c), "I swear by myself." {Shall
confess to God} (exomolog(8873)etai t(9369) the(9369)). Future middle of
exomologe(935c), to confess openly (ex) with the accusative as in
 Mt 3:6 . With the dative as here the idea is to give praise to,
to give gratitude to ( Mt 11:25 ).

經文:

羅馬書 14:12-14:12

註釋:

 {Shall give account} (logon d(9373)ei). So Aleph A C rather
than apod(9373)ei of Textus Receptus. Common use of logos for
account (bookkeeping, ledger) as in  Lu 16:2 .

經文:

羅馬書 14:13-14:13

註釋:

 {Let us not therefore judge one another any more} (m(886b)eti
oun all(886c)ous krin(936d)en). Present active subjunctive (volitive).
"Let us no longer have the habit of criticizing one another." A
wonderfully fine text for modern Christians and in harmony with
what the Master said ( Mt 7:1 ). {That no man put a stumbling
block in his brother's way or an occasion of falling} (	o m(880a)tithenai proskomma t(9369) adelph(9369) (8820)skandalon). Articular present
active infinitive of 	ith(886d)i in apposition with 	outo,
accusative case after krinate: "Judge this rather, the not
putting a stumbling block (see  9:32  for proskomma) or a trap
(skandalon,  9:33 ) for his brother" (adelph(9369), dative of
disadvantage).

經文:

羅馬書 14:14-14:14

註釋:

 {I know and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus} (oida kai
pepeismai en kuri(9369) I(8873)ou). He knows it and stands persuaded
(perfect passive indicative of peith(935c), to persuade), but in the
sphere of the Lord Jesus (cf.  9:1 ), not by mere rational
processes. {Unclean of itself} (kainon di' heautou). So Paul
takes his stand with the "strong" as in  1Co 8:4f. , but he is
not a libertine. Paul's liberty as to food is regulated by his
life in the Lord. For this use of koinos, not as common to all
( Ac 2:44  4:32 ), but unhallowed, impure, see on 烘r 7:2,5; Ac
10:14,28|. God made all things for their own uses. {Save that}
(ei m(885c)). The exception lies not in the nature of the food (di'
heautou), but in the man's view of it (to him, ekein(9369), dative
case).

經文:

羅馬書 14:15-14:15

註釋:

 1Co
8:10f 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
8' or engs='1Co
8'
經文:

羅馬書 14:16-14:16

註釋:

 {Your good} (hum(936e) to agathon). "The good thing of you" =
the liberty or Christian freedom which you claim. {Be evil spoken
of} (lasph(886d)eisth(935c)). Present passive imperative of
lasph(886d)e(935c) for which see  Mt 9:3  Ro 3:8 .

經文:

羅馬書 14:17-14:17

註釋:

 {The kingdom of God} (h(8820)basileia tou theou). Not the
future kingdom of eschatology, but the present spiritual kingdom,
the reign of God in the heart, of which Jesus spoke so often. See
 1Co 4:21 . Paul scores heavily here, for it is not found in
externals like food and drink, but in spiritual qualities and
graces.

經文:

羅馬書 14:18-14:18

註釋:

 {Herein} (en tout(9369)). "On the principle implied by these
virtues" (Sanday and Headlam). {Approved of men} (dokimos tois
anthr(9370)ois). "Acceptable to men." Stands the test for men. See
 1Co 11:19  2Co 10:18  2Ti 2:15 .

經文:

羅馬書 14:19-14:19

註釋:

 {So then} (ara oun). Two inferential particles,
"accordingly therefore." {Let us follow after} (di(936b)(936d)en).
Present active subjunctive (volitive). "Let us pursue." Some MSS.
have present indicative, "we pursue." {The things which make for
peace} (	a t(8873) eir(886e)(8873)). "The things of peace," literally,
genitive case. So "the things of edification for one another"
(	a t(8873) oikodom(8873) t(8873) eis all(886c)ous).

經文:

羅馬書 14:20-14:20

註釋:

 {Overthrow not} (m(8820)katalue). "Destroy not," "do not
loosen down" (carrying on the metaphor in oikodom(885c), building).
{The work of God} (	o ergon tou theou). The brother for whom
Christ died, verse  15 . Perhaps with a side-glance at Esau and
his mess of pottage. {But it is evil} (alla kakon). Paul
changes from the plural koina to the singular kakon. {With
offence} (dia proskommatos). "With a stumbling-block" as in
verse  13 . This use of dia (accompaniment) is common. So then
it is addressed to the "strong" brother not to cause a
stumbling-block by the way he eats and exercises his freedom.

經文:

羅馬書 14:21-14:21

註釋:

 {Not to eat} (	o m(8820)phagein). "The not eating." Articular
infinitive (second aorist active of esthi(935c)) and subject of
kalon estin (copula, understood). {Flesh} (kreas). Old word,
in N.T. only here and  1Co 8:13 . {To drink} (pein). Shortened
form for piein (second aorist active infinitive of pin(935c)).
{Whereby} (en h(9369)). "On which thy brother stumbleth"
(proskoptei).

經文:

羅馬書 14:22-14:22

註釋:

 {Have thou to thyself before God} (su--kata seauton eche
en(9370)ion tou theou). Very emphatic position of su at the
beginning of the sentence, "Thou there." The old MSS. put h(886e)
(relative "which") after pistin and before echeis. This
principle applies to both the "strong" and the "weak." He is
within his rights to act "according to thyself," but it must be
"before God" and with due regard to the rights of the other
brethren. {In that which he approveth} (en hoi dokimazei). This
beatitude cuts both ways. After testing and then approving
( 1:28  2:18 ) one takes his stand which very act may condemn
himself by what he says or does. "It is a rare felicity to have a
conscience untroubled by scruples" (Denney).

經文:

羅馬書 14:23-14:23

註釋:

 {He that doubteth} (ho diakrinomenos). Present middle
participle of diakrin(935c), to judge between (dia), to hesitate.
See  Jas 1:6f.  for this same picture of the double-minded man.
Cf.  Ro 4:20  Mr 11:23 . {Is condemned} (katakekritai). Perfect
passive indicative of katakrin(935c) (note kata-), "stands
condemned." {If he eat} (ean phag(8869)). Third class condition,
ean and second aorist active subjunctive. If in spite of his
doubt, he eat. {Whatsoever is not of faith is sin} (pan ho ouk
ek piste(9373) hamartia estin). {Faith} (pistis) here is
subjective, one's strong conviction in the light of his relation
to Christ and his enlightened conscience. To go against this
combination is sin beyond a doubt. Some MSS. (A L etc.) put the
doxology here which most place in  16:25-27 . But they all give
chapters 15 and 16. Some have supposed that the Epistle
originally ended here, but that is pure speculation. Some even
suggest two editions of the Epistle. But chapter 15 goes right on
with the topic discussed in chapter 14.

經文:

羅馬書 15:1-15:1

註釋:

 1Co
10:33 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
10' or engs='1Co
10'
經文:

羅馬書 15:2-15:2

註釋:

 {For that which is good} (eis to agathon). "For the good."
As in  14:16,19 . Not to please men just for popular favours, but
for their benefit.

經文:

羅馬書 15:3-15:3

註釋:

 {Pleased not himself} (ouch heaut(9369) (8872)esen). Aorist active
indicative of aresk(935c) with the usual dative. The supreme example
for Christians. See  14:15 . He quotes  Ps 69:9  (Messianic
Psalm) and represents the Messiah as bearing the reproaches of
others.

經文:

羅馬書 15:4-15:4

註釋:

 {Were written aforetime} (proegraph(885c)). Second aorist
passive indicative of prograph(935c), old verb, in N.T. only here,
 Ga 3:1  (which see);  Eph 3:3  Jude 1:4 . {For our learning}
(eis t(886e) h(886d)eteran didaskalian). "For the instruction of us."
Objective sense of possessive pronoun h(886d)eteros. See  Mt 15:9  2Ti 3:16  for didaskalian (from didask(935c), to teach). {We might
have hope} (	(886e) elpida ech(936d)en). Present active subjunctive of
ech(935c) with hina in final clause, "that we might keep on having
hope." One of the blessed uses of the Scriptures.

經文:

羅馬書 15:5-15:5

註釋:

 {The God of patience and comfort} (ho theos t(8873) hupomon(8873)
kai t(8873) parakl(8873)e(9373)). Genitive case of the two words in verse
 4  used to describe God who uses the Scriptures to reveal
himself to us. See  2Co 1:3  for this idea;  Ro 15:13  for "the
God of hope";  15:33  for "the God of peace." {Grant you} (d(9369)(880a)humin). Second aorist active optative (_Koin(825f) form for older
doi(885c)) as in  2Th 3:16  Eph 1:17  2Ti 1:16,18  2:25 , though
MSS. vary in  Eph 1:17  2Ti 2:25  for d(9388)i (subjunctive). The
optative here is for a wish for the future (regular idiom).
{According to Christ Jesus} (kata Christon I(8873)oun). "According
to the character or example of Christ Jesus" ( 2Co 11:17  Col
2:8  Eph 5:24 ).

經文:

羅馬書 15:6-15:6

註釋:

 {With one accord} (homothumadon). Here alone in Paul, but
eleven times in Acts ( Ac 1:14 , etc.). {With one mouth} (en
heni stomati). Vivid outward expression of the unity of feeling.
{May glorify} (doxaz(8874)e). Present active subjunctive of
doxaz(935c), final clause with hina "that ye may keep on
glorifying." For "the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ"
see  2Co 1:3  9:31  for discussion. It occurs also in  Eph 1:3  1Pe 1:3 .

經文:

羅馬書 15:7-15:7

註釋:

 {Receive ye} (proslambanesthe as in  14:1 ), {received}
(proselabeto, here of Christ as in  14:3  of God). The
repetition here is addressed to both the strong and the weak and
the "us" (h(886d)(8373)) includes all.

經文:

羅馬書 15:8-15:8

註釋:

 {A minister of the circumcision} (diakonon peritom(8873)).
Objective genitive, "a minister to the circumcision." Diakonon
is predicate accusative with gegen(8873)thai (perfect passive
infinitive of ginomai in indirect assertion after leg(935c), I
say) and in apposition with Christon, accusative of general
reference with the infinitive. See  Ga 4:4f . {That he might
confirm} (eis to bebai(9373)ai). Purpose clause with eis to and
the infinitive ebai(9373)ai (first aorist active of ebaio(935c), to
make stand). {The promises given unto the fathers} (	as
epaggelias t(936e) pater(936e)). No "given" in the Greek, just the
objective genitive, "the promises to the fathers." See  9:4,5 .

經文:

羅馬書 15:9-15:9

註釋:

 {And that the Gentiles might praise} (	a de ethn(880a)doxasai). Coordinate with ebai(9373)ai and eis to, to be
repeated with 	a ethn(885c), the accusative of general reference and
	on theon the object of doxasai. Thus the Gentiles were
called through the promise to the Jews in the covenant with
Abraham ( 4:11f.,16f. ). Salvation is of the Jews. Paul proves
his position by a chain of quotations from the O.T., the one in
verse  9  from  Ps 18:50 . For exomologe(935c), see  14:10 . {I will
sing} (psal(935c)). Future active of psall(935c), for which verb see on
 1Co 14:15 .

經文:

羅馬書 15:10-15:10

註釋:

 {Rejoice, ye Gentiles} (euphranth(8874)e). First aorist
passive imperative of euphrain(935c), old word from eu, well and
phr(886e), mind. See  Lu 15:32 . Quotation from  De 32:43  (LXX).

經文:

羅馬書 15:11-15:11

註釋:

 {All the Gentiles} (panta ta ethn(885c)). From  Ps 117:1  with
slight variations from the LXX text.

經文:

羅馬書 15:12-15:12

註釋:

 {The root} (h(8820)riza). Rather here, as in  Re 5:5  23:16 ,
the sprout from the root. From  Isa 11:10 . {On him shall the
Gentiles hope} (ep' aut(9369) ethn(8820)elpiousin). Attic future of
elpiz(935c) for the usual elpisousin.

經文:

羅馬書 15:13-15:13

註釋:

 {The God of hope} (ho theos t(8873) elpidos). Taking up the
idea in verse  12  as in verse  5  from  4 . {Fill you}
(pl(8872)(9373)ai humas). Optative (first aorist active of pl(8872)o(935c)) of
wish for the future. Cf. d(9369)(885c) in verse  5 . {In believing} (en
t(9369) pisteuein). "In the believing" (en with locative of the
articular infinitive, the idiom so common in Luke's Gospel).
{That ye may abound} (eis to perisseuein humas). Purpose clause
with eis to, as in verse  8 , with perisseuein (present
active infinitive of perisseu(935c), with accusative of general
reference, humas). This verse gathers up the points in the
preceding quotations.

經文:

羅馬書 15:14-15:14

註釋:

 2Th
1:11 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Th
1' or engs='2Th
1'
經文:

羅馬書 15:15-15:15

註釋:

 {I write} (egrapsa). Epistolary aorist. {The more boldly}
(	olm(8872)oter(9373)). Old comparative adverb from 	olm(8872)(9373). Most
MSS. read 	olm(8872)oteron. Only here in N.T. {In some measure}
(apo merous). Perhaps referring to some portions of the Epistle
where he has spoken plainly ( 6:12,19  8:9  11:17  14:3,4,10 ,
etc.). {As putting you again in remembrance} (hos epanamimn(8873)k(936e)
humas). Delicately put with h(9373) and epi in the verb, "as if
calling back to mind again" (epi). This rare verb is here alone
in the N.T.

經文:

羅馬書 15:16-15:16

註釋:

 {That I should be} (eis to einai me). The eis to idiom
with the infinitive again (verses  8,13 ). {Minister}
(leitourgon). Predicate accusative in apposition with me and
see  13:6  for the word. "The word here derives from the context
the priestly associations which often attach to it in the LXX"
(Denney). But this purely metaphorical use does not show that
Paul attached a "sacerdotal" character to the ministry.
{Ministering} (hierourgounta). Present active participle of
hierourge(935c), late verb from hierourgos (hieros, erg(935c)), in
LXX, Philo, and Josephus, only here in N.T. It means to work in
sacred things, to minister as a priest. Paul had as high a
conception of his work as a preacher of the gospel as any priest
did. {The offering up of the Gentiles} (h(8820)prosphora t(936e)
ethn(936e)). Genitive of apposition, the Gentiles being the
offering. They are Paul's offering. See  Ac 21:26 . {Acceptable}
(euprosdektos). See  2Co 6:2  8:12 . Because "sanctified in the
Holy Spirit" (h(8867)iasmen(8820)en pneumati hagi(9369), perfect passive
participle of hagiaz(935c)).

經文:

羅馬書 15:17-15:17

註釋:

 {In things pertaining to God} (	a pros ton theon).
Accusative of general reference of the article used with the
prepositional phrase, "as to the things relating to (pros,
facing) God."

經文:

羅馬書 15:18-15:18

註釋:

 {Any things save those which Christ wrought through me}
(	i h(936e) ou kateirgasato Christos di' emou). Rather, "any one of
those things which Christ did not work through me." The
antecedent of h(936e) is the unexpressed 	out(936e) and the
accusative relative ha (object of kateirgasato) is attracted
into the genitive case of 	out(936e) after a common idiom. {By word
and deed} (log(9369) kai erg(9369)). Instrumental case with both words.
By preaching and life ( Lu 24:19  Ac 1:1  7:22  2Co 10:11 ).

經文:

羅馬書 15:19-15:19

註釋:

 {In power of signs and wonders} (en dunamei s(886d)ei(936e) kai
terat(936e)). Note all three words as in  Heb 2:4 , only here
dunamis is connected with s(886d)eia and 	erata. See all three
words used of Paul's own work in  2Co 12:12  and in  2Th 2:9  of
the Man of Sin. See  1Th 1:5  1Co 2:4  for the "power" of the
Holy Spirit in Paul's preaching. Note repetition of en dunamei
here with pneumatos hagiou. {So that} (h(9373)te). Result
expressed by the perfect active infinitive pepl(8872)(936b)enai (from
pl(8872)o(935c)) with the accusative me (general reference). {Round
about even unto Illyricum} (kukl(9369) mechri tou Illurikou). "In a
ring" (kukl(9369), locative case of kuklos). Probably a journey
during the time when Paul left Macedonia and waited for II
Corinthians to have its effect before coming to Corinth. If so,
see  2Co 13  Ac 20:1-3 . When he did come, the trouble with the
Judaizers was over. Illyricum seems to be the name for the region
west of Macedonia (Dalmatia). Strabo says that the Egnatian Way
passed through it. Arabia and Illyricum would thus be the extreme
limits of Paul's mission journeys so far.

經文:

羅馬書 15:20-15:20

註釋:

 {Yea} (hout(9373) de). "And so," introducing a limitation to
the preceding statement. {Making it my aim} (philotimoumenon).
Present middle participle (accusative case agreeing with me) of
philotimeomai, old verb, to be fond of honour (philos, tim(885c)).
In N.T. only here and  1Th 4:11  2Co 5:9 . A noble word in
itself, quite different in aim from the Latin word for {ambition}
(ambio, to go on both sides to carry one's point). {Not where}
(ouch hopou). Paul was a pioneer preacher pushing on to new
fields after the manner of Daniel Boone in Kentucky. {That I
might now build upon another man's foundation} (hina m(8820)ep'
allotrion themelion oikodom(935c)). For allotrios (not allos) see
 14:4 . For 	hemelion, see  Lu 6:48f.  1Co 3:11 . This noble
ambition of Paul's is not within the range of some ministers who
can only build on another's foundation as Apollos did in Corinth.
But the pioneer preacher and missionary has a dignity and glory
all his own.

經文:

羅馬書 15:21-15:21

註釋:

 {As it is written} (kath(9373) gegraptai). From  Isa 52:15 .
Paul finds an illustration of his word about his own ambition in
the words of Isaiah. Fritzsche actually argues that Paul
understood Isaiah to be predicting his (Paul's) ministry! Some
scholars have argued against the genuineness of verses  9-21  on
wholly subjective and insufficient grounds.

經文:

羅馬書 15:22-15:22

註釋:

 {I was hindered} (enekoptom(886e)). Imperfect passive
(repetition) of enkopt(935c), late verb, to cut in, to cut off, to
interrupt. Seen already in  Ac 24:4  1Th 2:18  Ga 5:7 . Cf.
modern telephone and radio and automobile. {These many times}
(	a polla). "As to the many things." In  1:13  Paul used
pollakis (many times) and B D read it here. But Paul's work
(	a polla) had kept him away. {From coming to you} (	ou
elthein pros humas). Ablative case (after the verb of hindering)
of the articular infinitive, "from the coming."

經文:

羅馬書 15:23-15:23

註釋:

 {Having no more any place in these regions} (m(886b)eti topon
ech(936e) en tois klimasin). Surprising frankness that the average
preacher would hardly use on such a matter. Paul is now free to
come to Rome because there is no demand for him where he is. For
klima (from klin(935c), to incline), slope, then tract of land,
region, see already  2Co 11:10  Ga 1:21  (the only N.T.
examples). {A longing} (epipotheian). A _hapax legomenon_,
elsewhere epipoth(8873)is ( 2Co 7:7,11 ), from epipothe(935c) as in
 Ro 1:11 . {These many years} (apo hikan(936e) et(936e)). "From
considerable years." So B C, but Aleph A D have poll(936e), "from
many years."

經文:

羅馬書 15:24-15:24

註釋:

 1Co
11:34 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
11' or engs='1Co
11'
經文:

羅馬書 15:25-15:25

註釋:

 {But now} (
uni de). Repeats the very words used in  23 .
{I go} (poreuomai). Futuristic present as in  Joh 14:2 .
{Ministering unto the saints} (diakonon tois hagiois). Present
active participle of purpose like eulogounta in  Ac 3:26 . This
collection had been one of Paul's chief cares for over a year now
(see  2Co 8  9 ). See  2Co 8:4 .

經文:

羅馬書 15:26-15:26

註釋:

 2Co
8:4 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
8' or engs='2Co
8'
經文:

羅馬書 15:27-15:27

註釋:

 {Their debtors} (opheiletai aut(936e)). Objective genitive:
the Gentiles are debtors to the Jews. See the word opheilet(8873)
in  1:14  8:12 . {For if} (ei gar). Condition of the first
class, assumed as true, first aorist active indicative
(ekoin(936e)(8873)an, from koin(936e)e(935c), to share) with associative
instrumental case (pneumatikois, spiritual things). {To
minister unto} (leitourg(8873)ai, first aorist active infinitive of
leitourge(935c) with dative case autois, to them), but here
certainly with no "sacerdotal" functions (cf. verse  16 ). {In
carnal things} (en tois sarkikois). Things which belong to the
natural life of the flesh (sarx), not the sinful aspects of the
flesh at all.

經文:

羅馬書 15:28-15:28

註釋:

 {Have sealed} (sphragisamenos). First aorist middle
participle (antecedent action, having sealed) of sphragiz(935c), old
verb from sphragis, a seal ( Ro 4:11 ), to stamp with a seal
for security ( Mt 27:66 ) or for confirmation ( 2Co 1:22 ) and
here in a metaphorical sense. Paul was keenly sensitive that this
collection should be actually conveyed to Jerusalem free from all
suspicion ( 2Co 8:18-23 ). {I will go on by you} (apeleusomai
di' hum(936e)). Future middle of aperchomai, to go off or on. Note
three prepositions here (ap' from Rome, di' by means of you
or through you, eis unto Spain). He repeats the point of verse
 24 , his temporary stay in Rome with Spain as the objective. How
little we know what is ahead of us and how grateful we should be
for our ignorance on this point.

經文:

羅馬書 15:29-15:29

註釋:

 {When I come} (erchomenos). Present middle participle of
erchomai with the time of the future middle indicative
eleusomai (coming I shall come). {In the fulness of the
blessing of Christ} (en pl(8872)(936d)ati eulogias Christou). On
pl(8872)(936d)ati, see  11:12 . Paul had already ( 1:11f. ) said that
he had a charisma pneumatikon (spiritual blessing) for Rome. He
did bring that to them.

經文:

羅馬書 15:30-15:30

註釋:

 {By} (dia). The intermediate agents of the exhortation
(the Lord Jesus and the love of the Spirit) as dia is used
after parakal(935c) in  12:1 . {That ye strive together with me}
(sunag(936e)isasthai moi). First aorist middle infinitive of
sunag(936e)i zomai, old compound verb, only here in N.T., direct
object of parakal(935c), and with associative instrumental case
moi, the simplex ag(936e)izomenos, occurring in  Col 4:12  of the
prayers of Epaphras. For Christ's agony in prayer see  Mt 26:42  Lu 22:44 .

經文:

羅馬書 15:31-15:31

註釋:

 {That I may be delivered} (hina rusth(935c)). First aorist
passive subjunctive of 
uomai, old verb to rescue. This use of
hina is the sub-final one after words of beseeching or praying.
Paul foresaw trouble all the way to Jerusalem ( Ac 20:23  21:4,13 ). {May be acceptable to the saints} (euprosdektos tois
hagiois gen(8874)ai). "May become (second aorist middle subjunctive
of ginomai) acceptable to the saints." The Judaizers would give
him trouble. There was peril of a schism in Christianity.

經文:

羅馬書 15:32-15:32

註釋:

 {That} (hina). Second use of hina in this sentence, the
first one sub-final (hina rusth(935c)), this one final with
sunanapaus(936d)ai, first aorist middle subjunctive of the double
compound verb sunanapauomai, late verb to rest together with,
to refresh (anapau(935c) as in  Mt 11:28 ) one's spirit with
(sun), with the associative instrumental case humin (with
you), only here in the N.T.

經文:

羅馬書 15:33-15:33

註釋:

 {The God of peace} (ho theos t(8873) eir(886e)(8873)). One of the
characteristics of God that Paul often mentions in benedictions
( 1Th 5:23  2Th 3:16  2Co 13:11  Php 4:9  Ro 16:20 ). Because of
the "amen" here some scholars would make this the close of the
Epistle and make chapter 16 a separate Epistle to the Ephesians.
But the MSS. are against it. There is nothing strange at all in
Paul's having so many friends in Rome though he had not yet been
there himself. Rome was the centre of the world's life as Paul
realized ( 1:15 ). All men sooner or later hoped to see Rome.


經文:

羅馬書 16:1-16:1

註釋:

 {I commend} (sunist(886d)i). The regular word for letters of
commendation as in  2Co 3:1  (sustatik(936e) epistol(936e)). See also
 Ro 3:5 . So here verses  1,2  constitute Paul's recommendation
of Phoebe, the bearer of the Epistle. Nothing else is known of
her, though her name (Phoib(885c)) means bright or radiant. {Sister}
(adelph(886e)). In Christ, not in the flesh. {Who is a servant of
the church} (ousan diakonon t(8873) ekkl(8873)ias). The etymology of
diakonos we have had repeatedly. The only question here is
whether it is used in a general sense or in a technical sense as
in  Php 1:1  1Ti 3:8-13 . In favour of the technical sense of
"deacon" or "deaconess" is the addition of "	(8873) ekkl(8873)ias" (of
the church). In some sense Phoebe was a servant or minister of
the church in Cenchreae. Besides, right in the midst of the
discussion in  1Ti 3:8-13  Paul has a discussion of gunaikas
(verse  11 ) either as women as deaconesses or as the wives of
deacons (less likely though possible). The _Apostolic
Constitutions_ has numerous allusions to deaconesses. The strict
separation of the sexes made something like deaconesses necessary
for baptism, visiting the women, etc. Cenchreae, as the eastern
port of Corinth, called for much service of this kind. Whether
the deaconesses were a separate organization on a par with the
deacons we do not know nor whether they were the widows alluded
to in  1Ti 5:9f .

經文:

羅馬書 16:2-16:2

註釋:

 {Worthily of the saints} (axi(9373) t(936e) hagi(936e)). Adverb with
the genitive as in  Php 1:27  because the adjective axios is
used with the genitive ( Lu 3:8 ). "Receive her in a way worthy
of the saints." This word hagios had come to be the accepted
term for followers of Christ. {Assist her} (parast(8874)e). Second
aorist (intransitive) active subjunctive of parist(886d)i, to stand
by, with the dative case ("beside her"), the very word used by
Paul of the help of Jesus in his trial (parest(885c),  2Ti 4:17 ).
Used with hina as prosdex(8873)the. {In whatsoever matter} (en
h(9369) pragmati). Incorporation of the antecedent (pragmati) into
the relative clause (h(9369)). {She may have need of you} (an
hum(936e) chr(8869)z(8869)). Indefinite relative clause with an and the
present subjunctive of chr(8869)z(935c) with genitive. {A succourer}
(prostatis). Old and rare feminine form for the masculine
prostat(8873), from proist(886d)i (prostate(935c), common, but not in
the N.T.), here only in the N.T. and not in the papyri. The word
illustrates her work as diakonon and is perhaps suggested here
by parast(8874)e, just before. {Of mine own self} (emou autou).
"Of me myself."

經文:

羅馬書 16:3-16:3

註釋:

 In verses  3-16  Paul sends his greetings to various
brethren and sisters in Rome. {Prisca and Aquila} (Priskan kai
Akulan). This order always ( Ac 18:18,26  2Ti 4:19 , and here)
save in  Ac 18:2  1Co 16:19 , showing that Prisca was the more
prominent. Priscilla is a diminutive of Prisca, a name for women
in the Acilian gens. She may have been a noble Roman lady, but
her husband was a Jew of Pontus and a tent-maker by trade. They
were driven from Rome by Claudius, came to Corinth, then to
Ephesus, then back to Rome, and again to Ephesus. They were good
travelling Christians. {My fellow-workers} (	ous sunergous
mou). Both in tent-making and in Christian service in Corinth
and Ephesus.

經文:

羅馬書 16:4-16:4

註釋:

 {Laid down their own necks} (	on heaut(936e) trachelon
hupeth(886b)an). First aorist active of hupotith(886d)i, old verb to
place under (the axe of the executioner), only here in N.T. in
this sense, though in  1Ti 4:16  to suggest. If literal or
figurative, the incident may be connected with the uproar created
by Demetrius in Ephesus. Certainly Paul felt deep obligation
toward them (see  Ac 20:34 ). {Not only I} (ouk eg(9320)monos).
Rather, "not I alone" (adjective monos). The Gentile churches
also (great mission workers).

經文:

羅馬書 16:5-16:5

註釋:

 {The church that is in their house} (	(886e) kat' oikon aut(936e)
ekkl(8873)ian). The early Christians had no church buildings. See
also  Ac 12:2  1Co 16:19  Phm 1:2  Col 4:15 . The Roman
Christians had probably several such homes where they would meet.
{Epainetus} (Epaineton). Nothing is known of him except this
item, "the first-fruits of Asia" (aparch(8820)t(8873) Asias). An early
convert from the province of Asia. Cf.  Ac 2:9  1Co 16:15  (about
Stephanus and Achaia).

經文:

羅馬書 16:6-16:6

註釋:

 {Mary} (Marian). Some MSS. have Mariam, the Hebrew form.
The name indicates a Jewish Christian in Rome. Paul praises her
toil. See  Lu 5:5 .

經文:

羅馬書 16:7-16:7

註釋:

 {Andronicus and Junias} (Andronicou kai Iounian). The
first is a Greek name found even in the imperial household. The
second name can be either masculine or feminine. {Kinsmen}
(suggeneis). Probably only fellow-countrymen as in  9:13 .
{Fellow-prisoners} (sunaichmal(9374)us). Late word and rare (in
Lucian). One of Paul's frequent compounds with sun. Literally,
fellow captives in war. Perhaps they had shared one of Paul's
numerous imprisonments ( 2Co 11:23 ). In N.T. only here,  Phm
1:23  Col 4:10 . {Of note} (epis(886d)oi). Stamped, marked (epi
s(886d)a). Old word, only here and  Mt 27:16  (bad sense) in N.T.
{Among the apostles} (en tois apostolois). Naturally this means
that they are counted among the apostles in the general sense
true of Barnabas, James, the brother of Christ, Silas, and
others. But it can mean simply that they were famous in the
circle of the apostles in the technical sense. {Who have been in
Christ before me} (hoi kai pro emou gegonan en Christ(9369)).
Andronicus and Junias were converted before Paul was. Note
gegonan (_Koin(825f) form by analogy) instead of the usual second
perfect active indicative form gegonasin, which some MSS. have.
The perfect tense notes that they are still in Christ.

經文:

羅馬書 16:8-16:8

註釋:

 {Ampliatus} (Ampliaton). Some MSS. have a contracted form
Amplias.

經文:

羅馬書 16:9-16:9

註釋:

 {Urbanus} (Ourbanon). "A common Roman slave name found
among members of the household" (Sanday and Headlam). A Latin
adjective from _urbs_, city (city-bred). {Stachys} (Stachun). A
Greek name, rare, but among members of the imperial household. It
means a head or ear of grain ( Mt 12:1 ).

經文:

羅馬書 16:10-16:10

註釋:

 {Apelles} (Apell(886e)). A name among Jews and a famous
tragic actor also. {The approved} (	on dokimon). The tried and
true ( 1Co 11:19  2Co 10:18  13:7 ). {Them which are of the
household of Aristobulus} (	ous ek t(936e) Aristoboulou). The
younger Aristobulus was a grandson of Herod the Great. Lightfoot
suggests that some of the servants in this household had become
Christians, Aristobulus being dead.

經文:

羅馬書 16:11-16:11

註釋:

 {Herodion} (Her(9369)di(936e)a). Probably one belonging to the
Herod family like that above. {Kinsman} (suggen(885c)). Merely
fellow-countryman. {Them of the household of Narcissus} (	ous ek
t(936e) Narkissou). "Narcissiani." There was a famous freedman of
this name who was put to death by Agrippa. Perhaps members of his
household.

經文:

羅馬書 16:12-16:12

註釋:

 {Tryphaena and Tryphosa} (Truphainan kai Truph(9373)an).
Probably sisters and possibly twins. Both names come from the
same root, the verb 	rupha(935c), to live luxuriously ( Jas 5:5 ).
Denney suggests "Dainty and Disdain." {Persis} (Persida). A
freedwoman was so named. She is not Paul's "beloved," but the
"beloved" of the whole church.

經文:

羅馬書 16:13-16:13

註釋:

 {Rufus} (Rouphon). A very common slave name, possibly the
Rufus of  Mr 15:21 . The word means "red." {The chosen} (	on
eklekton). Not "the elect," but "the select." {And mine} (kai
emou). Paul's appreciation of her maternal care once, not his
real mother.

經文:

羅馬書 16:14-16:14

註釋:

 {Asyncritus} (Asunkriton). There is an inscription of a
freedman of Augustus with this name. {Phlegon} (Phlegonta). No
light on this name till the historian of the second century A.D.
{Hermes} (Herm(886e)). A very common slave name. {Patrobas}
(Patroban). Name of a freedman of Nero, abbreviated form of
Patrobius. {Hermas} (Herm(836e)). Not the author of the Shepherd of
Hermas. Common as a slave name, shortened form of Hermagoras,
Hermogenes, etc. {The brethren that are with them} (	ous sun
autois adelphous). Perhaps a little church in the house of some
one.

經文:

羅馬書 16:15-16:15

註釋:

 {Philologus} (Philologon). Another common slave name.
{Julia} (Ioulian). The commonest name for female slaves in the
imperial household because of Julius Caesar. Possibly these two
were husband and wife. {Nereus} (N(8872)ea). Found in inscriptions
of the imperial household. But the sister's name is not given.
One wonders why. {Olympas} (Olump(836e)). Possibly an abbreviation
for Olympiodorus. {All the saints that are with them} (	ous sun
autois pantas hagious). Possibly another church in the house.
These unnamed, the "and others," constitute the great majority in
all our churches.

經文:

羅馬書 16:16-16:16

註釋:

 {With a holy kiss} (en phil(886d)ati hagi(9369)). The near-east
mode of salutation as hand-shaking in the Western. In China one
shakes hands with himself. Men kissed men and women kissed women.
See  1Th 5 26  1Co 16:20  2Co 13:12 .

經文:

羅馬書 16:17-16:17

註釋:

 {Mark} (skopeite). Keep an eye on so as to avoid.
Skopos is the goal, skope(935c) means keeping your eye on the
goal. {Divisions} (dichostasias). Old word for "standings
apart," cleavages. In N.T. only here and  Ga 5:20 . {Those which
are causing} (	ous--poiountas). This articular participle
clause has within it not only the objects of the participle but
the relative clause h(886e) humeis emathete (which you learned), a
thoroughly Greek idiom.

經文:

羅馬書 16:18-16:18

註釋:

 {But their own belly} (alla t(8869) heaut(936e) koili(8369)). Dative
case after douleuousin. A blunt phrase like the same picture in
 Php 3:19  "whose god is the belly," more truth than caricature
in some cases. {By their smooth and fair speech} (dia t(8873)
chr(8873)tologias kai eulogias). Two compounds of logos (speech),
the first (from chr(8873)tos and logos) is very rare (here only
in N.T.), the second is very common (eu and logos). {Beguile}
(exapat(9373)in). Present active indicative of the double compound
verb exapata(935c) (see  2Th 2:3  1Co 3:18 ). {Of the innocent}
(	(936e) akak(936e)). Old adjective (a privative and kakos),
without evil or guile, in N.T. only here and  Heb 7:26  (of
Christ).

經文:

羅馬書 16:19-16:19

註釋:

 {Is come abroad} (aphiketo). Second aorist middle
indicative of aphikneomai, old verb, to come from, then to
arrive at, only here in N.T. {Over you} (eph' humin). "Upon
you." Simple unto that which is evil (akeraious eis to kakon).
Old adjective from a privative and kerannumi, to mix. Unmixed
with evil, unadulterated.

經文:

羅馬書 16:20-16:20

註釋:

 {Shall bruise} (suntripsei). Future active of suntrib(935c),
old verb, to rub together, to crush, to trample underfoot.
Blessed promise of final victory over Satan by "the God of
peace." "Shortly" (en tachei). As God counts time. Meanwhile
patient loyalty from us.

經文:

羅馬書 16:21-16:21

註釋:

 Verses  21-23  form a sort of postscript with greetings
from Paul's companions in Corinth. Timothy was with Paul in
Macedonia ( 2Co 1:1 ) before he came to Corinth. Lucius may be
the one mentioned in  Ac 13:1 . Jason was once Paul's host ( Ac
17:5-9 ) in Thessalonica, Sosipater may be the longer form of
Sopater of  Ac 20:4 . They are all Paul's fellow-countrymen
(suggeneis).

經文:

羅馬書 16:22-16:22

註釋:

 {I Tertius} (eg(9320)Tertios). The amanuensis to whom Paul
dictated the letter. See  2Th 3:17  1Co 16:21  Col 4:18 .

經文:

羅馬書 16:23-16:23

註釋:

 {Gaius my host} (Gaios ho xenos mou). Perhaps the same
Gaius of  1Co 1:14  ( Ac 19:29  20:4 ), but whether the one of
 3Jo 1:1  we do not know. Xenos was a guest friend, and then
either a stranger ( Mt 25:35 ) or a host of strangers as here.
This Gaius was plainly a man of some means as he was the host of
all the church. Erastus ( 2Ti 4:20 ) was "the treasurer of the
city" (ho oikonomos t(8873) pole(9373)), one of the outstanding men of
Corinth, the "steward" (house-manager) or city manager. See  Lu
12:42  16:1 . He is probably the administrator of the city's
property. {Quartus} (Kouartos). Latin name for fourth.

經文:

羅馬書 16:24-16:24

註釋:

 Is not genuine, not in Aleph A B C Coptic.

經文:

羅馬書 16:25-16:25

註釋:

 2Ti
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2' or engs='2Ti
2'
經文:

羅馬書 16:26-16:26

註釋:

 {But now is manifested} (phaner(9374)hentos de nun). First
aorist passive participle of phanero(935c), to make plain, genitive
case in agreement with must(8872)iou. {By the scriptures of the
prophets} (dia graph(936e) proph(8874)ik(936e)). "By prophetic scriptures."
Witnessed by the law and the prophets ( 3:21 ). This thread runs
all through Romans. {According to the command of the eternal God}
(kat' epitag(886e) tou ai(936e)iou theou). Paul conceives that God is
in charge of the redemptive work and gives his orders ( 1:1-5  10:15f. ). The same adjective ai(936e)ios is here applied to God
that is used of eternal life and eternal punishment in  Mt
25:46 . {Unto obedience of faith} (eis hupako(886e) t(8873) piste(9373)).
See  1:5 . {Made known unto all the nations} (eis panta ta ethn(880a)gn(9372)isthentos). First aorist passive participle of gn(9372)iz(935c),
still the genitive case agreeing with must(8872)iou in verse  25 .

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