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 Mt
24,25 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Mt
24,' or engs='Mt
24,'
經文:

啟示錄 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 2Pe
3:8 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Pe
3' or engs='2Pe
3'
經文:

啟示錄 1:2-1:2

註釋:

 {Bare witness} (emartur(8873)en). First aorist active
indicative of marture(935c), which, along with martus and
marturia, is common in all the Johannine books (cf.
 22:18,20 ), usually with peri or hoti, but with cognate
accusative as here in  22:16,20  1Jo 5:10 . Epistolary aorist
here, referring to this book. {The word of God} (	on logon tou
theou). Subjective genitive, given by God. The prophetic word as
in  1:9  6:9  20:4 , not the personal Word as in  19:14 . {The
testimony of Jesus Christ} (	(886e) marturian I(8873)ou Christou).
Subjective genitive again, borne witness to by Jesus Christ.
{Even of all the things that he saw} (hosa eiden). Relative
clause in apposition with logon and marturian.

經文:

啟示錄 1:3-1:3

註釋:

 {Blessed} (makarios). As in  Mt 5:3ff . This endorses the
book as a whole. {He that readeth} (ho anagin(9373)k(936e)). Present
active singular articular participle of anagin(9373)k(935c) (as in  Lu
4:16 ). Christians in their public worship followed the Jewish
custom of public reading of the Scriptures ( 2Co 3:14f. ). The
church reader (anagn(9373)t(8873), lector) gradually acquired an
official position. John expects this book to be read in each of
the seven churches mentioned ( 1:4 ) and elsewhere. Today the
public reading of the Bible is an important part of worship that
is often poorly done. {They that hear} (hoi akouontes). Present
active plural articular participle of akou(935c) (the audience).
{And keep} (kai t(8872)ountes). Present active participle of
	(8872)e(935c), a common Johannine word ( 1Jo 2:4 , etc.). Cf.  Mt
7:24 . "The content of the Apocalypse is not merely prediction;
moral counsel and religious instruction are the primary burdens
of its pages" (Moffatt). {Written} (gegrammena). Perfect
passive participle of graph(935c). {For the time is at hand} (ho
gar kairos eggus). Reason for listening and keeping. On kairos
see  Mt 12:1 , time of crisis as in  1Co 7:29 . How near eggus
(at hand) is we do not know any more than we do about en tachei
(shortly) in  1:1 .

經文:

啟示錄 1:4-1:4

註釋:

 {To the seven churches which are in Asia} (	ais hepta
ekkl(8873)iais tais en t(8869) Asi(8369)). Dative case as in a letter ( Ga
1:1 ). John is writing, but the revelation is from God and Christ
through an angel. It is the Roman province of Asia which included
the western part of Phrygia. There were churches also at Troas
( Ac 20:5ff. ) and at Colossal and Hierapolis ( Col 1:1  2:1  4:13 ) and possibly at Magnesia and Tralles. But these seven were
the best points of communication with seven districts (Ramsay)
and, besides, seven is a favorite number of completion (like the
full week) in the book ( 1:4,12,16  4:5  5:1,6  8:2  10:3  11:13  12:3  13:1  14:6f. ). {From him which is} (apo ho (936e)). This use
of the articular nominative participle of eimi after apo
instead of the ablative is not due to ignorance or a mere slip
(lapsus pennae), for in the next line we have the regular idiom
with apo t(936e) hepta pneumat(936e). It is evidently on purpose to
call attention to the eternity and unchangeableness of God. Used
of God in  Ex 3:14 . {And which was} (kai ho (886e)). Here again
there is a deliberate change from the articular participle to the
relative use of ho (used in place of hos to preserve identity
of form in the three instances like Ionic relative and since no
aorist participle of eimi existed). The oracle in Pausanias X.
12 has it: Zeus (886e), Zeus esti, Zeus essetai (Zeus was, Zeus is,
Zeus will be). {Which is to come} (ho erchomenos). "The Coming
One," futuristic use of the present participle instead of ho
esomenos. See the same idiom in verse  8  4:8  and (without ho
erchomenos) in  11:17  16:5 . {From the seven spirits} (apo t(936e)
hepta pneumat(936e)). A difficult symbolic representation of the
Holy Spirit here on a par with God and Christ, a conclusion borne
out by the symbolic use of the seven spirits in  3:1  4:5  5:6 
(from  Zec 4:2-10 ). There is the one Holy Spirit with seven
manifestations here to the seven churches (Swete, _The Holy
Spirit in the N.T._, p. 374), unity in diversity ( 1Co 12:4 ).
{Which are} (	(936e) article Aleph A, ha relative P). {Before his
throne} (en(9370)ion tou thronou autou). As in  4:5f .

經文:

啟示錄 1:5-1:5

註釋:

 {Who is the faithful witness} (ho martus ho pistos). "The
witness the faithful," nominative in apposition like pr(9374)otokos
and arch(936e) with the preceding ablative I(8873)ou Christou with
apo, a habit of John in this book (apparently on purpose) as in
 2:13,20  3:12 , etc. See this same phrase in  2:13  3:14 . The
use of martus of Jesus here is probably to the witness ( 1:1 )
in this book ( 22:16f. ), not to the witness of Jesus before
Pilate ( 1Ti 6:13 ). {The first-born of the dead} (ho pr(9374)otokos
t(936e) nekr(936e)). A Jewish Messianic title ( Ps 88:28 ) and as in
 Col 1:18  refers to priority in the resurrection to be followed
by others. See  Lu 2:7  for the word. {The ruler of the kings of
the earth} (ho arch(936e) t(936e) basile(936e) t(8873) g(8873)). Jesus by his
resurrection won lordship over the kings of earth ( 17:14  19:16 ), what the devil offered him by surrender ( Mt 4:8f. ).
{Unto him that loveth us} (	(9369) agap(936e)ti h(886d)(8373)). Dative of the
articular present (not aorist agap(8873)anti) active participle of
agapa(935c) in a doxology to Christ, the first of many others to God
and to Christ ( 1:6  4:11  5:9,12f.  7:10,12 , etc.). For the
thought see  Joh 3:16 . {Loosed} (lusanti). First aorist active
participle of lu(935c) (Aleph A C), though some MSS. (P Q) read
lousanti (washed), a manifest correction. Note the change of
tense. Christ loosed us once for all, but loves us always. {By
his blood} (en t(9369) haimati autou). As in  5:9 . John here as in
the Gospel and Epistles states plainly and repeatedly the place
of the blood of Christ in the work of redemption.

經文:

啟示錄 1:6-1:6

註釋:

 He
13:21 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'He' or engs='He'
經文:

啟示錄 1:7-1:7

註釋:

 {Behold, he cometh with the clouds} (idou erchetai meta t(936e)
nephel(936e)). Futuristic present middle indicative of erchomai, a
reminiscence of  Da 7:13  (Theodotion). "It becomes a common
eschatological refrain" (Beckwith) as in  Mr 13:26  14:62  Mt
24:30  26:64  Lu 21:27 . Compare the manifestation of God in the
clouds at Sinai, in the cloudy pillar, the Shekinah, at the
transfiguration" (Vincent). {Shall see} (opsetai). Future
middle of hora(935c), a reminiscence of  Zec 12:10  according to the
text of Theodotion (Aquila and Symmachus) rather than the LXX and
like that of  Mt 24:30  (similar combination of Daniel and
Zechariah) and  26:64 . This picture of the victorious Christ in
his return occurs also in  14:14, 18-20  19:11-21  20:7-10 . {And
they which} (kai hoitines). "And the very ones who," Romans and
Jews, all who shared in this act. {Pierced} (exekent(8873)an).
First aorist active indicative of ekkente(935c), late compound
(Aristotle, Polybius, LXX), from ek and kente(935c) (to stab, to
pierce), in N.T., only here and  Joh 19:37 , in both cases from
 Zec 12:10 , but not the LXX text (apparently proof that John
used the original Hebrew or the translation of Theodotion and
Aquila). {Shall mourn} (kopsontai). Future middle (direct) of
kopt(935c), old verb, to cut, "they shall cut themselves," as was
common for mourners ( Mt 11:17  Lu 8:52  23:27 ). From  Zec
12:12 . See also  Re 18:9 . {Tribes} (phulai). Not just the
Jewish tribes, but the spiritual Israel of Jews and Gentiles as
in  7:4-8 . No nation had then accepted Christ as Lord and
Saviour, nor has any yet done so.

經文:

啟示錄 1:8-1:8

註釋:

 {The Alpha and the Omega} (	o Alpha kai to O). The first
and the last letters of the Greek alphabet, each with its own
neuter (grammatical gender) article. This description of the
eternity of God recurs in  21:6  with the added explanation h(880a)arch(8820)kai to telos (the Beginning and the End) and of Christ in
 22:13  with the still further explanation ho pr(9374)os kai ho
eschatos (the First and the Last). This last phrase appears also
in  1:17  2:8  without 	o Alpha kai to O. The change of speaker
here is unannounced, as in  16:15  18:20 . Only here and  21:5f .
is God introduced as the speaker. The eternity of God guarantees
the prophecy just made. {The Lord God} (Kurios ho theos). "The
Lord the God." Common phrase in Ezekiel ( Eze 6:3,11  7:2 , etc.)
and in this book ( 4:8  11:17  15:3  16:7  19:6  21:22 ). See
 1:4  4:8  for the triple use of ho, etc. to express the
eternity of God. {The Almighty} (ho pantokrat(9372)). Late compound
(p(8373) and krate(935c)), in Cretan inscription and a legal papyrus,
common in LXX and Christian papyri, in N.T. only in  2Co 6:18 
(from  Jer 38:35 ) and  Re 1:8  4:8  11:17  15:3  16:7,14  19:6,15  21:22 .

經文:

啟示錄 1:9-1:9

註釋:

 {I John} (Eg(9320)I(9361)n(8873)). So  22:8 . In apocalyptic literature
the personality of the writer is always prominent to guarantee
the visions ( Da 8:1  10:2 ). {Partaker with you}
(sunkoin(936e)os). See already  1Co 9:23 . "Co-partner with you"
( Ro 11:17 ). One article with adelphos and sunkoin(936e)os
unifying the picture. The absence of apostolos here does not
show that he is not an apostle, but merely his self-effacement,
as in the Fourth Gospel, and still more his oneness with his
readers. So there is only one article (	(8869)) with 	hlipsei
(tribulation), asilei(8369) (kingdom), hupomon(8869) (patience),
ideas running all through the book. Both the tribulation (see  Mt
13:21  for 	hlipsis) and the kingdom (see  Mt 3:2  for
asileia) were present realities and called for patience
(hupomon(885c) being "the spiritual alchemy" according to Charles
for those in the kingdom, for which see  Lu 8:15  Jas 5:7 ). All
this is possible only "in Jesus" (en I(8873)ou), a phrase on a par
with Paul's common en Christ(9369) (in Christ), repeated in
 14:13 . Cf.  3:20  2Th 3:5 . {Was} (egenom(886e)). Rather, "I came
to be," second aorist middle indicative of ginomai. {In the
isle that is called Patmos} (en t(8869) n(8873)(9369) t(8869) kaloumen(8869)
Patm(9369)). Patmos is a rocky sparsely settled island some ten
miles long and half that wide, one of the Sporades group in the
Aegean Sea, south of Miletus. The present condition of the island
is well described by W. E. Geil in _The Isle That Is Called
Patmos_ (1905). Here John saw the visions described in the book,
apparently written while still a prisoner there in exile. {For
the word of God and the testimony of Jesus} (dia ton logon tou
theou kai t(886e) marturian I(8873)ou). The reason for (dia and the
accusative) John's presence in Patmos, naturally as a result of
persecution already alluded to, not for the purpose of preaching
there or of receiving the visions. See verse  2  for the phrase.

經文:

啟示錄 1:10-1:10

註釋:

 {I was in the Spirit} (egenom(886e) en pneumati). Rather, "I
came to be (as in  1:9 ) in the Spirit," came into an ecstatic
condition as in  Ac 10:10f.  22:17 , not the normal spiritual
condition (einai en pneumati,  Ro 8:9 ). {On the Lord's Day}
(en t(8869) kuriak(8869) h(886d)er(8369)). Deissmann has proven (_Bible
Studies_, p. 217f.; _Light_, etc., p. 357ff.) from inscriptions
and papyri that the word kuriakos was in common use for the
sense "imperial" as imperial finance and imperial treasury and
from papyri and ostraca that h(886d)era Sebast(885c) (Augustus Day) was
the first day of each month, Emperor's Day on which money
payments were made (cf.  1Co 16:1f. ). It was easy, therefore,
for the Christians to take this term, already in use, and apply
it to the first day of the week in honour of the Lord Jesus
Christ's resurrection on that day (_Didache_ 14, Ignatius _Magn_.
9). In the N.T. the word occurs only here and  1Co 11:20 
(kuriakon deipnon the Lord's Supper). It has no reference to
h(886d)era kuriou (the day of judgment,  2Pe 3:10 ). {Behind me}
(opis(9320)mou). "The unexpected, overpowering entrance of the
divine voice" (Vincent). Cf.  Eze 3:12 . {Voice} (ph(936e)(886e)). Of
Christ, as is plain in verses  12f . {As of a trumpet} (h(9373)
salpiggos). So in  4:1  referring to this. {Saying}
(legous(8873)). Present active participle genitive case agreeing
with salpiggos rather than legousan, accusative agreeing with
ph(936e)(886e). So on purpose, as is clear from  4:1 , where lalous(8873)
also agrees with salpiggos.

經文:

啟示錄 1:11-1:11

註釋:

 {Write in a book} (grapson eis biblion). First aorist
active imperative of graph(935c) for instantaneous action. The
commission covers the whole series of visions which all grow out
of this first vision of the Risen Christ. {Send} (pempson).
First aorist active imperative of pemp(935c). Part of the commission
from Christ. The names of the seven churches of  1:4  are now
given, and the particular message to each church comes in
chapters 2 and 3 and in the same order, the geographical order
going north from Ephesus, then east and south to Laodicea. But
apparently the whole book was to be read to each of the seven
churches. It would probably also be copied at each church.

經文:

啟示錄 1:12-1:12

註釋:

 {To see the voice} (lepein t(886e) ph(936e)(886e)). The voice put for
the person speaking. {Having turned} (epistrepsas). First
aorist active participle of epistreph(935c), from which also
epestrepsa, just before, for which verb see  Ac 15:36  16:18 .
{Seven golden candlesticks} (hepta luchnias chrusas). See  Mt
5:15  for luchnia (lampstand). Symbols of the seven churches as
explained in verse  20 . See  Ex 25:35ff.  for description of a
seven-branched candlestick, but here the lampstands are separate.

經文:

啟示錄 1:13-1:13

註釋:

 {One like unto a son of man} (homoion huion anthr(9370)ou).
Note accusative here with homoion (object of eidon) as in
 14:14  and not the associative-instrumental as is usual ( 1:15  4:3,6 ). Charles holds that homoion here has the sense of h(9373)
(as) and compares  4:6  22:1  for proof. The absence of the
article here shows also (Charles) that the idea is not "like the
Son of man" for Christ is the Son of man. He is like "a son of
man," but not a man. {Clothed} (endedumenon). Perfect passive
participle of endu(935c), accusative case agreeing with homoion.
{A garment down to the foot} (pod(8872)(885c)). Old adjective pod(8872)(8873)
(from pous, foot, and air(935c)), here only in N.T., accusative
singular retained with the passive participle as often with verbs
of clothing. Supply chit(936e)a or esth(8874)a (garment). {Girt
about} (periez(9373)menon). Perfect passive participle of
periz(936e)numi, accusative singular agreeing with homoion. {At
the breasts} (pros tois mastois). Old word for breasts of a
woman ( Lu 11:27  23:29 ) and nipples of a man, as here. High
girding like this was a mark of dignity as of the high priest
(Josephus, _Ant_. III. 7. 2). For pros with the locative see
 Mr 5:11 . {With a golden girdle} (z(936e)(886e) chrus(836e)). Accusative
case again retained with the passive participle (verb of
clothing). Note also chrus(836e) (vernacular _Koin(825f)) rather than
the old form, chrus(886e).

經文:

啟示錄 1:14-1:14

註釋:

 {As white wool} (h(9373) erion leukon). Erion (wool) in N.T.
only here and  Heb 9:19 , though old word. The person of the Lord
Jesus is here described in language largely from  Da 7:9  (the
Ancient of Days). {White as snow} (h(9373) chi(936e)). Just "as snow,"
also in  Da 7:9 . In N.T. only here and  Mt 28:3 . {As a flame of
fire} (h(9373) phlox puros). In  Da 7:9  the throne of the Ancient
of Days is phlox puros, while in  Da 10:6  the eyes of the
Ancient of Days are lampades puros (lamps of fire). See also
 2:18  19:12  for this bold metaphor (like  Heb 1:7 ).

經文:

啟示錄 1:15-1:15

註釋:

 {Burnished brass} (chalkoliban(9369)).
Associative-instrumental case after homoioi. This word has so
far been found nowhere else save here and  2:18 . Suidas defines
it as an (886c)ecktron (amber) or a compound of copper and gold and
silver (_aurichalcum_ in the Latin Vulgate). It is in reality an
unknown metal. {As if it had been refined} (h(9373) pepuromen(8873)).
Perfect passive participle of puro(935c), old verb, to set on fire,
to glow, as in  Eph 6:16  Re 3:18 . The feminine gender shows
that h(8820)chalkolibanos is referred to with 	(8873) chalkolibanou
understood, for it does not agree in case with the
associative-instrumental chalkoliban(9369) just before. Some would
call it a slip for pepuromen(9369) as Aleph, and some cursives have
it (taking chalkoliban(9369) to be neuter, not feminine). But P Q
read pepur(936d)enoi (masculine plural), a correction, making it
agree in number and gender with podes (feet). {In a furnace}
(en kamin(9369)). Old word, in N.T. also  9:2  Mt 13:42,50 . {As
the voice of many waters} (h(9373) ph(936e)(8820)hudat(936e) poll(936e)). So the
voice of God in the Hebrew (not the LXX) of  Eze 43:2 . Repeated
in  14:2  19:6 .

經文:

啟示錄 1:16-1:16

註釋:

 {And he had} (kai ech(936e)). "And having," present active
participle of ech(935c), loose use of the participle (almost like
eiche, imperfect) and not in agreement with autou, genitive
case. This is a common idiom in the book; a Hebraism, Charles
calls it. {In his right hand} (en t(8869) dexi(8369) cheiri). For safe
keeping as in  Joh 10:28 . {Seven stars} (asteras hepta).
Symbols of the seven churches (verse  20 ), seven planets rather
than Pleiades or any other constellation like the bear.
{Proceeded} (ekporeuomen(885c)). Present middle participle of
ekporeuomai, old compound ( Mt 3:5 ) used loosely again like
ech(936e). {A sharp two-edged sword} (
omphaia distomos oxeia).
"A sword two-mouthed sharp." Romphaia (as distinct from
machaira) is a long sword, properly a Thracian javelin, in N.T.
only  Lu 2:35  Re 1:16  2:12  Heb 4:12 . See stoma used with
machair(8873) in  Lu 21:24  (by the mouth of the sword).
{Countenance} (opsis). Old word (from opt(935c)), in N.T. only
here,  Joh 7:24  11:44 . {As the sun shineth} (h(9373) ho h(886c)ios
phainei). Brachylogy, "as the sun when it shines." For phainei
see  Joh 1:5 .

經文:

啟示錄 1:17-1:17

註釋:

 {I fell} (epesa). Late form for the old epeson (second
aorist active indicative of pipt(935c), to fall). Under the
over-powering influence of the vision as in  19:10 . {He laid}
(eth(886b)en). First aorist active indicative of 	ith(886d)i. The act
restored John's confidence. {Fear not} (m(8820)phobou). Cf.  Lu
1:13  to Zacharias to give comfort. {I am the first and the last}
(eg(9320)eimi ho pr(9374)os kai ho eschatos). Used in  Isa 44:6  48:12 
of God, but here,  2:8  22:13  of Christ. {And the Living One}
(kai ho z(936e)). Present active articular participle of za(935c),
another epithet of God common in the O.T. ( De 32:40  Isa 49:18 ,
etc.) and applied purposely to Jesus, with which see  Joh 5:26 
for Christ's own words about it.

經文:

啟示錄 1:18-1:18

註釋:

 {And I was dead} (kai egenom(886e) nekros). "And I be came
dead" (aorist middle participle of ginomai as in  1:9,10 ,
definite reference to the Cross). {I am alive} (z(936e) eimi).
Periphrastic present active indicative, "I am living," as the
words ho z(936e) just used mean. {Forevermore} (eis tous ai(936e)as
t(936e) ai(936e)(936e)). "Unto the ages of the ages," a stronger expression
of eternity even than in  1:6 . {The keys} (	as kleis). One of
the forms for the accusative plural along with kleidas, the
usual one ( Mt 16:19 ). {Of death and of Hades} (	ou thanatou
kai tou h(8369)dou). Conceived as in  Mt 16:18  as a prison house or
walled city. The keys are the symbol of authority, as we speak of
honouring one by giving him the keys of the city. Hades here
means the unseen world to which death is the portal. Jesus has
the keys because of his victory over death. See this same graphic
picture in  6:8  20:13f . For the key of David see  3:7 , for the
key of the abyss see  9:1  20:1 .

經文:

啟示錄 1:19-1:19

註釋:

 {Therefore} (oun). In view of Christ's words about himself
in verse  18  and the command in verse  11 . {Which thou sawest}
(ha eides). The vision of the Glorified Christ in verses
 13-18 . {The things which are} (ha eisin). Plural verb
(individualising the items) though ha is neuter plural,
certainly the messages to the seven churches ( 1:20-3:22 ) in
relation to the world in general, possibly also partly epexegetic
or explanatory of ha eides. {The things which shall come to
pass hereafter} (ha mellei ginesthai meta tauta). Present
middle infinitive with mellei, though both aorist and future
are also used. Singular verb here (mellei) blending in a single
view the future. In a rough outline this part begins in 4:1 and
goes to end of chapter 22, though the future appears also in
chapters 2 and 3 and the present occurs in 4 to 22 and the
elements in the vision of Christ ( 1:13-18 ) reappear repeatedly.

經文:

啟示錄 1:20-1:20

註釋:

 {The mystery of the seven stars} (	o must(8872)ion t(936e) hepta
aster(936e)). On the word must(8872)ion see on 烘t 13:11; 2Th 2:7; Col
1:26|. Here it means the inner meaning (the secret symbol) of a
symbolic vision (Swete) as in  10:7  13:18  17:7,9  Da 2:47 .
Probably the accusative absolute (Charles), "as for the mystery"
(Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 490, 1130), as in  Ro 8:3 . This item
is picked out of the previous vision ( 1:16 ) as needing
explanation at once and as affording a clue to what follows
( 2:1,5 ). {Which} (hous). Masculine accusative retained
without attraction to case of aster(936e) (genitive, h(936e)). {In my
right hand} (epi t(8873) dexias mou). Or "upon," but en t(8869),
etc., in verse  16 . {And the seven golden candlesticks} (kai
tas hepta luchnias tas chrus(8373)). "The seven lampstands the
golden," identifying the stars of verse  16  with the lampstands
of verse  12 . The accusative case here is even more peculiar
than the accusative absolute must(8872)ion, since the genitive
luchni(936e) after must(8872)ion is what one would expect. Charles
suggests that John did not revise his work. {The angels of the
seven churches} (aggeloi t(936e) hepta ekkl(8873)i(936e)). Anarthrous in
the predicate (angels of, etc.). "The seven churches" mentioned
in  1:4,11 . Various views of aggelos here exist. The simplest
is the etymological meaning of the word as messenger from
aggell(935c) ( Mt 11:10 ) as messengers from the seven churches to
Patmos or by John from Patmos to the churches (or both). Another
view is that aggelos is the pastor of the church, the reading
	(886e) gunaika sou (thy wife) in  2:20  (if genuine) confirming
this view. Some would even take it to be the bishop over the
elders as episcopos in Ignatius, but a separate aggelos in
each church is against this idea. Some take it to be a symbol for
the church itself or the spirit and genius of the church, though
distinguished in this very verse from the churches themselves
(the lampstands). Others take it to be the guardian angel of each
church assuming angelic patrons to be taught in  Mt 18:10  Ac
12:15 . Each view is encompassed with difficulties, perhaps fewer
belonging to the view that the "angel" is the pastor. {Are seven
churches} (hepta ekkl(8873)iai eisin). These seven churches
( 1:4,11 ) are themselves lampstands ( 1:12 ) reflecting the
light of Christ to the world ( Mt 5:14-16  Joh 8:12 ) in the
midst of which Christ walks ( 1:13 ).

經文:

啟示錄 2:1-2:1

註釋:

 {In Ephesus} (en Ephes(9369)). Near the sea on the river
Cayster, the foremost city of Asia Minor, the temple-keeper of
Artemis and her wonderful temple ( Ac 19:35 ), the home of the
magic arts (Ephesian letters,  Ac 19:19 ) and of the
mystery-cults, place of Paul's three years' stay ( Ac 19:1-10  20:17-38 ), where Aquila and Priscilla and Apollos laboured ( Ac
18:24-28 ), where Timothy wrought (I and II Tim.), where the
Apostle John preached in his old age. Surely it was a place of
great privilege, of great preaching. It was about sixty miles
from Patmos and the messenger would reach Ephesus first. It is a
free city, a seat of proconsular government ( Ac 19:38 ), the end
of the great road from the Euphrates. The port was a place of
shifting sands, due to the silting up of the mouth of the
Cayster. Ramsay (_Letters to the Seven Churches_, p. 210) calls
it "the City of Change." {These things} (	ade). This
demonstrative seven times here, once with the message to each
church ( 2:1,8,12,18  2:1,7,14 ), only once elsewhere in N.T.
( Ac 21:11 ). {He that holdeth} (ho krat(936e)). Present active
articular participle of krate(935c), a stronger word than ech(936e) in
 1:16 , to which it refers. {He that walketh} (ho peripat(936e)).
Present active articular participle of peripate(935c), an allusion
to  1:13 . These two epithets are drawn from the picture of
Christ in  1:13-18 , and appropriately to conditions in Ephesus
describe Christ's power over the churches as he moves among them.

經文:

啟示錄 2:2-2:2

註釋:

 {I know} (oida). Rather than gin(9373)k(935c) and so "emphasizes
better the absolute clearness of mental vision which photographs
all the facts of life as they pass" (Swete). So also in
 2:9,13,19  3:1,8,15 . For the distinction see  Joh 21:17 ,
"where the universal knowledge passes into the field of special
observation." {Works} (erga). The whole life and conduct as in
 Joh 6:29 . {And thy toil and patience} (kai ton kopon kai t(886e)
hupomon(886e) sou). "Both thy toil and patience," in explanation of
erga, and see  1Th 1:3 , where all three words (ergon, kopos,
hupomon(885c)) occur together as here. See  14:13  for sharp
distinction between erga (activities) and kopoi (toils, with
weariness). Endurance (hupomon(885c)) in hard toil (kopos). {And
that} (kai hoti). Further explanation of kopos (hard toil).
{Not able} (ou dun(8869)). This _Koin(825f) form for the Attic
dunasai (second person singular indicative middle) occurs also
in  Mr 9:22  Lu 16:2 . {Bear} (astasai). First aorist active
infinitive of astaz(935c), for which verb see  Joh 10:31  12:6  Ga
6:2 . These evil men were indeed a heavy burden. {And didst try}
(kai epeirasas). First aorist active indicative of peiraz(935c),
to test, a reference to a recent crisis when these Nicolaitans
(verse  6 ) were condemned. The present tenses (dun(8869), echeis)
indicate the continuance of this attitude. Cf.  1Jo 4:1 . {Which
call themselves apostles} (	ous legontas heautous apostolous).
Perhaps itinerant missionaries of these Nicolaitans who posed as
equal to or even superior to the original apostles, like the
Judaizers so described by Paul ( 2Co 11:5,13  12:11 ). Paul had
foretold such false teachers (Gnostics), grievous wolves, in  Ac
20:29 ; in sheep's clothing, Jesus had said ( Mt 7:15 ). {And
they are not} (kai ouk eisin). A parenthesis in Johannine style
( Joh 2:9  3:9  1Jo 3:1 ) for kai ouk ontas to correspond to
legontas. {And didst find} (kai heures). Second aorist active
indicative of heurisk(935c). Dropping back to the regular structure
parallel with epeirasas. {False} (pseudeis). Predicate
accusative plural of pseud(8873), self-deceived deceivers as in
 21:8 .

經文:

啟示錄 2:3-2:3

註釋:

 {Thou hast} (echeis). Continued possession of patience.
{Didst bear} (ebastasas). First aorist indicative of astaz(935c),
repeated reference to the crisis in verse  2 . {And hast not
grown weary} (kai ou kekopiakes). Perfect active indicative of
kopia(935c), old verb, to grow weary ( Mt 6:28 ), play on the word
kopos, late form in -es, for the regular -as (lelukas).
like aph(886b)es (verse  4 ) and pept(936b)es (verse  5 ). "Tired in
loyalty, not of it. The Ephesian church can bear anything except
the presence of impostors in her membership" (Moffatt).

經文:

啟示錄 2:4-2:4

註釋:

 {This against thee, that} (kata sou hoti). For the phrase
"have against" see  Mt 5:23 . The hoti clause is the object of
ech(935c). {Thou didst leave} (aph(886b)es). First aorist active
(kappa aorist, but with -es instead of -as) of aphi(886d)i, a
definite and sad departure. {Thy first love} (	(886e) agap(886e) sou t(886e)
pr(9374)(886e)). "Thy love the first." This early love, proof of the new
life in Christ ( 1Jo 3:13f. ), had cooled off in spite of their
doctrinal purity. They had remained orthodox, but had become
unloving partly because of the controversies with the
Nicolaitans.

經文:

啟示錄 2:5-2:5

註釋:

 {Remember} (mn(886d)oneue). Present active imperative of
mn(886d)oneu(935c), "continue mindful" (from mn(886d)(936e)). {Thou art
fallen} (pept(936b)es). Perfect active indicative of pipt(935c), state
of completion. Down in the valley, look up to the cliff where
pure love is and whence thou hast fallen down. {And repent} (kai
metano(8873)on). First aorist active imperative of metanoe(935c),
urgent appeal for instant change of attitude and conduct before
it is too late. {And do} (kai poi(8873)on). First aorist active
imperative of poie(935c), "Do at once." {The first works} (	a pr(9374)a
erga). Including the first love ( Ac 19:20  20:37  Eph 1:3ff. )
which has now grown cold ( Mt 24:12 ). {Or else} (ei de m(885c)).
Elliptical condition, the verb not expressed (metanoeis), a
common idiom, seen again in verse  16 , the condition expressed
in full by ean m(885c) in this verse and verse  22 . {I come}
(erchomai). Futuristic present middle ( Joh 14:2f. ). {To thee}
(soi). Dative, as in  2:16  also. {Will move} (kin(8873)(935c)).
Future active of kine(935c). In Ignatius' Epistle to Ephesus it
appears that the church heeded this warning. {Except thou repent}
(ean m(8820)metano(8873)(8869)s). Condition of third class with ean m(885c)
instead of ei m(885c) above, with the first aorist active
subjunctive of metanoe(935c).

經文:

啟示錄 2:6-2:6

註釋:

 {That thou hatest} (hoti miseis). Accusative object clause
in apposition with 	outo (this). Trench tells of the words used
in ancient Greek for hatred of evil (misopon(8872)ia) and
misopon(8872)os (hater of evil), neither of which occurs in the
N.T., but which accurately describe the angel of the church in
Ephesus. {Of the Nicolaitans} (	(936e) Nikolait(936e)). Mentioned again
in verse  15  and really meant in verse  2 . Irenaeus and
Hippolytus take this sect to be followers of Nicolaus of Antioch,
one of the seven deacons ( Ac 6:5 ), a Jewish proselyte, who is
said to have apostatized. There was such a sect in the second
century (Tertullian), but whether descended from Nicolaus of
Antioch is not certain, though possible (Lightfoot). It is even
possible that the Balaamites of verse  14  were a variety of this
same sect (verse  15 ). {Which I also hate} (ha kag(9320)mis(935c)).
Christ himself hates the teachings and deeds of the Nicolaitans
(ha, not hous, deeds, not people), but the church in Pergamum
tolerated them.

經文:

啟示錄 2:7-2:7

註釋:

 1Jo
5:4 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
5' or engs='1Jo
5'
經文:

啟示錄 2:8-2:8

註釋:

 {In Smyrna} (en Smurn(8869)). North of Ephesus, on a gulf of
the Aegean, one of the great cities of Asia (province), a seat of
emperor-worship with temple to Tiberius, with many Jews hostile
to Christianity who later join in the martyrdom of Polycarp, poor
church (rich in grace) which receives only praise from Christ,
scene of the recent massacre of Greeks by the Turks. Ramsay (_op.
cit._, p. 251) terms Smyrna "the City of Life." Christianity has
held on here better than in any city of Asia. {The first and the
last} (ho pr(9374)os kai ho eschatos). Repeating the language of
 1:17 . {Which was dead} (hos egeneto nekros). Rather, "who
became dead" (second aorist middle indicative of ginomai) as in
 1:18 . {And lived again} (kai ez(8873)en). First aorist
(ingressive, came to life) active of za(935c) (ho z(936e) in  1:18 ).
Emphasis on the resurrection of Christ.

經文:

啟示錄 2:9-2:9

註釋:

 2Co
6:10 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
6' or engs='2Co
6'
經文:

啟示錄 2:10-2:10

註釋:

 {Fear not} (m(8820)phobou). As in  1:17 . Worse things are
about to come than poverty and blasphemy, perhaps prison and
death, for the devil "is about to cast" (mellei ballein), "is
going to cast." {Some of you} (ex hum(936e)). Without 	inas
(some) before ex hum(936e), a common idiom as in  3:9  11:19  Lu
11:49 . {That ye may be tried} (hina peirasth(8874)e). Purpose
clause with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of
peiraz(935c). John himself is in exile. Peter and John had often
been in prison together. James the brother of John, Paul, and
Peter had all suffered martyrdom. In  3:10  a general persecution
is outlined by peirasmos. {Ye shall have} (hexete). Future
active, but some MSS. read ech(8874)e (present active subjunctive
with hina, "that ye may have"). {Tribulation ten days} (	hlipsin
h(886d)er(936e) deka). "Tribulation of ten days" (or "within ten days").
It is unwise to seek a literal meaning for ten days. Even ten
days of suffering might seem an eternity while they lasted. {Be
thou faithful} (ginou pistos). "Keep on becoming faithful"
(present middle imperative of ginomai), "keep on proving
faithful unto death" ( Heb 12:4 ) as the martyrs have done (Jesus
most of all). {The crown of life} (	on stephanon t(8873) z(9388)s). See
this very image in  Jas 1:12 , a familiar metaphor in the games
at Smyrna and elsewhere in which the prize was a garland. See
also  3:11 . The crown consists in life ( 2:7 ). See Paul's use
of stephanos in  1Co 9:25  2Ti 4:8 .

經文:

啟示錄 2:11-2:11

註釋:

 {Shall not be hurt} (ou m(8820)adik(8874)h(8869)). Strong double
negative with first aorist passive subjunctive of adike(935c), old
verb, to act unjustly (from adikos), here to do harm or wrong
to one, old usage as in  6:6  7:2f.  9:4,10  11:5 . {Of the
second death} (ek tou thanatou tou deuterou). Ek here used
for the agent or instrument as often ( 3:18  9:2  18:1 ). See
 20:6,14  21:8  where "the second death" is explained as "the
lake of fire." The idea is present in  Da 12:3  Joh 5:29  and is
current in Jewish circles as in the Jerusalem Targum on  De 33:6 
and in Philo. It is not annihilation. The Christians put to death
in the persecution will at least escape this second death
(eternal punishment).

經文:

啟示錄 2:12-2:12

註釋:

 {In Pergamum} (en Pergam(9369)). In a north-easterly direction
from Smyrna in the Caicus Valley, some fifty-five miles away, in
Mysia, on a lofty hill, a great political and religious centre.
Ramsay (_Op. cit._, p. 281) calls it "the royal city, the city of
authority." Eumenes II (B.C. 197-159) extended it and embellished
it with many great buildings, including a library with 200,000
volumes, second only to Alexandria. The Kingdom of Pergamum
became a Roman province B.C. 130. Pliny termed it the most
illustrious city of Asia. Parchment (charta Pergamena) derived
its name from Pergamum. It was a rival of Ephesus in the temples
to Zeus, Athena, Dionysos, in the great grove Nicephorium (the
glory of the city). Next to this was the grove and temple of
Asklepios, the god of healing, called the god of Pergamum, with a
university for medical study. Pergamum was the first city in Asia
(A.D. 29) with a temple for the worship of Augustus (Octavius
Caesar). Hence in the Apocalypse Pergamum is a very centre of
emperor-worship "where Satan dwells" ( 2:13 ). Here also the
Nicolaitans flourished ( 2:15 ) as in Ephesus ( 2:6 ) and in
Thyatira ( 2:20f. ). Like Ephesus this city is called
temple-sweeper (
e(936b)oros) for the gods. {The sharp two-edged
sword} (	(886e) romphaian t(886e) distomon t(886e) oxeian). This item
repeated from  1:16  in the same order of words with the article
three times (the sword the two-mouthed the sharp) singling out
each point.

經文:

啟示錄 2:13-2:13

註釋:

 2:25, 3:11 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2' or engs='2'
經文:

啟示錄 2:14-2:14

註釋:

 {There} (ekei). That is par' humin (among you). A party
in the church that resisted emperor-worship, to the death in the
case of Antipas, yet were caught in the insidious wiles of the
Nicolaitans which the church in Ephesus withstood. {Some that
hold} (kratountas). "Men holding" (present active participle of
krate(935c)). {The teaching of Balaam} (	(886e) didach(886e) Balaam).
Indeclinable substantive Balaam ( Nu 25:1-9  31:15f. ). The point
of likeness of these heretics with Balaam is here explained.
{Taught Balak} (edidasken t(9369) Balak). Imperfect indicative of
didask(935c), Balaam's habit, "as the prototype of all corrupt
teachers" (Charles). These early Gnostics practised
licentiousness as a principle since they were not under law, but
under grace ( Ro 6:15 ). The use of the dative with didask(935c) is
a colloquialism rather than a Hebraism. Two accusatives often
occur with didask(935c). {To cast a stumbling-block} (alein
skandalon). Second aorist active infinitive (accusative case
after edidasken) of all(935c), regular use with skandalon
(trap) like 	ith(886d)i skandalon in  Ro 14:13 . Balaam, as
Josephus and Philo also say, showed Balak how to set a trap for
the Israelites by beguiling them into the double sin of idolatry
and fornication, which often went together (and do so still). {To
eat things sacrificed to idols} (phagein eid(936c)othuta). Second
aorist active infinitive of esthi(935c) and the verbal adjective
(from eid(936c)on and 	hu(935c)), quoted here from  Nu 25:1f. , but in
inverse order, repeated in other order in verse  20 . See  Ac
15:29  21:25  1Co 8:1ff.  for the controversy over the temptation
to Gentile Christians to do what in itself was harmless, but
which led to evil if it led to participation in the pagan feasts.
Perhaps both ideas are involved here. Balaam taught Balak how to
lead the Israelites into sin in both ways.

經文:

啟示錄 2:15-2:15

註釋:

 {So thou also} (hout(9373) kai su). Thou and the church at
Pergamum as Israel had the wiles of Balaam. {The teaching of the
Nicolaitans likewise} (	(886e) didach(886e) t(936e) Nikolait(936e) homoi(9373)).
See on 氣:6| for the Nicolaitans. The use of homoi(9373) (likewise)
here shows that they followed Balaam in not obeying the decision
of the Conference at Jerusalem ( Ac 15:20,29 ) about idolatry and
fornication, with the result that they encouraged a return to
pagan laxity of morals (Swete). Some wrongly hold that these
Nicolaitans were Pauline Christians in the face of  Col 3:5-8  Eph 5:3-6 .

經文:

啟示錄 2:16-2:16

註釋:

 {Repent therefore} (metano(8873)on oun). First aorist (tense
of urgency) active imperative of metanoe(935c) with the inferential
particle oun (as a result of their sin). {I come} (erchomai).
Futuristic present middle indicative, "I am coming" (imminent),
as in  2:5  with 	achu as in  3:11  11:14  22:7,12,20 . As with
en tachei ( 1:1 ), we do not know how soon "quickly" is meant
to be understood. But it is a real threat. {Against them} (met'
aut(936e)). This proposition with poleme(935c) rather than kata
(against) is common in the LXX, but in the N.T. only in  Re 2:16  12:7  13:4  17:14  and the verb itself nowhere else in N.T.
except  Jas 4:2 . "An eternal roll of thunder from the throne"
(Renan). "The glorified Christ is in this book a Warrior, who
fights with the sharp sword of the word" (Swete). {With} (en).
Instrumental use of en. For the language see  1:16  2:12  19:15 .

經文:

啟示錄 2:17-2:17

註釋:

 {Of the hidden manna} (	ou manna tou kekrummenou). "Of the
manna the hidden" (perfect passive articular participle of
krupt(935c)). The partitive genitive, the only N.T. example with
did(936d)i, though Q reads 	o (accusative) here. For examples of
the ablative with apo and ek see Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
519. See  Joh 6:31,49  for the indeclinable word manna. The
golden pot of manna was "laid up before God in the ark" ( Ex
16:23 ). It was believed that Jeremiah hid the ark, before the
destruction of Jerusalem, where it would not be discovered till
Israel was restored (II Macc. 2:5ff.). Christ is the true bread
from heaven ( Joh 6:31-33, 48-51 ) and that may be the idea here.
Those faithful to Christ will have transcendent fellowship with
him. Swete takes it to be "the life-sustaining power of the
Sacred Humanity now hid with Christ in God." {A white stone}
(ps(8870)hon leuk(886e)). This old word for pebble (from psa(935c), to
rub) was used in courts of justice, black pebbles for condemning,
white pebbles for acquitting. The only other use of the word in
the N.T. is in  Ac 26:10 , where Paul speaks of "depositing his
pebble" (kat(886e)egka ps(8870)hon) or casting his vote. The white
stone with one's name on it was used to admit one to
entertainments and also as an amulet or charm. {A new name
written} (onoma kainon gegrammenon). Perfect passive predicate
participle of graph(935c). Not the man's own name, but that of
Christ (Heitmuller, _Im Namen J(8873)u_, p. 128-265). See  3:12  for
the name of God so written on one. The man himself may be the
ps(8870)hos on which the new name is written. "The true Christian
has a charmed life" (Moffatt). {But he that receiveth it} (ei m(880a)ho lamban(936e)). "Except the one receiving it." See  Mt 11:27  for
like intimate and secret knowledge between the Father and the Son
and the one to whom the Son wills to reveal the Father. See also
 Re 19:12 .

經文:

啟示錄 2:18-2:18

註釋:

 {In Thyatira} (en Thuateirois). Some forty miles
south-east of Pergamum, a Lydian city on the edge of Mysia, under
Rome since B.C. 190, a centre of trade, especially for the royal
purple, home of Lydia of Philippi ( Ac 16:14f. ), shown by
inscriptions to be full of trade guilds, Apollo the chief deity
with no emperor-worship, centre of activity by the Nicolaitans
with their idolatry and licentiousness under a "prophetess" who
defied the church there. Ramsay calls it "Weakness Made Strong"
(_op. cit._, p. 316). {The Son of God} (ho huios tou theou).
Here Jesus is represented as calling himself by this title as in
 Joh 11:4  and as he affirms on oath in  Mt 26:63f . "The Word of
God" occurs in  19:13 . {His eyes like a flame of fire} (	ous
ophthalmous autou h(9373) phloga puros). As in  1:14 . {His feet
like burnished brass} (hoi podes autou homoioi chalkoliban(9369)).
As in  1:15 .

經文:

啟示錄 2:19-2:19

註釋:

 {Thy works} (sou ta erga) . As in  2:2  and explained
(explanatory use of kai =namely) by what follows. Four items
are given, with separate feminine article for each (	(886e) agap(886e),
t(886e) pistin, t(886e) diakonian, t(886e) hupomon(886e)), a longer list of
graces than in  2:2  for Ephesus. More praise is given in the
case of Ephesus and Thyatira when blame follows than in the case
of Smyrna and Philadelphia when no fault is found. Love comes
first in this list in true Johannine fashion. Faith (pistin)
here may be "faithfulness," and ministry (diakonian) is
ministration to needs of others ( Ac 11:29  1Co 16:15 ). {And
that} (kai). Only kai (and) in the Greek, but doubtless
hoti (that) is understood. {Than the first} (	(936e) pr(9374)(936e)).
Ablative after the comparative pleiona (more).

經文:

啟示錄 2:20-2:20

註釋:

 {Thou sufferest} (apheis). Late vernacular present active
indicative second person singular as if from a form aphe(935c)
instead of the usual aphi(886d)i forms. {The woman Jezebel} (	(886e)
gunaika Iezabel). Symbolical name for some prominent woman in
the church in Thyatira, like the infamous wife of Ahab who was
guilty of whoredom and witchcraft ( 1Ki 16:31  2Ki 9:22 ) and who
sought to drive out the worship of God from Israel. Some MSS.
here (A Q 40 min.s) have sou (thy wife, thy woman Ramsay makes
it), but surely Aleph C P rightly reject sou. Otherwise she is
the pastor's wife! {Which calleth herself a prophetess} (h(880a)legousa heaut(886e) proph(8874)in). Nominative articular participle of
leg(935c) in apposition with the accusative gunaika like ho
martus in apposition with Antipas in  2:13 . Proph(8874)is is an
old word, feminine form for proph(8874)(8873), in N.T. only here and
 Lu 2:36  (Anna), two extremes surely. See  Ac 21:9  for the
daughters of Philip who prophesied. {And she teacheth and
seduceth} (kai didaskei kai plan(8369)). A resolution of the
participles (didaskousa kai plan(9373)a) into finite verbs (present
active indicatives) as in  1:5f . This woman was not a real
prophetess, but a false one with loud claims and loose living.
One is puzzled to know how such a woman had so much shrewdness
and sex-appeal as to lead astray the servants of God in that
church. The church tolerated the Nicolaitans and this leader
whose primary object was sexual immorality (Charles) and became
too much involved with her to handle the heresy.

經文:

啟示錄 2:21-2:21

註釋:

 {I gave her time} (ed(936b)a aut(8869) chronon). First aorist
active indicative of did(936d)i, allusion to a definite visit or
message of warning to this woman. {That she should repent} (hina
metano(8873)(8869)). Sub-final use of hina with first aorist active
subjunctive of metanoe(935c). {And she willeth not} (kai ou
thelei). "And she is not willing." Blunt and final like  Mt
23:37 . {To repent of} (metano(8873)ai ek). First aorist
(ingressive) active infinitive with ek, "to make a change out
of," the usual construction with metanoe(935c) in this book ( 2:22  9:20ff.  16:11 ), with apo in  Ac 8:22 . Porneia
(fornication) here, but moicheu(935c) (to commit adultery) in verse
 22 .

經文:

啟示錄 2:22-2:22

註釋:

 {I do cast} (all(935c)). Futuristic present active indicative
rather than the future al(935c), since judgment is imminent. {Into
a bed} (eis klin(886e)). "A bed of sickness in contrast with the
bed of adultery" (Beckwith). {Them that commit adultery with her}
(	ous moicheuontas met' aut(8873)). Present active articular
participle accusative plural of moicheu(935c). The actual paramours
of the woman Jezebel, guilty of both porneia (fornication,
verse  21 ) and moicheia (adultery), works of Jezebel of old
and of this Jezebel. There may be also an allusion to the
spiritual adultery ( 2Co 11:2 ) towards God and Christ as of old
( Jer 3:8  5:7  Eze 16:22 ). {Except they repent} (ean m(880a)metano(8873)ousin). Condition of first class with ean m(885c) and the
future active indicative of metanoe(935c), put in this vivid form
rather than the aorist subjunctive (-(9373)in) third-class
condition. {Of her works} (ek t(936e) erg(936e) aut(8873)). Aut(8873) (her)
correct rather than aut(936e) (their). Jezebel was chiefly
responsible.

經文:

啟示錄 2:23-2:23

註釋:

 {I will kill with death} (apokten(9320)en thanat(9369)). Future
(volitive) active of apoktein(935c) with the tautological (cognate)
en thanat(9369) (in the sense of pestilence) as in  Eze 33:27 .
{Her children} (	a tekna aut(8873)). Either her actual children,
like the fate of Ahab's sons ( 2Ki 10:7 ) or "her spiritual
progeny" (Swete) who have completely accepted her Nicolaitan
practices. {Shall know} (gn(9373)ontai). Future (ingressive
punctiliar) middle of gin(9373)k(935c), "shall come to know." "The doom
of the offenders was to be known as widely as the scandal had
been" (Charles). {Searcheth} (eraun(936e)). Present active
articular participle of erauna(935c), to follow up, to track out,
late form for ereuna(935c), from  Jer 17:10 . {Reins} (
ephrous).
Old word for kidneys, here only in N.T., quoted also with
kardias from  Jer 17:10 . See  22:17  for the reward of
punishment.

經文:

啟示錄 2:24-2:24

註釋:

 1Co
2:10 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
2' or engs='1Co
2'
經文:

啟示錄 2:25-2:25

註釋:

 {Howbeit} (pl(886e)). Common after ouk allo as a preposition
with the ablative ( Mr 12:32 ), but here a conjunction as in  Php
1:18 . {Hold fast} (krat(8873)ate). First aorist active imperative
of krate(935c), either ingressive (get a grip on) or constative
(hold on as a single decisive effort). See present imperative
kratei in  3:11  (keep on holding). {Till I come} (achri hou
an h(8878)(935c)). Indefinite temporal clause with achri hou (until
which time) with modal an and either the future active
indicative or the first aorist active subjunctive of h(886b)(935c)
(usual idiom with achri in Revelation as in  7:3  15:8  20:3,5 ).

經文:

啟示錄 2:26-2:26

註釋:

 {He that overcometh and he that keepeth} (ho nik(936e) kai ho
t(8872)(936e)). Present active articular participles of 
ika(935c) and
	(8872)e(935c) in the nominative absolute (_nominativus pendens_) as in
 3:12,21 , resumed by the dative aut(9369) (to him), as in verses
 7,17 . {Unto the end} (achri telous). That is, achri hou an
h(8878)o above. {Authority over the nations} (exousian epi t(936e)
ethn(936e)). From  Ps 2:8f . The followers of the Messiah will share
in his victory over his enemies ( 1:6  12:5  19:15 ).

經文:

啟示錄 2:27-2:27

註釋:

 {He shall rule} (poimanei). Future active of poimain(935c),
to shepherd (from poim(886e), shepherd), also from  Ps 2:8f . See
again  Re 7:17  12:5  19:15 . {With a rod of iron} (en rabd(9369)
sid(8872)(8369)). Continuing the quotation. Instrumental use of en.
Rabdos (feminine) is the royal sceptre and indicates rigorous
rule. {The vessels of the potter} (	a skeu(8820)ta keramika). Old
adjective, belonging to a potter (kerameus, keramos), here only
in N.T. {Are broken to shivers} (suntribetai). Present passive
indicative of suntrib(935c), old verb, to rub together, to break in
pieces ( Mr 14:3 ).

經文:

啟示錄 2:28-2:28

註釋:

 {As I also have received} (h(9373) kag(9320)eil(8870)ha). Perfect
active indicative of lamban(935c). Christ still possesses the power
from the Father ( Ac 2:33  Ps 2:7 ). {The morning star} (	on
astera ton pr(9369)non). "The star the morning one." In  22:16 
Christ is the bright morning star. The victor will have Christ
himself.

經文:

啟示錄 2:29-2:29

註釋:

 (flight of the Jews from Antiochus Epiphanes),  Mt 2:13 
(flight of Joseph and Mary to Egypt),  Mr 13:14  (the flight of
Christians at the destruction of Jerusalem). {Where}
(hopou--ekei). Hebrew redundancy (where--there) as in  3:8  8:9,9  13:8,12  17:9  20:8 . {Prepared} (h(8874)oimasmenon).
Perfect passive predicate participle of hetoimaz(935c), for which
verb see  Mt 20:23  Re 8:6  9:7,15  16:12  19:7  21:2 , and for
its use with 	opos  Joh 14:2f.  and for the kind of fellowship
meant by it ( Ps 31:21  2Co 13:13  Col 3:3  1Jo 1:3 ). {Of God}
(apo tou theou). "From (by) God," marking the source as God
( 9:18  Jas 1:13 ). This anticipatory symbolism is repeated in
 12:13f . {That there they may nourish her} (hina ekei treph(9373)in
aut(886e)). Purpose clause with hina and the present for continued
action: active subjunctive according to A P though C reads
	rephousin, present active indicative, as is possible also in
 13:17  and certainly so in  1Jo 5:20  (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
984), a solecism in late vernacular Greek. The plural is
indefinite "they" as in  10:11  11:9 . One MSS. has 	rephetai
(is nourished). The stereotyped phrase occurs here, as in
 11:2f. , for the length of the dragon's power, repeated in
 12:14  in more general terms and again in  13:5 .

經文:

啟示錄 3:1-3:1

註釋:

 {In Sardis} (en Sardesin). Some thirty miles south-east of
Thyatira, old capital of Lydia, wealthy and the home of Croesus,
conquered by Cyrus and then by Alexander the Great, in B.C. 214
by Antiochus the Great, at the crossing of Roman roads, in a
plain watered by the river Pactolus, according to Pliny the place
where the dyeing of wool was discovered, seat of the licentious
worship of Cybele and the ruins of the temple still there, called
by Ramsay (_op. cit._, p. 354) "the city of Death," city of
softness and luxury, of apathy and immorality, "a contrast of
past splendour and present unresting decline" (Charles). Along
with Laodicea it was blamed most of all the seven churches. {That
hath the seven Spirits of God} (ho ech(936e) ta hepta pneumata tou
theou). For which picture of the Holy Spirit see  1:4 . {And the
seven stars} (kai tous hepta asteras). As in  1:16,20 . {A name
that thou livest} (onoma hoti z(8869)s). A name in contrast with
reality. The hoti clause in apposition with onoma. {And thou
art dead} (kai nekros ei). "The paradox of death under the name
of life" (Swete). Not complete (a nucleus of life) death (verse
 2 ), but rapidly dying. See the picture in  Jas 2:17  2Co 6:9  2Ti 3:5 .

經文:

啟示錄 3:2-3:2

註釋:

 {Be thou watchful} (ginou gr(8867)or(936e)). Periphrastic
imperative with present middle of ginomai (keep on becoming)
and present active participle of gr(8867)ore(935c) (late present from
perfect egr(8867)ora and that from egeir(935c), as in  Mt 24:42 ) and
see  16:15  for gr(8867)ore(935c) also. He does not say "Arise from the
dead" ( Eph 5:14 ), for there are vestiges of life. Those still
alive are addressed through the angel of the church. {Stablish
the things that remain} (st(8872)ison ta loipa). First aorist
active imperative of st(8872)iz(935c), to make stable. Those not
actually dead, but in grave peril. See a like command to Titus in
Crete ( Tit 1:5 ). Every new pastor faces such a problem. {Which
were ready to die} (ha emellon apothanein). Imperfect active
plural because the individuals, though neuter plural, are
regarded as living realities. The imperfect looking on the
situation "with a delicate optimism" (Swete) as having passed the
crisis, a sort of epistolary imperfect. {For I have found no
works of thine} (ou gar heur(886b)a sou erga). "For I have not
found any works of thine." Perfect active indicative of
heurisk(935c). The church as a whole represented by sou (thy).
{Fulfilled} (pepl(8872)(936d)ena). Perfect passive predicate participle
of pl(8872)o(935c). Their works have not measured up to God's standard
(en(9370)ion tou theou mou).

經文:

啟示錄 3:3-3:3

註釋:

 1Th
5:2 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
5' or engs='1Th
5'
經文:

啟示錄 3:4-3:4

註釋:

 {A few names} (oliga onomata). This use of onoma for
persons is seen in the _Koin(825f) (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p.
196f.) as in  Ac 1:15  Re 11:13 . {Did not defile} (ouk
emolunan). First aorist active indicative of molun(935c) ( 1Co 8:7  1Pe 1:4 ), pollution. {They shall walk} (peripat(8873)ousin).
Future active of peripate(935c), promise of fellowship with Christ
(met' emou, with me) "in white" (en leukois), as symbols of
purity ( 7:9,13 ) like the angel ( Mt 28:3 ), with possibly a
reference to Enoch ( Ge 5:22 ). For they are worthy (hoti axioi
eisin). To walk with Christ, not worthy in the same sense as God
and Christ ( 4:11  5:9 ), but in a relative sense. See  Re 16:6 
for bad sense of axios.

經文:

啟示錄 3:5-3:5

註釋:

 {Shall be arrayed} (peribaleitai). Future middle indicative
of periball(935c), to fling around one, here and in  4:4  with en
and the locative, but usually in this book with the accusative of
the thing, retained in the passive or with the middle ( 7:9,13  10:1  11:3  12:1  17:4  18:16  19:8,13 ). {In white garments}
(en himatiois leukois). Apparently the spiritual bodies in the
risen life as in  2Co 5:1,4  and often in Revelation ( 3:4,5  6:11  7:9,13f.  19:8 ). {I will in no wise blot out} (ou m(880a)exaleips(935c)). Strong double negative ou m(885c) and the first aorist
active (or future) of exaleiph(935c), old word, to wipe out ( Ac
3:19 ). {Of the book of life} (ek t(8873) biblou t(8873) z(9388)s).
Ablative case with ek. This divine register first occurs in  Ex
32:32f.  and often in the O.T. See  Lu 10:20  Php 4:3  Re 13:8  20:15  21:27 . The book is in Christ's hands ( 13:8  21:27 ).
{His name} (	o onoma autou). The name of the one who overcomes
(ho nik(936e)). Clear reminiscence of the words of Christ about
confessing to the Father those who confess him here ( Mt 10:32  Mr 8:38  Lu 9:26  12:8 ). Whether John knew the Synoptic Gospels
(and why not?) he certainly knew such sayings of Jesus.

經文:

啟示錄 3:7-3:7

註釋:

 1Jo
2:20 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
2' or engs='1Jo
2'
經文:

啟示錄 3:8-3:8

註釋:

 {I have set} (ded(936b)a). Perfect active indicative of
did(936d)i, "I have given" (a gift of Christ, this open door). See
 Lu 12:51  for a like use of did(936d)i. {A door opened} (	huran
(886e)e(9369)gmen(886e)). Perfect (triple reduplication) passive predicate
participle of anoig(935c) (verse  7 ) accusative feminine singular.
The metaphor of the open door was a common one ( Joh 10:7-9  Ac
14:27  1Co 16:9  2Co 2:12  Col 4:3  Re 3:20  4:1 ). Probably it
means here a good opportunity for missionary effort in spite of
the Jewish hostility. {Which} (h(886e)--aut(886e)). Pleonastic
vernacular and Hebrew repetition of the personal pronoun aut(886e)
(it) after the relative h(886e) (which). Direct reference to the
statement in verse  7 . {That} (hoti). This conjunction resumes
the construction of oida sou ta erga (I know thy works) after
the parenthesis (idou--aut(886e), Behold--shut). {A little power}
(mikran dunamin). Probably "little power," little influence or
weight in Philadelphia, the members probably from the lower
classes ( 1Co 1:26f. ). {And didst keep} (kai et(8872)(8873)as). "And
yet (adversative use of kai) didst keep" (first aorist active
indicative of 	(8872)e(935c)) my word in some crisis of trial. See  Joh
17:6  for the phrase "keeping the word." {Didst not deny} (ouk
(8872)n(8873)(935c)). First aorist middle indicative second person singular
of arneomai. The issue was probably forced by the Jews (cf.
 2:9 ), but they stood true.

經文:

啟示錄 3:9-3:9

註釋:

 1Jo
1:10 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
1' or engs='1Jo
1'
經文:

啟示錄 3:10-3:10

註釋:

 {Patience} (hupomen(8873)). "Endurance" as in  13:10  14:12 
as also in  2Th 3:5 . {Thou didst keep} (et(8872)(8873)as) {--I also
will keep} (kag(9320)t(8872)(8873)(935c)). Aorist active indicative and future
active corresponding to each other. For a like play on the tenses
of this verb by Christ see  Joh 17:6  (	et(8872)(886b)an),  Joh 17:11 
(	(8872)(8873)on),  Joh 17:12  (et(8872)oun). {From the hour of trial}
(ek t(8873) h(9372)as tou peirasmou). This use of ek after 	(8872)e(935c) in
 Joh 17:15 , apo in  Jas 1:27 . Trial brings temptation often
( Jas 1:2,13 ). Jesus endured ( Heb 12:1f. ) and he will help
them. There is still a church in Philadelphia in spite of the
Turks. {Which is to come} (	(8873) mellous(8873) erchesthai). Agreeing
with h(9372)as (feminine), not with peirasmou (masculine). {Upon
the whole world} (epi t(8873) epoikoumen(8873) hol(8873)). The inhabited
earth (g(8873)) as in  Re 12:19  Lu 2:1  Ac 16:6 , etc.), not the
physical earth, but the world of men as explained by the next
clause. {To try} (peirasai). First aorist active infinitive of
purpose from peiraz(935c), probably to tempt (cf. the demons in
 9:1-21 ), not merely to afflict ( 2:10 ). {That dwell upon the
earth} (	ous katoikountas epi t(8873) g(8873)). Present active
articular participle of katoike(935c), explaining "the whole world"
just before.

經文:

啟示錄 3:11-3:11

註釋:

 {I come quickly} (erchomai tachu). As in  2:16  22:7,12,20 . "The keynote of the book" (Beckwith). But allow the
author's own meaning of "quickly." {Hold fast that which thou
hast} (kratei ho echeis). Sort of motto for each church
( 2:25 ). {That no one take} (hina m(8864)eis lab(8869)). Purpose
clause with hina and second aorist active subjunctive of
lamban(935c). Here to take away "thy crown" ( 2:10 ) which will be
thine if really won and not forfeited by failure ( 2Ti 4:8 ). In
that case it will go to another ( Mt 25:28  Ro 11:17f. ).

經文:

啟示錄 3:12-3:12

註釋:

 {He that overcometh} (ho nik(936e)). Nominative absolute as in
 2:26 , resumed by the accusative auton (him). {A pillar}
(stulon). Old word for column, in N.T. only here,  10:1  Ga
2:9  1Ti 3:15 . Metaphorical and personal use with a double
significance of being firmly fixed and giving stability to the
building. Philadelphia was a city of earthquakes. "Temple"
(
aos) here is also metaphorical ( 7:15 ), as in  1Ti 3:15  for
the people of God. In  21:22  we read that there is no temple in
the heavenly Jerusalem ( 21:10-22:5 ) descending as the new
Jerusalem with God himself as the temple, though the metaphorical
temple is mentioned in  7:15 . {He shall go out thence no more}
(ex(9320)ou m(8820)elth(8869)). Strong double negative ou m(885c) with the
second aorist active subjunctive of erchomai. The subject is
ho nik(936e) (the one overcoming). "Fixity of character is at last
achieved" (Charles). He, like the stulos (pillar), remains in
place. {Upon him} (ep' auton). Upon ho nik(936e) (the victor),
not upon the pillar (stulos). He receives this triple name (of
God, of the city of God, of Christ) on his forehead ( 14:1  7:3  17:5  22:4 ) just as the high-priest wore the name of Jehovah
upon his forehead ( Ex 28:36,38 ), the new name ( 2:17 ), without
any magical or talismanic power, but as proof of ownership by
God, as a citizen of the New Jerusalem, with the new symbol of
the glorious personality of Christ ( Re 19:12 ), in contrast with
the mark of the beast on others ( 13:17  14:17 ). For citizenship
in God's city see  Ga 4:26  Php 3:20  Heb 11:10  12:22  13:14 .
{The new Jerusalem} (	(8873) kain(8873) Ierousal(886d)). Not 
eas
(young), but kain(8873) (fresh). See also  21:2,10  and already  Ga
4:26  Heb 12:22 . Charles distinguishes between the Jerusalem
before the final judgment and this new Jerusalem after that
event. Perhaps so! In the Apocalypse always this form
Ierousal(886d) ( 3:12  21:2,10 ), but in John's Gospel
Hierosoluma ( 1:19 , etc.). {Which cometh down} (h(880a)katabainousa). Nominative case in apposition with the preceding
genitive pole(9373) as in  1:5  2:20 , etc. {Mine own new name}
(	o onoma mou to kainon). For which see  2:17  19:12,16 .
Christ himself will receive a new name along with all else in the
future world (Gressmann).

經文:

啟示錄 3:14-3:14

註釋:

 {In Laodicea} (en Laodiki(8369)). Forty miles south-east of
Philadelphia and some forty miles east of Ephesus, the last of
the seven churches addressed with special messages, on the river
Lycus on the border of Phrygia, near Colossae and Hierapolis,
recipient of two letters by Paul ( Col 4:16 ), on the great
trade-route from Ephesus to the east and seat of large
manufacturing and banking operations (especially of woollen
carpets and clothing, Ramsay, _Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia_,
p. 40ff.), centre of the worship of Asklepios and seat of a
medical school and also of a provincial court where Cicero lived
and wrote many of his letters, home of many Jews, called by
Ramsay (_op. cit._, p. 413) "the City of Compromise," the church
here founded apparently by Epaphras ( Col 1:7  4:12f. ), now a
deserted ruin, one of six cities with this name (meaning justice
of the people). No praise is bestowed on this church, but only
blame for its lukewarmness. {The Amen} (ho Am(886e)). Personal
(masculine article) name here alone, though in  Isa 65:16  we
have "the God of Amen" understood in the LXX as "the God of
truth" (	on theon ton al(8874)hinon). Here applied to Christ. See
 1:5  for ho martus ho pistos (the faithful witness) and  3:7 
for ho al(8874)hinos (the genuine), "whose testimony never falls
short of the truth" (Swete). {The beginning of the creation of
God} (h(8820)arch(8820)t(8873) ktise(9373) tou theou). Not the first of
creatures as the Arians held and Unitarians do now, but the
originating source of creation through whom God works ( Col
1:15,18 , a passage probably known to the Laodiceans,  Joh 1:3  Heb 1:2 , as is made clear by  1:18  2:8  3:21  5:13 ).

經文:

啟示錄 3:15-3:15

註釋:

 {Neither cold} (oute psuchros). Old word from psuch(935c), to
grow cold ( Mt 24:12 ), in N.T. only  Mt 10:42  and this passage.
{Nor hot} (oute zestos). Late verbal from ze(935c), to boil, ( Ro
12:11 ), boiling hot, here only in N.T. {I would thou wert}
(ophelon (8873)). Wish about the present with ophelon (really
(9370)helon, second aorist active indicative of opheil(935c), without
augment) with the imperfect (8873) (instead of the infinitive) as
in  2Co 11:1 , when the old Greek used eithe or ei gar. See
 1Co 4:8  for the aorist indicative and  Ga 5:12  for the future.

經文:

啟示錄 3:16-3:16

註釋:

 {Lukewarm} (chliaros). Tepid. Old adjective from chli(935c),
to liquefy, to melt, here alone in N.T. {I will} (mell(935c)). "I am
about to," on the point of. {Spew thee} (se emesai). First
aorist active infinitive of eme(935c), old verb to vomit, to reject
with extreme disgust, here alone in N.T.

經文:

啟示錄 3:17-3:17

註釋:

 {I am rich} (hoti plousios eimi). Recitative hoti like
quotation marks before direct quotation. Old adjective from
ploutos, riches, wealth. Laodicea was a wealthy city and the
church "carried the pride of wealth into its spiritual life"
(Swete). {Have gotten riches} (peplout(886b)a). Perfect active
indicative of ploute(935c), old verb from ploutos, used here of
imagined spiritual riches which the church did not possess, just
the opposite of church in Smyrna (poor in wealth, rich in grace).
This church was in a rich city and was rich in pride and conceit,
but poor in grace and ignorant of its spiritual poverty (ouk
oidas, knowest not). {The wretched one} (ho talaip(9372)os). Old
adjective from 	la(935c), to endure, and p(9372)os, a callus,
afflicted, in N.T. only here and  Ro 7:24 . Note the one article
in the predicate with all these five adjectives unifying the
picture of sharp emphasis on "thou" (su), "thou that boastest."
{Miserable} (eleeinos). Pitiable as in  1Co 15:19 . {Poor}
(pt(9363)hos). See  2:9  for spiritual poverty. Perhaps some local
example of self-complacency is in mind. {Blind} (	uphlos).
Spiritual blindness as often ( Mt 23:17 ), and note "eye-salve"
in verse  18 . {Naked} (gumnos). "The figure completes the
picture of actual poverty" (Beckwith). See  15,16 .

經文:

啟示錄 3:18-3:18

註釋:

 {I counsel} (sumbouleu(935c)). Present active indicative, old
compound from sumboulos, counsellor ( Ro 11:34 ), as in  Joh
18:14 . Almost ironical in tone. {To buy} (agorasai). First
aorist active infinitive of agoraz(935c) (from agora,
market-place), rich as they think themselves to be. {From me}
(par' emou). From my side, emphatic. {Refined by fire}
(pepur(936d)enon ek puros). Perfect passive participle of puro(935c)
(as in  1:15 ) and the metaphor carried on by ek puros, "fired
by fire." Purity by removing dross ( Ps 66:10 ) like  1Pe 1:7 .
{That thou mayest become rich} (hina plout(8873)(8869)s). Purpose
clause with hina and the ingressive first aorist active of
ploute(935c), spiritual riches. {That thou mayest clothe thyself}
(hina peribal(8869)). Purpose clause with hina and second aorist
middle (direct) subjunctive of periball(935c), to fling round one as
in  3:5 . {Be not made manifest} (m(8820)phaner(9374)h(8869)). Continued
purpose clause with negative m(885c) and first aorist passive
subjunctive of phanero(935c). {Nakedness} (gumnot(8874)os). Late and
rare word from gumnos, naked, in N.T. only here,  2Co 11:27  Ro
8:35 .  Cf.  Re 16:15  20:13  2Co 5:2f . {Eye-salve}
(kollourion). Diminutive of kollura (coarse bread of
cylindrical shape), object of agorasai, name for a famous
Phrygian powder for the eyes made in Laodicea (Charles), Latin
_collyrium_ (used for eye-salve by Horace and Juvenal). {To
anoint} (egchrisai). First aorist active infinitive
(epexegetic) of egchri(935c), late compound (en, chri(935c), Strabo,
Epictetus), to rub in, here only in N.T. {That thou mayest see}
(hina blep(8869)s). Another purpose clause with hina and the
present active subjunctive (keep on seeing).

經文:

啟示錄 3:19-3:19

註釋:

 Free rendering of  Pr 3:12  (in  Heb 12:6 ), but with hous
ean (indefinite relative plural) for hon (definite relative
singular), with phil(935c) instead of agap(8369) and with the first
person paideu(935c) for paideuei (the Lord chastens, from pais,
child, training a child) and with elegch(935c) (reprove) added. {Be
zealous} (z(886c)eue). Present active imperative of z(886c)eu(935c), in
good sense (from z(886c)os, ze(935c), to boil), in opposition to their
lukewarmness, here only in N.T. (elsewhere z(886c)o(935c)), "keep on
being zealous." {Repent} (metano(8873)on). Ingressive first aorist
active imperative of metanoe(935c).

經文:

啟示錄 3:20-3:20

註釋:

 {I stand at the door} (hest(886b)a epi t(886e) thuran). Perfect
active of hist(886d)i (intransitive). Picture of the Lord's advent
as in  Mt 24:33  Jas 5:9 , but true also of the individual
response to Christ's call ( Lu 12:36 ) as shown in Holman Hunt's
great picture. Some see a use also of  So 5:2 . {If any man
hear--and open} (ean tis akous(8869) kai anoix(8869)). Condition of
third class with ean and first aorist (ingressive) active
subjunctive of akou(935c) and anoig(935c). See  Joh 10:3  18:37 . See
the picture reversed (Swete) in  Lu 13:25  Mt 25:10 . {I will
come in to him} (eiseleusomai). Future middle of eiserchomai.
See  Mr 15:43  Ac 11:3  for eiserchomai pros, to go into a
man's house. Cf.  Joh 14:23 . {Will sup} (deipn(8873)(935c)). Future
active of deipne(935c), old verb, from deipnon (supper), as in  Lu
17:8 . Fellowship in the Messianic kingdom ( Lu 22:30  Mr 14:25  Mt 26:29 ). Purely metaphorical, as is plain from  1Co 6:13 .

經文:

啟示錄 3:21-3:21

註釋:

 {He that overcometh} (ho nik(936e)). Absolute nominative again
as in  3:12 , but resumed this time by the dative aut(9369) as in
 2:26 . {To sit} (kathisai). First aorist active infinitive of
kathiz(935c). This promise grows out of the prophecy that the saints
will share in the Messiah's rule, made to the twelve ( Mt 19:28  Lu 22:29f. ), repeated by Paul ( 1Co 6:2f. ), enlarged in  Re
22:1-5  (to last forever,  2Ti 2:11f. ). James and John took this
hope and promise literally ( Mr 10:40 ) not metaphorically. {As I
also overcame} (h(9373) kag(9320)enik(8873)a). First aorist active
indicative of 
ika(935c), looking back on the victory as over in the
past. In  Joh 16:33  before the Cross Jesus says Eg(9320)nenik(886b)a
ton kosmon (perfect active), emphasizing the abiding effect of
the victory. {Sat down} (ekathisa). "I took my seat" ( Heb
1:3 ) where Christ is now ( Re 22:3  Col 3:1 ). Cf.  1Jo 5:4  Re
2:27f . Each of these seven messages begins alike and ends alike.
Each is the message of the Christ and of the Holy Spirit to the
angel of the church. Each has a special message suited to the
actual condition of each church. In each case the individual who
overcomes has a promise of blessing. Christ the Shepherd knows
his sheep and lays bare the particular peril in each case.

經文:

啟示錄 4:1-4:1

註釋:

 {After these things} (meta tauta). Change in the panorama,
not chronology ( 7:1,9  15:5  18:1  19:1 ). This vision is of
heaven, not of earth as was true of chapters  Re 1  2 . The first
vision of Christ and the messages to the seven churches began in
 1:12f . This new vision of the throne in heaven ( 4:1-11 )
succeeds that to which it here alludes. {I saw} (eidon). Second
aorist active indicative of hora(935c). {Behold} (idou).
Exclamation of vivid emotion as John looked. No effect on the
structure and nominative case 	hura (door) follows it. {Opened}
((886e)e(9369)gmen(885c)). Perfect (triple reduplication) passive participle
of anoig(935c) as in  3:8  (door of opportunity) and  3:20  (door of
the heart), here the door of revelation (Swete). {In heaven} (en
t(9369) ouran(9369)). As in  Eze 1:1  Mr 1:10  Joh 1:51 . In Revelation
always in singular except  12:12 . {The first} (h(8820)pr(9374)(885c)).
Reference is to  1:10 . {Speaking} (lalous(8873)). From lale(935c),
rather legous(8873) of  1:10  from leg(935c), both agreeing with
salpiggos (trumpet). {Saying} (leg(936e)). Present active
participle of leg(935c) repeating the idea of lalous(8873), but in the
nominative masculine singular construed with ph(936e)(885c) (feminine
singular), construction according to sense because of the person
behind the voice as in  11:15  19:14 . {Come up} (anaba). Short
_Koin(825f) form for anab(8874)hi (second aorist active imperative
second person singular of anabain(935c)). {Hither} (h(9364)e).
Originally "here," but vernacular use ( Joh 6:25  10:27 ). {I
will show} (deix(935c)). Future active of deiknumi in same sense
in  1:1 . {Hereafter} (meta tauta). Some editors (Westcott and
Hort) connect these words with the beginning of verse  2 .

經文:

啟示錄 4:2-4:2

註釋:

 9,10, 4:1,7,13 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '9,10,4' or engs='9,10,4'
經文:

啟示錄 4:3-4:3

註釋:

 {To look upon} (horasei). Locative case of horasis, old
word (from hora(935c), to see) for appearance (in appearance) as in
 Eze 1:5,26 . {Like a jasper stone} (homoios iaspidi).
Associative-instrumental case of iaspis, old word (Persian),
used for stones of different colors, one opaque like opal, one
translucent ( 21:11,18f. , possibly here, only N.T. examples),
one a red or yellow stone ( Isa 54:12 ). Some even take it for
the diamond. Certainly not our cheap modern jasper. {A sardius}
(sardi(9369)). Old word, in N.T. only here and  21:20 . The
carnelian or other red stone, derived from Sardis (Pliny).
{Rainbow} (iris). Old word, in N.T. only here and  10:1 . From
 Eze 1:28 . {An emerald} (smaragdin(9369)). Adjective (from
smaragdos,  Re 21:19 ), of emerald (supply lith(9369)), in
associative instrumental case after homoios. John sees no form
for God ( Ex 24:10 ), but only the brilliant flashing gems. "In
the vision the flashing lustre of the iaspis and the fiery red
of the sard are relieved by the halo (iris) of emerald which
encircled the Throne" (Swete). A complete circle.

經文:

啟示錄 4:4-4:4

註釋:

 {Round about the throne} (kuklothen tou thronou). Here as a
preposition with the genitive, though only adverb in  4:8  (only
N.T. examples save Textus Rec. in  5:11 ). {Four and twenty
thrones} (	hronoi eikosi tessares). So P Q, but Aleph A have
accusative 	hronous (supply eidon from  4:1 ) and 	essares
(late accusative in -es). This further circle of thrones beyond
the great throne. {I saw four and twenty elders} (eikosi
tessaras presbuterous). No eidon in the text, but the
accusative case calls for it. Twenty-four as a symbolic number
occurs only in this book and only for these elders ( 4:4,10  5:8  11:16  19:4 ). We do not really know why this number is chosen,
perhaps two elders for each tribe, perhaps the twelve tribes and
the twelve apostles (Judaism and Christianity), perhaps the
twenty-four courses of the sons of Aaron ( 1Ch 24:1-19 ), perhaps
some angelic rank ( Col 1:16 ) of which we know nothing. Cf.  Eph
2:6 . {Sitting} (kath(886d)enous). Upon their thrones. {Arrayed}
(peribebl(886d)enous). Perfect passive participle of periball(935c)
(to throw around). {In white garments} (himatiois leukois).
Locative case here as in  3:5  (with en), though accusative in
 7:9,13 . {Crowns of gold} (stephanous chrusous). Accusative
case again like presbuterous after eidon ( 4:1 ), not idou.
In  19:14  ech(936e) (having) is added. John uses diad(886d)a
(diadem) for the kingly crown in  12:3  13:1  19:12 , but it is
not certain that the old distinction between diadem as the
kingly crown and stephanos as the victor's wreath is always
observed in late Greek.

經文:

啟示錄 4:5-4:5

註釋:

 {Out of the throne} (ek tou thronou). Back to the throne
itself. The imagery is kin to that in  Ex 19:16  24:9f.  Eze
1:22,27 . {Proceed} (ekporeuontai). Graphic historical present.
{Lightnings and voices and thunders} (astrapai kai ph(936e)ai kai
brontai). So exactly in  11:19  16:18 , but in  8:5  with
rontai first, astrapai last, all old and common words. "The
thunderstorm is in Hebrew poetry a familiar symbol of the Divine
power: cf., e.g.,  1Sa 2:10  Ps 18:9f.  Job 37:4f ." (Swete).
{Seven lamps of fire} (hepta lampades puros). Return to the
nominative (idou, not eidon) with (8873)an (were) understood.
Metaphor drawn from  Eze 1:13  Zec 4:12ff . Our word "lamp," but
here a torch as in  8:10 , identified with the Holy Spirit (the
Seven Spirits of God) as in  1:4  3:1 , not luchniai
(lampstands) as in  1:12,20 , nor luchnos a hand-lamp with oil
( Mt 5:15 ). "These torches blaze perpetually before the throne
of God" (Swete).

經文:

啟示錄 4:6-4:6

註釋:

 {As it were a glassy sea} (h(9373) thalassa hualin(885c)). Old
adjective (from hualos, glass,  21:18,21 ), in N.T. only here
and  15:2 . Possibly from huei (it rains), like a raindrop. At
any rate here it is the appearance, not the material. Glass was
made in Egypt 4,000 years ago. In  Ex 24:10  the elders see under
the feet of God in the theophany a paved work of sapphire stone
(cf.  Eze 1:26 ). The likeness of the appearance of sky to sea
suggests the metaphor here (Beckwith). {Like crystal} (homoia
krustall(9369)). Associative-instrumental case after homoia. Old
word, from kruos (ice and sometimes used for ice), in N.T. only
here and  22:1 , not semi-opaque, but clear like rock-crystal.
{In the midst of the throne} (en mes(9369) tou thronou). As one
looks from the front, really before. {Round about the throne}
(kukl(9369) tou thronou). Merely an adverb in the locative case
( Ro 15:19 ), as a preposition in N.T. only here,  5:11  7:11 .
This seems to mean that on each of the four sides of the throne
was one of the four living creatures either stationary or moving
rapidly round ( Eze 1:12f. ). {Four living creatures} (	essera
z(9361)). Not 	h(8872)ia (beasts), but living creatures. Certainly kin
to the z(9361) of  Eze 1  2  which are cherubim ( Eze 10:2,20 ),
though here the details vary as to faces and wings with a
significance of John's own, probably representing creation in
contrast with the redeemed (the elders). {Full of eyes} (gemonta
ophthalm(936e)). Present active participle of gem(935c), to be full of,
with the genitive, signifying here unlimited intelligence
(Beckwith), the ceaseless vigilance of nature (Swete).

經文:

啟示錄 4:7-4:7

註釋:

 Eze (1:6,10 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Eze (1' or engs='Eze (1'
經文:

啟示錄 4:8-4:8

註釋:

 {Each one of them} (hen kath' hen aut(936e)). "One by one of
them," a vernacular idiom like heis kata heis in  Mr 14:19 .
{Having} (ech(936e)). Masculine participle again as in verse  7 ,
though z(936f)n neuter. {Six wings} (ana pterugas hex).
Distributive use of ana, "six wings apiece" as in  Lu 10:1 
(ana duo, by twos). Like  Isa 6:2 , not like  Eze 1:6 , where
only four wings are given apiece. {Are full of} (gemousin).
Plural verb, though z(9361) neuter, to individualize each one.
{Round about and within} (kuklothen kai es(9374)hen). Perhaps
before and behind ( 4:6 ) and under the wings, "pointing to the
secret energies of nature" (Swete). {Rest} (anapausin). See
also  14:11 . Old word (from anapau(935c), to relax), as in  Mt
11:29 . God and Christ cease not their activity ( Joh 5:17 ).
"This ceaseless activity of nature under the hand of God is a
ceaseless tribute of praise" (Swete). {Day and night} (h(886d)eras
kai nuktos). Genitive of time, by day and by night. {Holy, holy,
holy} (hagios, hagios, hagios). "The task of the Cherubim
together with the Seraphim and Ophannim is to sing the praises of
God" (Charles) in the 	risagion (triple repetition of
hagios). {Is the Lord God} (Kurios ho theos). See  Isa 6:3 .
The copula estin (is) is not expressed, but is implied. {The
Almighty} (ho pantokrat(9372)). See on 氣:8|. {Which was and which
is and which is to come} (ho (886e) kai ho (936e) kai ho erchomenos).
Just as in  1:4,8 , but with the order changed.

經文:

啟示錄 4:9-4:9

註釋:

 {When the living creatures shall give} (hotan d(9373)ousin ta
z(9361)). Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and the future
active indicative (d(9373)ousin) rather than the more common second
aorist active subjunctive (d(9373)in) with the notion of repetition
rather than unbroken continuance, "whenever they give." The
giving of praise and glory to God by the four living creatures
(representatives of nature) is met by corresponding worship by
the redeemed (the four and twenty elders). "Created life adores
the Uncreated" (Swete), "to the one living for ages of ages."

經文:

啟示錄 4:10-4:10

註釋:

 {Shall fall down} (pesountai, future middle of pipt(935c)),
{shall worship} (proskun(8873)ousin, future active of proskune(935c)),
{shall cast their crowns} (alousin tous stephanous, future
active of all(935c)). The two actions by the two groups (living
creatures, elders) are coordinated (simultaneous in the
repetition). They thus acknowledge that all this kingly dignity
comes from God, who is King of kings and Lord of lords. Charles
takes the elders, however, to be angels, not redeemed men.

經文:

啟示錄 4:11-4:11

註釋:

 {Our Lord and our God} (ho kurios kai ho theos h(886d)(936e)). The
nominative form here used as vocative as in  Joh 20:28  and
often. {To receive} (labein). Epexegetic second aorist active
infinitive of lamban(935c) with axios (worthy). {The glory} (	(886e)
doxan). The article referring to doxan in verse  9  and so
with 	(886e) tim(886e) (the honour), though 	(886e) dunamin (the power)
is not in verse  9 , but is the power due to be ascribed to God.
{Thou didst create} (su ektisas). Emphasis on su (thou),
first aorist active indicative of ktiz(935c), the verb used about
the act of creation by Paul in  Col 1:16  (ektisth(882c) ektistai),
constative aorist giving a summary picture of the whole (not as a
process). {Because of thy will} (dia to thel(886d)a sou). Reason
for creation of the universe as in  Heb 2:10  (di' hon). {They
were} ((8873)an). Imperfect tense with a cursory glance at the
universe as a fact, possibly a potential existence in God's
purpose in the eternal past before the actual creation in time.
{And were created} (kai ektisth(8873)an). First aorist passive
indicative of the same verb, ktiz(935c), just used and in the
plural, while Paul ( Col 1:16 ) uses the singular ektisth(885c). See
 1Co 8:6 . God's will wrought through the Logos (Christ).

經文:

啟示錄 5:1-5:1

註釋:

 {In the right hand} (epi t(886e) dexian). "Upon the right hand"
(epi, not en), the open palm. Anthropomorphic language drawn
from  Eze 2:9f . {A book} (iblion). Diminutive of iblos,
but no longer so used, iblaridion occurring instead ( 10:2 ).
{Written} (gegrammenon). Perfect passive predicate participle
of graph(935c). {Within and on the back} (es(9374)hen kai opisthen).
"Within and behind." Description of a roll like that in  Lu
4:17 , not a codex as some scholars think. Usually these papyrus
rolls were written only on the inside, but this one was so full
of matter that it was written also on the back side (opisthen),
and so was an opisthographon like that in  Eze 2:10 . There are
many allegorical interpretations of this fact which are all
beside the point. {Sealed} (katesphragismenon). Perfect passive
predicate participle of katasphragiz(935c), old compound (perfective
use of kata), to seal up (down), here only in N.T. {With seven
seals} (sphragisin hepta). Instrumental case of sphragis, old
word used in various senses, proof or authentication ( 1Co 9:2  Ro 4:11 ), signet-ring ( Re 7:2 ), impression made by the seal
( Re 9:4  2Ti 2:19 ), the seal on books closing the book ( Re
5:1,2,5,9  6:1,3,5,7,9,12  8:1 ). "A will in Roman law bore the
seven seals of the seven witnesses" (Charles). But this sealed
book of doom calls for no witnesses beyond God's own will. Alford
sees in the number seven merely the completeness of God's
purposes.

經文:

啟示錄 5:2-5:2

註釋:

 {A strong angel} (aggelon ischuron). One needed ( 10:1  18:21 ) "whose call could reach to the farthest limits of the
universe" (Beckwith) and so "with a great voice" (en ph(936e)(8869)
megal(8869), in a great voice, as in  14:7,9,15 , and without en
 5:12  6:10  7:2,10  8:13  10:3 , etc.). See en ischur(8369) ph(936e)(8869)
( 18:2 ). {Proclaiming} (k(8872)ussonta). Present active predicate
participle of k(8872)uss(935c), to herald, to preach. {Worthy to open
and to loose} (axios anoixai kai lusai). Worthy by rank and
character (cf.  Joh 1:27 ) as well as by ability (edunato,
verse  3 ), followed by two infinitives (first aorist active) of
anoig(935c) and lu(935c), though hina and the subjunctive can be used
after axios as in  Joh 1:27 . Here axios is like hikanos
(capable, qualified) as in  Mt 8:8 . The articles here (	o,
tas) refer to the book and the seals in verse  1 . It is a
husteron-proteron, since the loosing of the seals precedes the
opening of the book.

經文:

啟示錄 5:3-5:3

註釋:

 En (in) with locative (ouran(9369)), epi (upon) with
genitive (g(8873)), hupokat(935c) (under) with ablative (g(8873)), as in
verse  13 , including the whole universe, as in  Ex 20:4  ( Php
2:10 ). The MSS. vary in the negative conjunctions after oudeis
(no one) between oude--oude (continuative, and not--nor) and
oute--oute (disjunctive, neither--nor). {To look thereon}
(lepein auto). Into the contents of the book. The universe
declines the challenge.

經文:

啟示錄 5:4-5:4

註釋:

 {I wept much} (eg(9320)eklaion polu). Imperfect active of
klai(935c), picturesque, descriptive, I kept on weeping much;
natural tense in these vivid visions ( 1:12  2:14  5:4,14  6:8,9  10:10  19:14  21:15 ). Perhaps weeping aloud. {Was found}
(heureth(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of heurisk(935c).
{Worthy} (axios). Predicative nominative after heureth(885c).

經文:

啟示錄 5:5-5:5

註釋:

 {One of the elders} (heis ek t(936e) presbuter(936e)). "One from
among the elders" of  4:4,10  (ek with the ablative 8 times in
the Apocalypse, 12 in the Fourth Gospel, 10 in rest of the N.T.,
in place of the mere partitive genitive). No particular reason
for one elder as the agent over another ( 7:13 ). {Saith}
(legei). Dramatic vivid present. {Weep not} (m(8820)klaie).
"Cease weeping" (prohibition with m(885c) and the present active
imperative of klai(935c). {The Lion} (ho le(936e)). Satan is called a
lion by Peter ( 1Pe 5:8 ), but the metaphor belongs to Jesus
also. Judah is called a lion in the blessing of Jacob ( Ge 49:9 )
and Jesus as the greatest of the tribe of Judah, "the Root of
David" (h(8820)riza Daueid,  Isa 11:1,10 ) or the Branch from this
root (the Messiah). {Hath overcome} (enik(8873)en). First aorist
active indicative of 
ika(935c), "did overcome," coming first in the
sentence as "the great historical fact of the victory of the
Christ" (Swete).

經文:

啟示錄 5:6-5:6

註釋:

 {And I saw} (kai eidon). Stirred by the words of the elder
in verse  5  (idou, behold). "I beheld." {In the midst} (en
mes(9369)). See  4:6  for this idiom. It is not quite clear where
the Lamb was standing in the vision, whether close to the throne
or in the space between the throne and the elders (perhaps
implied by "came" in verse  7 , but nearness to the throne is
implied by  14:1  Ac 7:56  Heb 10:11 ). {A Lamb} (arnion).
Elsewhere in the N.T. ho amnos is used of Christ ( Joh 1:29,36  Acts 8:32  1Pe 1:19  like  Isa 53:7 ), but in the Apocalypse 	o
arnion occurs for the Crucified Christ 29 times in twelve
chapters. {Standing} (hest(886b)os). Second perfect active
(intransitive of hist(886d)i) neuter accusative singular
(grammatical gender like arnion), though some MSS. read
hest(886b)(9373) (natural gender masculine and nominative in spite of
eidon construction according to sense). {As though it had been
slain} (h(9373) esphagmenon). Perfect passive predicate participle
of sphaz(935c), old word, in N.T. only in  Re 5:6,9,12  6:4,9  13:3  18:24  1Jo 3:12 . H(9373) (as if) is used because the Lamb is now
alive, but (in appearance) with the marks of the sacrifice. The
Christ as the Lamb is both sacrifice and Priest ( Heb 9:12f.  10:11 ). {Having} (ech(936e)). Construction according to sense
again with masculine nominative participle instead of echonta
(masculine accusative singular) or echon (neuter accusative
singular). Seven horns (keras) is a common symbol in the O.T.
for strength and kingly power ( 1Sa 2:10  1Ki 22:11  Ps 112:9  Da
7:7,20ff. ) and often in Rev. ( Re 12:3  13:1  17:3,12 ). Fulness
of power (the All-powerful one) is symbolized by seven. {Seven
eyes} (ophthalmous hepta). Like  Zec 3:9  4:10  and denotes
here, as there, omniscience. Here they are identified with the
seven Spirits of Christ, while in  1:4  the seven Spirits are
clearly the Holy Spirit of God ( 3:1 ), and blaze like torches
( 4:5 ), like the eyes of Christ ( 1:14 ). The Holy Spirit is
both Spirit of God and of Christ ( Ro 8:9 ). {Sent forth}
(apestalmenoi). Perfect passive predicate participle of
apostell(935c), masculine plural (agreeing with hoi and
ophthalmous in gender), but some MSS. have apestalmena
agreeing with the nearer pneumata.

經文:

啟示錄 5:7-5:7

註釋:

 {He taketh} (eil(8870)hen). Perfect active indicative of
lamban(935c), not used for the aorist (cf. (886c)then, he came), but
vivid dramatic picture of the actual scene, "he has taken it."

經文:

啟示錄 5:8-5:8

註釋:

 {He had taken} (elaben). Here John drops back to the
narrative tense (the second aorist active indicative of
lamban(935c)), not the past perfect as the English rendering might
indicate, merely "when he took." For like vivid variation (not
confusion) of tenses with eil(8870)hen see  3:3  8:5  11:17  and
with eir(886b)a in  7:13f.  19:3 . {Fell down} (epesan). Second
aorist active indicative of pipt(935c) with first aorist (-an)
ending, just "fell." {Having} (echontes). "Holding." {A harp}
(kitharan). Old word, the traditional instrument (lyre or
zithern) for psalmody ( Ps 33:2  98:5 , etc.). {Golden bowls}
(phialas chrus(8373)). Broad shallow saucers, old word, in N.T.
only in  Re 5:8  15:7  16:1-4,8,10,12,17  17:1  21:9 . {Of
incense} (	humiamat(936e)). Old word from 	humia(935c), to burn
incense ( Lu 1:9 ), as in  Lu 1:10 . {Which are} (hai eisin).
"Which (these bowls of incense) symbolize the prayers of the
saints as in  Ps 140:2  Lu 1:10 .

經文:

啟示錄 5:9-5:9

註釋:

 1Pe
1:18f. 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Pe
1' or engs='1Pe
1'
經文:

啟示錄 5:10-5:10

註釋:

 {Madest} (epoi(8873)as). First aorist active indicative of
poie(935c), a prophetic use anticipating the final result. {A
kingdom and priests} (asileian kai hiereis). As the correct
text in  1:6 . {They reign} (asileuousin). Present active
indicative, futuristic use, though Aleph P have the future
asileusousin (shall reign) as in  20:6 .

經文:

啟示錄 5:11-5:11

註釋:

 {And I saw} (kai eidon). A new feature introduced by the
outer and vaster circle (kukl(9369)) of angels who catch up the new
song of redemption in antiphonal singing, answering the song of
the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders. Some MSS.
read h(9373) (as if) before ph(936e)(886e) (voice). Ten thousand times
ten thousand (muriades muriad(936e) kai chiliades chiliad(936e)).
Literally, "myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands," a
mild husteron-proteron. The regular order in I Enoch 40:I. See
 Da 7:10  for chiliai chiliades (thousand thousands) and
muriai muriades (countless myriads). They are all efforts to
express the innumerable hosts of the angels.

經文:

啟示錄 5:12-5:12

註釋:

 {Worthy} (axion). Agreeing in gender (grammatical neuter)
with arnion, but some MSS. have axios (masculine, natural
gender). Note change to third person estin instead of second
ei. The point of the song is the same as that in verses  9,10 ,
but the language differs. Note the repeated article 	o (the
lamb the slain) referring to verses  6,9 . Note also the one
article 	(886e) before dunamin for all the seven grounds of
praise (dunamin, power, plouton, wealth, sophian, wisdom,
ischun, strength, 	im(886e), honor, doxan, glory, eulogian,
blessing), though plouton is masculine, in contrast with
separate article for each item (all three feminine) in  4:11 ,
here grouping them all together, "a heptad of praise" (Swete).

經文:

啟示錄 5:13-5:13

註釋:

 {Every created thing} (p(836e) ktisma). Every creature in a
still wider antiphonal circle beyond the circle of angels (from
ktiz(935c), for which see  1Ti 4:4  Jas 1:18 ), from all the four
great fields of life (in heaven, upon the earth, under the earth
as in verse  3 , with on the sea epi t(8873) thalass(8873) added). No
created thing is left out. This universal chorus of praise to
Christ from all created life reminds one of the profound mystical
passage in  Ro 8:20-22  concerning the sympathetic agony of
creation (ktisis) in hope of freedom from the bondage of
corruption. If the trail of the serpent is on all creation, it
will be ultimately thrown off. {Saying} (legontas). Masculine
(construction according to sense, personifying the created
things) if genuine, though some MSS. have legonta (grammatical
gender agreeing with panta) present active participle of
leg(935c), to say. {And to the Lamb} (kai t(9369) arni(9369)). Dative
case. Praise and worship are rendered to the Lamb precisely as to
God on the throne. Note separate articles here in the doxology as
in  4:11  and the addition of 	o kratos (active power) in place
of ischus (reserve of strength) in  5:12 .

經文:

啟示錄 5:14-5:14

註釋:

 {Amen} (Am(886e)). The four living creatures give their
approval to the doxology after the antiphonal songs. {Fell down
and worshipped} (epesan kai prosekun(8873)an). In silent adoration
that closes the whole service of praise to the One upon the
throne and to the Lamb. As in  4:10  so here the representatives
of the redeemed bow in silent worship. Pliny says that the
Christians sing a song to Christ as to God. He is here worshipped
by the universe ( Php 2:10f. ).

經文:

啟示錄 6:1-6:1

註釋:

 {And I saw} (kai eidon). As in  4:1  5:1 . The vision
unfolds without anything being said about opening the book and
reading from it. In a more vivid and dramatic fashion the Lamb
breaks the seals one by one and reveals the contents and the
symbolism. The first four seals have a common note from one of
the four z(9361) and the appearance of a horse. No effort will be
made here to interpret these seals as referring to persons or
historical events in the past, present, or future, but simply to
relate the symbolism to the other symbols in the book. It is
possible that there is some allusion here to the symbolism in the
so-called "Little Apocalypse" of  Mr 13  Mt 24f.  Lu 21 . The
imagery of the four horses is similar to that in  Zec 1:7-11  6:1-8  (cf.  Jer 14:12  24:10  42:17 ). In the Old Testament the
horse is often the emblem of war ( Job 39:25  Ps 76:6  Pr 21:31  Eze 26:10 ). "Homer pictures the horses of Rhesus as whiter than
snow, and swift as the wind" (Vincent). {When the Lamb opened}
(hote (886e)oixen to arnion). First aorist active indicative of
anoig(935c). This same phrase recurs in rhythmical order at the
opening of each seal ( 6:1,3,5,7,9,12 ) till the last ( 8:1 ),
where we have hotan (886e)oixen (hotan rather than hote calling
particular attention to it). {One} (mian). Probably used here
as an ordinal (the first) as in  Mt 28:1 . See Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 671f. {Of} (ek). This use of ek with the
ablative in the partitive sense is common in the Apocalypse, as
twice in this verse (ek t(936e), etc.). So henos ek t(936e) (one of
the four living creatures) is "the first of," etc. {In a voice of
thunder} (en ph(936e)(8869) bront(8873)). Old word used of John and James
( Mr 3:17 ) and elsewhere in N.T. only  Joh 12:29  and a dozen
times in the Apocalypse. {Come} (Erchou). Present middle
imperative of erchomai, but with exclamatory force (not
strictly linear). The command is not addressed to the Lamb nor to
John (the correct text omits kai ide "and see") as in  17:1  21:9 , but to one of the four horsemen each time. Swete takes it
as a call to Christ because erchou is so used in  22:17,20 ,
but that is not conclusive.

經文:

啟示錄 6:2-6:2

註釋:

 {And I saw and behold} (kai eidon kai idou). This
combination is frequent in the Apocalypse ( 4:1  6:2,5,8  14:1,14  19:11 ). {A white horse} (hippos leukos). In  Zec
6:1-8  we have red, black, white, and grizzled bay horses like
the four winds of heaven, ministers to do God's will. White seems
to be the colour of victory (cf. the white horse of the Persian
Kings) like the white horse ridden by the Roman conqueror in a
triumphant procession. {Had} (ech(936e)). Agreeing in gender and
case with ho kath(886d)enos. {A bow} (	oxon). Old word ( Zec
9:13f.  of a great bow), here only in N.T. {Was given}
(edoth(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of did(936d)i. {A
crown} (stephanos). See on 氦:4| for this word. {He came forth}
(ex(886c)then). Second aorist active indicative of exerchomai,
either to come out or to go out (went forth). {Conquering}
(
ik(936e)). Present active participle of 
ika(935c). {And to conquer}
(kai hina nik(8873)(8869)). Purpose clause with hina and the first
aorist active subjunctive of 
ika(935c). Here h(9373) nik(8873)(936e) (future
active participle with h(9373)) could have been used. The aorist
tense here points to ultimate victory. Commentators have been
busy identifying the rider of the white horse according to their
various theories. "It is tempting to identify him with the Rider
on the white horse in  19:11f. , whose name is 'the Word of God'"
(Swete). Tempting, "but the two riders have nothing in common
beyond the white horse."

經文:

啟示錄 6:3-6:3

註釋:

 {The second seal} (	(886e) sphragida t(886e) deuteran). "The seal
the second." The white horse with his rider vanished from the
scene bent on his conquering career.

經文:

啟示錄 6:4-6:4

註釋:

 {A red horse} (hippos purros). Old adjective from pur
(fire), flame-coloured, blood-red ( 2Ki 3:22 ), in N.T. only here
and  12:3 , like  Zec 1:8  6:2  (roan horse). {To take peace from
the earth} (labein t(886e) eir(886e)(886e) ek t(8873) g(8873)). Second aorist
active infinitive of lamban(935c), and here the nominative case, the
subject of edoth(885c) (see verse  2 ), "to take peace out of the
earth." Alas, how many red horses have been ridden through the
ages. {And that they should slay one another} (kai hina all(886c)ous
sphaxousin). Epexegetical explanatory purpose clause with hina
and the future active of sphaz(935c) ( 5:6 ) instead of the more
usual subjunctive (verse  2 ). Cf. Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 998f.
This is what war does to perfection, makes cannon fodder (cf.
 Joh 14:27 ) of men. {A great sword} (machaira megal(885c)).
Machaira may be a knife carried in a sheath at the girdle ( Joh
18:10 ) or a long sword in battle as here. Romphaia, also a
large sword, is the only other word for sword in the N.T. ( Re
1:16  2:12,16  6:8  19:15,21 ).

經文:

啟示錄 6:5-6:5

註釋:

 {A black horse} (hippos melas). Lust of conquest brings
bloodshed, but also famine and hunger. "The colour of mourning
and famine. See  Jer 4:28  8:21  Mal 3:14 , where _mournfully_
is, literally, in black" (Vincent). {Had} (ech(936e)) as in verse
 2 . {A balance} (zugon). Literally, a yoke (old word from
zeugnumi, to join), of slavery ( Ac 15:10  Ga 5:1 ), of
teaching ( Mt 11:29 ), of weight or measure like a pair of scales
evenly balancing as here ( Eze 5:1  45:10 ). The rider of this
black horse, like the spectral figure of hunger, carries in his
hand a pair of scales. This is also one of the fruits of war.

經文:

啟示錄 6:6-6:6

註釋:

 {As it were a voice} (h(9373) ph(936e)(886e)). "This use of h(9373),
giving a certain vagueness or mysteriousness to a phrase, is one
of the characteristics of the writer's style, e.g.,  8:1  14:3  19:1,6 " (Beckwith). This voice comes from the midst of the four
living creatures, "the protest of nature against the horrors of
famine" (Swete). {A measure} (choinix). Old word for less than
a quart with us, here only in N.T. {Of wheat} (sitou). Old word
for wheat, a number of times in N.T., in Rev. only here and
 18:13 . This was enough wheat to keep a man of moderate appetite
alive for a day. {For a penny} (d(886e)ariou). Genitive of price,
the wages of a day laborer ( Mt 20:2 ), about eighteen cents in
our money today. {Of barley} (krith(936e)). Old word krith(885c),
usually in plural as here. Barley was the food of the poor and it
was cheaper even in the famine and it took more of it to support
life. Here the proportion is three to one (cf.  2Ki 7:18 ). The
proclamation forbids famine prices for food (solid and liquid).
{Hurt thou not} (m(8820)adik(8873)(8869)s). Prohibition with m(885c) and the
ingressive first aorist active subjunctive of adike(935c). See  7:3  9:4  for adike(935c) for injury to vegetable life. "The prohibition
is addressed to the nameless rider who represents Dearth"
(Swete). Wheat and barley, oil and the vine, were the staple
foods in Palestine and Asia Minor.

經文:

啟示錄 6:8-6:8

註釋:

 {A pale horse} (hippos chl(9372)os). Old adjective. Contracted
from chloeros (from chlo(885c), tender green grass) used of green
grass ( Mr 6:39  Re 8:7  9:4 ), here for yellowish, common in
both senses in old Greek, though here only in N.T. in this sense,
greenish yellow. We speak of a sorrel horse, never of a green
horse. Zechariah ( Zec 6:3 ) uses poikilos (grizzled or
variegated). Homer used chl(9372)os of the ashen colour of a face
blanched by fear (pallid) and so the pale horse is a symbol of
death and of terror. {His name was Death} (onoma aut(9369) ho
thanatos). Anacoluthon in grammatical structure like that in
 Joh 3:1  (cf.  Re 2:26 ) and common enough. Death is the name of
this fourth rider (so personified) and there is with Death "his
inseparable comrade, Hades ( 1:16  20:13f. )" (Swete). Hades
(h(8369)d(8873), alpha privative, and idein, to see, the unseen) is
the abode of the dead, the keys of which Christ holds ( Re
1:18 ). {Followed} ((886b)olouthei). Imperfect active of
akolouthe(935c), kept step with death, whether on the same horse or
on another horse by his side or on foot John does not say. {Over
the fourth part of the earth} (epi to tetarton t(8873) g(8873)).
Partitive genitive g(8873) after 	etarton. Wider authority
(exousia) was given to this rider than to the others, though
what part of the earth is included in the fourth part is not
indicated. {To kill} (apokteinai). First aorist active
infinitive of apoktein(935c), explanation of the exousia
(authority). The four scourges of  Eze 14:21  are here reproduced
with instrumental en with the inanimate things (
omphai(8369),
lim(9369) thanat(9369)) and hupo for the beasts (	h(8872)i(936e)). Death
here (	hanat(9369)) seems to mean pestilence as the Hebrew does
(loimos -- cf. limos famine). Cf. the "black death" for a
plague.

經文:

啟示錄 6:9-6:9

註釋:

 {Under the altar} (hupokat(9320)tou thusiast(8872)iou). "Under"
(hupokat(935c)), for the blood of the sacrifices was poured at the
bottom of the altar ( Le 4:7 ). The altar of sacrifice ( Ex
39:39  40:29 ), not of incense. The imagery, as in Hebrews, is
from the tabernacle. For the word see  Mt 5:23f. , often in Rev.
( Re 8:3,5  9:13  11:1  14:18  16:7 ). This altar in heaven is
symbolic, of course, the antitype for the tabernacle altar ( Heb
8:5 ). The Lamb was slain ( 5:6,9,12 ) and these martyrs have
followed the example of their Lord. {The souls} (	as psuchas).
The lives, for the life is in the blood ( Le 17:11 ), were given
for Christ ( Php 2:17  2Ti 4:6 ). {Of the slain} (	(936e)
esphagmen(936e)). See  5:6 . Christians were slain during the
Neronian persecution and now again under Domitian. A long line of
martyrs has followed. {For the word of God} (dia ton logon tou
theou). As in  1:9 , the confession of loyalty to Christ as
opposed to emperor-worship. {And for the testimony which they
held} (kai dia t(886e) marturian h(886e) eichon). See also  1:9 .
Probably kai equals "even" here, explaining the preceding. The
imperfect tense eichon suits the repetition of the witness to
Christ and the consequent death.

經文:

啟示錄 6:10-6:10

註釋:

 {How long} (he(9373) pote). "Until when." Cf.  Mt 7:17  Joh
10:24 . {O Master} (ho despot(8873)). Nominative articular form,
but used as vocative (despota) as in  4:11  ( Joh 20:28 ). On
despot(8873) (correlative of doulos) see  Lu 2:29 . Here (alone
in the Apocalypse) it is applied to God as in  Lu 2:29  Ac 4:24 ,
but to Christ in  Jude 1:4  2Pe 2:1 . {The holy and true} (ho
hagios kai al(8874)hinos). See  3:7  for these attributes of God.
{Avenge our blood on them that dwell upon the earth} (ekdikeis
to haima h(886d)(936e) ek t(936e) katoikount(936e) epi t(8873) g(8873)). This same idiom
in  19:2  and see it also in  Lu 18:7f. , "a passage which goes
far to answer many questions in theodicy" (Swete). We find
ekdike(935c), late compound, used with ek as here in  De 18:19  1Sa 24:13 , but with apo in  Lu 18:3 . For epi t(8873) g(8873) (upon
the earth) see  3:10 .

經文:

啟示錄 6:11-6:11

註釋:

 {A white robe} (stol(8820)leuk(885c)). Old word from stell(935c), to
equip, an equipment in clothes, a flowing robe ( Mr 12:38 ). For
the white robe for martyrs see  3:4f.  4:4  7:9,13  19:14 . {That
they should rest} (hina anapausontai). Sub-final clause with
hina and the future indicative (as in  3:9  6:4 ) middle rather
than the aorist middle subjunctive anapaus(936e)tai of Aleph C.
{Yet for a little time} (eti chronon mikron). Accusative of
extension of time as in  20:3 . Perhaps rest from their cry for
vengeance and also rest in peace ( 14:13 ). For the verb
anapau(935c) see on 烘t 11:28|. {Until should be fulfilled} (he(9373)
pl(8872)(9374)h(9373)in). Future indefinite temporal clause with he(9373) and
the first aorist passive subjunctive of pl(8872)o(935c), to fill full
( Mt 23:32  Col 2:10 ), "until be filled full" (the number of),
regular Greek idiom. {Which should be killed} (hoi mellontes
apoktennesthai). Regular construction of articular present
active participle of mell(935c) (about to be, going to be) with the
present passive infinitive of apoktenn(935c), Aeolic and late form
for apoktein(935c), to kill (also in  Mr 12:5 ). John foresees more
persecution coming ( 2:10  3:10 ).

經文:

啟示錄 6:12-6:12

註釋:

 {There was a great earthquake} (seismos megas egeneto).
"There came a great earthquake." Jesus spoke of earthquakes in
his great eschatological discourse ( Mr 13:8 ). In  Mt 24:29  the
powers of the heavens will be shaken. Seismos is from sei(935c),
to shake, and occurs also in  Re 8:5  11:13,19  16:18 . The
reference is not a local earthquake like those so common in Asia
Minor. {As sackcloth of hair} (h(9373) sakkos trichinos). Sakkos
(Attic sakos), Latin _saccus_, English _sack_, originally a bag
for holding things ( Ge 42:25,35 ), then coarse garment of hair
(	richinos, old word from 	hrix, here only in N.T.) clinging
to one like a sack, of mourners, suppliants, prophets leading
austere lives ( Mt 3:4  11:21  Lu 10:13 ). Here the hair is that
of the black goat ( Isa 50:3 ). Cf.  Joe 2:10  Eze 32:7f.  Isa
13:10  Mr 13:24f . See  Ec 12:2  for eclipses treated as symbols
of old age. Apocalyptic pictures all have celestial phenomena
following earthquakes. {As blood} (h(9373) haima). In  Ac 2:20  we
find Peter interpreting the apocalyptic eschatological language
of  Joe 2:31  about the sun being turned into darkness and the
moon into blood as pointing to the events of the day of Pentecost
as also "the great day of the Lord." Peter's interpretation of
Joel should make us cautious about too literal an exegesis of
these grand symbols.

經文:

啟示錄 6:13-6:13

註釋:

 {Her unripe figs} (	ous olunthous aut(8873)). An old word
(Latin _grossi_) for figs that grow in winter and fall off in the
spring without getting ripe ( So 2:11f. ), here only in N.T.
Jesus used the fig tree ( Mr 13:28 ) as a sign of the "end of the
world's long winter" (Swete). Cf.  Isa 34:4  Na 3:12 . {When she
is shaken of a great wind} (hupo anemou megalou seiomen(885c)).
Present passive participle of sei(935c), "being shaken by a great
wind." See  Mt 11:7  for the reed so shaken.

經文:

啟示錄 6:14-6:14

註釋:

 {Was removed} (apech(9372)isth(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative of apoch(9372)iz(935c), to separate, to part ( Ac 15:39 ).
"The heaven was parted." {As a scroll when it is rolled up} (h(9373)
biblion helissomenon). Present passive participle of heliss(935c),
old verb, to roll up, in N.T. only here (from  Isa 34:4 ) and
 Heb 1:12  (from  Ps 102:27 ). Vivid picture of the expanse of
the sky rolled up and away as a papyrus roll ( Lu 4:17 ). {Were
moved} (ekin(8874)h(8873)an). First aorist passive indicative of
kine(935c), to move. {Out of their places} (ek t(936e) top(936e) aut(936e)).
See also  16:20  for these violent displacements in the earth's
crust. Cf.  Na 1:5  Jer 4:24 . Jesus spoke of faith removing
mountains (of difficulty) as in  Mr 11:23  (cf.  1Co 13:2 ).

經文:

啟示錄 6:15-6:15

註釋:

 {The princes} (hoi megist(836e)es). Late word from the
superlative megistos, in LXX, Josephus, papyri, in N.T. only in
 Mr 6:21  Re 6:15  18:23 , for the grandees, the persecuting
proconsuls (Swete). {The chief captains} (hoi chiliarchoi). The
commanders of thousands, the military tribunes ( Mr 6:21  19:18 ). {The rich} (hoi plousioi). Not merely those in civil
and military authority will be terror-stricken, but the
self-satisfied and complacent rich ( Jas 5:4f. ). {The strong}
(hoi ischuroi). Who usually scoff at fear. See the list in
 13:16  19:18 . Cf.  Lu 21:26 . {Every bondman} (p(8373) doulos)
{and freeman} (kai eleutheros). The two extremes of society.
{Hid themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains}
(ekrupsan heautous eis ta sp(886c)aia kai eis tas petras t(936e)
ore(936e)). Based on  Isa 2:10,18f . First aorist active indicative
of krupt(935c) with the reflexive pronoun. For the old word
sp(886c)aion see  Mt 21:13  Heb 11:38 . Ore(936e) is the uncontracted
Ionic form (for or(936e)) of the genitive plural of oros
(mountain).

經文:

啟示錄 6:16-6:16

註釋:

 {They say} (legousin). Vivid dramatic present active
indicative, as is natural here. {Fall on us} (Pesate eph'
h(886d)(8373)). Second aorist (first aorist ending) imperative of
pipt(935c), tense of urgency, do it now. {And hide us} (kai
krupsate h(886d)(8373)). Same tense of urgency again from krupt(935c) (verb
in verse  15 ). Both imperatives come in inverted order from  Ho
10:8  with kalupsate (cover) in place of krupsate (hide),
quoted by Jesus on the way to the Cross ( Lu 23:30 ) in the order
here, but with kalupsate, not krupsate. {From the face of him
that} (apo pros(9370)ou tou, etc.). "What sinners dread most is not
death, but the revealed Presence of God" (Swete). Cf.  Ge 3:8 .
{And from the wrath of the Lamb} (kai apo t(8873) org(8873) tou
arniou). Repetition of "the grave irony" (Swete) of  5:5f . The
Lamb is the Lion again in the terribleness of his wrath. Recall
the mourning in  1:7 . See  Mt 25:41ff.  where Jesus pronounces
the woes on the wicked.

經文:

啟示錄 6:17-6:17

註釋:

 1:17f.,
22:3,13 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1' or engs='1'
經文:

啟示錄 7:1-7:1

註釋:

 {After this} (meta touto). Instead of the seventh seal
( 8:1 ) being opened, two other episodes or preliminary visions
occupy chapter 7 (the sealing of the servants of God  7:1-8  and
the vision of the redeemed before the throne  7:9-17 ).
{Standing} (hest(9374)as). Second perfect predicate participle of
hist(886d)i, intransitive and followed by epi and the accusative
case g(936e)ias as already in  3:20  (epi thurian) and often
again ( 8:3  some MSS., others genitive;  11:11  12:18  14:1  15:2 ), but note epi with genitive 	halass(8873) in the next
clause, like epi kephal(8873) in  12:1  7:3 . {Corners} (g(936e)ias).
Old word for angle ( Mt 6:5 ), also in  20:8 . {Holding}
(kratountas). Present active participle of krate(935c), to hold
fast ( Mr 7:3  Joh 20:23 ). The four winds (cf.  Mt 24:31 ) are
held prisoner by angels at each of the four corners. Some Jews
held the winds from due north, south, east, west to be
favourable, while those from the angles (see  Ac 27:14 ) were
unfavourable (Charles). There is an angel of the fire ( 14:18 )
and an angel of the waters ( 16:5 ). {That no wind should blow}
(hina m(8820)pne(8869) anemos). Negative purpose clause with hina m(885c)
and the present active subjunctive, "lest a wind keep on
blowing." {Upon any tree} (epi pan dendron). Accusative case
here with epi rather than the preceding genitives (g(8873),
thalass(8873)), "upon the land or upon the sea," but "against any
tree" (picture of attack on the tree like a tornado's path).

經文:

啟示錄 7:2-7:2

註釋:

 {Ascend} (anabainonta). Present active participle of
anabain(935c), "ascending," "going up," picturing the process. {From
the sun-rising} (apo anatol(8873) h(886c)iou). Same phrase in  16:12 .
From the east, though why is not told. Swete suggests it is
because Palestine is east of Patmos. The plural apo anatol(936e)
occurs in  Mt 2:1  without h(886c)iou (sun). {The seal of the
living God} (sphragida theou z(936e)tos). Here the signet ring,
like that used by an Oriental monarch, to give validity to the
official documents. The use of z(936e)tos with 	heou accents the
eternal life of God ( 1:18  10:6  15:7 ) as opposed to the
ephemeral pagan gods. {To whom it was given} (hois edoth(880a)autois). For edoth(885c) see on 泰:2,4|, etc. The repetition of
autois in addition to hois (both dative) is a redundant
Hebraism (in vernacular _Koin(825f) to some extent) often in the
Apocalypse ( 3:8 ). The angels are here identified with the winds
as the angels of the churches with the churches ( 1:20 ). {To
hurt} (adik(8873)ai). First aorist active infinitive of adike(935c),
subject of edoth(885c), common use of adike(935c) in this sense of to
hurt in the Apocalypse ( 2:11  6:6  already), in  Lu 10:19  also.
The injury is to come by letting loose the winds, not by
withholding them.

經文:

啟示錄 7:3-7:3

註釋:

 {Hurt not} (m(8820)adik(8873)(8874)e). Prohibition with m(885c) and the
ingressive aorist active subjunctive of adike(935c), not to begin to
hurt. {Till we shall have sealed} (achri sphragis(936d)en).
Temporal clause of indefinite action for the future with achri
(sometimes achris hou or achris hou an) and the aorist
subjunctive as in  15:8  20:3,5  or the future indicative
( 17:7 ), usually with the notion of ascent (up to) rather than
extent like mechri. {An} (modal) sometimes occurs, but it is
not necessary. But there is no _futurum exactum_ idea in the
aorist subjunctive, simply "till we seal," not "till we shall
have sealed." {Upon their foreheads} (epi t(936e) met(9370)(936e)). From
 Eze 9:4 . Old word (meta, (9370)s, after the eye, above the eye,
the space above or between the eyes), in N.T. only in the
Apocalypse ( 7:3  9:4  13:16  14:1,9  17:5  20:4  22:4 ). For
"the servants of God" (	ous doulous tou theou) who are to be
thus marked linked with angels in the service of God see  Re 1:1  2:20  19:2,5  22:3,6 .

經文:

啟示錄 7:4-7:4

註釋:

 {The number of the sealed} (	on arithmon t(936e)
esphragismen(936e)). Accusative case object of (886b)ousa and genitive
of the perfect passive articular participle of sphragiz(935c). He
did not see the sealing or count them himself, but only heard. {A
hundred and forty and four thousand} (hekaton tesserakonta
tessares chiliades). Symbolical, of course, and not meant to be
a complete number of the sealed (or saved) even in that
generation, let alone for all time. The number connotes
perfection (Alford), 12x12x1000 = a hundred and forty-four
thousands (chiliades,  5:11 ). Nominative absolute, not
agreeing in case either with arithmon (accusative) or
esphragismen(936e) (genitive). So as to the case of
esphragismenoi. {Out of every tribe of the children of Israel}
(ek p(8373)(8873) phul(8873) hui(936e) Isra(886c)). There are two opposite views
here, one taking the sealed as referring only to Jews (either
actual Jews as a remnant or just Jewish Christians), the other
including Gentiles as well as Jewish Christians, that is the true
Israel as in  2:9  3:9ff.  and like Paul in Galatians and Romans.
This is the more probable view and it takes the twelve tribes in
a spiritual sense. But in either view there remains the
difficulty about names of the tribes. The list is not
geographical, since Levi is included, but Dan is omitted and
Manasseh put in his place, though he as the son of Joseph is
included in Joseph. Irenaeus suggested that Antichrist was
expected to come from the tribe of Dan and hence the omission
here. There are various lists of the tribes in the O.T. ( Ge
35:22f.  46:8ff.,49  Ex 1:1ff.  Nu 1:2  13:4ff  26:34  De
27:11f.  33:6ff.  Jos 13-22  Jud 5  1Ch 2-8  12:24ff.  27:16ff.  Eze 48 ) and given in various orders. In  1Ch 7:12  both Dan and
Zebulon are omitted. Joseph is given here in place of Ephraim.
The distribution is equal (12,000) to each tribe.

經文:

啟示錄 7:9-7:9

註釋:

 {Which no man could number} (hon arithm(8873)ai auton oudeis
edunato). Redundant repetition of the pronoun auton after the
relative hon as in  7:5  3:8 . Edunato imperfect indicative
and arithm(8873)ai first aorist active infinitive of arithme(935c),
old verb, in N.T. only here,  Mt 10:30  Lu 12:7 . See  5:9  (also
 11:9  13:7  14:10  17:15 ) for the list of words after ek (the
spiritual Israel carried on all over the world), "a polyglott
cosmopolitan crowd" (Swete). {Standing} (hest(9374)es). Same form
in  7:1 , only nominative masculine plural referring to ochlos
(masculine singular), construction according to sense like the
plural legont(936e) with ochlou in  19:1 . {Arrayed}
(peribebl(886d)enous). Perfect passive participle of periball(935c),
but in the accusative plural (not nominative like hest(9374)es), a
common variation in this book when preceded by eidon and idou
as in  4:4  (	hronoi, presbuterous). Charles regards this as a
mere slip which would have been changed to peribebl(886d)enoi if
John had read the MS. over. {In white robes} (stolas leukas).
Predicate accusative retained with this passive verb of clothing
as in  7:13  10:1  11:3  12:1  17:4  18:16  19:13 . {Palms}
(phoinikes). Nominative again, back to construction with
idou, not eidon. Old word, in N.T. only here for palm
branches and  Joh 12:13  for palm trees. Both these and the white
robes are signs of victory and joy.

經文:

啟示錄 7:10-7:10

註釋:

 {They cry} (krazousi). Vivid dramatic present. {With a
great voice} (ph(936e)(8869) megal(8869)). As in  6:10  7:2 . "The
polyglott multitude shouts its praises as with one voice"
(Swete). {Salvation} (h(8820)s(9374)(8872)ia). As in  12:10  19:1 .
Nominative absolute. Salvation here is regarded as an
accomplished act on the part of those coming out of the great
tribulation (verse  14 ) and the praise for it is given to God
(	(9369) the(9369), dative case) and to the Lamb (	(9369) arni(9369), dative
also). Both God and Christ are thus called s(9374)(8872) as in the
Pastoral Epistles, as to God ( 1Ti 1:1  2:3  Tit 1:3  3:4 ) and
to Christ ( Tit 1:4  2:13  3:6 ). For h(8820)s(9374)(8872)ia see  Joh 4:22  Ac 4:12  Jude 1:3 .

經文:

啟示錄 7:11-7:11

註釋:

 {Were standing} (hist(886b)eisan). Past perfect active of
hist(886d)i intransitive and used like an imperfect as in  Joh
19:25 . {Round about} (kukl(9369)). Preposition (in a circle) with
genitive as in  4:6  5:11 . The angels here rejoice in the
salvation of men ( Lu 15:7,10  1Pe 1:12 ). {Upon their faces}
(epi ta pros(9370)a aut(936e)). In reverential worship of God as in
 11:16 . For this worship (fell and worshipped) see also  4:10  5:14  11:16  19:4,10  22:8 . The dative 	(9369) the(9369) (God) with
proskune(935c) (to worship) is the usual construction for that
meaning. When it means merely to do homage the accusative case is
usual in this book (Charles). But in the Fourth Gospel the
reverse order is true as to the cases with proskune(935c) (Abbott,
_Joh. Vocab_. pp. 138-142).

經文:

啟示錄 7:12-7:12

註釋:

 Note am(886e) at the beginning and the close of the doxology.
Note also separate feminine article with each of the seven
attributes given God, as in  4:11  5:12,13 .

經文:

啟示錄 7:13-7:13

註釋:

 {Answered} (apekrith(885c)). First aorist passive (deponent) of
apokrinomai with leg(936e) (saying), a common (only here in the
Apocalypse) Hebrew redundancy in the Gospels ( Mr 9:5 ). An elder
intervenes, though no question has been asked to interpret the
vision (Swete). {These} (houtoi). Prophetic predicate
nominative put before 	ines eisin (who are they). Note article
repeated with stolas pointing to verse  9 , and accusative also
retained after peribebl(886d)enoi as there. Both "who" and "whence"
as in  Jos 9:8 .

經文:

啟示錄 7:14-7:14

註釋:

 {I say} (eir(886b)a). Perfect active indicative of eipon, "I
have said." "To the Seer's mind the whole scene was still fresh
and vivid" (Swete) like kekragen in  Joh 1:15  and eil(8870)hen
in  Re 5:7 , not the so-called "aoristic perfect" which even
Moulton (_Prol_. p. 145) is disposed to admit. {My lord} (Kurie
mou). "An address of reverence to a heavenly being" (Vincent),
not an act of worship on John's part. {Thou knowest} (su
oidas). "At once a confession of ignorance, and an appeal for
information" (Swete), not of full confidence like su oidas in
 Joh 21:15ff . {They which come out of the great tribulation}
(hoi erchomenoi ek t(8873) thlipse(9373) t(8873) megal(8873)). Present middle
participle with the idea of continued repetition. "The martyrs
are still arriving from the scene of the great tribulation"
(Charles). Apparently some great crisis is contemplated ( Mt
13:19ff.  24:21  Mr 13:10 ), though the whole series may be in
mind and so may anticipate final judgment. {And they washed}
(kai eplunan). First aorist active indicative of plun(935c), old
verb, to wash, in N.T. only  Lu 5:2  Re 7:14  22:14 . This change
of construction after hoi erchomenoi from hoi plun(8873)antes to
kai eplunan is common in the Apocalypse, one of Charles's
Hebraisms, like kai epoi(8873)en in  1:6  and kai plan(8369) in
 2:20 . {Made them white} (eleukanan). First aorist active
indicative of leukain(935c), to whiten, old verb from leukos
(verse  13 ), in N.T. only here and  Mr 9:3 . "Milligan remarks
that _robes_ are the expression of character and compares the
word _habit_ used of dress" (Vincent). The language here comes
partly from  Ge 49:11  and partly from  Ex 19:10,14 . For the
cleansing power of Christ's blood see also  Ro 3:25  5:9  Col
1:20: Eph 1:7  1Pe 1:2  Heb 9:14  1Jo 1:7  Re 1:5  5:9  22:14 .
"The aorists look back to the life on earth when the cleansing
was effected" (Swete). See  Php 2:12f.  for both divine and human
aspects of salvation. {In the blood of the Lamb} (en t(9369) haimati
tou arniou). There is power alone in the blood of Christ to
cleanse from sin ( 1Jo 1:7 ), not in the blood of the martyrs
themselves. The result is "white," not "red," as one might
imagine.

經文:

啟示錄 7:15-7:15

註釋:

 {Therefore} (dia touto). Because of the washing described
in verse  14 . {They serve him} (latreuousin aut(9369)). Dative
case with latreu(935c) (present active indicative, old verb,
originally to serve for hire latron, then service in general,
then religious service to God,  Mt 4:10 , then in particular
ritual worship of the priests,  Heb 8:5 ). All the redeemed are
priests ( Re 16:5,10 ) in the heavenly temple ( 6:9 ) as here.
But this service is that of spiritual worship, not of external
rites ( Ro 12:1  Php 3:3 ). {Day and night} (h(886d)eras kai
nuktos). Genitive of time, "by day and night," as in  4:8  of
the praise of the four living creatures. {Shall spread his
tabernacle over them} (sk(886e)(9373)ei ep' autous). Future (change of
tense from present in latreuousin) active of sk(886e)o(935c), old verb
from sk(886e)os (tent, tabernacle), used in  Joh 1:14  of the
earthly life of Christ, elsewhere in N.T. only in Rev. ( 7:14  12:12  13:6  21:3 ). In  12:12  13:6  of those who dwell in
tents, here of God spreading his tent "over" (ep' autous) the
redeemed in heaven, in  21:3  of God tabernacling "with" (met'
aut(936e)) the redeemed, in both instances a picture of sacred
fellowship, and "the further idea of God's Presence as a
protection from all fear of evil" (Swete) like the overshadowing
of Israel by the Shekinah and a possible allusion also to the
tents (sk(886e)ai) of the feast of tabernacles and to the tent of
meeting where God met Moses ( Ex 33:7-11 ).

經文:

啟示錄 7:16-7:16

註釋:

 {They shall hunger no more} (ou peinasousin eti). Future
tense of peina(935c), old verb with late form instead of
pein(8873)ousin like  Lu 6:25 . It is a free translation of  Isa
49:10  (not quotation from the LXX). {Neither thirst any more}
(oude dips(8873)ousin eti). Future tense of dipsa(935c), the two
strong human appetites will be gone, a clear refutation of a
gross materialistic or sensual conception of the future life. Cf.
 Joh 6:35 . {Neither shall strike} (oude m(8820)pes(8869)). Strong
double negative oude m(885c) with second aorist active subjunctive
of pipt(935c), to fall. They will no longer be under the rays of the
sun as upon earth. {Nor any heat} (oude p(836e) kauma). Old word
from kai(935c), to burn, painful and burning heat, in N.T. only here
and  16:9  (picture of the opposite condition). The use of the
negative with p(836e) (all) for "not any" is common in N.T. Cf.  Ps
121:6 .

經文:

啟示錄 7:17-7:17

註釋:

 {In the midst} (ana meson). In  5:6  we have en mes(9369) tou
thronou as the position of the Lamb, and so that is apparently
the sense of ana meson here as in  Mt 13:25 , though it can
mean "between," as clearly so in  1Co 6:5 . {Shall be their
shepherd} (paimanei autous). "Shall shepherd them," future
active of poimain(935c) (from poim(886e), shepherd), in  Joh 21:16  Ac
20:28  1Pe 5:2  Re 2:27  7:17  12:5  19:15 . Jesus is still the
Good Shepherd of his sheep ( Joh 10:11,14ff. ). Cf.  Ps 23:1 .
{Shall guide them} (hod(8820)g(8873)ei autous). Future active of
hod(8867)e(935c), old word (from hod(8867)os, guide,  Mt 15:14 ), used of
God's guidance of Israel ( Ex 15:13 ), of God's guidance of
individual lives ( Ps 5:9 ), of the guidance of the Holy Spirit
( Joh 16:13 ), of Christ's own guidance here (cf.  Joh 14:4  Re
14:4 ). {Unto fountains of waters of life} (epi z(9388)s p(8867)as
hudat(936e)). The language is like that in  Isa 49:10  Jer 2:13 .
Note the order, "to life's water springs" (Swete) like the
Vulgate _ad vitae fontes aquarum_, with emphasis on z(9388)s
(life's). For this idea see also  Joh 4:12,14  7:38f.  Re 21:6  22:1,17 . No special emphasis on the plural here or in  8:10  14:7  16:4 . {And God shall wipe away} (kai exaleipsei ho
theos). Repeated in  21:4  from  Isa 25:8 . Future active of
exaleiph(935c), old compound, to wipe out (ex), off, away, already
in  3:5  for erasing a name and in  Ac 3:19  for removing the
stain (guilt) of sin. {Every tear} (p(836e) dakruon). Old word,
with other form, dakru, in  Lu 7:38,44 . Note repetition of
ek with ophthalm(936e) (out of their eyes). "Words like these of
vv.  15-17  must sound as a divine music in the ears of the
persecuted. God will comfort as a mother comforts" (Baljon).

經文:

啟示錄 8:1-8:1

註釋:

 {And when he opened} (kai hotan (886e)oixen). Here modal an
is used with hote (used about the opening of the preceding six
seals), but hotan is not here rendered more indefinite, as is
sometimes true ( Mr 3:11  Re 4:9 ), but here and possibly (can be
repetition) in  Mr 11:19  it is a particular instance, not a
general rule (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 973). {There followed a
silence} (egeneto sig(885c)). Second aorist middle of ginomai.
"There came silence." Dramatic effect by this profound stillness
with no elder or angel speaking, no chorus of praise nor cry of
adoration, no thunder from the throne (Swete), but a temporary
cessation in the revelations. See  10:4 . {About the space of
half an hour} (h(9373) h(886d)i(9372)on). Late and rare word (h(886d)i, half,
h(9372)a, hour), here only in N.T. Accusative of extent of time.

經文:

啟示錄 8:2-8:2

註釋:

 {Stand} (hest(886b)asin). Perfect active of hist(886d)i
(intransitive). Another "hebdomad" so frequent in the Apocalypse.
The article (the seven angels) seems to point to seven well-known
angels. In Enoch 20:7 the names of seven archangels are given
(Uriel, Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Sariel, Gabriel, Remiel) and
"angels of the Presence" is an idea like that in  Isa 63:9 . We
do not know precisely what is John's idea here. {Seven trumpets}
(hepta salpigges). We see trumpets assigned to angels in  Mt
24:31  1Th 4:16  1Co 15:52  Re 4:1,4 . See also the use of
trumpets in  Jos 6:13  Joe 2:1 . These seven trumpets are soon to
break the half hour of silence. Thus the seven trumpets grow out
of the opening of the seventh seal, however that fact is to be
interpreted.

經文:

啟示錄 8:3-8:3

註釋:

 {Another angel} (allos aggelos). Not one of the seven of
verse  2  and before they began to sound the trumpets. This
preliminary incident of the offering of incense on the altar
covers verses  3-6 . {Stood} (estath(885c)). Ingressive first aorist
passive of hist(886d)i (intransitive), "took his place." {Over the
altar} (epi tou thusiast(8872)iou). See  6:9  for the word for the
burnt-offering, here apparently the altar of incense (clearly so
in  Lu 1:11 ; possibly also  Re 9:13 ), but it is not clear that
in apocalyptic the distinction between the two altars of the
tabernacle and temple is preserved. Aleph C Q have the genitive,
while A P have the accusative epi to thusiast(8872)ion. {A golden
censer} (liban(9374)on chrusoun). Old word for frankincense (from
libanos,  Mt 2:11  Re 18:13 ), but here alone in N.T. and for
censer, as is plain by the use of chrusoun (golden) with it.
Cf.  1Ki 7:50 . {Much incense} (	humiamata polla). See  5:8 
for 	humiama (the aromatic substance burnt, also in  18:13 ),
but here for the live coals on which the incense falls. {That he
should add} (hina d(9373)ei). Sub-final clause (subject of
edoth(885c), was given, singular because 	humiamata neuter plural)
with hina and the future active indicative of did(936d)i, to
give, instead of d(9369), the second aorist subjunctive. {Unto the
prayers} (	ais proseuchais). Dative case. In  5:18  the
	humiamata are the prayers. {Upon the golden altar} (epi to
thusiast(8872)ion to chrusoun to). Accusative case here, not
genitive as above, and apparently the altar of incense as
indicated by the word golden ( Ex 30:1ff.  Le 4:17 ). Note triple
article here 	o (once before the substantive, once before the
adjective, once before the adjunct "the one before the throne").

經文:

啟示錄 8:4-8:4

註釋:

 {The smoke} (ho kapnos). Old word, in N.T. only  Ac 2:19  Re 8:4  9:2f., 17f.  14:11  15:8  18:9,18  19:3 . Here from the
incense in the angel's hand. {With the prayers} (	ais
proseuchais). So associative-instrumental case, but it may be
dative as in verse  3  (for).

經文:

啟示錄 8:5-8:5

註釋:

 {Taketh} (eil(8870)hen). Vivid dramatic perfect active
indicative of lamban(935c) as in  5:7 , "has taken." The angel had
apparently ]aid aside the censer. Hardly merely the pleonastic
use of lamban(935c) ( Joh 19:23 ). John pictures the scene for us.
{Filled} (egemisen). He drops back to the narrative use of the
first aorist active indicative of gemiz(935c). {With the fire} (ek
tou puros), live coals from the altar (cf.  Isa 6:6 ). {Cast}
(ebalen). Second aorist active indicative of all(935c). See  Ge
19:24  (Sodom);  Eze 10:2  and Christ's bold metaphor in  Lu
12:49 . See this use of all(935c) also in  Re 8:7  12:4,9,13  14:19 . {Followed} (egenonto). Came to pass naturally after the
casting of fire on the earth. Same three elements in  4:5 , but
in different order (lightnings, voices, thunders), lightning
naturally preceding thunder as some MSS. have it here. Perhaps
ph(936e)ai, the voices of the storm (wind, etc.).

經文:

啟示錄 8:6-8:6

註釋:

 {Prepared themselves} (h(8874)oimasan hautous). First aorist
active indicative of hetoimaz(935c). They knew the signal and got
ready. {To sound} (hina salpis(9373)in). Sub-final (object) clause
with hina and the first aorist ingressive active subjunctive of
salpiz(935c). The infinitive could have been used.

經文:

啟示錄 8:7-8:7

註釋:

 {Sounded} (esalpisen). First aorist active indicative of
salpiz(935c), repeated with each angel in turn ( 8:8,10,12  9:1,13  11:15 ). {Hail and fire mingled with blood} (chalaza kai pur
memigmena en haimati). Like the plague of hail and fire in  Ex
9:24 . The first four trumpets are very much like the plagues in
Egypt, this one like a semitropical thunderstorm (Swete) with
blood like the first plague ( Ex 7:17ff.  Ps 106:35 ). The old
feminine word chalaza (hail) is from the verb chala(935c), to let
down ( Mr 2:4 ), in N.T. only in  Re 8:7  11:19  16:21 . The
perfect passive participle memigmena (from mignumi, to mix)
is neuter plural because of pur (fire). {Were cast}
(ebl(8874)h(885c)). First aorist passive singular because chalaza and
pur treated as neuter plural. "The storm flung itself on the
earth" (Swete). {Was burnt up} (kateka(885c)). Second aorist
(effective) passive indicative of katakai(935c), old verb to burn
down (effective use of kata, up, we say). Repeated here three
times for dramatic effect. See  7:1-3  about the trees and  9:4 
where the locusts are forbidden to injure the grass.

經文:

啟示錄 8:8-8:8

註釋:

 {As it were} (h(9373)). "As if," not a great mountain, but a
blazing mass as large as a mountain. {Burning with fire} (puri
kaiomenon). Present middle participle of kai(935c). Somewhat like
Enoch 18:13, but perhaps with the picture of a great volcanic
eruption like that of Vesuvius in A.D. 79. Strabo tells of an
eruption B.C. 196 which made a new island (Palaea Kaumene).
{Became blood} (egeneto haima). Like the Nile in the first
plague ( Ex 7:20ff. ). Cf. also  16:3 .

經文:

啟示錄 8:9-8:9

註釋:

 {Of the creatures} (	(936e) ktismat(936e)). See  5:13  for this
word ktisma. Even they that had life (	a echonta psuchas).
Here the nominative articular participle is in apposition with
the genitive ktismat(936e), as often in this book. See  Ex 7:20 
for the destruction of fish, and  Zep 1:3 . {Was destroyed}
(diephthar(8873)an). Second aorist passive indicative of
diaphtheir(935c), old compound, to corrupt, to consume, to destroy
(perfective use of dia), also  11:18 . The plural ploion just
before the verb makes the idea plural.

經文:

啟示錄 8:10-8:10

註釋:

 {Burning as a torch} (kaiomenos h(9373) lampas). See  4:5  Mt
2:2 , perhaps a meteor, striking at the fresh-water supply
(rivers potam(936e), springs p(8867)as) as in the first Egyptian
plague also.

經文:

啟示錄 8:11-8:11

註釋:

 {Wormwood} (ho Apsinthos). Absinthe. Usually feminine
(h(885c)), but masculine here probably because ast(8872) is masculine.
Only here in N.T. and not in LXX (pikria, bitterness, chol(885c),
gall, etc.) except by Aquila in  Pr 5:4  Jer 9:15  23:15 . There
are several varieties of the plant in Palestine. {Became
wormwood} (egeneto eis apsinthon). This use of eis in the
predicate with ginomai is common in the LXX and the N.T.
( 16:19  Joh 16:20  Ac 5:36 ). {Of the waters} (ek t(936e)
hudat(936e)). As a result of (ek) the use of the poisoned waters.
{Were made bitter} (epikranth(8873)an). First aorist passive
indicative of pikrain(935c). Old verb (from pikros, bitter), as in
 10:9f . In a metaphorical sense to embitter in  Col 3:19 .

經文:

啟示錄 8:12-8:12

註釋:

 {Was smitten} (epl(8867)(885c)). Second aorist passive indicative
of pl(8873)s(935c), old verb (like pl(8867)(885c) plague), here only in N.T.
{That should be darkened} (hina skotisth(8869)). Purpose clause
with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of
skotiz(935c), from skotos (darkness) as in  Mt 24:29 , but
skoto(935c) in  Re 9:2 . {And the day should not shine} (kai h(880a)h(886d)era m(8820)phan(8869)). Negative purpose clause with hina m(885c) and
the first aorist active subjunctive of phain(935c), to shed light
upon, as in  18:23 , not the second aorist passive subjunctive
phan(8869) with different accent. The eclipse here is only partial
and is kin to the ninth Egyptian plague ( Ex 10:21 ).

經文:

啟示錄 8:13-8:13

註釋:

 {An eagle} (henos aetou). "One eagle," perhaps henos
(heis) used as an indefinite article ( 9:13  18:21  19:17 ).
See  4:7  also for the flying eagle, the strongest of birds,
sometimes a symbol of vengeance ( De 28:49  Ho 8:1  Hab 1:8 ).
{Flying in mid-heaven} (petomenou en mesouran(886d)ati). Like the
angel in  14:6  and the birds in  19:17 . Mesouran(886d)a (from
mesourane(935c) to be in mid-heaven) is a late word (Plutarch,
papyri) for the sun at noon, in N.T. only these three examples.
This eagle is flying where all can see, and crying so that all
can hear. {Woe, woe, woe} (ouai, ouai, ouai). Triple because
three trumpets yet to come. In  18:10,16,19  the double ouai is
merely for emphasis. {For them that dwell on the earth} (	ous
katoikountas). Accusative of the articular present active
participle of katoike(935c), is unusual (Aleph Q here and also in
 12:12 ) as in  Mt 11:21 . There is even a nominative in  18:10 .
{By reason of the other voices} (ek t(936e) loip(936e) ph(936e)(936e)). "As a
result of (ek) the rest of the voices." There is more and worse
to come, "of the three angels who are yet to sound" (	(936e) tri(936e)
aggel(936e) t(936e) mellont(936e) salpizein).

經文:

啟示錄 9:1-9:1

註釋:

 {Fallen} (pept(936b)ota). Perfect active participle of pipt(935c),
already down. In  Lu 10:18  note pesonta (constative aorist
active, like a flash of lightning) after ethe(9372)oun and in  Re
7:2  note anabainonta (present active and linear, coming up,
picturing the process) after eidon. {Of the pit of the abyss}
(	ou phreatos t(8873) abussou). Abussos is an old adjective
(alpha privative and uthos, depth, without depth), but h(880a)abussos (supply ch(9372)a place), the bottomless place. It occurs
in  Ro 10:7  for the common receptacle of the dead for Hades
(Sheol), but in  Lu 8:31  a lower depth is sounded (Swete), for
the abode of demons, and in this sense it occurs in  Re 9:1,2,11  11:7  17:8  20:1,3 . Phrear is an old word for well or cistern
( Lu 14:5  Joh 4:11f. ) and it occurs in  Re 9:1f.  for the mouth
of the abyss which is pictured as a cistern with a narrow orifice
at the entrance and this fifth angel holds the key to it.

經文:

啟示錄 9:2-9:2

註釋:

 {Opened} ((886e)oixen). First aorist active indicative of
anoignumi. With the "key" (kleis). {As the smoke of a great
furnace} (h(9373) kapnos kaminou megal(8873)). The plague of demonic
locusts is here turned loose. Kaminos is old word for a
smelting-furnace, already in  1:15 . {Were darkened}
(eskot(9374)h(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of skoto(935c), old
causative verb from skotos, in N.T. only here,  16:10  Eph
4:18 . {By reason of} (ek). "Out of," as a result of ( 8:13 ).

經文:

啟示錄 9:3-9:3

註釋:

 {Locusts} (akrides). Also verse  7  and already in  Mt 3:4  Mr 1:6  (diet of the Baptist). The Israelites were permitted to
eat them, but when the swarms came like the eighth Egyptian
plague ( Ex 10:13ff. ) they devoured every green thing. The smoke
was worse than the fallen star and the locusts that came out of
the smoke were worse still, "a swarm of hellish locusts" (Swete).
{The scorpions} (hoi skorpioi). Old name for a little animal
somewhat like a lobster that lurks in stone walls in warm
regions, with a venomous sting in its tail, in N.T. in  Lu 10:19  11:12  Re 9:3,5,10 . The scorpion ranks with the snake as hostile
to man.

經文:

啟示錄 9:4-9:4

註釋:

 {It was said} (erreth(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of
eipon. {That they should not hurt} (hina m(8820)adik(8873)ousin).
Sub-final (object clause subject of erreth(885c)) with hina m(885c) and
the future active of adike(935c) as in  3:9  8:3 . Vegetation had
been hurt sufficiently by the hail ( 8:7 ). {But only such men
as} (ei m(8820)tous anthr(9370)ous hoitines). "Except (elliptical use
of ei m(885c), if not, unless) the men who (the very ones who)." For
this use of hostis see  1:7  2:24  20:4 . {The seal of God upon
their foreheads} (	(886e) sphragida tou theou epi t(936e) met(9370)(936e)).
Provided for in  7:3ff . "As Israel in Egypt escaped the plagues
which punished their neighbours, so the new Israel is exempted
from the attack of the locusts of the Abyss" (Swete).

經文:

啟示錄 9:5-9:5

註釋:

 {That they should not kill them} (hina m(8820)apoktein(9373)in
autous). Sub-final object clause (subject of edoth(885c)) with
hina m(885c) and the subjunctive of apoktein(935c) either present
(continued action) or aorist (constative, form the same), the
usual construction with hina. The locusts are charged to injure
men, but not to kill them. {But that they should be tormented}
(all' hina basanisth(8873)ontai). Sub-final clause again with
hina, but this time with the first future passive indicative
(like  3:9  6:4  8:3  13:12 ) of asaniz(935c), old verb, to test
metals (from asanos,  Mt 4:24 ) by touchstone, then to torture
like  Mt 8:29 , further in  Re 11:10  12:2  14:10  20:10 . {Five
months} (m(886e)as pente). Accusative of extent of time. The actual
locust is born in the spring and dies at the end of summer (about
five months). {Torment} (asanismos). Late word for torture,
from asaniz(935c), in N.T. only in  Re 9:5  14:11  18:7,10,15 . The
wound of the scorpion was not usually fatal, though exceedingly
painful. {When it striketh a man} (hotan pais(8869) anthr(9370)on).
Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and the first aorist
active subjunctive of pai(935c) ( Mt 26:51 ), old verb, to smite,
"whenever it smites a man."

經文:

啟示錄 9:6-9:6

註釋:

 {Men} (hoi anthr(9370)oi). Generic use of the article (men as a
class). {Shall not find it} (ou m(8820)heur(8873)ousin auton). Strong
double negative ou m(885c) with the future active indicative
according to Aleph Q, but heur(9373)in (second aorist active
subjunctive) according to A P (either construction regular). The
idea here is found in  Job 3:21  Jer 8:3 . "Such a death as they
desire, a death which will end their sufferings, is impossible;
physical death is no remedy for the asanismos of an evil
conscience" (Swete). {They shall desire to die} (epithum(8873)ousin
apothanein). Future active of epithume(935c), a climax to
z(8874)(8873)ousin (they shall seek), to desire vehemently. Paul in
 Php 1:23  shows a preference for death if his work is done, in
order to be with Christ, a very different feeling from what we
have here. {Fleeth} (pheugei). Vivid futuristic present active
indicative of pheug(935c). Even death does not come to their relief.

經文:

啟示錄 9:7-9:7

註釋:

 {The shapes} (	a homoi(936d)ata). Old word from homoio(935c), to
make like (from homoios, like), likeness, in N.T. only here,
 Ro 5:14  Php 2:7 , "the likenesses were like" (homoia).
Homoi(936d)a is "midway between morph(885c) and sch(886d)a" (Lightfoot).
{Unto horses} (hippois). Associative-instrumental case, as is
the rule with homoios ( 1:15  2:18  4:6ff.  9:10,19  11:1  13:2,11 ), but with the accusative in  1:13  14:14 . So also
homoioi chrus(9369) (like gold) in this same verse. {Prepared for
war} (h(8874)oimasmenois eis polemon). Perfect passive participle
of hetoimaz(935c). This imagery of war-horses is like that in  Joe
2:4f . "The likeness of a locust to a horse, especially to a
horse equipped with armour, is so striking that the insect is
named in German _Heupferd_ (hay horse), and in Italian _cavalett_
a little horse" (Vincent). {As it were crowns} (hos stephanoi).
Not actual crowns, but what looked like crowns of gold, as
conquerors, as indeed they were ( 4:4  6:2  12:1  14:14 ). These
locusts of the abyss have another peculiar feature. {As men's
faces} (h(9373) pros(9370)a anthr(9370)(936e)). Human-looking faces in these
demonic locusts to give added terror, "suggesting the
intelligence and capacity of man" (Swete). Vincent actually sees
"a distinct resemblance to the human countenance in the face of
the locust."

經文:

啟示錄 9:8-9:8

註釋:

 {They had} (eichan). Imperfect active, late form as in  Mr
8:7  in place of the usual eichon. {As hair of women} (h(9373)
trichas gunaik(936e)). That is long hair ( 1Co 11:15 ), with no
reference to matters of sex at all, for anthr(9370)(936e) just before
is used, not andr(936e) (men as distinct from women). Perhaps the
antennae of the locust were unusually long. {As the teeth of
lions} (h(9373) leont(936e)). Supply hoi odontes (the teeth) before
leont(936e). See  Joe 1:6 . The locust is voracious.

經文:

啟示錄 9:9-9:9

註釋:

 1Th
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5' or engs='1Th
5'
經文:

啟示錄 9:10-9:10

註釋:

 1Jo
2:2 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
2' or engs='1Jo
2'
經文:

啟示錄 9:11-9:11

註釋:

 {As king} (asilea). Predicate accusative and anarthrous.
In  Pr 30:27  it is stated that the locust has no king, but this
is not true of these demonic locusts. Their king is "the angel of
the abyss (verse  1 ) whose orders they obey." {His name is}
(onoma aut(9369)). "Name to him" (nominative absolute and dative,
as in  6:8 ). {In Hebrew} (Ebraisti). Adverb as in  16:16  Joh
5:2  19:13,17,20  20:16 . Abadd(936e). A word almost confined to
the Wisdom books ( Job 26:6  Ps 88:11  Pr 15:11 ). It is rendered
in the LXX by Ap(936c)eia, destruction. {In the Greek tongue} (en
t(8869) Hell(886e)ik(8869)). With gl(9373)s(8869) or dialekt(9369) understood. As
usual, John gives both the Hebrew and the Greek. {Apollyon}
(Apollu(936e)). Present active masculine singular participle of
apollu(935c), meaning "destroying," used here as a name and so
"Destroyer," with the nominative case retained though in
apposition with the accusative onoma. The personification of
Abaddon occurs in the Talmud also. It is not clear whether by
Apollyon John means Death or Satan. Bousset even finds in the
name Apollyon an indirect allusion to Apollo, one of whose
symbols was the locust, a doubtful point assuredly.

經文:

啟示錄 9:12-9:12

註釋:

 {The first woe} (h(8820)ouai h(8820)mia). Note feminine gender
ascribed to the interjection ouai as in  11:14 , perhaps
because 	hlipsis is feminine, though we really do not know.
Note also the ordinal use of mia (one) like pr(9374)(885c) (first) as
in  6:1  Mr 16:2 . {There come yet two Woes} (erchetai eti duo
Ouai). Singular number erchetai instead of erchontai, though
duo ouai. It is true that ouai is an interjection and
indeclinable, but it is here used with duo and is feminine just
before, and not neuter.

經文:

啟示錄 9:13-9:13

註釋:

 {A voice} (ph(936e)(886e) mian). For mian as indefinite article
see  8:13 . Accusative case here after (886b)ousa, though genitive
in  8:13 , a distinction between sound and sense sometimes exists
( Ac 9:7  22:9 ), but not here as the words are clearly heard in
both instances. {From} (ek). "Out of the horns." Note triple
use of the genitive article here as of the accusative article
with this identical phrase in  8:3  ("the altar the golden the
one before the throne").

經文:

啟示錄 9:14-9:14

註釋:

 {One saying to the sixth angel} (legonta t(9369) hekt(9369)).
Accusative masculine singular active participle of leg(935c),
personifying ph(936e)(886e) and agreeing with it in case, though not in
gender. This voice speaks to the sixth angel (dative case).
{Which had the trumpet} (ho ech(936e) t(886e) salpigga). Nominative
case in apposition with aggel(9369) (dative), the same anomalous
phenomenon in  2:20  3:12  14:12 . Swete treats it as a
parenthesis, like  4:1  11:15 . {Loose} (luson). First aorist
(ingressive) active imperative of lu(935c), "let loose." Another
group of four angels ( 7:1 ) like  Ac 12:4 , described here
"which are bound" (	ous dedemenous). Perfect passive articular
participle of de(935c), evidently the leaders of the demonic
horsemen ( 9:15ff. ) as the four angels let loose the demonic
locusts ( 7:1ff. ), both quaternions agents of God's wrath. {At
the great river Euphrates} (epi t(9369) potam(9369) t(9369) megal(9369)
Euphrat(8869)). A regular epithet of the Euphrates ( 16:12  Ge
15:18  De 1:7 ). It rises in Armenia and joins the Tigris in
lower Babylonia, a total length of nearly 1800 miles, the eastern
boundary of the Roman Empire next to Parthia.

經文:

啟示錄 9:15-9:15

註釋:

 {Were loosed} (eluth(8873)an). First aorist (ingressive)
passive indicative of lu(935c), "were let loose." {Which had been
prepared} (hoi h(8874)oimasmenoi). Perfect passive articular
participle of hetoimaz(935c), to make ready (hetoimos), in a state
of readiness prepared by God ( 12:6  16:12  Mt 25:34 ). {For the
hour and day and month and year} (eis t(886e) h(9372)an kai h(886d)eran kai
m(886e)a kai eniauton). For this use of eis with h(8874)oimasmenon
see  2Ti 2:21 . All preparation over, the angels are waiting for
the signal to begin. {That they should kill} (hina
apoktein(9373)in). The same idiom in verse  5  about the fifth
trumpet, which brought torture. This one brings death.

經文:

啟示錄 9:16-9:16

註釋:

 {Of the horsemen} (	ou hippikou). Old adjective hippikos
from hippos (horse), equestrian. The neuter articular singular
	o hippikon, the horse or the cavalry in contrast with 	o
pezikon (the infantry), here only in N.T. For the numbers here
see on 氤:11; 7:4|.

經文:

啟示錄 9:17-9:17

註釋:

 {And thus I saw in the vision} (kai hout(9373) eidon en t(8869)
horasei). Nowhere else does John allude to his own vision,
though often in Dan. ( Da 7:2  8:2,15  9:21 ). {Having}
(echontas). Accusative masculine plural of ech(935c), probably
referring to the riders (	ous kath(886d)enous ep' aut(936e)) rather
than to the horses (	ous hippous). {Breastplates as of fire and
of hyacinth and of brimstone} (	h(9372)akas purinous kai
huakinthinous kai thei(9364)eis). There is no h(9373) (as) in the
Greek, but that is the idea of these three adjectives which are
only metaphors. Purinos is an old adjective (from pur, fire),
here only in N.T. Huakinthos is also an old word (from
huakinthos, hyacinth, then of a sapphire stone  Re 21:20 ), of
a red color bordering on black, here only in the N.T. Thei(9364)(8873)
is a late word (from 	heion, brimstone), sulphurous, here only
in N.T. {As the heads of lions} (h(9373) kephalai leont(936e)). This of
the horses, war-horses as always in the Bible except in  Isa
28:28 . These horses likewise have "fire and smoke and brimstone"
(	heion, brimstone, is old word, in N.T. only in Rev. and  Lu
17:29 ) proceeding (ekporeuetai, singular because it comes
first and the subjects afterwards) out of their mouths. Both
rider and horse are terrible.

經文:

啟示錄 9:18-9:18

註釋:

 {By these three plagues} (apo t(936e) tri(936e) pl(8867)(936e) tout(936e)).
Our "plague" or stroke from pl(8873)s(935c), as in  Lu 10:30  and often
in Rev. ( 9:20  11:6  15:1,6,8  16:9  18:4,8  22:18 ). It is used
in  Ex 11:1ff.  for the plagues in Egypt. The three plagues here
are the fire, smoke, and brimstone which proceed from the mouths
of the horses. {Was killed} (apektanth(8873)an). First aorist
passive indicative of apoktein(935c), to kill, third person plural,
though 	o triton is neuter singular because a collective idea.
See same form in verse  20 .

經文:

啟示錄 9:19-9:19

註釋:

 {The power} (h(8820)exousia). As in  2:26  6:8 . This power of
the horses is both in their mouths (because of the fire, smoke,
brimstone) and in their tails, "for their tails are like unto
serpents" (hai gar ourai aut(936e) homoiai ophesin).
Associative-instrumental case ophesin after homoiai. Ophis
is old word for snake ( Mt 7:10 ). {Having heads} (echousai
kephalas). Feminine present active participle of ech(935c),
agreeing with ourai (tails). {With them} (en autais).
Instrumental use of en. Surely dreadful monsters.

經文:

啟示錄 9:20-9:20

註釋:

 1Jo
5:21 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
5' or engs='1Jo
5'
經文:

啟示錄 9:21-9:21

註釋:

 {Of their murders} (ek t(936e) phon(936e) aut(936e)). Heads the list,
but "sorceries" (ek t(936e) pharmak(936e)) comes next. Pharmakon was
originally enchantment, as also in  Re 21:8 , then drug. For
pharmakia see  Re 18:34  Ga 5:20 . The two other items are
fornication (porneias) and thefts (klemmat(936e), old word from
klept(935c), here alone in N.T.), all four characteristic of demonic
worship and idolatry. See other lists of vices in  Mr 7:21  Ga
5:20  Re 21:8  22:15 . Our word "pharmacy" as applied to drugs
and medicine has certainly come a long way out of a bad
environment, but there is still a bad odour about "patent
medicines."

經文:

啟示錄 10:1-10:1

註釋:

 {Another strong angel} (allon aggelon ischuron). But the
seventh trumpet does not sound till  11:15 . This angel is not
one of the seven or of the four, but like the other strong angel
in  5:2  18:21  or the other angel in  14:6,15 . The sixth
trumpet of  9:13  ends in  9:21 . The opening of the seventh seal
was preceded by two visions (chapter  Re 7 ) and so here the
sounding of the seventh trumpet ( 11:15 ) is preceded by a new
series of visions ( 10:1-11:14 ). {Coming down out of heaven}
(katabainonta ek tou ouranou). Present active participle of
katabain(935c) picturing the process of the descent as in  20:1 
(cf.  3:12 ). {Arrayed with a cloud} (peribebl(886d)enon nephel(886e)).
Perfect passive participle of periball(935c) with accusative case
retained as in  7:9,13 . Not proof that this angel is Christ,
though Christ will come on the clouds ( 1:7 ) as he ascended on a
cloud ( Ac 1:9 ). God's chariot is in the clouds ( Ps 104:3 ),
but this angel is a special messenger of God's. {The rainbow}
(h(8820)iris). See  4:3  for this word. The construction here is
changed from the accusative to the nominative. {As the sun} (h(9373)
ho h(886c)ios). The very metaphor applied to Christ in  1:16 . {As
pillars of fire} (h(9373) stuloi puros). Somewhat like the metaphor
of Christ in  1:15 , but still no proof that this angel is
Christ. On stulos see  3:12  Ga 2:9 .

經文:

啟示錄 10:2-10:2

註釋:

 {And he had} (kai ech(936e)). This use of the participle in
place of eichen (imperfect) is like that in  4:7f.  12:2  19:12  21:12,14 , a Semitic idiom (Charles), or as if
katabain(936e) (nominative) had preceded in place of
katabainonta. {A little book} (iblaridion). A diminutive of
iblarion (papyri), itself a diminutive of iblion ( 5:1 )
and perhaps in contrast with it, a rare form in Hermas and  Re
10:2,9,10 . In  10:8  Tischendorf reads iblidarion, diminutive
of iblidion (Aristophanes) instead of iblion (Westcott and
Hort). The contents of this little book are found in  11:1-13 .
{Open} ((886e)e(9369)gmenon). See  Eze 2:9f . Perfect (triple
reduplication) passive participle of anoig(935c), in contrast to the
closed book in  5:1 . There also we have epi (upon) 	(886e)
dexian (the right hand), for it was a large roll, but here the
little open roll is held in the hand (en t(8869) cheiri),
apparently the left hand (verse  5 ). {He set} (eth(886b)en). First
aorist active indicative of 	ith(886d)i. The size of the angel is
colossal, for he bestrides both land and sea. Apparently there is
no special point in the right foot (	on poda ton dexion) being
on the sea (epi t(8873) thalass(8873)) and the left (	on eu(936e)umon)
upon the land (epi t(8873) g(8873)). It makes a bold and graphic
picture. {As a lion roareth} (h(9373)per le(936e) muk(8374)ai). Only
instance of h(9373)per in the Apocalypse, but h(9373) in the same
sense several times. Present middle indicative of mukaomai, an
old onomatopoetic word from mu or moo (the sound which a cow
utters), common for the lowing and bellowing of cattle, Latin
_mugire_, but in Theocritus for the roaring of a lion as here,
though in  1Pe 5:8  we have (9372)uomai. Homer uses mukaomai for
the clangour of the shield and Aristophanes for thunder. It
occurs here alone in the N.T. It does not mean that what the
angel said was unintelligible, only loud. Cf.  1:10  5:2,12  6:10  7:2,10 , etc.

經文:

啟示錄 10:3-10:3

註釋:

 {The seven thunders} (hai hepta brontai). A recognized
group, but not explained here, perhaps John assuming them to be
known. For rontai see already  4:5  6:1  8:5 . In  Ps 29  the
Lord speaks in the sevenfold voice of the thunderstorm upon the
sea. {Their voices} (	as heaut(936e) ph(936e)as). Cognate accusative
with elal(8873)an and heaut(936e) (reflexive) means "their own." In
 Joh 12:28  the voice of the Father to Christ was thought by some
to be thunder.

經文:

啟示錄 10:4-10:4

註釋:

 {I was about to write} ((886d)ellon graphein). Imperfect
active of mell(935c) (double augment as in  Joh 4:47  12:33  18:32 )
and the present (inchoative) active infinitive of graph(935c), "I
was on the point of beginning to write," as commanded in
 1:11,19 . {Seal up} (sphragison). Aorist active imperative of
sphragiz(935c), tense of urgency, "seal up at once." {And write them
not} (kai m(8820)auta graps(8869)s). Prohibition with m(885c) and the
ingressive aorist active subjunctive of graph(935c), "Do not begin
to write." It is idle to conjecture what was in the utterances.
Compare Paul's silence in  2Co 12:4 .

經文:

啟示錄 10:5-10:5

註釋:

 {Standing} (hest(9374)a). Second perfect active participle of
hist(886d)i (intransitive). John resumes the picture in verse  2 .
{Lifted up} ((8872)en). First aorist active indicative of air(935c),
to lift up. {To heaven} (eis ton ouranon). Toward heaven, the
customary gesture in taking a solemn oath ( Ge 14:22  De 32:40  Da 12:7 ).

經文:

啟示錄 10:6-10:6

註釋:

 {Sware} ((936d)osen). First aorist indicative of omnu(935c) to
swear. {By him that liveth} (en t(9369) z(936e)ti). This use of en
after omnu(935c) instead of the usual accusative ( Jas 5:12 ) is
like the Hebrew ( Mt 5:34,36 ). "The living one for ages of ages"
is a common phrase in the Apocalypse for God as eternally
existing ( 1:18  4:9,10  15:7 ). This oath proves that this angel
is not Christ. {Who created} (hos ektisen). First aorist active
indicative of ktiz(935c), a reference to God's creative activity as
seen in  Ge 1:1ff.  Ex 20:11  Isa 37:16  42:5  Ps 33:6  145:6 ,
etc. {That there shall be time no longer} (hoti chronos ouketi
estai). Future indicative indirect discourse with hoti. But
this does not mean that chronos (time), Einstein's "fourth
dimension" (added to length, breadth, height), will cease to
exist, but only that there will be no more delay in the
fulfillment of the seventh trumpet (verse  7 ), in answer to the
question, "How long?" ( 6:10 ).

經文:

啟示錄 10:7-10:7

註釋:

 1Co
2:1 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
2' or engs='1Co
2'
經文:

啟示錄 10:8-10:8

註釋:

 {Again speaking and saying} (palin lalousan kai legousan).
Present active predicate participles feminine accusative singular
agreeing with h(886e) (object of (886b)ousa), not with ph(936e)(885c)
(nominative) as most of the cursives have it (lalousa kai
legousa). Ordinarily it would be elalei kai elegen. See  4:1 
for like idiom. This is the voice mentioned in verse  4 . No
great distinction is to be made here between lale(935c) and leg(935c).
{Go, take} (Hupage labe). Present active imperative of hupag(935c)
and second aorist active imperative of lamban(935c). The use of
hupage (exclamation like ide) is common in N.T. ( Mt 5:24  8:4  19:21  Joh 4:16  9:7 ). Charles calls it a Hebraism
( 16:1 ). Note the repeated article here (	o) referring to the
open book in the hand of the angel (verse  2 ), only here
iblion is used, not the diminutive of iblaridion of verses
 2,9,10 .

經文:

啟示錄 10:9-10:9

註釋:

 {I went} (ap(886c)tha). Second aorist active indicative (-a
form), "I went away" (ap-) to the angel. John left his position
by the door of heaven ( 4:1 ). {That he should give} (dounai).
Second aorist active infinitive of did(936d)i, indirect command
after leg(936e) (bidding) for dos in the direct discourse (second
aorist active imperative second person singular). This use of
leg(935c) to bid occurs in  13:14  Ac 21:21 . {He saith} (legei).
Dramatic vivid present active indicative of leg(935c). {Take it and
eat it up} (labe kai kataphage auto). Second aorist (effective)
active imperatives of lamban(935c) and katesthi(935c) (perfective use
of kata, "eat down," we say "eat up"). See the same metaphor in
 Eze 3:1-3  Jer 15:6f . The book was already open and was not to
be read aloud, but to be digested mentally by John. {It shall
make thy belly bitter} (pikranei sou t(886e) koilian). Future
active of pikrain(935c), for which verb see  8:11  10:10  Col 3:19 .
There is no reference in Ezekiel or Jeremiah to the bitterness
here mentioned. {Sweet as honey} (gluku h(9373) meli). For the
sweetness of the roll see  Ps 19:10f.  119:103 . "Every
revelation of God's purposes, even though a mere fragment, a
iblaridion, is 'bitter-sweet,' disclosing judgement as well as
mercy" (Swete). Deep and bitter sorrows confront John as he comes
to understand God's will and way.

經文:

啟示錄 10:10-10:10

註釋:

 {I took--and ate it up} (elabon--kai katephagon auto).
Second aorist active indicatives of the same verbs to show John's
prompt obedience to the command. The order of the results is here
changed to the actual experience (sweet in the mouth, bitter in
the belly). The simplex verb ephagon (I ate) is now used, not
the compound katephagon (I ate up).

經文:

啟示錄 10:11-10:11

註釋:

 {They say} (legousin). Present active of vivid dramatic
action and the indefinite statement in the plural as in  13:16  16:15 . It is possible that the allusion is to the heavenly voice
( 10:4,8 ) and to the angel ( 10:9 ). {Thou must prophesy again}
(dei se palin proph(8874)eusai). Not a new commission ( 1:19 ),
though now renewed. C.f.  Eze 4:7  6:2  Jer 1:10 . The palin
(again) points to what has preceded and also to what is to come
in  11:15 . Here it is predictive prophecy (proph(8874)eusai, first
aorist active infinitive of proph(8874)eu(935c)). {Over} (epi). In the
case, in regard to as in  Joh 12:16  (with graph(935c)), not in the
presence of (epi with genitive,  Mr 13:9 ) nor against (epi
with the accusative,  Lu 22:53 ). For this list of peoples see
 5:9 , occurring seven times in the Apocalypse.
經文:

啟示錄 11:1-11:1

註釋:

 {A reed} (kalamos). Old word for a growing reed ( Mt
11:7 ) which grew in immense brakes in the Jordan valley, a
writer's reed ( 3Jo 1:7 ), a measuring-rod (here,  21:15f.  Eze
40:3-6  42:16-19 ). {Like a rod} (homoios rabd(9369)). See  2:27  Mr 6:8  for 
abdos. {And one said} (leg(936e)). "Saying" (present
active masculine participle of leg(935c)) is all that the Greek has.
The participle implies ed(936b)en (he gave), not edoth(885c), a harsh
construction seen in  Ge 22:20  38:24 , etc. {Rise and measure}
(egeire kai metr(8873)on). Present active imperative of egeir(935c)
(intransitive, exclamatory use as in  Mr 2:11 ) and first aorist
active imperative of metre(935c). In  Eze 42:2ff.  the prophet
measures the temple and that passage is probably in mind here.
But modern scholars do not know how to interpret this interlude
( 11:1-13 ) before the seventh trumpet ( 11:15 ). Some
(Wellhausen) take it to be a scrap from the Zealot party before
the destruction of Jerusalem, which event Christ also foretold
( Mr 13:2  Mt 24:2  Lu 21:6 ) and which was also attributed to
Stephen ( Ac 6:14 ). Charles denies any possible literal
interpretation and takes the language in a wholly eschatological
sense. There are three points in the interlude, however
understood: the chastisement of Jerusalem or Israel (verses
 1,2 ), the mission of the two witnesses ( 3-12 ), the rescue of
the remnant ( 13 ). There is a heavenly sanctuary ( 7:15  11:19  14:15 , etc.), but here 
aos is on earth and yet not the actual
temple in Jerusalem (unless so interpreted). Perhaps here it is
the spiritual ( 3:12  2Th 2:4  1Co 3:16f.  2Co 6:16  Eph
2:19ff. ). For altar (	husiast(8872)ion) see  8:3 . Perhaps
measuring as applied to "them that worship therein" (	ous
proskunountas en aut(9369)) implies a word like numbering, with an
allusion to the 144,000 in chapter 7 (a zeugma).

經文:

啟示錄 11:2-11:2

註釋:

 {The court} (	(886e) aul(886e)). The uncovered yard outside the
house. There were usually two, one between the door and the
street, the outer court, the other the inner court surrounded by
the buildings ( Mr 14:66 ). This is here the outer court, "which
is without the temple" (	(886e) ex(9374)hen tou naou), outside of the
sanctuary, but within the hieron where the Gentiles could go
(carrying out the imagery of the Jerusalem temple). {Leave
without} (ekbale ex(9374)hen). Literally, "cast without" (second
aorist active imperative of ekball(935c). {Do not measure it} (m(880a)aut(886e) metr(8873)(8869)s). Prohibition with m(885c) and the first aorist
active (ingressive) subjunctive of metre(935c). This outer court is
left to its fate. In Herod's temple the outer court was marked
off from the inner by "the middle wall of partition" (	o
mesoitoichon tou phragmou,  Eph 2:15 ), beyond which a Gentile
could not go. In this outer court was a house of prayer for the
Gentiles ( Mr 11:17 ), but now John is to cast it out and leave
to its fate (given to the Gentiles in another sense) to be
profaned by them. {They shall tread under foot} (pat(8873)ousin).
Future active of pate(935c), here to trample with contempt as in  Lu
21:24 , even the holy city ( Mt 4:5  Isa 48:2  Ne 11:1 ). Charles
thinks that only the heavenly city can be so called here
( 21:2,10  22:19 ) because of  11:8  (Sodom and Gomorrah). But
the language may be merely symbolical. See  Da 9:24 . {Forty and
two months} (m(886e)as tesserakonta kai duo). Accusative of extent
of time. This period in  Da 7:25  12:7 . It occurs in three forms
in the Apocalypse (forty-two months, here and  13:5 ; 1260 days,
 11:3  12:6 ; time, times and half a time or 3 1/2 years,  12:14 
and so in Daniel). This period, however its length may be
construed, covers the duration of the triumph of the Gentiles, of
the prophesying of the two witnesses, of the sojourn of the woman
in the wilderness.

經文:

啟示錄 11:3-11:3

註釋:

 {I will give} (d(9373)(935c)). Future active of did(936d)i. The
speaker may be God (Beckwith) or Christ (Swete) as in  2:13  21:6  or his angel representative ( 22:7,12ff. ). The idiom that
follows is Hebraic instead of either the infinitive after
did(936d)i as in  2:7  3:21  6:4  7:2  13:7,15  16:8  or hina
with the subjunctive ( 9:5  19:8 ) we have kai proph(8874)eusousin
(and they shall prophesy). {Unto my two witnesses} (	ois dusin
martusin mou). Dative case after d(9373)(935c). The article seems to
point to two well-known characters, like Elijah, Elisha, but
there is no possible way to determine who they are. All sorts of
identifications have been attempted. {Clothed} (peribl(886d)enous).
Perfect passive participle of periball(935c) as often before
( 7:9,13  10:1 , etc.). But Aleph A P Q here read the accusative
plural in -ous, while C has the nominative in -oi. Charles
suggests a mere slip for the nominative, but Hort suggests a
primitive error in early MSS. for the dative peribeblemenois
agreeing with martusin. {In sackcloth} (sakkous). Accusative
retained with this passive verb as in  7:9,13 . See  6:12  for
sakkos and also  Mt 3:4 . The dress suited the message ( Mt
11:21 ).

經文:

啟示錄 11:4-11:4

註釋:

 {The two olive trees} (hai duo elaiai). The article seems
to point to what is known. For this original use of elaia see
 Ro 11:17,24 . In  Zec 4:2,3,14  the lampstand or candlestick
(luchnia) is Israel, and the two olive trees apparently Joshua
and Zerubbabel, but John makes his own use of this symbolism.
Here the two olive trees and the candlesticks are identical.
{Standing} (hest(9374)es). Masculine perfect active participle
agreeing with houtoi instead of hest(9373)ai (read by P and
cursives) agreeing with elaiai kai luchniai, even though hai
(feminine plural article) be accepted before en(9370)ion tou kuriou
(before the Lord).

經文:

啟示錄 11:5-11:5

註釋:

 {If any man desireth to hurt them} (ei tis autous thelei
adik(8873)ai). Condition of first class, assumed to be true, with
ei and present active indicative (	helei) "if any one wants
to hurt" (adik(8873)ai first aorist active infinitive). It is
impossible to hurt these two witnesses till they do their work.
The fire proceeding out of the mouths of the witnesses is like
Elijah's experience ( 2Ki 1:10 ). {Devoureth} (katesthiei).
"Eats up (down)," present active indicative of katesthi(935c). {If
any man shall desire} (ei tis thel(8873)(8869)). Condition of third
class with ei and first aorist active subjunctive of 	hel(935c) as
in  Lu 9:13  Php 3:12 , but MSS. also read either 	helei
(present active indicative) or 	hel(8873)ei (future active,
condition of the first class like the preceding one. The
condition is repeated in this changed form, as less likely to
happen and with inevitable death (dei auton apoktanth(886e)ai, must
be killed, first aorist passive infinitive of apoktein(935c) with
dei).

經文:

啟示錄 11:6-11:6

註釋:

 {To shut the heaven} (kleisai ton ouranon). First aorist
active infinitive of klei(935c). As Elijah did by prayer ( 1Ki 17:1  Lu 4:25  Jas 5:17 ). {That it rain not} (hina m(8820)huetos
brech(8869)). Sub-final use of hina m(885c) with the present active
subjunctive of rech(935c), old verb to rain ( Mt 5:45 ), here with
huetos as subject. {During the days} (	as h(886d)eras).
Accusative of extent of time. In  Lu 4:25  Jas 5:17  the period
of the drouth in Elijah's time was three and a half years, just
the period here. {Of their prophecy} (	(8873) proph(8874)eias aut(936e)).
Not here the gift of prophecy ( 1Co 12:10 ) or a particular
prophecy or collection of prophecies ( Re 1:3  22:7f. ), but "the
execution of the prophetic office" (Swete). {Over the waters}
(epi t(936e) hudat(936e)). "Upon the waters." As Moses had ( Ex 7:20 ).
{Into blood} (eis haima). As already stated in  8:8  about the
third trumpet and now again here. {To smite} (pataxai). First
aorist active infinitive of patass(935c), used here with exousian
echousin (they have power), as is strephein (to turn). {With
every plague} (en pas(8869) pl(8867)(8869)). In  1Ki 4:8 , but with
reference to the plagues in Egypt. {As often as they shall
desire} (hosakis ean thel(8873)(9373)in). Indefinite temporal clause
with hosakis and modal ean (= an) and the first aorist
active subjunctive of 	hel(935c), "as often as they will."

經文:

啟示錄 11:7-11:7

註釋:

 {When they shall have finished} (hotan teles(9373)in). Merely
the first aorist active subjunctive of 	ele(935c) with hotan in an
indefinite temporal clause with no _futurum exactum_ (future
perfect), "whenever they finish." {The beast} (	o th(8872)ion).
"The wild beast comes out of the abyss" of  9:1f . He reappears
in  13:1  17:8 . In  Da 7:3  	h(8872)ia occurs. Nothing less than
antichrist will satisfy the picture here. Some see the
abomination of  Da 7:7  Mt 24:15 . Some see Nero _redivivus_. {He
shall make war with them} (poi(8873)ei met' aut(936e) polemon). This
same phrase occurs in  12:17  about the dragon's attack on the
woman. It is more the picture of single combat ( 2:16 ). {He
shall overcome them} (
ik(8873)ei autous). Future active of

ika(935c). The victory of the beast over the two witnesses is
certain, as in  Da 7:21 . {And kill them} (kai apoktenei).
Future active of apoktein(935c). Without attempting to apply this
prophecy to specific individuals or times, one can agree with
these words of Swete: "But his words cover in effect all the
martyrdoms and massacres of history in which brute force has
seemed to triumph over truth and righteousness."

經文:

啟示錄 11:8-11:8

註釋:

 1Co
2:14 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
2' or engs='1Co
2'
經文:

啟示錄 11:9-11:9

註釋:

 {Men from among} (ek t(936e) etc.). No word for "men"
(anthr(9370)oi or polloi) before ek t(936e), but it is implied
(partitive use of ek) as in  2:10  and often. See also  5:9  7:9  for this enumeration of races and nations. {Do look upon}
(lepousin). Present (vivid dramatic) active indicative of
lep(935c). {Three days and a half} (h(886d)eras treis kai h(886d)isu).
Accusative of extent of time. H(886d)isu is neuter singular though
h(886d)eras (days) is feminine as in  Mr 6:23  Re 12:14 . The days
of the gloating over the dead bodies are as many as the years of
the prophesying by the witnesses ( 11:3 ), but there is no
necessary correspondence (day for a year). This delight of the
spectators "is represented as at once fiendish and childish"
(Swete). {Suffer not} (ouk aphiousin). Present active
indicative of aphi(935c), late form for aphi(886d)i, as in  Mr 1:34 
(cf. apheis in  Re 2:20 ). This use of aphi(886d)i with the
infinitive is here alone in the Apocalypse, though common
elsewhere ( Joh 11:44,48  12:7  18:8 ). {Their dead bodies} (	a
pt(936d)ata aut(936e)). "Their corpses," plural here, though singular
just before and in verse  8 . {To be laid in a tomb} (	eth(886e)ai
eis mn(886d)a). First aorist passive of 	ith(886d)i, to place. Mn(886d)a
(old word from mimn(8873)k(935c), to remind) is a memorial, a monument,
a sepulchre, a tomb ( Mr 5:3 ). "In a country where burial
regularly took place on the day of death the time of exposure and
indignity would be regarded long" (Beckwith). See Tobit 1:18ff.

經文:

啟示錄 11:10-11:10

註釋:

 {They that dwell upon the earth} (hoi katoikountes epi t(8873)
g(8873)). Present active articular participle of katoike(935c), "an
Apocalyptic formula" (Swete) for the non-Christian world ( 3:10  6:10  8:13  13:8,12,14  17:8 ). {Rejoice} (chairousin). Present
active indicative of chair(935c). {Over them} (ep' autois).
Locative (or dative) case with epi as in  10:11 . {Make merry}
(euphrainontai). Present middle indicative of euphrain(935c), old
verb (eu, phr(886e), jolly mind), as in  Lu 15:32  Re 12:12  18:20 . Jubilant jollification over the cessation of the activity
of the two prophets. {They shall send gifts to one another}
(d(9372)a pempsousin all(886c)ois). Future active of pemp(935c) with
dative all(886c)ois. Just as we see it done in  Es 9:19,22  Ne
8:10,12 . {Tormented} (ebasanisan). First aorist active
indicative of asaniz(935c), for which see  9:5 . This is the reason
(hoti) of the fiendish glee of Jew and Gentile, who no longer
will have to endure the prophecies ( 11:3f. ) and dread miracles
( 11:5f. ) of these two prophets. "Such a sense of relief is
perhaps not seldom felt today by bad men when a preacher of
righteousness or a signal example of goodness is removed"
(Swete).

經文:

啟示錄 11:11-11:11

註釋:

 {After the} (meta tas etc.). The article 	as (the)
points back to  11:9 . {The breath of life from God} (pneuma
z(9388)s ek tou theou). This phrase (pneuma z(9388)s) occurs in  Ge
6:17  7:15,22  of the lower animals, but here there is clearly an
allusion to  Eze 37:5,10  (also  2Ki 13:21 ), where the dead
bones lived again. {Entered into them} (eis(886c)then en autois).
Second aorist active indicative of eiserchomai with en rather
than eis after it (cf.  Lu 9:46 ). The prophecy has here become
fact (change from future pempsousin to aorist eis(886c)then).
{They stood upon their feet} (est(8873)an epi tous podas aut(936e)).
Ingressive second aorist active indicative of hist(886d)i
(intransitive). Reference to  Eze 37:10 , but with the accusative
in place of genitive there after epi as in  2Ki 13:21 . {Fell
upon} (epepesen epi). Second aorist active indicative of
epipipt(935c) with repetition of epi. The same prophetic use of
the aorist as in eis(886c)then and est(8873)an. {Beheld}
(	he(9372)ountas). Present active articular participle of
	he(9372)e(935c). "The spectators were panic-stricken" (Swete).

經文:

啟示錄 11:12-11:12

註釋:

 {Saying} (legous(8873)). Present active predicate participle
of leg(935c), feminine genitive agreeing with ph(936e)(8873), though some
MSS. have the accusative ph(936e)(886e) legousan, either construction
being proper after (886b)ousan (they heard). There is a little
evidence for (886b)ousa like  12:10  (24 times in the book). Cf.
 Joh 5:28 . {Come up hither} (anabate h(9364)e). Second aorist
active imperative of anabain(935c). The ascension of these two
witnesses is in full view of their enemies, not just in the
presence of a few friends as with Christ ( Ac 1:9 ). {They went
up} (aneb(8873)an). Second aorist active indicative of anabain(935c).
{In the cloud} (en t(8869) nephel(8869)). As Jesus did ( Ac 1:9 ) and
like Elijah ( 2Ki 2:11 ). Their triumph is openly celebrated
before their enemies and is like the rapture described by Paul in
 1Th 4:17 .

經文:

啟示錄 11:13-11:13

註釋:

 {There was} (egeneto). "There came to pass" (second
aorist middle indicative of ginomai). Earthquakes are often
given as a symbol of great upheavals in social and spiritual
order (Swete) as in  Eze 37:7  38:19  Hag 2:6  Mr 13:8  Heb
12:26f.  Re 6:12  16:18 . {Fell} (epesen). Second aorist active
indicative of pipt(935c), to fall. Only the tenth (	o dekaton) of
the city fell. Cf. 	o triton (the third) in  8:7-12 , perhaps a
conventional number. {Were killed} (apektanth(8873)an). First
aorist passive indicative of apoktein(935c) as in  9:18 . {Seven
thousand persons} (onomata anthr(9370)(936e) chiliades hepta). This use
of onomata (names of men here) is like that in  3:4  Ac 1:15 
and occurs in the papyri (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 196f.).
{Were affrighted} (emphoboi egenonto). "Became terrified," old
adjective (en, phobos, fear) as in  Lu 24:5  Ac 10:4  24:5 . "A
general movement toward Christianity, induced by fear or
despair--a prediction fulfilled more than once in ecclesiastical
history" (Swete). {Gave glory} (ed(936b)an doxan). First aorist
active indicative of did(936d)i, when they saw the effect of the
earthquake, recognition of God's power ( Joh 9:24  Ac 12:23  Ro
4:20 ).

經文:

啟示錄 11:14-11:14

註釋:

 {Is past} (ap(886c)then). Second aorist active indicative of
aperchomai. See  9:12  for this use and  21:1,4 . The second
woe (h(8820)ouai h(8820)deutera) is the sixth trumpet ( 9:12 ) with the
two episodes attached ( 10:1-11:13 ). {The third woe} (h(8820)ouai
h(8820)trit(885c), feminine as in  9:12 ) is the seventh trumpet, which
now "cometh quickly" (erchetai tachu), for which phrase see
 2:16  3:11  22:7,12,20 . Usually pointing to the Parousia.

經文:

啟示錄 11:15-11:15

註釋:

 {There followed} (egenonto). "There came to pass." There
was silence in heaven upon the opening of the seventh seal
( 8:1 ), but here "great voices." Perhaps the great voices are
the z(9361) of  4:6ff.  5:8 . {Saying} (legontes). Construction
according to sense; legontes, masculine participle (not
legousai), though ph(936e)ai, feminine. John understood what was
said. {Is become} (egeneto). "Did become," prophetic use of the
aorist participle, already a fact. See egeneto in  Lu 19:9 .
{The kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ} (	ou kuriou h(886d)(936e)
kai tou Christou autou). Repeat h(8820)basileia from the
preceding. God the Father is meant here by kuriou (Lord), as
autou (his) shows. This is the certain and glorious outcome of
the age-long struggle against Satan, who wields the kingdom of
the world which he offered to Christ on the mountain for one act
of worship. But Jesus scorned partnership with Satan in the rule
of the world, and chose war, war up to the hilt and to the end.
Now the climax has come with Christ as Conqueror of the kingdom
of this world for his Father. This is the crowning lesson of the
Apocalypse. {He shall reign} (asileusei). Future active of
asileu(935c). God shall reign, but the rule of God and of Christ is
one as the kingdom is one ( 1Co 15:27 ). Jesus is the Lord's
Anointed ( Lu 2:26  9:20 ).

經文:

啟示錄 11:16-11:16

註釋:

 {The four and twenty elders} (hoi eikosi tessares
presbuteroi). They follow the living creatures (verse  15 , if
correctly interpreted) in their adoration, as in  4:9ff . Though
seated on thrones of their own ( 4:4 ), yet they fall upon their
faces in every act of worship to God and Christ ( 4:10  5:8,14  19:4 ). Here epi ta pros(9370)a aut(936e) (upon their faces) is added
as in  7:11  about the angels. The elders here again represent
the redeemed, as the four living creatures the forces of nature,
in the great thanksgiving here (eucharistoumen, present active
indicative of euchariste(935c)).

經文:

啟示錄 11:17-11:17

註釋:

 {O Lord God} (Kurie ho theos). Vocative form kurie and
nominative form ho theos (vocative in use). See  1:8  4:8  for
this combination with ho pantokrat(9372) (the Almighty). For ho (936e)
kai ho (886e) (which art and which wast) see  1:4,8  4:8  16:5 .
{Thou hast taken} (eil(8870)hes). Perfect active indicative of
lamban(935c), emphasizing the permanence of God's rule, "Thou hast
assumed thy power." {Didst reign} (ebasileusas). Ingressive
first aorist active indicative of asileu(935c), "Didst begin to
reign." See this combination of tenses (perfect and aorist)
without confusion in  3:3  5:7  8:5 .

經文:

啟示錄 11:18-11:18

註釋:

 {Were wroth} ((9372)gisth(8873)an). Ingressive first aorist
active indicative of orgizomai, "became angry." The culmination
of wrath against God ( 16:13ff.  20:8f. ). Cf.  Ps 2:1,5,12  99:1  Ac 4:25ff . John sees the hostility of the world against
Christ. {Thy wrath came} ((886c)then h(8820)org(8820)sou). Second aorist
active indicative of erchomai, the prophetic aorist again. The
_Dies Irae_ is conceived as already come. {The time of the dead
to be judged} (ho kairos t(936e) nekr(936e) krith(886e)ai). For this use of
kairos see  Mr 11:13  Lu 21:24 . By "the dead" John apparently
means both good and bad ( Joh 5:25  Ac 24:21 ), coincident with
the resurrection and judgment ( Mr 4:29  Re 14:15ff.  20:1-15 ).
The infinitive krith(886e)ai is the first aorist passive of
krin(935c), epexegetic use with the preceding clause, as is true
also of dounai (second aorist active infinitive of did(936d)i),
to give. {Their reward} (	on misthon). This will come in the
end of the day ( Mt 20:8 ), from God ( Mt 6:1 ), at the Lord's
return ( Re 22:12 ), according to each one's work ( 1Co 3:8 ).
{The small and the great} (	ous mikrous kai tous megalous). The
accusative here is an anacoluthon and fails to agree in case with
the preceding datives after dounai ton misthon, though some
MSS. have the dative 	ois mikrois, etc. John is fond of this
phrase "the small and the great" ( 13:16  19:5,18  20:12 ). {To
destroy} (diaphtheirai). First aorist active infinitive of
diaphtheir(935c), carrying on the construction with kairos. Note
	ous diaphtheirontas, "those destroying" the earth (corrupting
the earth). There is a double sense in diaphtheir(935c) that
justifies this play on the word. See  19:2 . In  1Ti 6:5  we have
those "corrupted in mind" (diaphtharmenoi ton noun). God will
destroy the destroyers ( 1Co 3:16f. ).

經文:

啟示錄 11:19-11:19

註釋:

 1Ki
8:6 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ki
8' or engs='1Ki
8'
經文:

啟示錄 12:1-12:1

註釋:

 {A great sign} (s(886d)eion mega). The first of the visions to
be so described ( 13:3  15:1 ), and it is introduced by (9370)hth(885c)
as in  11:19  12:3 , not by meta tauto or by eidon or by
eidon kai idou as heretofore. This "sign" is really a 	eras
(wonder), as it is so by association in  Mt 24:24  Joh 4:48  Ac
2:22  5:12 . The element of wonder is not in the word s(886d)eion
as in 	eras, but often in the thing itself as in  Lu 21:11  Joh
9:16  Re 13:13ff.  15:1  16:14  19:20 . {A woman} (gun(885c)).
Nominative case in apposition with s(886d)eion. "The first 'sign in
heaven' is a Woman--the earliest appearance of a female figure in
the Apocalyptic vision" (Swete). {Arrayed with the sun}
(peribebl(886d)en(8820)ton h(886c)ion). Perfect passive participle of
periball(935c), with the accusative retained as so often (9 times)
in the Apocalypse. Both Charles and Moffatt see mythological
ideas and sources behind the bold imagery here that leave us all
at sea. Swete understands the Woman to be "the church of the Old
Testament" as "the Mother of whom Christ came after the flesh.
But here, as everywhere in the Book, no sharp dividing line is
drawn between the Church of the Old Testament and the Christian
Society." Certainly she is not the Virgin Mary, as verse  17 
makes clear. Beckwith takes her to be "the heavenly
representative of the people of God, the _ideal_ Zion, which, so
far as it is embodied in concrete realities, is represented alike
by the people of the Old and the New Covenants." John may have in
mind  Isa 7:14  ( Mt 1:23  Lu 1:31 ) as well as  Mic 4:10  Isa
26:17f.  66:7  without a definite picture of Mary. The metaphor
of childbirth is common enough ( Joh 16:21  Ga 4:19 ). The figure
is a bold one with the moon "under her feet" (hupokat(9320)t(936e) pod(936e)
aut(8873)) and "a crown of twelve stars" (stephanos aster(936e)
d(9364)eka), a possible allusion to the twelve tribes ( Jas 1:1  Re
21:12 ) or to the twelve apostles ( Re 21:14 ).

經文:

啟示錄 12:2-12:2

註釋:

 1Th
5:3 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
5' or engs='1Th
5'
經文:

啟示錄 12:3-12:3

註釋:

 {Another sign} (allo s(886d)eion). "A second tableau following
close upon the first and inseparable from it" (Swete). {And
behold} (kai idou). As often ( 4:1  6:2,5,8 , etc.). {A great
red dragon} (drak(936e) megas purros). Homer uses this old word
(probably from derkomai, to see clearly) for a great monster
with three heads coiled like a serpent that ate poisonous herbs.
The word occurs also in Hesiod, Pindar, Eschylus. The Babylonians
feared a seven-headed hydra and Typhon was the Egyptian dragon
who persecuted Osiris. One wonders if these and the Chinese
dragons are not race memories of conflicts with the diplodocus
and like monsters before their disappearance. Charles notes in
the O.T. this monster as the chief enemy of God under such title
as Rahab ( Isa 51:9f.  Job 26:12f. ), Behemoth ( Job 40:15-24 ),
Leviathan ( Isa 27:1 ), the Serpent ( Am 9:2ff. ). In  Ps 74:13 
we read of "the heads of the dragons." On purros (red) see
 6:4 . Here ( 12:9 ) and in  20:2  the great dragon is identified
with Satan. See  Da 7  for many of the items here, like the ten
horns ( Da 7:7 ) and hurling the stars ( Da 8:10 ). The word
occurs in the Apocalypse alone in the N.T. {Seven diadems}
(hepta diad(886d)ata). Old word from diade(935c) (to bind around), the
blue band marked with white with which Persian kings used to bind
on the tiara, so a royal crown in contrast with stephanos
(chaplet or wreath like the Latin _corona_ as in  2:10 ), in N.T.
only here,  13:1  19:12 . If Christ as Conqueror has "many
diadems," it is not strange that Satan should wear seven (ten in
 13:1 ).

經文:

啟示錄 12:4-12:4

註釋:

 {His tail} (h(8820)oura autou). See  9:10,19 . {Draweth}
(surei). Present active indicative of sur(935c), old verb, to
drag, here alone in the Apocalypse, but see  Joh 21:8 . {The
third part of the stars} (	o triton t(936e) aster(936e)). Like a great
comet is this monster. See  Da 8:10 . Perhaps only the third is
meant to soften the picture as in  Re 8:7f . {Did cast them}
(ebalen autous). Second aorist active indicative. Charles takes
this to refer to a war in heaven between the good angels and
Satan, with the fall of some angels ( Jude 1:6 ). But John may
have in mind the martyrs before Christ ( Heb 11:32f. ) and after
Christ's ascension ( Mt 23:35 ). {Stood} (est(886b)en). Imperfect
active of a late verb, st(886b)(935c), from the perfect hest(886b)a of
hist(886d)i, graphic picture of the dragon's challenge of the woman
who is about to give birth. {When she was delivered} (hotan
tek(8869)). Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and the second
aorist active subjunctive of 	ikt(935c), "whenever she gives birth."
{That he might devour} (hina kataphag(8869)). Purpose clause with
hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of katesthi(935c),
to eat up (down). Cf.  Jer 28:34 . This is what Pharaoh did to
Israel ( Ex 1:15-22  Ps 85:13  Isa 27:1  51:9  Eze 29:3 ).
Precisely so the devil tried to destroy the child Jesus on his
birth.

經文:

啟示錄 12:5-12:5

註釋:

 {She was delivered of a son} (eteken huion). Literally,
"she bore a son" (second aorist active indicative of 	ikt(935c)). {A
man child} (arsen). So A C with the neuter 	eknon or
paidion in mind, as often in O.T. (eteken arsen,  Ex 1:16ff.  2:2  Le 12:2,7  Isa 66:7  Jer 20:15 , etc.), but P and some
cursives read arsena (masculine accusative), as in verse  13 
(	on arsena), while Aleph Q have arrena. The word is old
(either ars(886e) or arr(886e)), as in  Mt 19:4 , only in this
chapter in the Apocalypse. It is really redundant after huion
(son), as in Tob. 6:12 (Aleph). {Who is to rule all the nations
with a rod of iron} (hos mellei poimainein panta ta ethn(8820)en
rabd(9369) sid(8872)(8369)). See  2:27  for these words (from  Ps 2:9 )
applied there to victorious Christians also, and in  19:15  to
the triumphant Christian. His rule will go beyond the Jews ( Mt
2:6 ). There is here, of course, direct reference to the birth of
Jesus from Mary, who thus represented in her person this "ideal
woman" (God's people). {Was caught unto God} (h(8872)pasth(885c)). First
aorist passive indicative of harpaz(935c), old verb for seizing or
snatching away, as in  Joh 10:12 , here alone in the Apocalypse.
Reference to the ascension of Christ, with omission of the
ministry, crucifixion, and resurrection of Christ because he is
here simply showing that "the Dragon's vigilance was futile"
(Swete). "The Messiah, so far from being destroyed, is caught up
to a share in God's throne" (Beckwith).

經文:

啟示錄 12:6-12:6

註釋:

 {Fled into the wilderness} (ephugen eis t(886e) er(886d)on).
Second aorist active indicative of pheug(935c). Here, of course, not
Mary, but "the ideal woman" (God's people) of the preceding
verses, who fled under persecution of the dragon. God's people do
not at once share the rapture of Christ, but the dragon is unable
to destroy them completely. The phrases used here seem to be
reminiscent of  De 8:2ff.  (wanderings of Israel in the
wilderness),  1Ki 17:2f.  and  19:3f.  (Elijah's flight), I Macc.
經文:

啟示錄 12:7-12:7

註釋:

 {There was war in heaven} (egeneto polemos en t(9369)
ouran(9369)). "There came to be war in heaven" (egeneto, not
(886e)). "Another 	ableau, not a s(886d)eion (vv.  1,3 ), but
consequent upon the two s(886d)eia which precede it. The birth and
rapture of the Woman's Son issue in a war which invades the
epourania" (Swete). The reference is not to the original
rebellion of Satan, as Andreas held. As the coming of Christ
brought on fresh manifestations of diabolic power ( Mr 1:13  Lu
22:3,31  Joh 12:31  14:30  16:11 ), just so Christ's return to
heaven is pictured as being the occasion of renewed attacks
there. We are not to visualize it too literally, but certainly
modern airplanes help us to grasp the notion of battles in the
sky even more than the phalanxes of storm-clouds (Swete). John
even describes this last conflict as in heaven itself. Cf.  Lu
10:18  1Ki 22:1ff.  Job 1  2  Zec 3:1ff . {Michael and his
angels} (ho Micha(886c) kai hoi aggeloi autou). The nominative here
may be in apposition with polemos, but it is an abnormal
construction with no verb, though egeneto (arose) can be
understood as repeated. Michael is the champion of the Jewish
people ( Da 10:13,21  12:1 ) and is called the archangel in  Jude
9 . {Going forth to war} (	ou polem(8873)ai). This genitive
articular infinitive is another grammatical problem in this
sentence. If egeneto (arose) is repeated as above, then we have
the infinitive for purpose, a common enough idiom. Otherwise it
is anomalous, not even like  Ac 10:25 . {With the dragon} (meta
tou drakontos). On the use of meta with poleme(935c) see  2:16  13:4  17:14  (nowhere else in N.T.). The devil has angels under
his command ( Mt 25:41 ) and preachers also ( 2Co 11:14f. ).
{Warred} (epolem(8873)en). Constative aorist active indicative of
poleme(935c), picturing the whole battle in one glimpse.

經文:

啟示錄 12:8-12:8

註釋:

 {And they prevailed not} (kai ouk ischusan). Here kai
equals "and yet" or "but." A few MSS. read the singular
ischusen like epolem(8873)en, but wrongly so. {Neither was their
place found any more} (oude topos heureth(8820)aut(936e) eti). First
aorist passive indicative of heurisk(935c), to find. Probably
aut(936e) is the objective genitive (place for them), just as in
 20:11  autois (dative, for them) is used with 	opos ouch
heureth(885c). The phrase occurs in  Da 2:35  Theod. and  Zec 10:10 .
The dragon is finally expelled from heaven (cf.  Job 1:6 ),
though to us it seems a difficult conception to think of Satan
having had access to heaven.

經文:

啟示錄 12:9-12:9

註釋:

 1Jo
1:8 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
1' or engs='1Jo
1'
經文:

啟示錄 12:10-12:10

註釋:

 {A great voice saying} (ph(936e)(886e) megal(886e) legousan).
Accusative after (886b)ousa in this phrase as in  5:11  10:4  14:2  18:4 , but the genitive ph(936e)(8873) legous(8873) in  11:12  14:13 . We
are not told whence this voice or song comes, possibly from one
of the twenty-four elders (Swete) or some other heavenly beings
( 11:15 ) who can sympathize with human beings ( 19:10 ), the
martyrs in heaven (Charles). {Now is come} (arti egeneto).
Arti ( Joh 13:33 ) shows how recent the downfall of Satan here
proleptically pictured as behind us in time (aorist tense
egeneto). {The salvation} (h(8820)s(9374)(8872)ia). Here "the victory" as
in  7:10  19:1 . {The power} (h(8820)dunamis). Gods power over the
dragon (cf.  7:12  11:17  19:1 ). {The kingdom} (h(8820)basileia).
"The empire of God" as in  11:15 . {The authority of his Christ}
(h(8820)exousia tou Christou autou). Which Christ received from the
Father ( Mt 28:18  Joh 17:2 ). See  11:15  ( Ps 2:2 ) for "his
Anointed." {The accuser} (ho kat(8867)(9372)). The regular form,
kat(8867)oros, occurs in  Joh 8:10  Ac 23:30,35  25:16,18  and in
many MSS. here in  Re 12:10 , but A reads kat(8867)(9372), which
Westcott and Hort accept. It was once considered a Greek
transliteration of a Hebrew word, but Deissmann (_Light_, etc.,
p. 93f.) quotes it from a vernacular magical papyrus of the
fourth century A.D. with no sign of Jewish or Christian
influence, just as diak(936e) appears as a vernacular form of
diakonos. Only here is the word applied to Satan in the N.T. In
late Judaism Satan is the accuser, and Michael the defender, of
the faithful. {Of our brethren} (	(936e) adelph(936e) h(886d)(936e)). The
saints still on earth battling with Satan and his devices. {Which
accuseth them} (ho kat(8867)or(936e) autous). Articular present active
participle of kat(8867)ore(935c), old verb, to accuse, usually with the
genitive of the person ( Joh 5:45 ), but here with the
accusative. This is the devil's constant occupation ( Job
1:6f. ). {Day and night} (h(886d)eras kai nuktos). Genitive of
time. "By day and by night."

經文:

啟示錄 12:11-12:11

註釋:

 {They overcame him} (autoi enik(8873)an). First aorist active
indicative of 
ika(935c), the verb used by Jesus of his own victory
( Joh 16:33 ) and about him ( Re 3:21  5:5 ). "The victory of the
martyrs marks the failure of Satan's endeavours" (Swete).
{Because of the blood of the Lamb} (dia to haima tou arniou).
As in  1:5  5:6,9  7:14 . The blood of Christ is here presented
by dia as the ground for the victory and not the means, as by
en in  1:5  5:9 . Both ideas are true, but dia with the
accusative gives only the reason. The blood of Christ does
cleanse us from sin ( Joh 1:29  1Jo 1:7 ). Christ conquered
Satan, and so makes our victory possible ( Lu 11:21f.  Heb
2:18 ). "Thus the Lamb is the true sun(8867)oros (like Michael) of
the New Israel, its parakl(8874)os pros ton patera ( 1Jo 2:1 )"
(Swete). {Because of the Word of their testimony} (dia ton logon
t(8873) marturias aut(936e)). The same use of dia, "because of their
testimony to Jesus" as in John's own case in  1:9 . These martyrs
have been true to their part. {They loved not their life even
unto death} (ouk (8867)ap(8873)an ten psuch(886e) aut(936e) achri thanatou).
First aorist active indicative of agapa(935c). They did resist "unto
blood" (mechris haimatos  Heb 12:4 ) and did not put their own
lives before loyalty to Christ. There is a direct reference to
the words of Jesus in  Joh 12:25  as illustrated also in  Mr
8:35  Mt 10:39  16:25  Lu 9:24  17:33 . Paul's own example is
pertinent ( Ac 21:13  Php 1:20ff. ). Jesus himself had been
"obedient unto death" ( Php 2:8 ). These martyrs seem to be still
alive on earth, but their heroism is proleptically pictured.

經文:

啟示錄 12:12-12:12

註釋:

 {Therefore} (dia touto). "For this reason" as in  7:15  18:8  (15 times in John's Gospel, Charles notes). It points back
to verse  10 . {Rejoice} (euphrainesthe). Present middle
imperative of euphrain(935c) as in  11:10  18:20 . {O heavens} (hoi
ouranoi). Plural here alone in the Apocalypse, though common
elsewhere in the N.T. Satan is no longer in the heavens. {They
that dwell therein} (hoi en autois sk(886e)ountes). Present active
articular participle of sk(886e)o(935c) (see  7:15  13:6 ) to dwell
(tabernacle) as of Christ in  Joh 1:14  and of God in  Re 21:3 .
The inhabitants of heaven (angels and saints) have cause to
rejoice, and earth reason to mourn. {Woe for the earth and for
the sea} (ouai t(886e) g(886e) kai t(886e) thalassan). The accusative after
ouai as in  8:13 , but nominative in  18:10,16,19  in place of
the usual dative ( Mt 11:21  18:7 , etc.). {Is gone down}
(kateb(885c)). Second aorist (effective) active indicative of
katabain(935c), "did go down." {But a short time} (oligon kairon).
Accusative of extent of time, "a little time." The devil's
departure from his warfare in the heavens reveals (eid(9373),
knowing, perfect active participle) to him that his time for
doing harm to men is limited, and hence his great wrath
(	humon, boiling rage).

經文:

啟示錄 12:13-12:13

註釋:

 {He persecuted} (edi(9378)en). First aorist active participle
of di(936b)(935c), to pursue, to chase, hostile pursuit here as in  Mt
5:10f.  10:23 , etc. John now, after the "voice" in  10-13 ,
returns to the narrative in verse  9 . The child was caught away
in verse  5 , and now the woman (the true Israel on earth) is
given deadly persecution. Perhaps events since A.D. 64 (burning
of Rome by Nero) amply illustrated this vision, and they still do
so. {Which} (h(8874)is). "Which very one."

經文:

啟示錄 12:14-12:14

註釋:

 {There were given} (edoth(8873)an). As in  8:2  9:1,3 . {The
two wings of the great eagle} (hai duo pteruges tou aetou tou
megalou). Not the eagle of  8:13 , but the generic use of the
article. Every eagle had two wings. Probably here, as in  Mt
24:28 , the griffon or vulture rather than the true eagle is
pictured. For the eagle in the O.T. see  Ex 19:4  Isa 40:31  Job
9:26  Pr 24:54 . {That she might fly} (hina pet(8874)ai). Purpose
clause with hina and present middle subjunctive of petomai,
old verb, to fly, in N.T. only in the Apocalypse ( 4:7  8:13  12:14  14:6  19:17 ). Resumption of the details in verse  6 
(which see) about the "wilderness," her "place," the redundant
ekei with hopou, the "time and times, and half a time"
(kairon kai kairous kai h(886d)isu), 1260 days, but with
	rephetai (present passive indicative) instead of 	reph(9373)in
(general plural of the present active subjunctive), and with the
addition of "from the face of the serpent" (apo pros(9370)ou tou
ophe(9373)), because the serpent rules the earth for that period.
"To the end of the present order the Church dwells in the
wilderness" (Swete), and yet we must carry on for Christ.

經文:

啟示錄 12:15-12:15

註釋:

 {Water as a flood} (hud(9372) h(9373) potamon). "Water as a
river," accusative case after ebalen (cast). The serpent could
not follow the woman or stop her flight and so sought to drown
her. {That he might cause her to be carried away by the stream}
(hina aut(886e) potamophor(8874)on poi(8873)(8869)). Purpose clause with hina
and the first aorist active subjunctive of poie(935c). For this use
of poie(935c) see  17:16 . This compound verbal potamophor(8874)on in
the predicate accusative (potamos, river, phor(8874)on from
phore(935c), to bear) was not coined by John, but occurs in a
papyrus of B.C. 110 and in several others after N.T. times. It
means simply "carried away by the river."

經文:

啟示錄 12:16-12:16

註釋:

 {Helped the woman} (ebo(8874)h(8873)en t(8869) gunaiki). First aorist
active indicative of o(8874)he(935c), old verb with the dative as in
 Heb 2:18 , which see. Herodotus tells of the Lycus disappearing
underground near Colossae. But this vivid symbol is not dependent
on historical examples. {Swallowed up} (katepien). Second
aorist active indicative of katapin(935c), literally "drank down."

經文:

啟示錄 12:17-12:17

註釋:

 {Waxed wroth} ((9372)gisth(885c)). First aorist (ingressive)
passive indicative of orgizomai, "became angry." {With the
woman} (epi t(8869) gunaiki). "At the woman," "because of the
woman." {Went away} (ap(886c)then). "Went off" in his rage to make
war with the scattered followers of the Lamb not in the
wilderness, perhaps an allusion to  Ge 3:15 . The devil carries
on relentless war with all those "which keep the commandments of
God and hold the testimony of Jesus" (	(936e) t(8872)ount(936e) tas entolas
tou theou kai echont(936e) t(886e) marturian I(8873)ou). These two marks
excite the wrath of the devil then and always. Cf.  1:9  6:9  14:12  19:10  20:4 .


經文:

啟示錄 13:1-13:1

註釋:

 {He stood} (estath(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of
hist(886d)i (intransitive), as in  8:3 . "He stopped" on his way to
war with the rest of the woman's seed. P Q read here estath(886e)
(I stood) when it has to be connected with chapter  Re 13 . {Upon
the sand} (epi t(886e) ammon). The accusative case as in  7:1  8:3 , etc. Ammos is an old word for sand, for innumerable
multitude in  20:8 .

{Out of the sea} (ek t(8873) thalass(8873)). See  11:7  for "the beast
coming up out of the abyss." The imagery comes from  Da 7:3 . See
also  Re 17:8 . This "wild beast from the sea," as in  Da
7:17,23 , is a vast empire used in the interest of brute force.
This beast, like the dragon ( 12:3 ), has ten horns and seven
heads, but the horns are crowned, not the heads. The Roman Empire
seems to be meant here ( 17:9,12 ). On "diadems" (diad(886d)ata)
see  12:3 , only ten here, not seven as there. {Names of
blasphemy} (onomata blasph(886d)ias). See  17:3  for this same
phrase. The meaning is made plain by the blasphemous titles
assumed by the Roman emperors in the first and second centuries,
as shown by the inscriptions in Ephesus, which have 	heos
constantly applied to them.

經文:

啟示錄 13:2-13:2

註釋:

 {Like unto a leopard} (homoion pardalei).
Associative-instrumental case of pardalis, old word for
panther, leopard, here only in N.T. The leopard (leo, pard) was
considered a cross between a panther and a lioness. {As the feet
of a bear} (h(9373) arkou). Old word, also spelled arktos, here
only in N.T. From  Da 7:4 . No word in the Greek for "feet"
before "bear." {As the mouth of a lion} (h(9373) stoma leontos).
From  Da 7:4 . This beast combines features of the first three
beasts in  Da 7:2ff . The strength and brutality of the
Babylonian, Median, and Persian empires appeared in the Roman
Empire. The catlike vigilance of the leopard, the slow and
crushing power of the bear, and the roar of the lion were all
familiar features to the shepherds in Palestine (Swete). {The
dragon gave him} (ed(936b)en aut(9369) ho drak(936e)). First aorist active
indicative of did(936d)i (to give) and dative case aut(9369) (the
beast). The dragon works through this beast. The beast is simply
Satan's agent. Satan claimed this power to Christ ( Mt 4:9  Lu
4:6 ) and Christ called Satan the prince of this world ( Joh
12:31  14:30  16:11 ). So the war is on.

經文:

啟示錄 13:3-13:3

註釋:

 {And I saw} (kai). No verb (eidon) in the old MSS., but
clearly understood from verse  2 . {As though it had been
smitten} (h(9373) esphagmen(886e)). Perfect passive participle of
sphaz(935c), as in  5:6 , accusative singular agreeing with mian
(one of the heads), object of eidon understood, "as though
slain" (so the word means in seven other instances in the book).
There is a reference to the death and new life of the Lamb in
 5:6 . {And his death-stroke was healed} (kai h(8820)pl(8867)(8820)autou
etherapeuth(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of 	herapeu(935c).
"The stroke of death" (that led to death). Apparently refers to
the death of Nero in June 68 A.D. by his own hand. But after his
death pretenders arose claiming to be Nero _redivivus_ even as
late as 89 (Tacitus, _Hist_. i. 78, ii. 8, etc.). John seems to
regard Domitian as Nero over again in the persecutions carried on
by him. The distinction is not always preserved between the beast
(Roman Empire) and the seven heads (emperors), but in  17:10  the
beast survives the loss of five heads. Here it is the
death-stroke of one head, while in verses  12,14  the beast
himself receives a mortal wound. {Wondered after the beast}
(ethaumasth(8820)opis(9320)tou th(8872)iou). First aorist passive
(deponent) indicative of 	haumaz(935c), to wonder at, to admire, as
in  17:8 . For this pregnant use of opis(935c) see  Joh 12:9  Ac
5:37  20:30  1Ti 5:15 . "All the earth wondered at and followed
after the beast," that is Antichrist as represented by Domitian
as Nero _redivivus_. But Charles champions the view that
Caligula, not Nero, is the head that received the death-stroke
and recovered and set up statues of himself for worship, even
trying to do it in Jerusalem.

經文:

啟示錄 13:4-13:4

註釋:

 {They worshipped the dragon} (prosekun(8873)an t(9369) drakonti).
First aorist active indicative of proskune(935c), with dative case
drakonti (from drak(936e)). They really worshipped Satan (the
dragon) when "they worshipped the beast" (prosekun(8873)an t(9369)
th(8872)i(9369)) or any one of the heads (like Caligula, Nero, Domitian)
of the beast. The beast is merely the tool of the devil for
worship. Recall the fact that the devil even proposed that Jesus
worship him. Emperor-worship, like all idolatry, was
devil-worship. The same thing is true today about self-worship
(humanism or any other form of it). {Who is like unto the beast?}
(	is homoios t(9369) th(8872)i(9369);). Associative-instrumental case after
homoios. An echo, perhaps parody, of like language about God in
 Ex 15:11  Ps 35:10  113:5 . "The worship of such a monster as
Nero was indeed a travesty of the worship of God" (Swete). {And
who is able to war with him?} (kai tis dunatai polem(8873)ai met'
autou;). Worship of the devil and the devil's agent is justified
purely on the ground of brute force. It is the doctrine of
Nietzsche that might makes right.

經文:

啟示錄 13:5-13:5

註釋:

 {There was given to him} (edoth(8820)aut(9369)). First aorist
passive indicative of did(936d)i, to give, as in next line and
verse  7 . Perhaps a reference to ed(936b)en (he gave) in verse
 4 , where the dragon (Satan) gave the beast his power. The
ultimate source of power is God, but the reference seems to be
Satan here. {Speaking great things and blasphemies} (laloun
megala kai blasph(886d)ias). Present active participle of lale(935c),
agreeing with stoma (nominative neuter singular and subject of
edoth(885c)). The words are like Daniel's description of the Little
Horn ( 7:8,20,25 ) and like the description of Antiochus
Epiphanes (I Macc. 1:24). Cf.  2Pe 2:11 . {To continue}
(poi(8873)ai). First aorist active infinitive (epexegetic use) of
poie(935c), either in the sense of working (signs), as in  Da
8:12-14 , with the accusative of duration of time (m(886e)as
months), or more likely in the sense of doing time, with m(886e)as
as the direct object as in  Mt 20:12  Ac 20:3  Jas 4:13 .

經文:

啟示錄 13:6-13:6

註釋:

 {For blasphemies} (eis blasph(886d)ias). "For the purpose of
blasphemies." {Against God} (pros ton theon). "Face to face
with God" in sheer defiance, like Milton's picture of Satan in
_Paradise Lost_. See  Da 7:25  8:10 . The aorist (886e)oixen is
probably constative, for he repeated the blasphemies, though the
phrase (anoig(935c) to stoma, to open the mouth) is normally
ingressive of the beginning of an utterance ( Mt 5:2  Ac 8:35 ).
This verse explains verse  5 . The Roman emperors blasphemously
assumed divine names in public documents. They directed their
blasphemy against heaven itself ("his tabernacle," 	(886e) sk(886e)(886e)
autou,  7:15  12:12  21:3 ) and against "them that dwell in the
heaven" (	ous en t(9369) ouran(9369) sk(886e)ountas), the same phrase of
 12:12  (either angels or the redeemed or both).

經文:

啟示錄 13:7-13:7

註釋:

 {To make war with the saints and to overcome them} (poi(8873)ai
polemon meta t(936e) hagi(936e) kai nik(8873)ai autous). This clause with
two epexegetical first aorist active infinitives (polem(8873)ai and

ik(8873)ai) is omitted in A C P, but probably by homoeoteleuton
(like ending) because of the repetition of edoth(885c). The words
seem to come from  Da 7:21,23 . There was no escape from the
beast's rule in the Mediterranean world. See  5:9  for the
phrases here used, there for praise to the Lamb.

經文:

啟示錄 13:8-13:8

註釋:

 {Shall worship him} (proskun(8873)ousin auton). Future active
of proskune(935c) with the accusative here as some MSS. in  13:4 
(	o th(8872)ion), both constructions in this book. {Whose}
(hou--autou). Redundant use of genitive autou (his) with
hou (whose) as common in this book, and singular instead of
plural h(936e) with antecedent pantes (all, plural), thus calling
attention to the responsibility of the individual in
emperor-worship. {Hath not been written} (ou gegraptai).
Perfect passive indicative of graph(935c), permanent state, stands
written. {In the book of life of the Lamb} (en t(9369) bibli(9369) t(8873)
z(9388)s tou arniou). See  3:5  for this phrase and the O.T.
references. It occurs again in  17:8  20:12,15  21:27 . "Here and
in  21:27 , the Divine Register is represented as belonging to
'the Lamb that was slain'" (Swete). {That hath been slain from
the foundation of the world} (	ou esphagmenou (for which see
 5:6 ) apo katabol(8873) kosmou). For the phrase apo katabol(8873)
kosmou (not in the LXX) there are six other N.T. uses ( Mt
13:35  without kosmou;  25:34  Lu 11:50  Heb 4:3  9:26  Re
17:8 ), and for pro katabol(8873) kosmou three ( Joh 17:24  Eph
1:4  1Pe 1:20 ). It is doubtful here whether it is to be taken
with 	ou esphagmenou (cf.  1Pe 1:20 ) or with gegraptai as in
 Re 17:8 . Either makes sense, and here the most natural use is
with esphagmenou. At any rate the death of Christ lies in the
purpose of God, as in  Joh 3:16 .

經文:

啟示錄 13:9-13:9

註釋:

 {If any one hath an ear} (ei tis echei ous). Condition of
first class, repetition of the saying in  2:7,11,17,29 , etc.

經文:

啟示錄 13:10-13:10

註釋:

 {If any man is for captivity} (ei tis eis aichmal(9373)ian).
Condition of first class, but with no copula (estin) expressed.
For aichmal(9373)ian (from aichmal(9374)os captive) see  Eph 4:8 ,
only other N.T. example. Apparently John means this as a warning
to the Christians not to resist force with force, but to accept
captivity as he had done as a means of grace. Cf.  Jer 15:2 . The
text is not certain, however. {If any man shall kill with the
sword} (ei tis en machair(8869) apoktenei). First-class condition
with future active of apoktein(935c), not future passive, for it is
a picture of the persecutor drawn here like that by Jesus in  Mt
26:52 . {Must he be killed} (dei auton en machair(8869)
apoktanth(886e)ai). First aorist passive infinitive of apoktein(935c).
The inevitable conclusion (dei) of such conduct. The killer is
killed. {Here} (h(9364)e). In this attitude of submission to the
inevitable. For h(9364)e see  13:18  14:12  17:9 . "Faith"
(pistis) here is more like faithfulness, fidelity.

經文:

啟示錄 13:11-13:11

註釋:

 {Another beast} (allo th(8872)ion). Like the first beast
(verse  1 ), not a heteron th(8872)ion (a different beast). {Out of
the earth} (ek t(8873) g(8873)). Not "out of the sea" as the first
(verse  1 ), perhaps locating him in Asia Minor without
world-wide scope, but plainly the agent of the first beast and so
of the dragon. {He had} (eichen). Imperfect active of ech(935c).
Only two horns (not ten like the first, verse  1 ). {Like unto a
lamb} (homoia arni(9369)). Usual construction. Only the two horns
of a young lamb and without the ferocity of the other beast, but
"he spake as a dragon" (elalei h(9373) drak(936e)). Gunkel and Charles
confess their inability to make anything out of this item. But
Swete thinks that he had the roar of a dragon with all the looks
of a lamb (weakness and innocence). Cf. the wolves in sheep's
clothing ( Mt 7:15 ).

經文:

啟示錄 13:12-13:12

註釋:

 {He exerciseth} (poiei). Present active dramatic present
of poie(935c). In his sight (en(9370)ion autou). In the eye of the
first beast who gets his authority from the dragon ( 13:2 ). The
second beast carries on the succession of authority from the
dragon and the first beast. It has been a common Protestant
interpretation since the Reformation of Luther to see in the
first beast Pagan Rome and in the second beast Papal Rome. There
is undoubted verisimilitude in this interpretation, but it is
more than doubtful if any such view comes within the horizon of
the imagery here. Ramsay takes the first beast to be the power of
imperial Rome and the second beast to be the provincial power
which imitated Rome in the persecutions. {To worship the first
beast} (hina proskun(8873)ousin to th(8872)ion to pr(9374)on). Sub-final
clause with hina after poiei seen in  Joh 11:37  Col 4:16  Re
3:9 , usually with the subjunctive, but here with the future
indicative as in  3:9 . Note the accusative after proskune(935c) as
in verse  8 . Here the death-stroke of one of the heads (verse
 3 ) is ascribed to the beast. Clearly the delegated authority of
the provincial priests of the emperor-worship is rigorously
enforced, if this is the correct interpretation.

經文:

啟示錄 13:13-13:13

註釋:

 {That he should even make fire come down out of heaven}
(hina kai pur poi(8869) ek tou ouranou katabainein). Purpose clause
again with hina and the present active subjunctive of poie(935c)
and the object infinitive of katabain(935c) after poiei. Christ
promised great signs to the disciples ( Joh 14:12 ), but he also
warned them against false prophets and false christs with their
signs and wonders ( Mr 13:22 ). So also Paul had pictured the
power of the man of sin ( 2Th 2:9 ). Elijah had called down fire
from heaven ( 1Ki 18:38  2Ki 1:10 ) and James and John had once
even urged Jesus to do this miracle ( Lu 9:54 ).

經文:

啟示錄 13:14-13:14

註釋:

 {And he deceiveth} (kai plan(8369)). Present active
(dramatic) indicative of plana(935c), the very thing that Jesus had
said would happen ( Mt 24:24 , "So as to lead astray" h(9373)te
plan(8373)thai, the word used here, if possible the very elect). It
is a constant cause for wonder, the gullibility of the public at
the hands of new charlatans who continually bob up with their
pipe-dreams. {That they should make an image to the beast}
(poi(8873)ai eikona t(9369) th(8872)i(9369)). Indirect command (this first
aorist active infinitive of poie(935c)) after leg(936e) as in  Ac
21:21 , not indirect assertion. This "image" (eik(936e), for which
word see  Mt 22:20  Col 1:15 ) of the emperor could be his head
upon a coin ( Mr 12:16 ), an _imago_ painted or woven upon a
standard, a bust in metal or stone, a statue, anything that
people could be asked to bow down before and worship. This test
the priests in the provinces pressed as it was done in Rome
itself. The phrase "the image of the beast," occurs ten times in
this book ( 13:14,15  _ter_;  14:9,11  15:2  16:2  19:20  20:4 ).
Emperor-worship is the issue and that involves worship of the
devil. {The stroke of the sword} (	(886e) pl(8867)(886e) t(8873) machair(8873)).
This language can refer to the death of Nero by his own sword.
{And lived} (kai ez(8873)en). "And he came to life" (ingressive
first aorist active indicative of za(935c)). Perhaps a reference to
Domitian as a second Nero in his persecution of Christians.

經文:

啟示錄 13:15-13:15

註釋:

 {To give breath to it} (dounai pneuma aut(8869)). This second
beast, probably a system like the first (not a mere person), was
endowed with the power to work magical tricks, as was true of
Simon Magus and Apollonius of Tyana and many workers of
legerdemain since. Pneuma here has its original meaning of
breath or wind like pneuma z(9388)s (breath of life) in  11:11 .
{Even to the image} (	(8869) eikoni). No "even" in the Greek, just
apposition with aut(8869) (her). {That should both speak and cause}
(hina kai lal(8873)(8869) kai poi(8873)(8869)). Final clause with hina and
the first aorist active subjunctive of lale(935c) and poie(935c).
Ventriloquism like that in  Ac 16:16 . {That should be killed}
(hina apoktanth(9373)in). Sub-final clause with hina and the
first aorist passive subjunctive of apoktein(935c), after poi(8873)(8869),
as in verse  12  (future indicative). {As many as should not
worship} (hosoi ean m(8820)proskun(8873)(9373)in). Indefinite relative
clause with modal ean (= an) and the first aorist active
subjunctive of proskune(935c) with the accusative 	(886e) eikona (some
MSS. the dative). Note the triple use of "the image of the beast"
in this sentence. "That refusal to worship the image of the
emperor carried with it capital punishment in Trajan's time is
clear from Pliny's letter to Trajan (X. 96)" (Charles).

經文:

啟示錄 13:16-13:16

註釋:

 {He causeth all} (same use of poie(935c) as in  12,15 ). Note
article here with each class (the small and the great, etc.).
{That there be given them} (hina d(9373)in autois). Same use of
hina after poie(935c) as in  12,15 , only here with indefinite
plural d(9373)in (second aorist active subjunctive), "that they
give themselves," as in  10:11  12:6  16:15 . {A mark}
(charagma). Old word from charass(935c), to engrave, in  Ac 17:29 
of idolatrous images, but in Rev. ( Re 13:16,17  14:9,11  16:2  19:20  20:4 ) of the brand of the beast on the right hand or on
the forehead or on both. Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, pp. 240ff.)
shows that in the papyri official business documents often have
the name and image of the emperor, with the date as the official
stamp or seal and with charagma as the name of this seal.
Animals and slaves were often branded with the owner's name, as
Paul ( Ga 6:17 ) bore the stigmata of Christ. Ptolemy
Philadelphus compelled some Alexandrian Jews to receive the mark
of Dionysus as his devotees (III Macc. 3:29). The servants of God
receive on their foreheads the stamp of the divine seal ( Re
7:3 ). Charles is certain that John gets his metaphor from the
	ephillin (phylacteries) which the Jew wore on his left hand
and on his forehead. At any rate, this "mark of the beast" was
necessary for life and all social and business relations. On the
right hand, that is in plain sight. {Upon their forehead} (epi
to met(9370)on aut(936e)). Accusative with epi, though genitive just
before with cheiros (hand). See already  7:3  9:4  (genitive
epi t(936e) met(9370)(936e)). Only in the Apocalypse in N.T.

經文:

啟示錄 13:17-13:17

註釋:

 {That no man should be able to buy or to sell} (hina m(880a)tis dun(8874)ai agorasai (8820)p(936c)(8873)ai). Final clause with hina and
present middle subjunctive of dunamai with aorist active
infinitives. This is a regular boycott (Ramsay, _Seven Letters_,
p. 106f.) against all not worshippers of the emperor. {Save} (ei
m(885c)). "If not," "except." {Even the name} (	o onoma). No
"even," just apposition with charagma (the mark). {Or the
number} ((8820)ton arithmon). The stamp (the mark) may bear either
the name or the number of the beast. The name and the number are
one and the same. They could write the name in numerals, for
numbers were given by letters. Swete suggests that it was
"according to a sort of gematria known to the Apocalyptist and
his Asian readers, but not generally intelligible."

經文:

啟示錄 13:18-13:18

註釋:

 {Here is wisdom} (h(9364)e h(8820)sophia). The puzzle that
follows as in  17:9 . See  Eph 1:17  for "a spirit of wisdom and
of understanding." {He that understands} (ho ech(936e) noun). "The
one having intelligence" in such matters. Cf. the adverb

ounech(9373) (discreetly) in  Mr 12:34 . {Let him count}
(ps(8870)hisat(935c)). First active imperative of ps(8870)hiz(935c), old verb
(from ps(8870)hos pebble), to count, in N.T. only here and  Lu
14:28 . {The number of a man} (arithmos anthr(9370)ou). "A man's
number." But what man and what name? {Six hundred and sixty-six}
(hexakosioi hex(886b)onta hex). Unfortunately some MSS. here read
616 instead of 666. All sorts of solutions are offered for this
conundrum. Charles is satisfied with the Hebrew letters for Nero
Caesar, which give 666, and with the Latin form of Nero (without
the final n), which makes 616. Surely this is ingenious and it
may be correct. But who can really tell?

經文:

啟示錄 14:1-14:1

註釋:

 {The Lamb} (	o arnion). See  5:6  7:17  12:11  13:8  and
is in contrast with the anarthrous arnion in  13:11 . This
proleptic vision of the Lamb "standing on the mount Zion"
(hestos epi to oros Si(936e), second perfect active participle
neuter of hist(886d)i with epi and accusative) is reasoning after
the visions of the two beasts. Mount Zion is the site of the new
city of God ( Heb 12:22 ), the Jerusalem above ( Ga 4:26 ), the
seat of the Messianic Kingdom whether heaven or the new earth
( Re 21  22 ). These victors have the name of the Lamb and God
upon their foreheads as in  3:12  22:4 , in place of the mark of
the beast above ( 13:16  14:11 ). This seal protects them
( 9:4 ). {A hundred and forty and four thousand} (hekaton
tesserakonta tessares chiliades). "Thousands" literally
(chilias feminine word for a thousand and so echousai
feminine plural). For the 144,000 see  7:5,8 , though some
scholars seek a distinction somehow.

經文:

啟示錄 14:2-14:2

註釋:

 {As a voice of many waters} (h(9373) ph(936e)(886e) hudat(936e) poll(936e)).
For which see  1:15 . {Of a great thunder} (ront(8873) megal(8873)).
For which see  6:1  19:6 . For this voice out of heaven see
 10:4  14:15  18:4  and note accusative with (886b)ousa. {As the
voice of harpers harping with their harps} (h(9373) kithar(9369)d(936e)
kitharizont(936e) en tais kitharais aut(936e)). Triple use of kithara
( 5:8 ), kithar(9369)d(936e) ( 18:22 ), kitharizont(936e) (old verb
kithariz(935c), in N.T. only here and  1Co 14:7 ). Wonderful melody
in this chorus by the angels, not by the 144,000.

經文:

啟示錄 14:3-14:3

註釋:

 {They sing as it were a new song} (aidousin h(9373) (9369)d(886e)
kain(886e)). See  5:9  for this phrase (cognate accusative) save
that here h(9373) (as if) is added. There the new song was sung by
the four living creatures and the elders, but here "before"
(en(9370)ion) them and so apparently by the throng who were
themselves redeemed by the Lamb. {No man could learn the song
save} (oudeis edunato mathein t(886e) (9369)d(886e) ei m(885c)). Imperfect
(edunato) of dunamai and second aorist (ingressive) active
infinitive of manthan(935c). In  5:9-12  the angels join in the
song. In  15:3  it is the Song of Moses and the Lamb. {Even they
that had been purchased out of the earth} (hoi (8867)orasmenoi apo
t(8873) g(8873)). Perfect passive articular participle of agoraz(935c),
purchased by the blood of the Lamb ( 5:9 ), masculine plural in
apposition with chiliades (thousands) feminine plural ( 7:5,8  14:1 ). Apo (from) here, though ek (out of) in  5:9 . The
144,000 are not yet separated from the earth ( Joh 17:15 ).
Whether the 144,000 here are identical with that number in
 7:4-8  or not, they must embrace both men and women.

經文:

啟示錄 14:4-14:4

註釋:

 1Co
16:15 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
16' or engs='1Co
16'
經文:

啟示錄 14:5-14:5

註釋:

 {Was found no lie} (ouch heureth(8820)pseudos). First aorist
passive indicative of heurisk(935c). In  1Pe 2:23  this passage
( Isa 53:9 ) is quoted with dolos (deceit, guile) instead of
pseudos (lie), but the difference is not great. {Without
blemish} (am(936d)oi). Alpha privative and m(936d)os (blemish, spot).
As Christ the Paschal Lamb is ( 1Pe 1:19  Heb 9:14 ), so the
followers of the Lamb are to be in the end ( Php 2:15 ).

經文:

啟示錄 14:6-14:6

註釋:

 {Another angel} (allon aggelon). A new turn in the drama
comes with each angel ( 7:2  8:3,13  10:1 ). Here the angel is
seen "flying in mid heaven" (petomenon en mesouran(886d)ati), while
in  8:13  John heard him "flying in mid heaven" (genitive case of
same participle, which see). This one is in the sight and hearing
of all. {Having} (echonta). Accusative singular agreeing with
aggelon like petomenon (flying), but leg(936e) in verse  7  is
nominative, as if a new sentence like leg(936e) in  4:1 . {An
eternal gospel} (euaggelion ai(936e)ion). The only use of
euaggelion in John's writings, though the verb euaggelisai
(first aorist active infinitive epexegetical with echonta like
 Joh 16:12 ) occurs here and in  10:7 . Here it is not 	o
euaggelion (the gospel), but merely a proclamation of God's
eternal (ai(936e)ios here alone in the Apocalypse, though common in
the Fourth Gospel and I John) purpose. Origen even took this
"eternal gospel" to be another book to be written! Note the
double use of epi (with accusative after euaggelisai and the
genitive with g(8873)). See  5:9  for the races, etc.

經文:

啟示錄 14:7-14:7

註釋:

 {And he saith} (leg(936e)). See above. {Fear God} (phob(8874)h(8874)e
ton theon). First aorist passive (deponent) imperative of
phobeomai, here transitive with the accusative as in  Lu 12:5 .
It is a call to judgment with no hope offered except by
implication ( Ac 14:15ff. ). {Give him glory} (dote aut(9369)
doxan). Second aorist active indicative of did(936d)i. For the
phrase see  11:13 . {The hour is come} (h(8820)h(9372)a (886c)then). Second
aorist (prophetic use) active indicative of erchomai. Common
idiom in John's Gospel ( 2:4  4:21,23  5:25,28  7:30 , etc.).
{Worship} (proskun(8873)ate). First aorist active imperative of
proskune(935c) with the dative case. Solemn call to the pagan world
to worship God as Creator ( 4:11  10:6 ), as in  Ps 96:6  Ac
14:15 . For "the fountains of waters" see  8:10 .

經文:

啟示錄 14:8-14:8

註釋:

 {Another, a second angel} (allos deuteros aggelos). This
second angel "followed" ((886b)olouth(8873)en, first aorist active
indicative of akolouthe(935c)) and interpreted in part the first
one. {Fallen, fallen} (epesen, epesen). Prophetic aorist active
indicative of pipt(935c), repeated as a solemn dirge announcing the
certainty of the fall. The English participle "fallen, fallen" is
more musical and rhythmical than the literal rendering "fell,
fell." The language is an echo of  Isa 21:9 , though B in the LXX
has pept(936b)en, pept(936b)en (perfect). {Babylon the great} (Babul(936e)
h(8820)magal(885c)). The adjective megal(885c) occurs with Babul(936e) each
time in the Apocalypse ( 14:8  16:19  17:5  18:2,10,21 ) as a
reminder of Nebuchadrezzar. There is no doubt that Rome is meant
by Babylon, as is probably seen already in  1Pe 5:13 . As a
prisoner in Patmos John can speak his mind by this symbolism.
{Hath made to drink} (pepotiken). Perfect active indicative of
potiz(935c), old causative verb (from potos drinking,  1Pe 4:3 ),
as in  Mt 25:35 . The remarkable phrase that follows seems based
on  Jer 51:8  ( Jer 25:15 ). It is a combination also of  Re
14:10  (the wine of God's wrath, also in  16:19  19:15 ) and
 17:2 . There is no doubt of the dissoluteness of the old Babylon
of Jeremiah's day as of the Rome of John's time. Rome is pictured
as the great courtesan who intoxicates and beguiles the nations
to fornication ( 17:2,4,6 ), but the cup of God's wrath for her
and her paramours is full ( 14:10  16:19  18:2 ).

經文:

啟示錄 14:9-14:9

註釋:

 {A third} (	ritos). "The third of this succession of
herald angels denounces the Caesar-worshippers" (Swete). Cf.
 13:12ff . This counter proclamation (verses  9-12 ) warns those
tempted to yield to the threats of the second beast about boycott
and death ( 13:11-17 ). {If any man worshippeth the beast and his
image} (ei tis proskunei to th(8872)ion kai t(886e) eikona autou).
Condition of first class challenging those afraid of the beast.
Note accusative (	h(8872)ion) after proskunei, not dative as in
verse  7 . {And receiveth a mark} (kai lambanei charagma).
Carries on the same condition and picks up the very language of
 13:16 . These Caesar-worshippers are guilty of an "eternal sin"
( Mr 3:29 ).

經文:

啟示錄 14:10-14:10

註釋:

 {He also shall drink} (kai autos pietai). Future middle
of pin(935c). Certainty for him as for Babylon and her paramours
( 16:17 ). {Of the wine of the wrath of God} (ek tou oinou tou
thumou tou theou). Note ek (partitive) after pietai. In
 16:19  19:15  we have both 	humou and org(8873) (wrath of the
anger of God). The white heat of God's anger, held back through
the ages, will be turned loose. {Prepared unmixed} (	ou
kekerasmenou akratou). A bold and powerful oxymoron, "the mixed
unmixed." Akratos is an old adjective (alpha privative and
kerannumi to mix) used of wine unmixed with water (usually so
mixed), here only in N.T. So it is strong wine mixed (perfect
passive participle of kerannumi) with spices to make it still
stronger (cf.  Ps 75:9 ). {In the cup of his anger} (en t(9369)
pot(8872)i(9369) t(8873) org(8873) autou). Both 	humos (vehement fury) and
org(885c) (settled indignation). {He shall be tormented}
(asanisth(8873)etai). Future passive of asaniz(935c). See  9:5  11:10 . {With fire and brimstone} (en puri kai thei(9369)). See
 9:17  for fire and brimstone and also  19:20  20:10  21:8 . The
imagery is already in  Ge 19:24  Isa 30:33  Eze 38:22 . {In the
presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb}
(en(9370)ion aggel(936e) hagi(936e) kai en(9370)ion tou arniou). This holy
environment adds to the punishment.

經文:

啟示錄 14:11-14:11

註釋:

 {The smoke of their torment} (ho kapnos tou basanismou
aut(936e)). See  9:5  for asanismos, only there it was a limited
penalty, here it is "for ever and ever" (eis ai(936e)as ai(936e)(936e),
unto ages of ages). See also  18:9  19:3  20:10 . {They have no
rest} (ouk echousin anapausin). The very language used in  4:8 
of the four living creatures in praising God. "Those who desert
Christ for Caesar will be the victims of a remorse that never
dies or sleeps" (Swete). The rest of the verse repeats the solemn
challenge of verse  9 .

經文:

啟示錄 14:12-14:12

註釋:

 {Here is the patience of the saints} (H(9364)e h(8820)hupomon(8820)t(936e)
hagi(936e) estin). John's own comment as in  13:10  17:9 . In this
struggle against emperor worship lay their opportunity ( Ro
5:3 ). It was a test of loyalty to Christ. {They that keep} (hoi
t(8872)ountes). In apposition with 	(936e) hagi(936e) (genitive), though
nominative, a frequent anacoluthon in this book ( 2:20 , etc.).
Cf.  12:17 . {The faith of Jesus} (	(886e) pistin I(8873)ou). "The
faith in Jesus" (objective genitive) as in  2:13  Mr 11:22  Jas
2:1 .

經文:

啟示錄 14:13-14:13

註釋:

 1Co
15:18 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
15' or engs='1Co
15'
經文:

啟示錄 14:14-14:14

註釋:

 {A white cloud} (
ephel(8820)leuk(885c)). Like the "bright cloud"
of  Mt 17:5  (Transfiguration), a familiar object in the
Mediterranean lands. See  Da 7:13  Mt 24:30  26:64  Ac 1:9,11 
for the picture of Christ's return. {I saw one sitting}
(kath(886d)enon). No eidon here, but the accusative follows the
eidon at the beginning, as 
ephel(885c) is nominative after
idou, as in  4:1,4 . {Like unto a son of man} (homoion huion
anthr(9370)ou). Accusative here after homoion as in  1:13 ,
instead of the usual associative instrumental ( 13:4 ). {Having}
(ech(936e)). Nominative again after the idou construction, just
before, not after, eidon. {A golden crown} (stephanon
chrusoun). Here a golden wreath, not the diadems of  19:12 . {A
sharp sickle} (drepanon oxu). Old form drepan(885c) (from drep(935c),
to pluck), pruning-hook, in N.T. only in this chapter and  Mr
4:29 . Christ is come for reaping this time ( Heb 9:28 ) for the
harvesting of earth (verses  15-17 ). The priesthood of Christ is
the chief idea in  1:12-20  and "as the true _Imperator_" (Swete)
in chapter  Re 19 .

經文:

啟示錄 14:15-14:15

註釋:

 {Send forth} (pempson). First aorist (urgency) active
imperative of pemp(935c). "Thrust in thy sickle now," this angel
urges Christ. {And reap} (kai therison). First aorist (urgency)
active imperative of 	heriz(935c), old verb (from 	heros, summer),
as in  Mt 6:26 . See verse  7  for "the hour is come." Therisai
(to reap) is epexegetical infinitive (first aorist active of
	heriz(935c)). {The harvest} (ho therismos). Old, but rare word
(from 	heriz(935c), to harvest), as in  Mt 13:30  Joh 4:35 , here
only in Revelation. {Is over-ripe} (ex(8872)anth(885c)). First aorist
(prophetic as in  10:17  15:1 ) passive of x(8872)ain(935c) (cf.  Jas
1:11 ), to wither, to dry up. Perhaps just "ripe," not
"over-ripe." Cf.  Joe 1:17 .

經文:

啟示錄 14:16-14:16

註釋:

 {Cast} (ebalen). Second aorist active indicative of
all(935c). No violence by the use of ebalen as is seen in  Mt
10:34  (alein eir(886e)(886e), to bring peace). {Was reaped}
(etheristh(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of 	heriz(935c).
Both prophetic aorists again. Christ puts in the sickle as he
wills with his own agents ( Mt 9:37f.  13:39,41 ).

經文:

啟示錄 14:17-14:17

註釋:

 {He also} (kai autos). As well as the Reaper on the
cloud. This is the fifth angel who is God's messenger from heaven
(temple where God dwells). This fifth angel with his sharp sickle
is to gather the vintage ( 18-20 ) as Christ did the wheat.

經文:

啟示錄 14:18-14:18

註釋:

 {Another angel} (allos aggelos). The fifth angel above
Swete terms "the Angel of vengeance." He responds to the call of
the sixth angel here as Christ does to the call of the fourth
angel in verse  15 . {Out from the altar} (ek tou
thusiast(8872)iou). From the altar of incense where he is in charge
of the fire (exousian epi tou puros). If it is the altar of
burnt offering ( 6:9  11:1 ), we are reminded of the blood of the
martyrs (Swete), but if the altar of incense ( 8:3,5  9:13  16:7 ), then of the prayers of the saints. {The sharp sickle}
(	o drepanon to oxu). Useful for vintage as for harvesting. So
"send forth" (pempson) as in verse  15 . {Gather} (	rug(8873)on).
First aorist active imperative of 	ruga(935c), old verb (from
	rug(885c) dryness, ripeness), in N.T. only  Re 15:18f.  and  Lu
6:44 . {The clusters} (	ous botruas). Old word otrus, here
only in N.T. ( Ge 40:10 ). {Her grapes} (hai staphulai aut(8873)).
Old word again for grapes, bunch of grapes, in N.T. only here,
 Mt 7:16  Lu 6:44 . {Are fully ripe} ((886b)masan). Old and common
verb (from akm(885c),  Mt 15:16 ), to come to maturity, to reach its
acme, here only in N.T.

經文:

啟示錄 14:19-14:19

註釋:

 {Cast} (ebalen). As in verse  16 . {Gathered}
(etrug(8873)en). Like etheristh(885c) in verse  16 , in obedience to
the instructions in verse  18  (	rug(8873)on). {The vintage of the
earth} (	(886e) ampelon t(8873) g(8873)). "The vine of the earth." Here
ampelos is used for the enemies of Christ collectively
pictured. {And cast it} (ebalen). Repeating ebalen and
referring to ampelon (vintage) just before. {Into the winepress
the great winepress} (eis t(886e) l(886e)on ton megan). L(886e)os is
either feminine as in verse  20  19:15 , or masculine sometimes
in ancient Greek. Here we have both genders, a solecism frequent
in the Apocalypse ( 21:14  	o teichos ech(936e)). See  Mt 21:33 .
For this metaphor of God s wrath see  14:10  15:1,7  16:1,19  19:15 .

經文:

啟示錄 14:20-14:20

註釋:

 {Was trodden} (epat(8874)h(885c)). First aorist passive indicative
of pate(935c), to tread. The image of treading out the grapes is a
familiar one in the East. Perhaps  Isa 63:3  is in mind. {Without
the city} (ex(9374)hen t(8873) pole(9373)). Ablative case with ex(9374)hen
(like ex(935c)). This was the usual place ( Heb 13:12 ). See
ex(9374)hen in  11:2 . Joel ( Joe 3:12 ) pictures the valley of
Jehoshaphat as the place of the slaughter of God's enemies. Cf.
 Zec 14:4 . {Blood from the winepress} (haima ek t(8873) l(886e)ou).
Bold imagery suggested by the colour of the grapes. {Unto the
bridles} (achri t(936e) chalin(936e)). Old word (from chala(935c) to
slacken), in N.T. only here and  Jas 3:3 . Bold picture. {As far
as a thousand and six hundred furlongs} (apo stadi(936e) chili(936e)
hexakosi(936e)). A peculiar use of apo, for "distance from (of)"
as also in  Joh 11:18  21:8 , somewhat like the use of pro in
 Joh 12:1 . The distance itself covers the length of Palestine,
but it is more likely that "the metaphor is worked out with the
exuberance of apocalyptic symbolism" (Swete) for the whole earth.

經文:

啟示錄 15:1-15:1

註釋:

 {Another sign in heaven} (allo s(886d)eion en t(9369) ouran(9369)).
Looking back to  12:1,3 , after the series intervening. The Seven
Bowls are parallel with the Seven Seals (ch.  Re 6 ) and the
Seven Trumpets (chapters  Re 8-11 ), but there is an even closer
connection with chapters  Re 12-14 , "the drama of the long
conflict between the church and the world" (Swete). {Great and
marvellous} (mega kai thaumaston). Thaumastos is an old
verbal adjective (from 	haumaz(935c), to wonder) and is already in
 Mt 21:42 . The wonder extends to the end of this vision or sign
( 16:21 ). {Seven angels} (aggelous hepta). Accusative case in
apposition with s(886d)eion after eidon. Cf.  8:2 . {Which are
the last} (	as eschatas). "Seven plagues the last." As in
 21:9 , "the final cycle of such visitations" (Swete). {Is
finished} (etelesth(885c)). Proleptic prophetic first aorist passive
indicative of 	ele(935c) as in  10:7 . The number seven seems
particularly appropriate here for finality and completeness.

經文:

啟示錄 15:2-15:2

註釋:

 {As it were a glassy sea} (h(9373) thalassan hualin(886e)).
Accusative case after eidon and h(9373) here, not in  4:6 , which
see for the symbol. {Mingled with fire} (memigmen(886e) puri).
Perfect passive participle of mignumi, to mix, and the
associative instrumental case puri. This item not in  4:6  (a
vision of peace), but here it adds to the splendour of the
vision. This parenthesis ( 2-4 ) gives a picture of the martyrs
in their state of bliss. {Them that come off victorious} (	ous
nik(936e)tas). Present active articular participle of 
ika(935c),
accusative after eidon, "those that come off victorious"
( 14:4 ). {From the beast and from his image} (ek tou th(8872)iou
kai ek t(8873) eikonos autou). This use of ek after 
ika(935c) is
unusual, also with ek tou arithmou. For these items see
 13:1,14,17  14:9,11  19:20  20:4 . {By the glassy sea} (epi t(886e)
thalassan t(886e) hualin(886e)). Or "upon" more likely ( 4:6 ) with the
accusative as in  Mt 14:25ff . {Harps of God} (kitharas tou
theou). Objective genitive, for the worship of God ( 5:8  14:2  1Ch 16:42 ).

經文:

啟示錄 15:3-15:3

註釋:

 {The song of Moses} (	(886e) (9369)d(886e) tou M(9375)se(9373)).  Ex 14:31  15:1-19 . A song of victory like that of Moses after crossing the
Red Sea. {And the song of the Lamb} (	(886e) (9369)d(886e) tou arniou). A
separate note of victory like that of Moses, though one song, not
two. Charles finds it impossible to reconcile the two
expressions, if genuine, but it is a needless objection. The
words come from the O.T.: "great" (megala) from  Ps 111:2 ,
"wonderful" (	haumasta) from  Ps 139:14 , "O Lord God the
Almighty" (Kurie ho theos ho pantokrat(9372)) from  Am 4:13  ( Re
4:8 ), "righteous and true" (dikaiai kai al(8874)hinai) from  De
32:4 , "Thou King of the ages" (ho basileus t(936e) ai(936e)(936e)) like
 Jer 10:10  1Ti 1:17 . Some MSS. have "the king of the saints"
and some "the king of the nations," like  Jer 10:7 . John thus
combines in Hebraic tone the expressions of the old and the new
in the song to the Glorified Messiah.

經文:

啟示錄 15:4-15:4

註釋:

 {Who shall not fear?} (	is ou m(8820)phob(8874)h(8869);). Rhetorical
question with ou m(885c) (double negative) and first aorist passive
subjunctive of phobeomai future passive in  Jer 10:7 ). {And
glorify} (kai doxasei). Change here to the future indicative
instead of the aorist subjunctive, as often. Cf.  Ps 86:9 . {Thou
only art holy} (monos hosios). Both predicate adjectives, "Thou
art alone holy." God alone is perfectly holy ( 16:5 ). {Shall
come} (h(8878)ousin). Future active of h(886b)(935c). {And worship} (kai
proskun(8873)ousin). Future active of proskune(935c). Both from  Ps
86:9 . {Have been made manifest} (ephaner(9374)h(8873)an). Prophetic
first aorist passive indicative of phanero(935c). This martyr's song
has the ring of great poetry.

經文:

啟示錄 15:5-15:5

註釋:

 {The temple of the tabernacle of the testimony} (ho naos
t(8873) sk(886e)(8873) tou marturiou). Charles calls this "strange"
language. Probably the tabernacle or tent of witness ( Nu 9:15  17:7 ) is in mind and the tent of meeting ( Ex 27:21  rather than
the temple in Jerusalem. {Was opened} ((886e)oig(885c)). Second aorist
passive indicative of anoig(935c) as in  11:19 . For 
aos see
 3:12  7:15  14:15,17  16:1,17 .

經文:

啟示錄 15:6-15:6

註釋:

 {There came out} (ex(886c)than). Second aorist active
indicative of exerchomai with -an rather than -on.
Proleptic and prophetic aorist. {The seven angels} (hoi hepta
aggeloi). Those in verse  1 . {The seven plagues} (	as hepta
pl(8867)as). The bowls are not given them till verse  7 . {Arrayed}
(endedumenoi). Perfect passive participle of endu(935c). {With
precious stone pure and bright} (lithon katharon lampron).
Accusative case retained with verb of clothing as so often,
literally "with a stone pure bright." For both adjectives
together see  19:8,14 . Some MSS. read linon (linen). For
lithon see  17:4  18:16  Eze 28:13 . {Girt} (periez(9373)menoi).
Perfect passive participle of periz(936e)nu(935c). See  1:13  for both
participles. For st(8874)hos (breast) see  Lu 18:13 . {With golden
girdles} (z(936e)as chrus(8373)). Accusative case after the perfect
passive participle periez(9373)menoi as in  1:13 .

經文:

啟示錄 15:7-15:7

註釋:

 {Seven golden bowls} (hepta phialas chrus(8373)). Golden
saucers, but not full of incense as in  5:8 , but "full
(gemousas for which see  5:8 ) of the wrath of God who liveth
for ever and ever" (	ou thumou tou theou tou z(936e)tos eis tous
ai(936e)as t(936e) ai(936e)(936e)). Portents of dreadful events.

經文:

啟示錄 15:8-15:8

註釋:

 {Was filled with smoke} (egemisth(8820)kapnou). First aorist
passive indicative of gemiz(935c) (from gem(935c)), to fill full, and
with the genitive kapnou (smoke). Smoke is here the symbol of
God's presence ( Ex 19:18  Isa 6:5 ). {Till should be finished}
(achri telesth(9373)in). Temporal clause for future time with
achri (equal to he(9373) in import) and the first aorist passive
subjunctive of 	ele(935c), a metaphorical and symbolic "smoke
screen" to keep all out of the sanctuary for the time being.


經文:

啟示錄 16:1-16:1

註釋:

 {A great voice} (megal(8873) ph(936e)(8873)). Not an angel as in  5:2  7:2  10:3  14:7,9,15,18 , but of God as  15:8  shows, since no
one could enter the 
aos. {Pour out} (ekcheete). Second
aorist active imperative of ekche(935c) (same form as present active
imperative). Blass would change to ekcheate (clearly aorist) as
in verse  6 . {The seven bowls} (	as hepta phialas). The
article points to verse  7 .

經文:

啟示錄 16:2-16:2

註釋:

 {Went and poured out} (ap(886c)then kai execheen). Second
aorist active indicative of aperchomai (redundant use like
hupagete with ekcheete, "go and pour out," in verse  1 ) and
of ekche(935c). Each angel "went off" to perform his task. For
execheen see it repeated in verses  3,4,8,10,12,17 . {Into the
earth} (eis t(886e) g(886e)). This same use of eis after execheen
in verses  3,4 . {It became} (egeneto). "There came" (second
aorist middle indicative of ginomai). {A noisome and grievous
sore} (helkos kakon kai pon(8872)on). "Bad and malignant sore."
Helkos is old word for a suppurated wound (Latin _ulcus_),
here, verse  11  Lu 16:21 . See the sixth Egyptian plague ( Ex
9:10  De 28:27,35 ) and  Job 2:7 . The magicians were attacked in
Egypt and the worshippers of Caesar here ( 13:17  14:9,11  19:20 ).

經文:

啟示錄 16:3-16:3

註釋:

 {Into the sea} (eis t(886e) thalassan). Like the first
Egyptian plague ( Ex 7:12-41 ) though only the Nile affected
then. {Blood as of a dead man} (haima h(9373) nekrou). At the
trumpet ( 8:11 ) the water becomes wormwood. Here h(9373) nekrou is
added to  Ex 7:19 , "the picture of a murdered man weltering in
his blood" (Swete). "Coagulated blood, fatal to animal life"
(Moffatt). {Every living soul} (p(8373)a psuch(8820)z(9388)s). "Every soul
of life" (Hebraism,  Ge 1:21 , marked by life). {Even the things
that were in the sea} (	a en t(8869) thalass(8869)). "The things in the
sea," in apposition with psuch(885c). Complete destruction, not
partial as in  8:9 .

經文:

啟示錄 16:4-16:4

註釋:

 {Into the rivers and the fountains of waters} (eis tous
potamous kai tas p(8867)as t(936e) hudat(936e)). See  8:10  for this phrase.
Contamination of the fresh-water supply by blood follows that of
the sea. Complete again.

經文:

啟示錄 16:5-16:5

註釋:

 {The angel of the waters} (	ou aggelou ton hudat(936e)).
Genitive case object of (886b)ousa. See  7:1  for the four angels
in control of the winds and  14:18  for the angel with power over
fire. The rabbis spoke also of an angel with power over the earth
and another over the sea. {Which art and which wast} (ho (936e) kai
ho (886e)). See this peculiar idiom for God's eternity with ho as
relative before (886e) in  1:4,8  4:8 , but without ho erchomenos
(the coming on, the one who is to be) there for the future as in
 11:17 . {Thou Holy One} (ho hosios). Nominative form, but
vocative case, as often. Note both dikaios and hosios applied
to God as in  3:1  15:3f . {Because thou didst thus judge} (hoti
tauta ekrinas). Reason for calling God dikaios and hosios.
The punishment on the waters is deserved. First aorist active
indicative of krin(935c), to judge.

經文:

啟示錄 16:6-16:6

註釋:

 {For} (hoti). Second causal conjunction (hoti)
explanatory of the first hoti, like the two cases of hoti in
 15:4 . {They poured out} (exechean). Second aorist active
indicative of ekche(935c) with -an instead of -on. {Blood hast
thou given them to drink} (haima autois ded(936b)as pein). Haima
(blood) is the emphatic word, measure for measure for shedding
the blood of saints and prophets ( 11:18  18:24 ). Perfect active
indicative of did(936d)i, and so a permanent and just punishment.
Pein is the abbreviated second aorist active infinitive of
pin(935c) for piein (epion). It is the epexegetical infinitive
after ded(936b)as. There was no more drinking-water, but only this
coagulated blood. {They are worthy} (axioi eisin). "Terrible
antithesis" (Swete) to  3:4 . The asyndeton adds to it (Alford).

經文:

啟示錄 16:7-16:7

註釋:

 {O Lord God, the Almighty} (Kurie ho theos ho
pantokrat(9372)). Just as in  15:3  in the Song of Moses and of the
Lamb, vocative with the article ho. "Judgments" (kriseis)
here instead of "ways" (hodoi) there, and with the order of the
adjectives reversed (al(8874)hinai kai dikaiai, true and
righteous).

經文:

啟示錄 16:8-16:8

註釋:

 {Upon the sun} (epi ton h(886c)ion). Not eis (into) as in
verses  2,3,4 . The fourth trumpet ( 8:12 ) affected a third of
the sun, moon, and stars with a plague of darkness, but here it
is a plague of extreme heat. {To scorch with fire} (kaumatisai
en puri). First aorist active infinitive of kaumatiz(935c), late
(Plutarch, Epictetus) causative verb (from kauma, heat), in
N.T. only here and verse  9  Mt 13:6  Mr 4:6 . The addition of
en puri (in fire, with fire) intensifies the picture.

經文:

啟示錄 16:9-16:9

註釋:

 {Were scorched} (ekaumatisth(8873)an). First aorist passive
indicative of same verb. {With great heat} (kauma mega).
Cognate accusative retained with the passive verb. Old word (from
kai(935c) to burn), in N.T. only  7:16  and here. For blaspheming
the name of God see  13:6  Jas 2:7  Ro 2:24  1Ti 6:1 . They
blamed God for the plagues. {They repented not} (ou
meteno(8873)an). This solemn negative aorist of metanoe(935c) is a
refrain like a funeral dirge ( 9:20f.  16:11 ). In  11:13  some
did repent because of the earthquake. Even deserved punishment
may harden the heart. {To give him glory} (dounai aut(9369) doxan).
Second aorist active infinitive of did(936d)i, almost result. For
the phrase see  11:13  14:7  19:7 .

經文:

啟示錄 16:10-16:10

註釋:

 {Upon the throne of the beast} (epi ton thronon tou
th(8872)iou). That is Rome ( 13:2 ). The dragon gave the beast his
throne ( 2:13 ). {Was darkened} (egeneto eskot(936d)en(885c)).
Periphrastic past perfect passive with ginomai and skoto(935c)
( 9:2 ). Like the darkness of the Egyptian plague ( Ex 10:22 )
and worse, for the effects of the previous plagues continue.
{They gnawed their tongues} (emas(936e)to tas gl(9373)sas aut(936e)).
Imperfect middle of masaomai, old verb (to chew), from ma(935c)
(to knead), only here in N.T. {For pain} (ek tou ponou). "Out
of distress" (cf. ek in  8:13 ), rare sense of old word (from
penomai to work for one's living), in N.T. only here,  21:4  Col 4:13 . See  Mt 8:12 .

經文:

啟示錄 16:11-16:11

註釋:

 {They blasphemed} (eblasph(886d)(8873)an) {and they repented not}
(kai ou meteno(8873)an). Precisely as in verse  9 , which see. Not
just because of the supernatural darkness, but also "because of
their pains" (ek t(936e) pon(936e) aut(936e), plural here and same use of
ek) and their sores (kai ek t(936e) helk(936e) aut(936e), as in verse
 2 , only plural, and same use of ek). {Of their works} (ek
t(936e) erg(936e) aut(936e)). "Out of their deeds," and addition to verse
 9 . {The God of heaven} (	on theon tou ouranou). As in  Da
2:44 . Like the pride of Nebuchadrezzar against Jehovah.

經文:

啟示錄 16:12-16:12

註釋:

 {Upon the great river, the river Euphrates} (epi ton
potamon ton megan ton Euphrat(886e)). The sixth trumpet brings up
the river Euphrates also ( 9:14 ), only there epi with the
locative, while here epi with the accusative. Note triple use
of the article 	on here. {Was dried up} (ex(8872)anth(885c)). First
aorist (prophetic) passive of x(8872)ain(935c) ( 14:15 ). Cf.  Zec
10:11 . {That may be made ready} (hina hetoimasth(8869)). Purpose
clause with hina and the first aorist passive of hetoimaz(935c).
Common verb in Rev. ( 8:6  9:7,15  12:6  19:7  21:2 ). {The way
for the kings} (h(8820)hodos t(936e) basile(936e)). Objective genitive
asile(936e). {That come from the sunrising} (	(936e) apo anatol(8873)
heliou). "Those from the rising of the sun," the kings from the
east (cf.  Mt 2:2 ) in their march against Rome. Parthia in
particular resisted Rome before Trajan's day.

經文:

啟示錄 16:13-16:13

註釋:

 {Coming out of} (ek alone, no participle erchomena).
{Of the dragon} (	ou drakontos). That is Satan ( 12:3,9 ). {Of
the beast} (	ou th(8872)iou). The first beast ( 13:1,12 ) and then
just the beast ( 13:14ff.  14:9,11  15:2  16:2,10 ), the brute
force of the World-power represented by the Roman Empire"
(Swete). {Of the false prophet} (	ou pseudoproph(8874)ou). Cf.  Mt
7:15  Ac 13:6  1Jo 2:22  4:3  2Jo 1:7 . Identified with the
second beast ( 13:11-14 ) in  19:20  20:10 . So the sixth bowl
introduces the dragon and his two subalterns of chapters  Re 12  13  (the two beasts). {Three unclean spirits} (pneumata tria
akatharta). Out of the mouths of each of the three evil powers
(the dragon and the two beasts) comes an evil spirit. See the use
of mouth in  1:16  ( 9:17f.  11:5  12:15  19:15,21 ) as a chief
seat of influence. In  2Th 2:8  we have "the breath of his mouth"
(the other sense of pneuma). For akatharton (unclean) with
pneuma see  Mr 1:23f.  3:11  5:2ff.  Ac 5:16  8:7 . Christ
expelled unclean spirits, but His enemies send them forth"
(Swete). See  Zec 13:2  "the false prophets and the unclean
spirits." {As it were frogs} (h(9373) batrachoi). Cf.  Ex 8:5  Le
11:10ff . Old word, here alone in N.T. Like loathsome frogs in
form.

經文:

啟示錄 16:14-16:14

註釋:

 2Co
1:14 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
1' or engs='2Co
1'
經文:

啟示錄 16:15-16:15

註釋:

 1Co
12:23 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
12' or engs='1Co
12'
經文:

啟示錄 16:16-16:16

註釋:

 {They gathered} (sun(8867)agen). Second aorist active
indicative of sunag(935c), singular (the three unclean spirits),
like ekporeuetai in verse  14 . {Har-Magedon} (Har-Maged(936e)).
John proceeds now after the interruption in verse  15 . Perhaps
"the mountains of Megiddo" though not certain. Megiddo is in the
valley of Esdraelon, and by the waters of Megiddo (the Kishon)
Israel gained a decisive victory over Sisera ( Jud 5:19 ),
celebrated in Deborah's song. See also Re 20:8ff. and Eze
39:2,4.

經文:

啟示錄 16:17-16:17

註釋:

 {Upon the air} (epi ton aera). All men breathe the air
and this is worse than the smiting of the earth (verse  2 ), the
sea ( 3 ), the fresh waters ( 4 ), the sun ( 8 ). {A great voice}
(ph(936e)(8820)megal(885c)). The voice of God as in  16:1 . {It is done}
(Gegonen). Perfect active indicative of ginomai. Like
Gegonan in  21:6 . The whole series of plagues is now complete.

經文:

啟示錄 16:18-16:18

註釋:

 {And there were} (kai egenonto). "And there came" (same
verb _ginomai_). See  8:5  11:19  for this list of terrible
sounds and lightnings, and for the great earthquake (seismos
megas) see  6:12  11:13  (cf.  Lu 21:11 ). {Such as was not}
(hoios ouk egeneto). Qualitative relative with ginomai again,
"such as came not." {Since there were men} (aph' hou anthr(9370)oi
egenonto). "Since which time (chronou understood) men came."
{So great an earthquake, so mighty} (	(886c)ikoutos seismos hout(930a)megas). Quantitative correlative 	(886c)ikoutos rather than the
qualitative 	oioutos, to correspond with hoios (not hosos).
And then hout(9320)megas repeats (redundant) 	(886c)ikoutos. Cf.  Mr
13:19  for hoia--toiaut(885c) about like tribulation (	hlipsis).

經文:

啟示錄 16:19-16:19

註釋:

 {Was divided into three parts} (egeneto eis tria mer(885c)).
"Came into three parts" (ginomai again). In  11:3  a tenth part
of the city fell. Babylon (Rome) is meant ( 17:18 ). {Fell}
(epesan). Second aorist active indicative of pipt(935c) (-an
form in place of -on). {Was remembered} (emn(8873)th(885c)). First
aorist (prophetic) passive indicative of mimn(8873)k(935c). Babylon
(Rome) had not been overlooked. God was simply biding his time
with Rome. {To give unto her} (dounai aut(8869)). Second aorist
active infinitive of did(936d)i, epexegetic use as in  11:18  16:9 . {The cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath} (	o
pot(8872)ion tou oinou tou thumou t(8873) org(8873) autou). "The cup of the
wine of the wrath of his anger," using both 	humos (boiling
rage) and org(885c) (settled anger). See both in  Jer 30:24 .

經文:

啟示錄 16:20-16:20

註釋:

 {Fled} (ephugen). Second aorist active indicative of
pheug(935c). Islands sometimes sink in the sea in earthquakes
( 6:14 ). {Were not found} (ouch heureth(8873)an). First aorist
passive indicative of heurisk(935c). See  20:11  for the same idea.

經文:

啟示錄 16:21-16:21

註釋:

 {Hail} (chalaza). As in  8:17  11:19 . {Every stone about
the weight of a talent} (h(9373) talantiaia). Old adjective (from
	alanton), here only in N.T., but in Polybius and Josephus. See
 Ex 9:24  for the great hail in Egypt and also  Jos 10:11  Isa
28:2  Eze 38:22  for hail as the symbol of God's wrath. In the
LXX a 	alanton ranged in weight from 108 to 130 pounds.
{Because of the plague of hail} (ek t(8873) pl(8867)(8873) t(8873) chalaz(8873)).
"As a result of the plague of hail." This punishment had the same
effect as in verses  9,11 . {Exceeding great}
(Megal(882d)-sphrodra). Emphatic positions at ends of the clause
(great--exceedingly).

經文:

啟示錄 17:1-17:1

註釋:

 {I will show thee} (deix(9320)soi). Future active of
deiknumi. It is fitting that one of the seven angels that had
the seven bowls should explain the judgment on Babylon ( 16:19 )
already pronounced ( 14:8 ). That is now done in chapters  Re 17  18 . {The judgment of the great harlot} (	o krima t(8873) porn(8873) t(8873)
megal(8873)). The word krima is the one used about the doom of
Babylon in  Jer 51:9 . Already in  14:8  Babylon is called the
harlot. Porn(8873) is the objective genitive, "the judgment on the
great harlot." {That sitteth upon many waters} (	(8873) kath(886d)en(8873)
epi hudat(936e) poll(936e)). Note triple use of the article 	(8873). In
 Jer 51:13  we have eph' hudasi pollois (locative in place of
genitive as here). Babylon got its wealth by means of the
Euphrates and the numerous canals for irrigation. Rome does not
have such a system of canals, but this item is taken and applied
to the New Babylon in  17:15 . Nahum ( Na 3:4 ) calls Nineveh a
harlot, as Isaiah ( Isa 23:16f. ) does Tyre.

經文:

啟示錄 17:2-17:2

註釋:

 {The kings of the earth} (hoi basileis t(8873) g(8873)). Repeated
in  1:5  6:15  17:18  18:3,9  19:19  21:24  and "the kings of the
inhabited earth" ( 16:14 ) either for human rulers in general or
the vassal kings absorbed by the Roman Empire. {Committed
fornication} (eporneusan). First aorist active indicative of
porneu(935c). "In purchasing the favour of Rome by accepting her
suzerainty and with it her vices and idolatries" (Swete). {Were
made drunken} (emethusth(8873)an). First aorist passive indicative
of methusk(935c), old verb (from methu), as in  Lu 12:45 , here
only in the Apocalypse. Cf.  Isa 51:7  and pepotiken in  Re
14:8 . See  18:3 .

經文:

啟示錄 17:3-17:3

註釋:

 {He carried me away} (ap(886e)egken me). Second aorist active
indicative of apopher(935c), to bear away, prophetic aorist. This
verb is used of angels at death ( Lu 16:22 ) or in an ecstasy
( Re 21:10  and here). {In the Spirit} (en pneumati). Probably
his own spirit, though the Holy Spirit is possible ( 1:10  4:2  21:10 ), without Paul's uncertainty ( 2Co 12:2 ). Cf.  Eze
3:14f.  8:3  11:24 . {Into a wilderness} (eis er(886d)on). In  Isa
21:1  there is 	o horama t(8873) er(886d)ou (the vision of the deserted
one, Babylon), and in  Isa 14:23  Babylon is called er(886d)on.
John may here picture this to be the fate of Rome or it may be
that he himself, in the wilderness (desert) this side of Babylon,
sees her fate. In  21:10  he sees the New Jerusalem from a high
mountain. {Sitting} (kath(886d)en(886e)). Present middle participle of
kath(886d)ai as in verse  1 . "To manage and guide the beast"
(Vincent). {Upon a scarlet-coloured beast} (epi th(8872)ion
kokkinon). Accusative with epi here, though genitive in verse
 1 . Late adjective (from kokkos, a parasite of the _ilex
coccifera_), a crimson tint for splendour, in  Re 17:3,4  18:12,16  Mt 27:28  Heb 9:19 . {Full of names of blasphemy}
(gemonta onomata blasph(886d)ias). See  13:1  for "names of
blasphemy" on the seven heads of the beast, but here they cover
the whole body of the beast (the first beast of  13:1  19:20 ).
The harlot city (Rome) sits astride this beast with seven heads
and ten horns (Roman world power). The beast is here personified
with masculine participles instead of neuter, like 	h(8872)ion
(gemonta accusative singular, ech(936e) nominative singular,
though some MSS. read echonta), construction according to sense
in both instances. The verb gem(935c) always has the genitive after
it in the Apocalypse ( 4:6,8  5:8  15:7  17:4  21:9 ) save here
and apparently once in  17:4 .

經文:

啟示錄 17:4-17:4

註釋:

 {Was arrayed} ((886e) peribebl(886d)en(885c)). Periphrastic past
perfect indicative of periball(935c), to fling round one. {In purple
and scarlet} (porphuroun kai kokkinon). Accusative retained
after this passive verb of clothing, as so often. Porphurous is
old adjective for purple (from porphura), in N.T. only here and
 Joh 19:2,5 . See preceding verse for kokkinos. {Decked}
(kechrus(936d)en(885c)). Perfect passive participle of chruso(935c), old
verb, to gild, to adorn with gold, here alone in N.T. {With gold
and precious stone and pearls} (chrusi(9369) kai lith(9369) timi(9369) kai
margaritais). Instrumental case. Chrusi(9369) is cognate with the
participle. Lith(9369) timi(9369) is collective ( 18:12,16  21:19 ).
There is a zeugma also with margaritais ( 18:12,16  21:21 ),
for which word see  Mt 7:6 . Probably John is thinking of the
finery of the temple prostitutes in Asia Minor. {Full of
abominations} (gemon bdelugmat(936e)). Agreeing with pot(8872)ion,
"cup" (neuter singular accusative). Some MSS. read gem(936e)
(nominative masculine like ech(936e) in verse  3 , quite
irregular). For delugmat(936e) (genitive after gemon) see  Mt
24:15 ; ( Mr 13:14 ), common in the LXX for idol worship and its
defilements (from deluss(935c), to render foul), both ceremonial
and moral. See  Jer 15:7 . {Even the unclean things of her
fornication} (kai ta akatharta t(8873) porneias aut(8873)). Either the
accusative after gemon as in verse  3  (and full of the unclean
things of her fornication) or the object of echousa, like
pot(8872)ion.

經文:

啟示錄 17:5-17:5

註釋:

 {Upon her forehead a name written} (epi to met(9370)on aut(8873)
onoma gegrammenon). Roman harlots wore a label with their names
on their brows (Seneca, _Rhet_. I. 2. 7; Juvenal VI. 122f.), and
so here. In  19:16  Christ has a name on his garments and on his
thigh, while in  14:1  22:4  the redeemed have the name of God on
their foreheads. There is undoubtedly a contrast between this
woman here and the woman in chapter  Re 12 . {Mystery}
(must(8872)ion). Either in apposition with onoma or as part of
the inscription on her forehead. In either case the meaning is
the same, that the name Babylon is to be interpreted mystically
or spiritually (cf. pneumatik(9373)  11:8 ) for Rome. {The Mother
of the Harlots and of the Abominations of the Earth} (H(8820)M(8874)(8872)
t(936e) Porn(936e) kai t(936e) Bdelugmat(936e) t(8873) G(8873)). The Metropolis of the
Empire is the mother of harlotry and of the world's idolatries.
Charles quotes Tacitus (_Ann_. XV. 44) about Rome as the city
"quo cuncta undique atrocia aut pudenda confluunt
celebranturque_."

經文:

啟示錄 17:6-17:6

註釋:

 {Drunken with the blood of the saints} (methuousan ek tou
haimatos t(936e) hagi(936e)). Present active feminine accusative
singular participle of methu(935c), old verb, to be drunk ( Mt
24:49 ). {Of the martyrs of Jesus} (	(936e) martur(936e) I(8873)ou).
"Witnesses" ( 2:13 ) for Jesus (objective genitive) unto blood
( 16:6  18:24 ) and so martyrs in the modern sense of the word.
"Drunk with blood" is a common idea with the ancients (Euripides,
Josephus, Philo, Cicero, Pliny). {With a great wonder} (	hauma
mega). Cognate accusative with ethaumasa.

經文:

啟示錄 17:7-17:7

註釋:

 {I will tell thee the mystery} (eg(9320)er(9320)soi to must(8872)ion).
The angel gives his interpretation of the woman and the beast
( 17:7-18 ). Er(935c) is the future active of eipon (defective
verb), to tell, to say.

經文:

啟示錄 17:8-17:8

註釋:

 {Was and is not} ((886e) kai ouk estin). Imperfect and present
of eimi, an apparent antithesis to ho (886e) kai ho (936e) of  1:4 .
This is a picture of the beast of  13:1ff.  which the woman is
riding, but no longer just the empire, but one of the emperors
who died (ouk estin, is not). {And is about to come up out of
the abyss} (kai mellei anabainein ek t(8873) abussou). That is, he
is going to come to life again. {And to go into perdition} (kai
eis ap(936c)eian hupagei). So (and he goes into perdition) the best
MSS. read rather than the infinitive hupagein. Most
interpreters see here an allusion to the "Nero _redivivus_"
expectancy realized in Domitian, who was ruling when John wrote
and who was called Nero _redivivus_. {Shall wonder}
(	haumasth(8873)ontai). First future passive (deponent) of
	haumaz(935c), with which compare ethaumasth(885c) in  13:3 . John had
wondered (ethaumasa) in verse  6  "with the amazement of a
horrible surprise; the world will wonder and admire" (Swete).
{Whose name} (h(936e) onoma). Singular onoma, like pt(936d)a in
 11:8 . See  13:8  for the same description of those who worship
the beast and for discussion of details. {When they behold}
(lepont(936e)). Genitive plural of the present active participle
of lep(935c), agreeing with h(936e) (genitive relative) rather than
with hoi katoikountes (nominative just before h(936e)). {How
that} (hoti). "Namely that." {He was, and is not, and shall
come} ((886e) kai ouk estin kai parestai). Repetition of what is in
verse  7  with parestai (future of pareimi, from which
parousia comes) in place of mellei, "parody of the divine
name" (Charles) in  1:4,8  4:8 , "as the hellish antitype of
Christ." The Neronic Antichrist has also a parousia.

經文:

啟示錄 17:9-17:9

註釋:

 {Here is the mind which hath wisdom} (H(9364)e ho nous ho ech(936e)
sophian). "Here is the intelligence which has wisdom" (Charles).
A variation of  13:18 , but the same idea. {Seven mountains}
(hepta or(885c)). Rome was known as the city on seven hills (Vergil,
Horace, Ovid, Cicero, etc.). {On which} (hopou--ep' aut(936e)).
"Where--upon them." Pleonasm like hopou--ekei in  12:6 . In
 13:1ff.  it is the beast that has the seven heads, while here
the woman riding the beast has seven heads, a slight change in
the symbolism, and the heads are further identified as kings.

經文:

啟示錄 17:10-17:10

註釋:

 {Seven kings} (asileis hepta). This is another change in
the symbolism. The identification of these seven kings is one of
the puzzles of the book. {The five are fallen} (hoi pente
epesan). Second aorist active indicative of pipt(935c) with the
-an ending. Common for the downfall of kings ( Eze 29:5  30:6  Isa 21:9 , etc.). See  2Sa 3:38 . {The one is} (ho heis estin).
The one when this vision is dated. {The other is not yet come}
(ho allos oup(9320)(886c)then). Prophetic second aorist active of
erchomai. Charles takes this as the date of this "source" or
part of the Apocalypse. But John could himself have used this
language in the time of Domitian even if he was the one who had
not yet come. The difficulty about counting these emperors is
that Galba, Otho, Vitellius reigned so briefly that they hardly
merit being included. {When he cometh} (hotan elth(8869)).
Indefinite temporal clause for the future, with hotan and the
second aorist active subjunctive of erchomai, "whenever he
comes." {He must continue a little while} (oligon auton dei
meinai). Swete takes this to be Titus, who died September 13,
81, after a short reign.

經文:

啟示錄 17:11-17:11

註釋:

 {Is himself also an eighth and is of the seven} (kai autos
ogdoos kai ek t(936e) hepta). This is the angel's interpretation and
it looks like a reference to Domitian as the eighth, who is
regarded as one of the seven because he was considered a second
Nero (Nero _redivivus_). For ek t(936e) hepta see  Ac 21:8 . John
may have used ek t(936e) instead of heis ek t(936e) to avoid absolute
identity between Domitian and Nero (Beckwith). {And he goeth unto
perdition} (kai eis ap(936c)eian hupagei). As in verse  8 .
"Domitian was assassinated (September 18, 96), after a terrible
struggle with his murderers. The tyrant's end was a symbol of the
end to which the Beast which he personated was hastening"
(Swete). Cf.  19:11-21 .

經文:

啟示錄 17:12-17:12

註釋:

 {Which have received no kingdom as yet} (hoitines
basileian oup(9320)elabon). Second aorist (proleptic and prophetic)
active indicative of lamban(935c). The heads are emperors and the
horns are kings (both called asileis). {As kings} (h(9373)
basileis). Compared to kings (see h(9373) in  1:10  4:6  9:7  13:3  14:3  16:21 ) without identification with the emperors,
though succeeding them with "quasi-imperial powers" with the
beast. {For one hour} (mian h(9372)an). Accusative of extent of
time, and that a brief time ( 18:10,16,19 ) in comparison with
the beast ( 13:2 ).

經文:

啟示錄 17:13-17:13

註釋:

 {Have one mind} (mian gn(936d)(886e) echousin). "One purpose"
(gn(936d)(885c) from gin(9373)k(935c)) as in  Ac 20:3  1Co 1:10 . The new
powers are allies of the beast. {They give their power and
authority unto the beast} (	(886e) dunamin kai t(886e) exousian aut(936e)
t(9369) th(8872)i(9369) didoasin). Present active indicative of did(936d)i.
Just as the dragon gave both power and authority to the beast
( 13:2 ), so they are wholly at the service of the beast.

經文:

啟示錄 17:14-17:14

註釋:

 {These} (houtoi). These ten kings. {Shall war against the
Lamb} (meta tou th(8872)iou polem(8873)ousin). Future active of
polemeo, to war. As allies of the beast (the servant of the
dragon,  12:7 ) they will wage war with the Lamb (the enemy of
the dragon). These kings gather for battle as in  16:13f . {And
the Lamb shall overcome them} (kai to arnion nik(8873)ei autous).
Future active of 
ika(935c). This is the glorious outcome, victory
by the Lamb over the coalition of kings as against the beast
before. {For he is Lord of lords and King of kings} (hoti Kurios
kuri(936e) estin kai Basileus basile(936e)). The same words are again
descriptive of Christ in  19:16 , as of God in  De 10:17  (God of
gods and Lord of lords) and  Da 10:17  (God of gods and Lord of
kings). Cf. also  1Ti 6:15  Re 1:5 . Crowned heads are Christ's
subjects. {And they also shall overcome that are with him} (kai
hoi met' autou). "And those with him shall also overcome"
(supply 
ik(8873)ousin, not eisin). They will share in the
triumph of the Lamb, as they shared in the conflict. Cf. meta
tou th(8872)iou in verse  12 . {Called and chosen and faithful}
(kl(8874)oi kai eklektoi kai pistoi). These are the three notes of
those who share in the victory. For kl(8874)os and eklektos see
 Mt 22:14  (contrasted);  Ro 8:28ff.  2Pe 1:10  Re 2:10,13 . The
elect are called and prove faithful.

經文:

啟示錄 17:15-17:15

註釋:

 {Where the harlot sitteth} (hou h(8820)pornos kath(8874)ai).
Relative adverb hou (where) referring to the waters (hudata)
of verse  1  on which the harlot sits. Present middle indicative
of kath(886d)ai. {Are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and
tongues} (laoi kai ochloi eisin kai ethn(8820)kai gl(9373)sai). The
O.T. uses "waters" as symbol for "peoples" ( Isa 8:7  Jer 47:2  Ps 29:10 , etc.). "Rome's greatest danger lay in the multitudes
which were under her sway" (Swete).

經文:

啟示錄 17:16-17:16

註釋:

 {These shall hate the harlot} (houtoi mis(8873)ousin t(886e)
porn(886e)). Future active of mise(935c). Houtoi is resumptive
demonstrative pronoun (masculine) referring to the ten horns and
the beast (neuter); construction according to sense. The downfall
of Rome will come from the sudden change in subject peoples.
{Shall make her desolate and naked} ((8872)(886d)(936d)en(886e) poi(8873)ousin aut(886e)
kai gumn(886e)). Future active of poie(935c) and perfect passive
predicate accusative participle of er(886d)o(935c), old verb (from
er(886d)os desolate), again in  18:16,19 . Gumn(886e) (naked) is
predicate adjective. {Shall eat her flesh} (	as sarkas aut(8873)
phagontai). Future middle of the defective verb esthi(935c), to
eat. Note plural sarkas, portions of flesh ( Jas 5:3 ) as in
 Ps 27:2  Mic 3:3 . {Shall burn her utterly with fire} (aut(886e)
katakausousin en puri). Future active of katakai(935c), to burn
down (perfective use of kai(935c)). John wrote before the days of
Alaric, Genseric, Ricimer, Totila, with their hordes which
devastated Rome and the west in the fifth and sixth centuries.
"No reader of the _Decline and Fall_ can be at a loss for
materials which will at once illustrate and justify the general
trend of St. John's prophecy" (Swete).

經文:

啟示錄 17:17-17:17

註釋:

 {Did put} (ed(936b)en). "Did give" (first aorist active of
did(936d)i. {To do his mind} (poi(8873)ai t(886e) gn(936d)(886e) autou).
Epexegetic first aorist active infinitive of poie(935c) after
ed(936b)en, as often in this book. They are of one mind (verse
 13 ) because God put them up to it, clear statement of God's
over-ruling hand among the nations. {Until the words of God
should be accomplished} (achri telesth(8873)ontai hoi logoi tou
theou). Temporal clause about the future with achri (like
he(9373)), with the future indicative of 	ele(935c), but with aorist
passive subjunctive 	elesth(9373)in in  15:8 . For 	ele(935c) see also
 10:7 . For "the words of God" see  19:9 . They will be
fulfilled.

經文:

啟示錄 17:18-17:18

註釋:

 {The woman} (h(8820)gun(885c)). She is now explained after the
beast has been interpreted. Verse  9  made it plain enough, but
this verse demonstrates that the woman is the city of Rome "which
reigneth (h(8820)echousa basileian, the one having a kingdom) over
the kings of the earth (epi t(936e) basile(936e) t(8873) g(8873))." Rome
followed Babylon, and other cities may follow in their train.

經文:

啟示錄 18:1-18:1

註釋:

 {Coming down out of heaven} (katabainonta ek tou ouranou).
Present active predicate participle. Not the angel of  17:1,7,15 
(John's guide), but one announcing the doom of Babylon (Rome). As
in  10:1  20:1 . {Was lightened} (eph(9374)isth(885c)). First aorist
passive of ph(9374)iz(935c), old causative verb (from ph(9373), light),
common in N.T. as in  Re 18:1  21:23  22:5 . {With his glory}
(ek t(8873) dox(8873) autou). "By reason of (ek as in  8:13  16:10 )
his glory." "So recently has he come from the Presence that in
passing he flings a broad belt of light across the dark earth"
(Swete).

經文:

啟示錄 18:2-18:2

註釋:

 {Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great} (epesen, epesen
Babul(936e) h(8820)megal(885c)). The very words of  14:8 : "Did fall, did
fall Babylon the great." Prophetic aorists of pipt(935c) repeated
like a solemn dirge of the damned. {Is become} (egeneto).
Prophetic aorist middle. {A habitation of devils}
(katoik(8874)(8872)ion). Late word (from katoike(935c), to dwell), in N.T.
only here and  Eph 2:22 . Devils should be demons, of course. So
Isaiah prophesied of Babylon ( Isa 12:21f. ) and also Jeremiah
( Jer 50:39 ) and Zephaniah of Nineveh ( Zep 2:14 ). Both Babylon
and Nineveh are ruins. {A hold of every unclean spirit} (phulak(880a)pantos pneumatos akathartou). Phulak(885c) is garrison or
watch-tower as in  Hab 2:1 , rather than a prison ( 20:7 ). {A
hold of every unclean and hateful bird} (phulak(8820)pantos orneou
akathartou kai memis(886d)enou). Orneou is old word for bird, in
N.T. only  Re 18:2  19:17,21 . "The evil spirits, watching over
fallen Rome like night-birds or harpies that wait for their prey,
build their eyries in the broken towers which rise from the ashes
of the city" (Swete). Long ago true of Babylon and Nineveh, some
day to be true of Rome.

經文:

啟示錄 18:3-18:3

註釋:

 {By} (ek). "As a result of." Some MSS. omit "of the wine"
(	ou oinou). Cf.  14:10  16:10 . {Have fallen} (pept(936b)an).
Perfect active third personal of pipt(935c) for usual pept(936b)asi.
Some MSS. read pep(936b)an (have drunk), from pin(935c) like the
metaphor in  14:8,10  16:19  17:2 . See  17:2  for the same
charge about the kings of the earth. {The merchants of the earth}
(hoi emporoi t(8873) g(8873)). Old word for one on a journey for trade
(from en, poros), like drummers, in N.T. only  Mt 13:45  Re
18:3,11,15,23 . Like emporion ( Joh 2:16 ) and emporeuomai
( Jas 4:13 ). {Waxed rich} (eplout(8873)an). First ingressive
aorist active indicative of ploute(935c), to be rich (cf.  3:17 ).
Here alone in the N.T. do we catch a glimpse of the vast traffic
between east and west that made Rome rich. {Of her wantonness}
(	ou str(886e)ous aut(8873)). Late word for arrogance, luxury, here
alone in N.T. See str(886e)ia(935c) in verses  7,9 , to live wantonly.

經文:

啟示錄 18:4-18:4

註釋:

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6' or engs='2Co
6'
經文:

啟示錄 18:5-18:5

註釋:

 {Have reached} (ekoll(8874)h(8873)an). First aorist passive
(deponent) indicative of kolla(935c), old verb (from kolla,
gluten, glue), to cleave to, to join one another in a mass "up to
heaven" (achri tou ouranou). Cf.  Jer 51:9  Zec 14:5 . {Hath
remembered} (emn(886d)oneusen). First aorist (prophetic) active
indicative of mn(886d)oneu(935c), here with the accusative (adik(886d)ata,
iniquities) instead of the genitive ( Col 4:18 ).

經文:

啟示錄 18:6-18:6

註釋:

 {Render as she rendered} (apodote h(9373) aped(936b)en). Second
aorist (effective) active imperative and first aorist (effective)
active of apodid(936d)i, old and common verb for requital, to give
back, the _lex talionis_ which is in the O.T. ( Jer 50:15,29  51:24,56  Ps 137:8 ), and in the N.T. also ( Mt 7:2 ). Here the
reference is to persecutions by Rome, particularly the martyrdom
of the saints ( 18:24  19:2 ). {Double the double} (dipl(9373)ate ta
dipla). First aorist imperative of diplo(935c), old verb (from
diploos, double,  Mt 23:15 ), here only in N.T. Dipl(835c) is
simply the neuter plural accusative (cognate) contract form for
diploa (not dipl(935c)). Requite here in double measure, a full
requital ( Ex 22:4,7,9  Isa 40:2  Jer 16:18  17:18  Zec 9:12 ).
The double recompense was according to the Levitical law. {Which
she mingled} (h(9369) ekerasen). First aorist active indicative of
kerannumi. The relative h(9369) is attracted to the locative case
of its antecedent pot(8872)i(9369) (cup), for which see  14:8,10  17:4  18:3 . {Mingle unto her double} (kerasate aut(8869) diploun). First
aorist active imperative of the same verb kerannumi, with the
same idea of double punishment.

經文:

啟示錄 18:7-18:7

註釋:

 {How much soever} (hosa). Indefinite quantitative relative
pronoun hosos in the accusative (cognate) neuter plural object
of edoxasen (first aorist active indicative of doxaz(935c)).
{Herself} (haut(886e)). Reflexive pronoun, accusative also with
edoxasen. {Waxed wanton} (estr(886e)iasen). First aorist
(ingressive) active indicative of str(886e)ia(935c) (to live
luxuriously), verb in late comedy instead of 	rupha(935c) ( Jas
5:5 ), from str(886e)os ( Re 18:3 ), only here in N.T. {So much
give her of torment and mourning} (	osouton dote aut(8869)
basanismon kai penthos). Second aorist active imperative of
did(936d)i, to give. The correlative pronoun 	osouton is
masculine singular accusative, agreeing with asanismon, for
which see  9:5  14:11 , and is understood with the neuter word
penthos (mourning), in N.T. only in  Jas 4:9  Re 18:7ff.  21:4 
(kin to pathos, penomai). {I sit a queen} (kath(886d)ai
basilissa). Predicate nominative for the old form asileia
(asilis), as in  Mt 12:42 . Babylon and Tyre had preceded Rome
in such boasting ( Isa 47:7-9  Eze 27:3  28:2  Zep 2:15 ). {And
am no widow} (kai ch(8872)a ouk eimi). Feminine of the adjective
ch(8872)os (barren), old word ( Mr 12:40 ). {Shall in no wise see
mourning} (penthos ou m(8820)id(935c)). Confident boast of security with
emphatic position of penthos (see above) and double negative
ou m(885c) with the second aorist active subjunctive of hora(935c)
(defective verb).

經文:

啟示錄 18:8-18:8

註釋:

 {Therefore} (dia touto). Because of her presumption added
to her crimes. {In one day} (en mi(8369) h(886d)er(8369)). Symbolical term
for suddenness like mi(8369) h(9372)(8369), in one hour ( 18:10,16,19 ).
John has in mind still  Isa 47:7-9 . {Shall come} (h(8878)ousin).
Future active of h(886b)(935c). Her plagues are named (death, mourning,
famine). {She shall be utterly burned} (katakauth(8873)etai).
Future passive of katakai(935c) (perfective use of kata). {With
fire} (en puri). "In fire," as in  17:16 . {Which judged her}
(ho krinas aut(886e)). Articular first aorist active participle of
krin(935c) referring to kurios ho theos (the Lord God). The doom
of Babylon is certain because of the power of God.

經文:

啟示錄 18:9-18:9

註釋:

 {Shall weep} (klausousin). Future active of klai(935c),
middle klausontai in Attic, as in  Joh 16:20 . {And wail over
her} (kai kopsontai ep' aut(886e)). Future direct middle of
kopt(935c), old verb, to beat, to cut, middle to beat oneself ( Re
1:7 ). For combination with klai(935c) as here see  Lu 8:52 . See
 17:2  18:3,7  for hoi porneusantes kai str(886e)iasantes). {When
they look upon} (hotan blep(9373)in). Indefinite temporal clause
with hotan and the present active subjunctive of lep(935c). {The
smoke of her burning} (	on kapnon t(8873) pur(9373)e(9373) aut(8873)).
Pur(9373)is is an old word (from puro(935c) to burn), in N.T. only
 1Pe 4:12  Re 18:9,18 . See verse  8  for other plagues on Rome,
but fire seems to be the worst ( 17:16  18:8,9,17  19:3 ).

經文:

啟示錄 18:10-18:10

註釋:

 {Standing afar off} (apo makrothen hest(886b)otes). Perfect
active (intransitive) participle of hist(886d)i. Vivid picture of
the terrible scene, fascinated by the lurid blaze (cf. Nero's
delight in the burning of Rome in A.D. 64), and yet afraid to
draw near. On apo makrothen see  Mr 5:6 . There is a weird
charm in a burning city. They feared the same fate (cf. verse  7 
for asanismou, torment). {Woe, woe, the great city} (ouai,
ouai, h(8820)polis h(8820)megal(885c)). Only example in the Apocalypse of the
nominative with ouai except verses  16,19 , though in  Lu 6:25 
and common in LXX ( Isa 5:7,11 , etc.). For the dative see  Re
8:13 , once so "strong" (h(8820)ischura)! {In one hour} (mi(8369)
h(9372)(8369)). Repeated in verses  16,19 , and like mi(8369) h(886d)er(8369) (in
one day) in verse  8 . Some MSS. have here mian h(9372)an, like
poian h(9372)an (accusative of extent of time) in  3:3 . See verse
 8  (ho krinas) for h(8820)krisis sou (thy judgment). This is the
dirge of the kings.

經文:

啟示錄 18:11-18:11

註釋:

 {The merchants} (hoi emporoi). As in  18:3,15,23 . The
dirge of the merchants follows the wail of the kings. {Weep and
mourn} (klaiousin kai penthousin). Present active indicatives
of klai(935c) and penthe(935c) as in verses  9  (for klai(935c)),  15,19 .
{For no man buyeth their merchandise any more} (hoti ton gomon
aut(936e) oudeis agorazei ouketi). Reason enough for their sorrow
over Rome's fall. Gomos is old word (from gem(935c) to be full)
for a ship's cargo ( Ac 21:3 ) and then any merchandise ( Re
18:11f. ). Galen, Pliny, Aristides tell of the vastness of the
commerce and luxury of Rome, the world's chief market. Many of
the items here are like those in the picture of the destruction
of Tyre in  Eze 26  27 . There are twenty-nine items singled out
in verses  12,13  of this merchandise or cargo (gomon), imports
into the port of Rome. Only a few need any comment.

經文:

啟示錄 18:12-18:12

註釋:

 {Of fine linen} (ussinou). Genitive case after gomon,
as are all the items to kokkinou. Old adjective from ussos
(linen,  Lu 16:19 ), here a garment of linen, in N.T. only  Re
18:12,16  19:8,14 . {Purple} (porphuras). Fabric colored with
purple dye (porphureos,  17:4  18:16 ), as in  Mr 15:17,20  Lu
16:19 . {Silk} (sirikou). So the uncials here. To s(8872)ikon
(the silken fabric) occurs in Plutarch, Strabo, Arrian, Lucian,
only here in N.T. Probably from the name of the Indian or Chinese
people (hoi S(8872)es) from whom the fabric came after Alexander
invaded India. Silk was a costly article among the Romans, and
for women as a rule. {Scarlet} (kokkinou). See  17:4  18:16 .
{All thyine wood} (pan xulon thuinon). Now accusative again
without gomon dependence. An odoriferous North African citrus
tree, prized for the colouring of the wood for dining-tables,
like a peacock's tail or the stripes of a tiger or panther. Here
only in N.T. {Of ivory} (elephantinon). Old adjective (from
elephas elephant) agreeing with skeuos (vessel), here only in
N.T. Cf. Ahab's ivory palace ( 1Ki 22:39 ). {Of marble}
(marmarou). Old word (from marmair(935c), to glisten), genitive
after skeuos (vessel), here only in N.T.

經文:

啟示錄 18:13-18:13

註釋:

 {Cinnamon} (kinnam(936d)on). Old word transliterated into
English, here only in N.T. Of Phoenician origin (Herodotus) as to
name and possibly from South China. {Spice} (am(936d)on). A
fragrant plant of India, amomum, for perfume. {Incense}
(	humiamata). See  5:8  8:3 . {Ointment} (muron). See  Mt
26:7 . {Frankincense} (libanon). See  8:3 . {Fine flour}
(semidalin). Old word for finest wheaten flour, here only in
N.T. {Of horses} (hipp(936e)). Here then is a return to the
construction of the genitive after gomon in verse  12 , though
not used here, an anomalous genitive construction (Charles). {Of
chariots} (
ed(936e)). A Gallic word for a vehicle with four
wheels, here only in N.T. {Of slaves} (somat(936e)). "Of bodies,"
treated as animals or implements, like the horses and the
chariots (cf. _rickshaw_ men in China). This use of s(936d)a for
slave occurs in  Ge 34:29 ; Tob 10:11 (s(936d)ata kai kt(886e)(885c), slaves
and cattle); II Macc. 8:11. {Souls of men} (psuchas anthr(9370)(936e)).
Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 160) finds this use of s(936d)a for
slave in the Egyptian Delta. Return to the accusative psuchas.
From  Nu 31:35  1Ch 5:21  Eze 27:13 . This addition is an
explanation of the use of s(936d)ata for slaves, "human live stock"
(Swete), but slaves all the same. Perhaps kai here should be
rendered "even," not "and": "bodies even souls of men." The slave
merchant was called s(936d)atemporos (body merchant).

經文:

啟示錄 18:14-18:14

註釋:

 {The fruits} (h(8820)op(9372)a). The ripe autumn fruit ( Jer
40:10,12 ). Here only in N.T. Of uncertain etymology (possibly
opos, sap, h(9372)a, hour, time for juicy sap). See  Jude 1:12 
for dendra phthinop(9372)inos (autumn trees). {Which thy soul
lusteth after} (sou t(8873) epithumias t(8873) psuch(8873)). "Of the
lusting of thy soul." {Are gone from thee} (ap(886c)then apo sou).
Prophetic aorist active indicative of aperchomai with
repetition of apo. {All things that were dainty and sumptuous}
(panta ta lipara kai ta lampra). "All the dainty and the
gorgeous things." Liparos is from lipos (grease) and so fat,
about food (here only in N.T.), while lampros is bright and
shining ( Jas 2:2f. ), about clothing. {Are perished from thee}
(ap(936c)eto apo sou). Prophetic second aorist middle indicative of
apollumi (intransitive). {Shall find them no more at all}
(ouketi ou m(8820)auta heur(8873)ousin). Doubled double negative with
future active, as emphatic a negation as the Greek can make.

經文:

啟示錄 18:15-18:15

註釋:

 {Of these things} (	out(936e)). Listed above in verses
 12-14 . {Who were made rich by her} (hoi plout(8873)antes ap'
aut(8873)). "Those who grew rich (ingressive aorist active
participle of ploute(935c), for which see verses  3,13 ) from her."
{Shall stand afar off} (apo makrothen st(8873)ontai). Future middle
of hist(886d)i. Repeating the picture in verse  10 . Again in verse
 17 . See verse  11  for the two participles klaiontes kai
penthountes.

經文:

啟示錄 18:16-18:16

註釋:

 For the Woe see verses  10,19 . For the next clause see
 17:4  with the addition here of ussinon ( 18:12 ). {For in
one hour so great riches is made desolate} (hoti mi(8369) h(9372)(8369)
(8872)(886d)(9374)h(8820)ho tosoutos ploutos). The reason (hoti) for the
"woe." First aorist passive indicative of er(886d)o(935c), for which
verb see  17:16  18:19 . This is the dirge of the merchants.

經文:

啟示錄 18:17-18:17

註釋:

 {Shipmaster} (kubern(8874)(8873)). Old word (from kuberna(935c), to
steer), helmsman, sailing-master, in N.T. only here and  Ac
27:11 . Subordinate to the 
aukl(8872)os (supreme commander). {That
saileth any whither} (ho epi topon ple(936e)). "The one sailing to
a place." See  Ac 27:2 , 	ous kata t(886e) Asian pleontas (those
sailing down along Asia). Nestle suggests ponton (sea) here for
	opon (place), but it makes sense as it is. {Mariners}
(
autai). Old word (from 
aus, ship), in N.T. only here and
 Ac 27:27,30 . {Gain their living by the sea} (	(886e) thalassan
ergazontai). "Work the sea." This idiom is as old as Hesiod for
sailors, fishermen, etc. See verses  10,15 .

經文:

啟示錄 18:18-18:18

註釋:

 {As they looked} (lepontes). Present active participle
of lep(935c). See hotan blep(9373)in in verse  10 . {What city is
like the great city?} (	is homoia t(8869) polei t(8869) megal(8869);). No
polis with 	is, but implied. Associative instrumental case,
as usual, with homoia. "The eternal city" is eternal no longer.

經文:

啟示錄 18:19-18:19

註釋:

 {They cast dust} (ebalon choun). Second aorist active of
all(935c). Chous is old word (from che(935c) to pour) for heap of
earth, dust, in N.T. only here and  Mr 6:11 . Cf.  Eze 27:30  Lu
10:13 . This is the dirge of the sea-folk (cf. verses  10,16 ).
{By reason of her costliness} (ek t(8873) timiot(8874)os aut(8873)).
Occasionally in later literary Greek, though here only in N.T.
and not in LXX. The same use of 	im(885c) appears in  1Pe 2:7 .
Common in the papyri as a title like "Your Honor" (Moulton and
Milligan's _Vocabulary_).

經文:

啟示錄 18:20-18:20

註釋:

 {Rejoice over her} (Euphrainou ep' aut(8869)). Present middle
imperative of euphrain(935c), for which verb see  11:10 , used there
of the joy of the wicked over the death of the two witnesses,
just the opposite picture to this. "The song of doom" (Charles)
here seems to be voiced by John himself. {God hath judged your
judgment} (ekrinen ho theos to krima). First aorist (prophetic)
active of krin(935c) and cognate accusative krima, here a case for
trial ( Ex 18:22  1Co 6:7 ), not a sentence as in  17:1 . God has
approved the case of heaven.

經文:

啟示錄 18:21-18:21

註釋:

 {A strong angel} (heis aggelos ischuros). Here heis =
a, just an indefinite article, not "one" as a numeral. {Took up}
((8872)en). First aorist active indicative of air(935c). {As it were a
great millstone} (h(9373) mulinon megan). Late adjective, in
inscriptions, here only in N.T., made of millstone (mulos,  Mt
18:6  Re 18:22 ), while mulikos ( Lu 17:2 ) means belonging to
a mill. This is not a small millstone turned by women ( Mt
24:41 ), but one requiring an ass to turn it ( Mr 9:42 ), and so
"a great" one. {Cast} (ebalen). Second aorist active of
all(935c), to hurl. {With a mighty fall} (horm(886d)ati).
Instrumental case (manner) of horm(886d)a, a rush, old word from
horma(935c), to rush ( Mt 8:32 ), here only in N.T. {Shall be cast
down} (leth(8873)etai). Future (first) passive of all(935c), the
same verb (ebalen), effective punctiliar future. Like a boulder
hurled into the sea. {Shall be found no more at all} (ou m(880a)heureth(8869) eti). Double negative with first aorist passive
subjunctive of heurisk(935c). See  9:6  for ou m(885c) with the active
voice of heurisk(935c). Already the old Babylon was a desert waste
(Strabo, XVI. 1073).

經文:

啟示錄 18:22-18:22

註釋:

 {The voice} (ph(936e)(885c)). Cf.  Eze 26:13 . Or "sound" as in
 1Co 14:8  with salpigx (trumpet). For this song of judgment
see  Jer 25:10 . {Of harpers} (kithar(9369)d(936e)). Old word (from
kithara, harp, and (9369)dos, singer) as in  14:2 . {Of
minstrels} (mousik(936e)). Old word (from mousa, music), here
only in N.T., one playing on musical instruments. {Of
flute-players} (aul(8874)(936e)). Old word (from aule(935c), to play on a
flute,  Mt 11:17 , aulos, flute,  1Co 14:7 ), in N.T. only here
and  Mt 9:23 . {Of trumpeters} (salpist(936e)). Late form for the
earlier salpigkt(8873) (from salpiz(935c)), here only in N.T. {Shall
be heard no more at all} (ou m(8820)akousth(8869)). First aorist
passive subjunctive of akou(935c) with the double negative as below,
with ph(936e)(8820)mulou (sound of the millstone), and as in verse  21 
with ou me heureth(8869) and again with p(8373) technit(8873)
(craftsman). This old word is from 	echn(885c), art, as here in some
MSS. ("of whatsoever craft," pas(8873) techn(8873)). Technit(8873) occurs
also in this sense in  Ac 19:24,38 ; and in  Heb 11:10  of God as
the Architect. There is power in this four-fold sonorous
repetition of ou m(885c) and the subjunctive with two more examples
in verse  23 .

經文:

啟示錄 18:23-18:23

註釋:

 {Of a lamp} (luchnou). Old word ( Mt 5:15 ), again in  Re
22:5 . {Shall shine no more at all} (ou m(8820)phan(8869)). Fifth
instance in these verses of ou m(885c) with the aorist subjunctive,
here the active of phain(935c) as in  Re 8:12 . It is not known
whether Rome had street lights or not. {The voice of the
bridegroom and of the bride} (ph(936e)(8820)numphiou kai numph(8873)). See
 Joh 3:29  Jer 7:34  16:9 . "Even the occasional flash of the
torches carried by bridal processions ( Mt 25:1ff. ) is seen no
more" (Swete). The sixth instance of ou m(885c), in verses  21-23 ,
occurs with akousth(8869) (third instance of akousth(8869), two in
verse  22 ). {Were the princes of the earth} ((8873)an hoi
megist(836e)es t(8873) g(8873)). For megist(836e) see  Re 6:15  Mr 6:21 . "Thy
merchants were the grandees" once, but now these merchant princes
are gone. {With thy sorcery} (en t(8869) pharmaki(8369) sou). En
(instrumental use) and the locative case of pharmakia, old word
(from pharmakeu(935c), to prepare drugs, from pharmakon, sorcery,
 Re 9:21 ), in N.T. only here and  Ga 5:20  for sorcery and
magical arts. If one is puzzled over the connection between
medicine and sorcery as illustrated by this word (our pharmacy),
he has only to recall quackery today in medicine (patent
medicines and cure-alls), witch-doctors, professional
faith-healers, medicine-men in Africa. True medical science has
had a hard fight to shake off chicanery and charlatanry. {Were
deceived} (eplan(8874)h(8873)an). First aorist passive indicative of
plana(935c). These charlatans always find plenty of victims. See  Mr
12:24 .

經文:

啟示錄 18:24-18:24

註釋:

 {In her} (en aut(8869)). In Rome. {Was found} (heureth(885c)).
First aorist passive indicative of heurisk(935c). See  16:6  17:6 
for the blood already shed by Rome. Rome "butchered to make a
Roman holiday" (Dill, _Roman Society_, p. 242) not merely
gladiators, but prophets and saints from Nero's massacre A.D. 64
to Domitian and beyond. {Of all that have been slain} (pant(936e)
t(936e) esphagmen(936e)). Perfect passive articular participle genitive
plural of sphaz(935c), the verb used of the Lamb slain ( 5:9,12  13:8 ). Cf.  Mt 23:35  about Jerusalem.

經文:

啟示錄 19:1-19:1

註釋:

 {After these things} (meta tauta). Often when a turn comes
in this book. But Beckwith is probably correct in seeing in
 19:1-5  the climax of chapter  Re 18 . This first voice (verses
 1,2 ) h(9373) ph(936e)(886e) megal(886e) ouchlou pollou (as it were great
voice of much multitude) is probably the response of the angelic
host ( Re 5:11  Heb 12:22 ). There is responsive singing (grand
chorus) as in chapters  Re 4  5 . {Saying} (legont(936e)). Present
active participle of leg(935c), genitive plural, though ochlou is
genitive singular (collective substantive, agreement in sense).
{Hallelujah} (All(886c)ouia). Transliteration of the Hebrew seen
often in the Psalms (LXX) and in III. Macc. 7:13, in N.T. only in
 Re 19:1,3,4,6 . It means, "Praise ye the Lord." Fifteen of the
Psalms begin or end with this word. The Great Hallel (a title for
 Ps 104-109 ) is sung chiefly at the feasts of the passover and
tabernacles. This psalm of praise uses language already in
 12:10 .

經文:

啟示錄 19:2-19:2

註釋:

 {For} (hoti). Because. The reason for God's judgments is
given in  15:3  16:7 . The doom of Babylon seen in  14:7  is now
realized. {For} (hoti). Second use of hoti, explaining the
first. {He hath judged} (ekrinen). First aorist (prophetic and
climacteric, effective) active indicative of krin(935c). {Which}
(h(8874)is). The very one which. {Did corrupt} (ephtheiren). This
is the terrible fact. First aorist active indicative of
phtheir(935c). Cf.  11:18  14:8  17:2  18:3 . {And he hath avenged}
(kai exedik(8873)en). God has exacted vengeance for the blood of
his servants from (ek) her. Prophetic aorist again of ekdike(935c)
with accusative and ek with ablative as in  6:10 .

經文:

啟示錄 19:3-19:3

註釋:

 {A second time} (deuteron). Adverbial accusative, a
heavenly encore. {They say} (eir(886b)an). Perfect active
indicative of eipon. "They have said," not an "aoristic"
perfect for "they say," but vivid dramatic perfect as in  5:7 
and the form in -an instead of -asin as in  18:3  21:6 .
{Goeth up} (anabainei). Linear present active indicative of
anabain(935c), "keeps on going up," "a last touch to the description
already given ( 18:21ff. ) of Babylon's utter collapse" (Swete).
The smoke of the city's ruin ( 14:11  18:8f.,18 ) instead of
incense ( 8:4 ). Cf.  Isa 34:9f .

經文:

啟示錄 19:4-19:4

註釋:

 {Fell down and worshipped God} (epesan kai prosekun(8873)an t(9369)
the(9369)). Precisely as in  7:11 , which see. The twenty-four
elders and the four living creatures take up the antiphonal
chorus of the angels.

經文:

啟示錄 19:5-19:5

註釋:

 1Ch
16:36 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ch
16' or engs='1Ch
16'
經文:

啟示錄 19:6-19:6

註釋:

 {As it were the voice} (h(9373) ph(936e)(886e)). Used here three
times, as once in verse  1 : once of a second great multitude
(ochlou pollou), not of angels as in verse  1 , but the
innumerable multitude of the redeemed of  7:9 ; then "of many
waters" (hudat(936e) poll(936e)) as in  1:15  14:2  like "the roar of a
cataract" (Swete); and once more "the voice of mighty thunders"
(ront(936e) ischur(936e)) as in  6:1  10:3ff . {Saying} (legont(936e)).
The best attested reading, genitive plural of leg(935c), agreeing
with ochlou (genitive singular), for roll of the waters and the
roar of the thunders were not articulate. Some MSS. have
legontes (nominative plural) referring also to ochlou, though
nominative instead of genitive. The fourth "Hallelujah" comes
from this vast multitude. {The Lord our God, the Almighty}
(Kurios, ho theos, ho pantokrat(9372)). For this designation of God
see also  1:8  4:8  11:17  15:3  16:7,14  19:15  21:22 . Cf.
_deus et dominus noster_ used of the Roman emperor. {Reigneth}
(ebasileusen). First aorist active of asileu(935c). Probably
ingressive prophetic aorist, "God became king" in fulness of
power on earth with the fall of the world power.

經文:

啟示錄 19:7-19:7

註釋:

 {Let us rejoice and be exceeding glad} (chair(936d)en kai
agalli(936d)en). Present active subjunctive (volitive) of chair(935c)
and agallia(935c) (elsewhere in N.T. in the middle except  Lu 1:47  1Pe 1:8 ). For both verbs together see  Mt 5:12 . {Let us give}
(d(936d)en). Second aorist active subjunctive of did(936d)i, but A
reads d(9373)omen (future active) and P d(9373)(936d)en. If the future
indicative is read, the tone is changed from exhortation to
declaration (we shall give glory unto him). {The marriage of the
Lamb} (ho gamos tou arniou). In the O.T. God is the Bridegroom
of Israel ( Hos 2:16  Isa 54:6  Eze 16:7ff. ). In the N.T. Christ
is the Bridegroom of the Kingdom (the universal spiritual church
as seen by Paul,  2Co 11:2  Eph 5:25ff. , and by John in  Re
3:20  19:7,9  21:2,9  22:17 . In the Gospels Christ appears as
the Bridegroom ( Mr 2:19f.  Mt 9:15  Lu 5:34f.  Joh 3:29 ). The
figure of gamos occurs in  Mt 22:2-14 . Three metaphors of
women appear in the Apocalypse (the Mother in chapter  Re 12 ,
the Harlot in  Re 17-19 , and the Bride of Christ here to the
end). "The first and third present the Church under two different
aspects of her life, while the second answers to her great rival
and enemy" (Swete). {Is come} ((886c)then). Prophetic aorist, come
at last. {Made herself ready} (h(8874)oimasen heaut(886e)). First
aorist active indicative of hetoimaz(935c) and the reflexive
pronoun. See  22:2  for h(8874)oimasmen(886e) h(9373) numph(886e) (prepared as
a bride). There is something for her to do ( 1Jo 3:3  Jude 1:21  2Co 7:1 ), but the chief preparation is the act of Christ ( Eph
5:25ff. ).

經文:

啟示錄 19:8-19:8

註釋:

 {That she should array herself} (hina peribal(8874)ai).
Sub-final object clause subject of edoth(885c) (was given to her)
with hina and the second aorist middle (direct) of periball(935c)
to fling around. This bridal dress is a gift from Christ. This
form, edoth(885c) (it was given), occurs some 20 times in this book.
{In fine linen, bright and pure} (ussinon lampron katharon).
See  19:14  for the same raiment on those accompanying "The Word
of God" and for the seven angels in  15:6 . See by contrast the
garments of the harlot ( 17:4  18:16 ). For ussinon see
 18:16 . {The righteous acts of the saints} (	a dikai(936d)ata t(936e)
hagi(936e)). This is the explanation (gar) of the bridal dress and
explains why there is work for the Bride as well as for Christ
( Php 2:12f. ). See  15:4  for dikai(936d)a (also  Ro 5:18 ).

經文:

啟示錄 19:9-19:9

註釋:

 {Write} (Grapson). First aorist active imperative of
graph(935c) as in  1:11  14:13 . The speaker may be the angel guide
of  17:1 . {It is another beatitude} (makarioi, Blessed) like
that in  14:13  (fourth of the seven in the book). {They which
are bidden} (hoi kekl(886d)enoi). Articular perfect passive
participle of kale(935c), like  Mt 22:3  Lu 14:17 . Cf.  Re 17:14 .
This beatitude reminds us of that in  Lu 14:15 . (Cf.  Mt 8:11  26:29 .) {These are true words of God} (Houtoi hoi logoi
al(8874)hinoi tou theou eisin). Undoubtedly, but one should bear in
mind that apocalyptic symbolism "has its own methods and laws of
interpretation, and by these the student must be guided" (Swete).

經文:

啟示錄 19:10-19:10

註釋:

 {To worship him} (proskun(8873)ai aut(9369)). First aorist active
infinitive of purpose. John either felt that the angel
represented God or he was beside himself with excitement over the
glorious consummation. He was tempted to worship an angel ( Col
2:18 ). {See thou do it not} (hora m(885c)). Repeated in  22:9 .
Here there is no verb after m(885c) (ellipse of poi(8873)(8869)s touto) as
in  Mr 1:44  1Th 5:15 ), the aorist subjunctive of negative
purpose with m(885c) after hora (present active imperative of
hora(935c)), a common enough idiom. {Fellow-servant} (sundoulos).
The angel refuses worship from John on this ground. All
Christians are sundouloi (fellow-servants) as Christ taught
( Mt 18:28ff.  24:49 ) and as Paul ( Col 1:7  4:7 ) and John ( Re
6:11 ) taught. Angels are God's servants also ( Heb 1:4-14 ). For
"the testimony of Jesus see  1:2,9  6:9  12:17  22:4 . {Worship
God} (	(9369) the(9369) proskun(8873)on). And Christ, who is the Son of God
( 5:13f. ). {The spirit of prophecy} (	o pneuma t(8873)
proph(8874)eias). Explanatory use of gar (for) here as in  8 . The
possession of the prophetic spirit shows itself in witness to
Jesus. In illustration see  Mr 1:10  Mt 3:16  Lu 3:21  Joh 1:51  Re 4:1  10:1  11:19  14:17  15:5  18:1  19:1,7-9 .

經文:

啟示錄 19:11-19:11

註釋:

 {The heaven opened} (	on ouranon (886e)e(9369)gmenon). Perfect
passive participle (triple reduplication) of anoig(935c). Accusative
case after eidon. So Ezekiel ( 1:1 ) begins his prophecy. See
also the baptism of Jesus ( Mt 3:16  Lu 3:21 , but schizomenous
in  Mr 1:10 ). Jesus predicted the opened heavens to Nathanael
( Joh 1:51 ). In  Re 4:1  a door is opened in heaven, the
sanctuary is opened ( 11:19  15:5 ), angels come out of heaven
( 10:1  14:17  18:1 ), and sounds come from heaven ( 19:1 ).
{Behold, a white horse} (idou hippos leukos). Nominative case
because of idou, not eidon. Cf.  6:2  for hippos leukos.
The emblem of victory in both cases, but the riders are very
different. Here it is the Messiah who is the Warrior, as is made
plain by "Faithful and True" (pistos kai al(8874)hinos), epithets
already applied to Christ ( 1:5  3:7,14 ). Cf. also  22:6 . {In
righteousness he doth judge and make war} (en dikaiosun(8869) krinei
kai polemei). See  Isa 11:3ff . The Messiah is both Judge and
Warrior, but he does both in righteousness ( 15:3  16:5,7  19:2 ). He passes judgment on the beast (antichrist) and makes
war on him. Satan had offered Christ a victory of compromise
which was rejected.

經文:

啟示錄 19:12-19:12

註釋:

 {A flame of fire} (phlox puros). As in the opening vision
of Christ in  1:14  ( 2:18 ). {Many diadems} (diad(886d)ata polla).
A new feature, but the dragon has a diadem on each of his seven
heads ( 12:3 ) and the first beast one upon each of his ten horns
( 13:1 ). So the victorious Messiah will wear many royal diadems
and not mere crowns, because he is King of kings ( 19:16 ). {And
he hath} (kai ech(936e)). Nominative active present participle of
ech(935c) either used absolutely as an independent verb (like
indicative) or in an anacoluthon, though autou (his) is
genitive. {A name written} (onoma gegrammenon). Perfect passive
participle of graph(935c) as in  2:17  (cf.  3:12 ). {But he
himself} (ei m(8820)autos). "Except himself" (common ellipsis of
the verb after ei m(885c), "if not"). See  2:17  3:12  for the new
name there described. See  14:1  for the name of Christ on the
forehead of the 144,000, and  17:5  for the name on the forehead
of the harlot. This word here supplements what Jesus says in  Mt
11:27 .

經文:

啟示錄 19:13-19:13

註釋:

 {Arrayed} (peribebl(886d)enos). Perfect passive participle of
periball(935c), to clothe, often in this book. {In a garment}
(himation). Accusative case after the passive participle
peribebl(886d)enos. {Sprinkled} (
erantismenon). Perfect passive
participle of 
antiz(935c), in the predicate accusative case
agreeing with himation. A Q here read ebammenon (perfect
passive participle of apt(935c), to dip). Probably 
erantismenon
(sprinkled) is correct, because the picture comes from  Isa
63:3 , where Aquila and Symmachus use 
antiz(935c). The use of
ebammenon (dipped) is a bolder figure and Charles considers it
correct. In either case it is the blood of Christ's enemies with
which his raiment (himation, perhaps a chlamus  Mt 27:28,31 )
is sprinkled or dipped as the case may be, not his own blood on
Calvary ( 1:5  5:9  7:14  12:11 ), but proleptically and
prophetically the blood of Christ's enemies. Haimati can be
either locative case with ebammenon (dipped in blood) or
instrumental with 
erantismenon (sprinkled with blood). {The
Word of God} (ho Logos tou theou). Some scholars hold this
addition inconsistent with verse  12 , but it may be merely the
explanation of the secret name or still another name besides that
known only to himself. The personal use of the Logos applied to
Christ occurs only in the Johannine writings unless that is the
idea in  Heb 4:12 . In  Joh 1:1,14  it is merely ho Logos (the
Word), in  1Jo 1:1  ho Logos t(8873) z(9388)s (the Word of Life), while
here it is ho Logos tou theou (the Word of God), one of the
strongest arguments for identity of authorship. The idiom here is
one common in Luke and Paul for the teaching of Christ ( Lu 5:1  8:11 , etc.;  1Co 14:36  2Co 2:17 , etc.). Jesus is himself the
final and perfect revelation of God to men ( Heb 1:1f. ).

經文:

啟示錄 19:14-19:14

註釋:

 {The armies which are in heaven} (	a strateumata ta en t(9369)
ouran(9369)). See  12:7  for Michael and angels warring with the
dragon, and also  Mt 26:53  for the angels at Christ's call, not
to say  Heb 1:6f.,14  Mt 13:41  Re 5:11f . {Followed}
((886b)olouthei). Imperfect active and singular (strateumata,
neuter plural) of akolouthe(935c), graphic picture of the celestial
Warrior with his angelic hosts "upon white horses" (eph' hippois
leukois) like the Leader and, like him "clothed in fine linen
white and pure" (endedumenoi bussinon leukon katharon) like the
Leader again ( 19:8 ). Note endedumenoi here as in  1:13  15:6 .

經文:

啟示錄 19:15-19:15

註釋:

 {A sharp sword} (
omphaia oxeia). As in  1:16  2:12,15 .
{That he should smite} (hina patax(8869)). Purpose clause with
hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of patass(935c), old
verb already in  11:6  and like  Isa 11:4 , a figure here for
forensic and judicial condemnation. {And he shall rule them}
(kai autos poimanei). Emphatic use of autos twice (he
himself). Future active of poimain(935c), to shepherd as in  2:27  12:5  "with a rod of iron" (en rabd(9369) sid(8872)(8369)) as there. See
 1Pe 2:25  Heb 13:20  for Christ as Shepherd. {And he treadeth}
(kai autos patei). Change to present tense of pate(935c), to tread
(here transitive), with solemn repetition of kai autos. {The
winepress of the fierceness of the wrath of Almighty God} (	(886e)
l(886e)on tou oinou tou thumou t(8873) org(8873) tou theou tou
pantokratoros). Literally, "the winepress of the wine of the
wrath of the anger of God the Almighty" (four genitives dependent
on one another and on l(886e)on). These images are here combined
from  14:8,10,19f.  16:19 . The fact is already in  19:13  after
 Isa 63:1ff .

經文:

啟示錄 19:16-19:16

註釋:

 {And on his thigh} (kai epi ton m(8872)on autou). "Even upon
his thigh." Old word, here alone in N.T. {King of kings, and Lord
of lords} (Basileus basile(936e) kai Kurios kuri(936e)). The title
already given to the Lamb in  17:14 , but in reverse order. See
the same idea in  1Ti 6:15 .

經文:

啟示錄 19:17-19:17

註釋:

 {An angel} (hena aggelon). Like heis in  18:21 , just
"an," not "one." {Standing in the sun} (hest(9374)a en t(9369) h(886c)i(9369)).
Second perfect active participle of hist(886d)i (intransitive).
"Where all the birds of prey would behold him" (Beckwith). For
orneois (birds) see  18:2  and for en mesouran(886d)ati (in mid
heaven) see  18:13  14:6 . {Come and be gathered together}
(Deute sunachth(8874)e). Deute is the adverb deur(935c) (hither),
used when two or more are addressed, possibly from deuro ite
(come here). Asyndeton also without kai (and). First aorist
passive imperative of sunag(935c). The metaphor is drawn from  Eze
39:17 . {Unto the great supper of God} (eis to deipnon to mega
tou theou). The habits of vultures are described by Christ in
 Mt 24:28 . This is a bold and powerful picture of the
battlefield after the victory of the Messiah, "a sacrificial
feast spread on God's table for all the vultures of the sky"
(Swete). Is this battle the same as that of Har Magedon ( 16:16 )
and that of Gog and Magog ( 20:8ff. ) mentioned after the
thousand years? The language in  20:8ff.  seems like this derived
from  Eze 39:17ff. , and "in the Apocalypse priority in the order
of sequence does not always imply priority in time" (Swete).
There seems no way to decide this point save that the end seems
to be at hand.

經文:

啟示錄 19:18-19:18

註釋:

 {That ye may eat} (hina phag(8874)e). Purpose clause with
hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of esthi(935c). {The
flesh of kings} (sarkas basile(936e)). "Pieces of flesh" (plural of
sarx, flesh) and of all classes and conditions of men who fell
in the battle ( 6:18  11:13  13:16  19:5  20:12 ). War is no
respecter of persons.

經文:

啟示錄 19:19-19:19

註釋:

 {Gathered together} (sun(8867)mena). Perfect passive
participle of sunag(935c). In battle array. {To make war against}
(poi(8873)ai polemon meta). First aorist active infinitive of
poie(935c), to express purpose. See poleme(9320)meta in  12:7  and the
use of sunag(9320)eis polemon in  16:14  20:8 . The beast (for his
army see  16:13f. ) led a league of ten kings against Babylon in
 17:16f. , but with the purpose also of fighting the Lamb
( 17:14 ).

經文:

啟示錄 19:20-19:20

註釋:

 {Was taken} (epiasth(885c)). First aorist (prophetic) passive
indicative of the Doric piaz(935c) (Attic piez(935c)). Cf.  2Th 2:8 .
{The false prophet} (ho pseudoproph(8874)(8873)). Possibly the second
beast of  13:11-17  16:13  20:10 . Charles takes him to be "the
priesthood of the Imperial cult, which practised all kinds of
magic and imposture to beguile men to worship the Beast." {That
wrought the signs in his sight} (ho poiesas ta s(886d)eia en(9370)ion
autou). As in  13:14 . {Wherewith} (en hois). "In which"
signs. {He deceived} (eplan(8873)en). First aorist active
indicative of plana(935c). He was only able to deceive "them that
had received" (	ous labontas, articular second aorist active
participle of lamban(935c), "those receiving") "the mark of the
beast" ( 13:16  14:9ff.  16:2  20:4 ) "and them that worshipped
his image" (	ous proskunountas t(8869) eikoni autou) as in  13:15 .
{They twain} (hoi duo). "The two." {Were cast} (ebl(8874)h(8873)an).
First aorist passive Indicative of all(935c). They fall together as
they fought together. "The day that sees the end of a false
statecraft will see also that of a false priestcraft" (Swete).
{Alive} (z(936e)tes). Present active participle of za(935c),
predicative nominative, "living." {Into the lake of fire} (eis
t(886e) limn(886e) tou puros). Genitive puros describes this limn(886e)
(lake, cf.  Lu 5:1 ) as it does gehenna in  Mt 5:22 . See also
 20:10  21:8 . It is a different figure from the "abyss" in
 9:1ff  20:1ff . This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the
false prophet, and wicked men. {That burneth with brimstone}
(	(8873) kaiomen(8873) en thei(9369)). Note the genitive here in place of
the accusative limn(886e), perhaps because of the intervening
genitive puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular
in  21:8 . For en thei(9369) (with brimstone) see  14:10  20:10  21:8 . The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery
is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in
chapters  Re 4  5  21  22  is to be so understood. Both fall
short of the reality.

經文:

啟示錄 19:21-19:21

註釋:

 {The rest} (hoi loipoi). Of the enemy (the kings and
their hosts of verse  19 ). {Were killed} (apektanth(8873)an).
First aorist (effective) passive indicative of apoktein(935c). Those
affected by the Caesar-worship ( 14:9ff. ) were not at once cast
into the lake with the two beasts. {Were filled}
(echortasth(8873)an). First aorist (effective) passive of
chortaz(935c). As they had been invited to do in verse  17 .

經文:

啟示錄 20:1-20:1

註釋:

 {Coming down out of heaven} (katabainonta ek tou ouranou).
As in  10:1  18:1 . {The key of the abyss} (	(886e) klein t(8873)
abussou). As in  9:1 . {A great chain} (halusin megal(886e)). Paul
wore a halusis (alpha privative and lu(935c), to loose) in Rome
( 2Ti 1:16 ;, as did Peter in prison in Jerusalem ( Ac 12:6 ).
{In his hand} (epi t(886e) cheira autou). "Upon his hand," ready
for use. See epi with the genitive in  1:20 .

經文:

啟示錄 20:2-20:2

註釋:

 {He laid hold on} (ekrat(8873)en). First aorist active
indicative of krate(935c), to seize. {The dragon} (	on drakonta).
Accusative after ekrat(8873)en instead of the genitive as in  2:1 .
He has been behind the beast and the false prophet from the
start. Now he is seized. {The old serpent} (ho ophis ho
archaios). Precisely the description in  12:9 , only the
nominative is here retained, though in apposition with the
accusative 	on drakonta, a frequent anacoluthon in the
Apocalypse ( 1:5 , etc.). Swete calls it a parenthesis. {Which
is} (hos estin). The relative here relieves the construction
and takes the place of ho kaloumenos in  12:9  before Diabolos
kai ho Satan(8373). {And bound him} (kai ed(8873)en auton). First
aorist active indicative of de(935c). {For a thousand years}
(chilia et(885c)). Accusative of extent of time. Here we confront
the same problem found in the 1260 days. In this book of symbols
how long is a thousand years? All sorts of theories are proposed,
none of which fully satisfy one. Perhaps Peter has given us the
only solution open to us in  2Pe 3:8  when he argues that "one
day with the Lord is as a thousand years and a thousand years as
one day." It will help us all to remember that God's clock does
not run by ours and that times and seasons and programs are with
him. This wonderful book was written to comfort the saints in a
time of great trial, not to create strife among them.

經文:

啟示錄 20:3-20:3

註釋:

 {Into the abyss} (eis t(886e) abusson). The one in  9:1f.  and
the one spoken of by the legion of demons in  Lu 8:31  under the
charge of the angel of the abyss (Apollyon,  Re 9:11 ) who is
either Satan himself or a kindred power. "Already he has been
cast out of Heaven ( 12:9 ), now he is cast out of the earth, and
returns to his own place" (Swete). {Shut it and sealed it}
(ekleisen kai esphragisen). Effective first aorists active
indicative of klei(935c) and sphragiz(935c). {That he should deceive no
more} (hina m(8820)plan(8873)(8869)). Negative purpose clause with hina
m(885c) and the first aorist active subjunctive of plana(935c). Glorious
relief after the strain of the previous visions of conflict.
Small wonder that Christians today cherish this blessed hope
whatever the actual meaning may be. {Until should be finished}
(achri telesth(8869)). Temporal clause of future purpose with
achri (as a conjunction like he(9373)) and the first aorist
passive subjunctive of 	ele(935c). Repeated in verse  5  and see
achri and the subjunctive in  7:3  15:8 . {He must be loosed}
(dei luth(886e)ai). Sad necessity, alas, with dei and the first
aorist passive infinitive of lu(935c). {For a little time} (mikron
chronon). Accusative of time. Whatever the thousand years means,
it is here said plainly that after it is over the devil will
again have power on earth "for a little time."

經文:

啟示錄 20:4-20:4

註釋:

 {And they sat upon them} (kai ekathisan ep' autous). First
aorist active indicative of kathiz(935c). Another period here
apparently synchronous (verse  7 ) with the confinement of Satan
in the abyss. No subject is given for this plural verb.
Apparently Christ and the Apostles ( Mt 19:28  Lu 22:30 ) and
some of the saints ( 1Co 6:3 ), martyrs some hold. {Judgment was
given unto them} (krima edoth(8820)autois). First aorist passive of
did(936d)i. Picture of the heavenly court of assizes. {The souls}
(	as psuchas). Accusative after eidon at the beginning of the
verse. {Of them that had been beheaded} (	(936e) pepelekismen(936e)).
Genitive of the articular perfect passive participle of
pelekiz(935c), old word (from pelekus an axe, the traditional
instrument for execution in republican Rome, but later supplanted
by the sword), to cut off with an axe, here only in N.T. See
 6:9  18:24  19:2  for previous mention of these martyrs for the
witness of Jesus ( 1:9  12:17  19:10 ). Others also besides
martyrs shared in Christ's victory, those who refused to worship
the beast or wear his mark as in  13:15  14:9ff.  16:2  19:20 .
{And they lived} (kai ez(8873)an). First aorist active indicative
of za(935c). If the ingressive aorist, it means "came to life" or
"lived again" as in  2:8  and so as to verse  5 . If it is the
constative aorist here and in verse  5 , then it could mean
increased spiritual life. See  Joh 5:21-29  for the double sense
of life and death (now literal, now spiritual) precisely as we
have the second death in  Re 2:11  20:6,14 . {And reigned with
Christ} (kai ebasileusan meta tou Christou). Same use of the
first aorist active indicative of asileu(935c), but more clearly
constative. Beckwith and Swete take this to apply solely to the
martyrs, the martyrs' reign with Christ.

經文:

啟示錄 20:5-20:5

註釋:

 {The rest of the dead} (hoi loipoi t(936e) nekr(936e)). "All
except the martyrs, both the righteous and the unrighteous"
(Beckwith). But some take this to mean only the wicked. {Lived
not until the thousand years should be finished} (ouk ez(8873)an
achri telesth(8869) ta chilia et(885c)). See verse  4  for the items
here. "To infer from this statement, as many expositors have
done, that the ez(8873)an of v.  4  must be understood of bodily
resuscitation, is to interpret apocalyptic prophecy by methods of
exegesis which are proper to ordinary narrative" (Swete). I
sympathize wholly with that comment and confess my own ignorance
therefore as to the meaning of the symbolism without any
predilections for post-millennialism or premillennialism. {This
is the first resurrection} (haut(8820)h(8820)anastasis h(8820)pr(9374)(885c)).
Scholars differ as to the genuineness of this phrase. Accepting
it as genuine, Swete applies it to "the return of the martyrs and
confessors to life at the beginning of the Thousand Years."
According to this view the first resurrection is a special
incident in the present life before the Parousia. It has no
parallel with  1Th 4:16 , where the dead in Christ are raised
before those living are changed. Some think that John here
pictures the "Regeneration" (palingenesia) of  Mt 19:28  and
the "Restoration" (apokatastasis) of  Ac 3:21 . No effort is
here made to solve this problem, save to call attention to the
general judgment out of the books in  20:12  and to the general
resurrection in  Joh 5:29  Ac 24:15 .

經文:

啟示錄 20:6-20:6

註釋:

 {Blessed and holy} (makarios kai hagios). A fifth
beatitude ( 1:3  14:13  16:15  19:9 ) already and two more to
come ( 22:7,14 , seven in all). Here hagios is added to the
usual makarios. The second death (ho deuteros thanatos). The
spiritual death of  2:11  20:14  21:8  in contrast to the first
or physical death. This language raises a question about the
interpretation of the first and the second resurrections, whether
both are of the body or one of the spirit. There seems no way to
reach a solid conception about it. In  1Co 15:23  there is no
mention of the resurrection of any save "those of Christ" (hoi
tou Christou), though the end follows (verse  24 ). However,
Paul elsewhere ( Ac 24:15 ) speaks of the resurrection of the
just and of the unjust as if one event. {Priests of God and of
Christ} (hiereis tou theou kai tou Christou). As in  1:6  5:10  22:3,5 . {Shall reign with him} (asileusousin met' autou). As
promised in the same passages. The servants of God are to be
priests with Christ and to reign with him ( Mt 19:28 ). In  5:10 
epi t(8873) g(8873) (upon earth) occurs, but this item does not appear
here. "No hint is given as to where this service is to be
rendered and this royalty to be exercised" (Swete).

經文:

啟示錄 20:7-20:7

註釋:

 {When are finished} (hotan telesth(8869)). Indefinite future
temporal clause with hotan and the first aorist passive
subjunctive of 	ele(935c), "whenever are finished." {Shall be
loosed} (luth(8873)etai). Future passive of lu(935c), no longer bound
as in  20:2f . He uses the future as a prophet in verses  7,8 ,
but in  9,10  he uses the aorist as a seer. {Out of his prison}
(ek t(8873) phulak(8873) autou). For phulak(885c) in this sense see
 2:10 . Out of the abyss of verses  2,3 .

經文:

啟示錄 20:8-20:8

註釋:

 {To deceive the nations} (plan(8873)ai ta ethn(885c)). First aorist
active infinitive of purpose of plana(935c), Satan's chief task
(chapters 12 to 18, in particular  12:9  13:14  19:20  20:3,10 ).
{Which are in the four corners of the earth} (	a en tais
tessarsi g(936e)iais t(8873) g(8873)). Clearly the reign with Christ, if on
earth, was not shared in by all on earth, for Satan finds a large
and ready following on his release. See  7:1  ( Isa 11:12 ) for
"the four corners of the earth." {Gog and Magog} (	on G(9367) kai
Mag(9367)). Accusative in explanatory apposition with 	a ethn(885c)
(the nations). Magog is first mentioned in  Ge 10:2 . The
reference here seems to be  Eze 38:2 , where both are mentioned.
Josephus (_Ant_. I. 6. 1) identifies Magog with the Scythians,
with Gog as their prince. In the rabbinical writings Gog and
Magog appear as the enemies of the Messiah. Some early Christian
writers thought of the Goths and Huns, but Augustine refuses to
narrow the imagery and sees only the final protest of the world
against Christianity. {To gather them together to the war}
(sunagagein autous eis ton polemon). Second aorist active
infinitive of purpose of sunag(935c), a congenial task for Satan
after his confinement. See  16:14  for this very phrase and also
 17:14  19:19 . {Of whom} (h(936e)--aut(936e)). Pleonasm or redundant
pronoun as in  3:8  and often (of whom--of them). {As the sand of
the sea} (h(9373) h(8820)ammos t(8873) thalass(8873)). Already in  12:18 .
Clearly then the millennium, whatever it is, does not mean a
period when Satan has no following on earth, for this vast host
rallies at once to his standard.

經文:

啟示錄 20:9-20:9

註釋:

 {They went up} (aneb(8873)an). Second aorist active indicative
of anabain(935c), a return to the manner of the seer as in verses
 4,5 . {Over the breadth of the earth} (epi to platos t(8873) g(8873)).
Platos is old word, in N.T. only here,  21:16  Eph 3:18 . The
hosts of Satan spread over the earth. {Compassed} (ekukleusan).
First aorist (prophetic) active indicative of kukleu(935c), to
encircle, late verb (Strabo) from kuklos (circle), in N.T. only
here and margin in  Joh 10:24  (for ekukl(9373)an from kuklo(935c)).
{The camp of the saints} (	(886e) parembol(886e) t(936e) hagi(936e)).
Parembol(885c) (para, en, ball(935c)) is common late word for military
camp, in LXX for the Israelites in the desert ( Ex 29:14 , etc.),
in N.T. for Roman barracks ( Ac 24:34,37 ) and for an army in
line of battle ( Heb 11:34  Re 20:9 ). {The beloved city} (	(886e)
polin t(886e) (8867)ap(886d)en(886e)). Perfect passive participle of agapa(935c),
"the city the beloved." See  Ps 78:68  87:2  for Jerusalem so
described. So Charles takes it here, but Swete holds it to be
"the Church the New Zion" that is meant. {And fire came down out
of heaven} (kai kateb(8820)pur ek tou ouranou). Second aorist
(prophetic) active indicative of katabain(935c). Cf.  Ge 19:24  39:6  Eze 38:22  2Ki 1:10,12  Lu 9:54  (about John). {Devoured
them} (katephagen autous). Second aorist (prophetic) active of
katesthi(935c), to eat up (down). Vivid climax to this last great
battle with Satan.

經文:

啟示錄 20:10-20:10

註釋:

 {Was cast} (ebl(8874)h(885c)). First aorist (prophetic, affective)
passive indicative of all(935c) (verse  3 ). {Into the lake of fire
and brimstone} (eis t(886e) limn(886e) tou puros kai theiou). As in
 19:20  with the two beasts, as he adds, "where are also the
beast and the false prophet" (hopou kai to th(8872)ion kai ho
pseudoproph(8874)(8873)). {They shall be tormented}
(asanisth(8873)ontai). Return to the prophetic future of verses
 7,8 . For asaniz(935c) see  9:5  14:10 . For "day and night"
(h(886d)eras kai nuktos) see  4:8  7:15  12:10  14:11 . For "for
ever and ever" (eis tous ai(936e)as ton ai(936e)(936e)) see  1:6,18  4:9,10  5:13  7:12  10:6  11:15 , etc. The devil was cast down
from heaven ( 12:9 ), then imprisoned ( 20:2ff. ), now he
received his final doom.

經文:

啟示錄 20:11-20:11

註釋:

 {A great white throne} (	hronon megan leukon). Here
megan (great) is added to the throne pictures in  4:4  20:4 .
The scene is prepared for the last judgment often mentioned in
the N.T. ( Mt 25:31-46  Ro 14:10  2Co 5:10 ). "The absolute
purity of this Supreme Court is symbolized by the colour of the
Throne" (Swete) as in  Da 7:9  Ps 9:1  97:2 . The name of God is
not mentioned, but the Almighty Father sits upon the throne
( 4:2f.,9  5:1,7,13  6:16  7:10,15  19:4  21:5 ), and the Son
sits there with him ( Heb 1:3 ) and works with the Father ( Joh
5:19-21  10:30  Mt 25:31ff.  Ac 17:31  2Co 5:10  2Ti 4:1 ). {From
whose face the earth and the heaven fled away} (hou apo pros(9370)ou
ephugen h(8820)ge kai ho ouranos). Second aorist (prophetic) active
of pheug(935c). See  16:20 . The non-eternity of matter is a common
teaching in the O.T. ( Ps 97:5  102:27  Isa 51:6 ) as in the N.T.
( Mr 13:31  2Pe 3:10 ). {Was found} (heureth(885c)). First aorist
passive indicative of heurisk(935c). All is now spiritual. Even
scientists today are speaking of the non-eternity of the
universe.

經文:

啟示錄 20:12-20:12

註釋:

 2Ti
4:1 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ti
4' or engs='2Ti
4'
經文:

啟示錄 20:13-20:13

註釋:

 {Gave up} (ed(936b)en). Just "gave" (first aorist active
indicative of did(936d)i), but for the sea to give is to give up
(effective aorist). Sea as well as land delivers its dead (all
kinds of dead, good and bad). Swete notes that accidental deaths
will not prevent any from appearing. Milligan is sure that the
sea here means "the sea of the troubled and sinful world." {Death
and Hades} (ho thanatos kai ho h(8369)d(8873)). "An inseparable pair"
(Swete) as in  1:18  6:8  20:14 . So in  Mt 16:18  "the gates of
Hades" means the power of death. Etymologically Hades is the
unseen world where all who die are as opposed to this visible
world, but in actual use Hades is sometimes treated as the abode
of the unrighteous ( Lu 16:23 ). Charles thinks that this is true
here, though there is nothing to show it apart from the
personification of death and Hades and the casting of both into
the lake of fire in verse  14 . Here again "each man"
(hekastos) receives judgment according to his deeds ( Mt 16:27  1Co 3:13  2Co 5:10  Ro 2:6  14:12  1Pe 1:17  Re 2:23 ).

經文:

啟示錄 20:14-20:14

註釋:

 {Were cast} (ebl(8874)h(8873)an). As the devil ( 20:10 ) followed
the two beasts ( 19:20 ) into the same dread lake of fire. Death
is personified and is disposed of, "the last enemy" ( 1Co 15:26 )
and Paul sings the paean of victory over death ( 1Co 15:54f. ,
from  Ho 13:14 ). Hades has no more terrors, for the saints are
in heaven. There is no more fear of death ( Heb 2:15 ), for death
is no more ( Re 21:4 ). The second death ( 2:11  20:6  21:8 ) is
here identified as in  21:8  with the lake of fire.

經文:

啟示錄 20:15-20:15

註釋:

 {If any was not found written in the book of life} (ei tis
ouch heureth(8820)en t(8869) bibl(9369) t(8873) z(9388)s). Condition of first class
with ei and the first aorist passive indicative of heurisk(935c).
In this short sentence the doom is told of all who are out of
Christ, for they too follow the devil and the two beasts into the
lake of fire (the counterpart of the Gehenna of fire,  Mt 5:22 ).
There is no room here for soul sleeping, for an intermediate
state, for a second chance, or for annihilation of the wicked. In
 Da 12:2  there is a resurrection to death as well as to life and
so in  Joh 5:29  Ac 24:15 .
經文:

啟示錄 21:1-21:1

註釋:

 {A new heaven and a new earth} (ouranon kainon kai g(886e)
kain(886e)). This new vision (eidon) is the picture of the bliss
of the saints. {The first heaven and the first earth} (ho pr(9374)os
ouranos kai h(8820)pr(9374)(8820)g(885c)) {are passed away} (ap(886c)than, went
away, second aorist active indicative of aperchomai). "Fled
away" (ephugen) in  20:11 . {And the sea is no more} (kai h(880a)thalassa ouk estin eti). The sea had given up its dead
( 20:13 ). There were great risks on the sea ( 18:17ff. ). The
old physical world is gone in this vision. It is not a picture of
renovation of this earth, but of the disappearance of this earth
and sky (not heaven where God dwells). It is a glorious picture
here in  21:1-8  in sharp contrast to the lake of fire in
 20:11-15 . The symbolism in neither case is to be pressed too
literally, but a stern and a glorious reality exists behind it
all.

經文:

啟示錄 21:2-21:2

註釋:

 {The holy city, new Jerusalem} (	(886e) polin t(886e) hagian
Ierousal(886d) kain(886e)). "The New Earth must have a new metropolis,
not another Babylon, but another and greater Jerusalem" (Swete),
and not the old Jerusalem which was destroyed A.D. 70. It was
called the Holy City in a conventional way ( Mt 4:5  27:53 ), but
now in reality because it is new and fresh (kain(886e)), this
heavenly Jerusalem of hope ( Heb 12:22 ), this Jerusalem above
( Ga 4:26ff. ) where our real citizenship is ( Php 3:20 ).
{Coming down out of heaven from God} (katabainousan ek tou
ouranou apo tou theou). Glorious picture caught by John and
repeated from  3:12  and again in  21:10 . But Charles
distinguishes this new city of God from that in  21:9-22:2 
because there is no tree of life in this one. But one shrinks
from too much manipulation of this symbolism. It is better to see
the glorious picture with John and let it tell its own story.
{Made ready} (h(8874)oimasmen(886e)). Perfect passive participle of
hetoimaz(935c) as in  19:7 . The Wife of the Lamb made herself ready
in her bridal attire. {As a bride adorned} (h(9373) numph(886e)
kekosm(886d)en(886e)). Perfect passive participle of kosme(935c), old verb
(from kosmos ornament like our cosmetics), as in  21:19 . Only
here the figure of bride is not the people of God as in  19:7 ,
but the abode of the people of God (the New Jerusalem). {For her
husband} (	(9369) andri aut(8873)). Dative case of personal interest.

經文:

啟示錄 21:3-21:3

註釋:

 {The tabernacle of God is with men} (h(8820)sk(886e)(8820)tou theou
meta t(936e) anthr(9370)(936e)). It is one of the angels of the Presence
( 16:17  19:5 ) speaking. {And he shall dwell with them} (kai
sk(886e)(9373)ei met' aut(936e)). Future active of sk(886e)o(935c), already in
 7:15  from  Eze 37:27  Zec 2:10  8:8  and used of the Incarnate
Christ on earth by John ( Joh 1:14 ), now a blessed reality of
the Father. The metaphor stands for the Shekinah Glory of God in
the old tabernacle ( 7:15  13:6  15:5 ), the true tabernacle of
which it was a picture ( Heb 8:2  9:11 ). God is now Immanuel in
fact, as was true of Christ ( Mt 1:23 ).

經文:

啟示錄 21:4-21:4

註釋:

 {Shall wipe away every tear from their eyes} (exaleipsei
p(836e) dakruon ek t(936e) ophthalm(936e) aut(936e)). More exactly, "shall wipe
out every tear out of their eyes" (repetition of ex) like a
tender mother as in  7:17  ( Isa 25:8 ). There is no more that
ought to cause a tear, for death (	hanatos) is no more,
mourning (penthos), associated with death and crying (kraug(885c),
wailing), and pain (ponos as in  16:10 ) are all gone. There is
peace and bliss.

經文:

啟示錄 21:5-21:5

註釋:

 {Behold, I make all things new} (Idou kaina poi(9320)panta).
The first time since  1:8  that God has been represented as
speaking directly, though voices have come out of the throne
before ( 21:3 ) and out of the sanctuary ( 16:1,17 ), which may
be from God himself, though more likely from one of the angels of
the Presence. This message is not addressed to John ( 7:14  17:7  21:6  22:6 ), but to the entire world of the blessed. See  Isa
43:18f.  for the words (Idou eg(9320)poi(9320)kaina). The idea of a new
heaven and a new earth is in  Isa 65:17  66:22  Ps 102:25f . For
the locative here with epi (epi t(9369) thron(9369)) see  7:10  19:4 
(genitive more usual,  4:9f.  5:1,7,13 , etc.). See  20:11  for
the picture. {And he saith} (kai legei). Probably this means a
change of speakers, made plain by moi (to me) in many MSS. An
angel apparently (as in  14:13  19:9f. ) assures John and urges
him to write (grapson as in  1:11  2:1,8,12,18  3:1,7,14  14:3 ). The reason given (hoti, for) is precisely the saying in
 22:6  and he uses the two adjectives (pistoi kai al(8874)hinoi)
employed in  19:11  about God himself, and  3:14  about Christ.
In  19:9  al(8874)hinoi occurs also about "the words of God" as
here. They are reliable and genuine.

經文:

啟示錄 21:6-21:6

註釋:

 {They are come to pass} (Gegonan). Second perfect active
indicative of ginomai with -an for -asi. See  16:17  for a
like use of gegonen, "They have come to pass." Here again it is
the voice of God because, as in  1:8 , He says: {I am the Alpha
and the Omega} (Eg(9320)to Alpha kai to O) with the addition "the
beginning and the end" (h(8820)arch(8820)kai to telos), the whole used
in  22:13  of Christ. In  Isa 44:6  there is something like the
addition, and in  Col 1:18  Re 3:14  h(8820)arch(885c) is applied to
Christ, while here God is the First Cause (arch(885c)) and the
Finality (	elos) as in  Ro 11:36  Eph 4:6 . But God works
through Christ ( Joh 1:3  Heb 1:2f.  Col 1:12-20 ). God is the
bountiful Giver ( Jas 1:5,17 ) of the Water of Life. See  7:17  22:1,17  for this metaphor, which is based on  Isa 55:1 . It is
God's own promise (Eg(9320)d(9373)(935c)), "I will give." {Of the fountain}
(ek t(8873) p(8867)(8873)). For this partitive use of ek see  Mt 25:8 ,
without ek  Re 2:17 . {Freely} (d(9372)ean). See  Mt 10:8  Joh
4:10  Ro 3:24  Ac 8:20  Re 22:17 .

經文:

啟示錄 21:7-21:7

註釋:

 {He that overcometh} (ho nik(936e)). Recalls the promises at
the close of each of the Seven Letters in chapters 2 and 3.
{Shall inherit} (kl(8872)onom(8873)ei). Future active of kl(8872)onome(935c),
word with great history ( Mr 10:17  1Pe 1:4  Ga 4:7  Ro 8:17 ),
here interpreted for the benefit of these who share in Christ's
victory. {I will be his God} (Esomai aut(9369) theos). Repeated Old
Testament promise (first to Abraham,  Ge 17:7f. ). Cf.  Re 21:3 .
{He shall be my son} (autos estai moi huios). Made first of
Solomon ( 2Sa 7:14 ) and applied to David later in  Ps 89:26f .

經文:

啟示錄 21:8-21:8

註釋:

 {Their part shall be} (	o meros aut(936e)). In contrast to the
state of the blessed (verses  3-7 ) the state of "those who have
disfranchised themselves from the Kingdom of God" (Charles) is
given. They are with Satan and the two beasts, and are the same
with those not in the book of life ( 20:15 ) in the lake of fire
and brimstone ( 19:20  20:10,14f. ), that is the second death
( 2:11  20:6,14 ). See also  14:10 . There are eight epithets
here used which apply to various sections of this direful list of
the doomed and the damned, all in the dative (case of personal
interest). {For the fearful} (	ois deilois). Old word (from
deid(935c), to fear) for the cowardly, who recanted under
persecution, in N.T. only here,  Mt 8:26  Mr 4:40 . {Unbelieving}
(apistois). "Faithless," "untrustworthy," in contrast with
Christ "ho pistos" ( 1:5 ). Cf.  2:10,13  3:14  17:14 .
Disloyalty is close kin to cowardice. {Abominable}
(ebdelugmenois). Perfect passive participle of deluss(935c), old
verb, in N.T. only here and  Ro 2:22 , common in LXX, to pollute
( Ex 5:21 ). Those who have become defiled by the impurities of
emperor-worship ( 7:4f.  21:27  Ro 2:22  Tit 1:16 ). {Murderers}
(phoneusin). As a matter of course and all too common always
( Mr 7:21  Ro 1:29  Re 9:21 ). {Fornicators} (pornois). Again
all too common always, then and now ( 1Co 5:10  1Ti 1:9f. ).
These two crimes often go together. {Sorcerers} (pharmakois).
Old word, in N.T. only here and  22:15 . Closely connected with
idolatry and magic ( 9:21  13:13f. ). {Idolaters}
(eid(936c)olatrais). See  1Co 5:10f.  10:7  Eph 5:5  Re 22:15 .
With a powerful grip on men's lives then and now. {All liars}
(pasi tois pseudesin). Repeated in  22:15  and stigmatized
often ( 2:2  3:9  14:5  21:8,27  22:15 ). Not a "light" sin.

經文:

啟示錄 21:9-21:9

註釋:

 {One of the seven angels} (heis ek t(936e) hepta aggel(936e)). As
in  17:1  with the same introduction when the angel made the
announcement about the harlot city (Babylon), so here the
description of the heavenly city, the New Jerusalem, is given by
one of the same group of angels who had the seven bowls. Thus the

umph(885c) (Bride) is placed in sharp contrast with the porn(885c)
(Harlot). The New Jerusalem was briefly presented in verse  2 ,
but now is pictured at length ( 21:9-22:5 ) in a nearer and
clearer vision. {The bride the wife of the Lamb} (	(886e) numph(886e)
t(886e) gunaika tou arniou). Twice already the metaphor of the Bride
has been used ( 19:7  21:2 ), here termed "wife" (gunaika),
mentioned proleptically as in  19:7  if the marriage is not yet a
reality. For the use of the same metaphor elsewhere in the N.T.
see on 氣9:7|.

經文:

啟示錄 21:10-21:10

註釋:

 {He carried me away in the Spirit} (ap(886e)egken me en
pneumati). See same language in  17:7  when John received a
vision of the Harlot City in a wilderness. Here it is "to a
mountain great and high" (epi oros mega kai hups(886c)on). So it
was with Ezekiel ( Eze 40:2 ) and so the devil took Jesus ( Mt
4:8 ). It was apparently not Mount Zion ( 14:1 ), for the New
Jerusalem is seen from this mountain. "The Seer is carried
thither 'in spirit' (cf.  1:10  4:1 ); the Angel's deuro is a
_sursum cor_ to which his spirit under the influence of the
'Spirit of revelation' ( Eph 1:17 ) at once responds" (Swete).
{And he shewed me} (kai edeixen moi). First aorist active
indicative of deiknumi, just as he had said he would do in
verse  9  (deix(9320)soi, I will shew thee). Precisely the same
words about Jerusalem as in verse  2 , save the absence of
kain(886e) (New).

經文:

啟示錄 21:11-21:11

註釋:

 {Having the glory of God} (echousan t(886e) doxan tou theou).
Syntactically this clause goes with verse  10 , the feminine
accusative singular participle echousan agreeing with polin,
the radiance of the dazzling splendour of God as seen in  Isa
60:1  Eze 43:5 . God's very presence is in the Holy City (the
Bride). {Light} (ph(9373)t(8872)). "Luminary," late word (in LXX,
papyri), in N.T. only here and  Php 2:15 . Christ is the light
(ph(9373)) of the world ( Joh 8:12 ) and so are Christians ( Mt
5:14 ) who have received the illumination (ph(9374)ismos) of God in
the face of Christ ( 2Co 4:6 ) and who radiate it to men ( Php
2:15 ). See both words in  Ge 1:3,14 . "The 'luminary' of the
Holy City is her witness to Christ" (Swete). {Like unto a stone
most precious} (homoios lith(9369) timi(9374)at(9369)). Associative
instrumental case after homoios. Timi(9374)at(9369) is the elative
superlative. {As it were a jasper stone} (h(9373) lith(9369) iaspidi).
As in  4:3 , which see. {Clear as crystal} (krustallizonti).
Verb not found elsewhere from krustallos (old word,  4:6  22:1 ), "of crystalline brightness and transparency" (Thayer),
"transparent and gleaming as rock-crystal" (Moffatt).

經文:

啟示錄 21:12-21:12

註釋:

 {Having a wall great and high} (echousa teichos mega kai
hups(886c)on). John returns, after the parenthesis in verse  11 , to
the structure in verse  10 , only to use the accusative
echousan as before to agree with polin, but the nominative
echousa as again with "twelve gates" (pul(936e)as d(9364)eka).
Pul(936e) is an old word (from pul(885c) gate) for a large gate as in
 Lu 16:20  and six times in Rev. for the gate tower of a city
wall ( Re 21:12,13,15,21,25  22:14 ) as in  1Ki 17:10  Ac 14:13 .
See  Eze 48:31ff.  for these twelve gates, one for each tribe
(cf.  Re 7:1-8 ). {At the gates} (epi tois pul(9373)in). "Upon the
gate towers." {Twelve angels} (aggelous d(9364)eka). As pul(9372)oi
or phulakes according to  Isa 62:6  2Ch 8:14 . {Names written
thereon} (onomata epigegrammena). Perfect passive participle of
epigraph(935c). {Which are the names} (ha estin). Just as in
Ezekiel's vision ( 48:31ff. ), so here the names of the twelve
tribes of Israel appear, one on each gate.

經文:

啟示錄 21:13-21:13

註釋:

 {Three gates} (pul(936e)es treis) on each of the four sides
as in  Eze 42:16ff. ; "on the east" (apo anatol(8873), as in
 16:12 , starting from the east), "on the north" (apo borr(835c),
from the north, as in  Lu 13:29 ), "on the south" (apo notou,
from the south, as in  Lu 13:29 ), "on the west" (apo dusm(936e),
from the west, as in  Mt 8:11 ).

經文:

啟示錄 21:14-21:14

註釋:

 {Had} (ech(936e)). Masculine present active participle of
ech(935c) instead of echon (neuter like to 	eichos), and the
participle occurs independently as if a principal verb (eichen)
as often in this book. {Twelve foundations} (	hemelious
d(9364)eka). Foundation stones, old adjective (from 	hema, from
	ith(886d)i), here as in  1Co 3:11ff.  2Ti 2:19 , with lithous
(stones understood), though often neuter substantive to
	hemelion ( Lu 6:48f.  Ac 16:26 ). See  Isa 28:16  Heb 11:10 .
Twelve because of the twelve apostles as foundation stones ( Eph
2:20 ). {On them} (ep' aut(936e)). On the twelve foundation stones.
{Names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb} (onomata t(936e) d(9364)eka
apostol(936e) tou arniou). Jesus had spoken of twelve thrones for
the apostles ( Mt 19:28 ); names of all twelve are here written,
not just that of Peter, as some would argue from  Mt 16:18 . As a
matter of fact, Christ is the corner stone or akrog(936e)iaion
( 1Pe 2:6  1Co 3:10  Eph 2:20 ), though rejected by the Sanhedrin
( Mt 21:42ff. ). One may wonder if the name of Judas is on that
stone or that of Matthias.

經文:

啟示錄 21:15-21:15

註釋:

 {Had} (eichen). Regular imperfect here, no longer
ech(936e). {For a measure a golden reed} (metron kalamon
chrusoun). See  11:1  for kalamos (reed). Metron is an old
word, kin to m(8874)(8872) (mother, moulder, manager), an instrument
for measuring (metre(935c)) as in  Mt 7:2 , here in the predicate
accusative. {To measure} (hina metr(8873)(8869)). Purpose clause with
hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of metre(935c). The
rod of gold was in keeping with the dignity of the service of God
( 1:12  5:8  8:3  9:13  15:7 ).

經文:

啟示錄 21:16-21:16

註釋:

 {Lieth foursquare} (	etrag(936e)os keitai). Present middle
indicative of keimai. The predicate adjective is from 	etra
(Aeolic for 	essares four) and g(936e)os (g(936e)ia corner,  Mt
6:5 ) here only in N.T. As in  Eze 48:16,20 . It is a tetragon or
quadrilateral quadrangle ( 21:12f. ). {The length thereof is as
great as the breadth} (	o m(886b)os aut(8873) hoson to platos). It is
rectangular, both walls and city within. Babylon, according to
Herodotus, was a square, each side being 120 stadia. Diodorus
Siculus says that Nineveh was also foursquare. {With the reed}
(	(9369) kalam(9369)). Instrumental case (cf. verse  15  for kalamos)
and for metre(935c) (aorist active indicative here) {Twelve thousand
furlongs} (epi stadi(936e) d(9364)eka chiliad(936e)). This use of the
genitive stadi(936e) with epi is probably correct (reading of
Aleph P), though A Q have stadious (more usual, but confusing
here with chiliad(936e)). Thucydides and Xenophon use epi with
the genitive in a like idiom (in the matter of). It is not clear
whether the 1500 miles (12,000 furlongs) is the measurement of
each of the four sides or the sum total. Some of the rabbis
argued that the walls of the New Jerusalem of Ezekiel would reach
to Damascus and the height would be 1500 miles high. {Equal}
(isa). That is, it is a perfect cube like the Holy of Holies in
Solomon's temple ( 1Ki 6:19f. ). This same measurement (platos,
m(886b)os, hupsos) is applied to Christ's love in  Eph 3:18 , with
athos (depth) added. It is useless to try to reduce the
measurements or to put literal interpretations upon this highly
wrought symbolic language. Surely the meaning is that heaven will
be large enough for all, as Jesus said ( Joh 14:1ff. ) without
insisting on the materialistic measurement of a gorgeous
apartment house full of inside rooms.

經文:

啟示錄 21:17-21:17

註釋:

 {A hundred and forty and four cubits} (hekaton
tesserakonta tessar(936e) p(8863)h(936e)). Another multiple of 12
(12x12=144) as in  7:4  14:1 . It is not clear whether it is the
height or the breadth of the wall that is meant, though hupsos
(height) comes just before. That would be 216 feet high (cf.
verse  12 ), not enormous in comparison with the 7,000,000 feet
(1500 miles) height of the city. {According to the measure of a
man, that is, of an angel} (metron anthr(9370)ou, ho estin
aggelou). No preposition for "according to," just the accusative
case of general reference in apposition with the verb
emetr(8873)en. Though measured by an angel, a human standard was
employed, man's measure which is angel's (Bengel).

經文:

啟示錄 21:18-21:18

註釋:

 {The building of the wall} (h(8820)end(936d)(8873)is tou teichous).
Or endom(8873)is, elsewhere so far only in Josephus (_Ant_. XV. 9.
6, a mole or breakwater) and in an inscription (_Syll_. 583 31),
apparently from endome(935c), to build in, and so the fact of
building in. The wall had jasper (verse  11 ) built into it. {Was
pure gold} (chrusion katharon). No copula (886e) (was) expressed.
The city shone like a mass of gold in contrast with the jasper
lustre of the wall. {Pure glass} (hual(9369) kathar(9369)). Associative
instrumental case after homoion. Hualos (apparently from
huei, it rains, and so raindrop) in N.T. only  Re 21:18,21 .

經文:

啟示錄 21:19-21:19

註釋:

 . Isa
54:11 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '. Isa' or engs='. Isa'
經文:

啟示錄 21:20-21:20

註釋:

 Sardonyx (sardonux), here only in N.T., white with layers
of red, from sardion (red carnelian) and onyx (white); for
sardius (sardion) see  4:3 ; chrysolite (chrusolithos), here
only in N.T. ( Ex 28:20 ), stone of a golden colour like our
topaz or amber or a yellow beryl or golden jasper; beryl
((8872)ullos), again here only in N.T. ( Ex 28:20 ), note the
difficulty of identification, much like the emerald according to
Pliny; for topaz (	opazion), here only in N.T. ( Ex 28:17 ), a
golden-greenish stolle; chrysoprase (chrusoprasos), here only in
N.T. (not in LXX), in colour like a teek, translucent
golden-green; jacinth (huakinthos), of the colour of the
hyacinth, a violet colour (Pliny), already in  9:17  like blue
smoke, like achates in LXX; amethyst (amethustos), only here in
N.T. ( Ex 28:19 ), of a violet and purple colour, more brilliant
than the huakinthos. Swete sums up the colours thus: blue
(sapphire, jacinth, amethyst), green (jasper, chalcedony,
emerald, beryl, topaz, chrysoprase), red (sardonyx, sardius),
yellow (chrysolite). But even so there is great variety in hue
and brilliancy and in the reaction on each other. Clement of
Alexandria argues that this variety illustrates the variety of
gifts and graces in the twelve apostles. Possibly so.

經文:

啟示錄 21:21-21:21

註釋:

 {Twelve pearls} (d(9364)eka margaritai). These gate towers
(pul(936e)es) were mentioned in verses  12f . Each of these (cf.
 Isa 54:12 ) is a pearl, one of the commonest of jewels ( Mt 7:6  13:46  1Ti 2:9 ). {Each one} (ana heis hekastos). Distributive
use of ana, but with the nominative (used as adverb, not
preposition) rather than the accusative (as a preposition) as
appears also in  Mr 14:19  Joh 8:9 ; with kata in  Ro 12:5 , "a
barbaric construction" according to Charles. {Street}
(plateia). For which word (broad way, hodos understood) see
 Mt 6:5 , here the singular, but includes all the streets.
{Transparent} (diaug(8873)). Old word (from dia, through, aug(885c),
ray, shining through), here alone in N.T.

經文:

啟示錄 21:22-21:22

註釋:

 {I saw no temple therein} (
aon ouk eidon en aut(8869)).
"Temple I did not see in it." The whole city is a temple in one
sense (verse  16 ), but it is something more than a temple even
with its sanctuary and Shekinah Glory in the Holy of Holies. {For
the Lord God the Almighty, and the Lamb are the temple thereof}
(ho gar Kurios ho theos ho pantokrat(9372), naos aut(8873) estin kai to
arnion). "For the Lord God, the Almighty, is the sanctuary of it
and the Lamb." The Eternal Presence is the Shekinah Glory of God
(verse  3 ). In  2Co 6:16  we are the sanctuary of God here, but
now God is our Sanctuary, and so is the Lamb as in chapters  Re
4  5 . See  1:8  and often for the description of God here.

經文:

啟示錄 21:23-21:23

註釋:

 {To shine upon it} (hina phain(9373)in aut(8869)). Purpose clause
with hina and the present active subjunctive of phain(935c), to
keep on shining. Light is always a problem in our cities. See
 Isa 60:19ff . {Did lighten it} (eph(9374)isen aut(886e)). First aorist
active indicative of ph(9374)iz(935c), to illumine, old verb from ph(9373)
( Lu 11:36 ). If the sun and moon did shine, they would give no
added light in the presence of the Shekinah Glory of God. See
verse  11  for "the glory of God." Cf.  18:1  21:3 . "Their
splendour is simply put to shame by the glory of God Himself"
(Charles). {And the lamp thereof is the Lamb} (kai ho luchnos
aut(8873) to arnion). Charles takes ho luchnos as predicate, "and
the Lamb is the lamp thereof." Bousset thinks that John means to
compare Christ to the moon the lesser light ( Ge 1:16 ), but that
contrast is not necessary. Swete sees Christ as the one lamp for
all in contrast with the many luchniai of the churches on earth
( 1:12,20 ). "No words could more clearly demonstrate the purely
spiritual character of St. John's conception of the New
Jerusalem" (Swete).

經文:

啟示錄 21:24-21:24

註釋:

 {Amidst the light thereof} (dia tou ph(9374)os aut(8873)). Rather
"by the light thereof." From  Isa 60:3,11,20 . All the moral and
spiritual progress of moderns is due to Christ, and the nations
of earth will be represented, including "the kings" (hoi
basileis), mentioned also in  Isa 60:3 , "do bring their glory
into it" (pherousin t(886e) doxan aut(936e) eis aut(886e)). Present active
indicative of pher(935c). Swete is uncertain whether this is a
picture of heaven itself or "some gracious purpose of God towards
humanity which has not yet been revealed" and he cites  22:2  in
illustration. The picture is beautiful and glorious even if not
realized here, but only in heaven.

經文:

啟示錄 21:25-21:25

註釋:

 {Shall in no wise be shut} (ou m(8820)kleisth(9373)in). Double
negative with the first aorist passive subjunctive of klei(935c).
{By day} (h(886d)eras). Genitive of time. Mentioned alone without

uktos (by night), "for there shall be no night there" (
ux
gar ouk estai ekei). This looks like a continued picture of
heaven.

經文:

啟示錄 21:26-21:26

註釋:

 {They shall bring} (oisousin). Future active indicative
of pher(935c). Rome gathered the merchandise of the world
( 18:11ff. ). The City of God will have the best of all the
nations ( Isa 60:5,11 ), an expansion of verse  24 .

經文:

啟示錄 21:27-21:27

註釋:

 {There shall in no wise enter into it} (ou m(8820)eiselth(8869)
eis aut(886e)). Double negative again with the second aorist active
subjunctive of eiserchomai with eis repeated. Like  Isa 52:1  Eze 44:9 . {Anything unclean} (p(836e) koinon). Common use of p(836e)
with negative like ouden, and the use of koinos for defiled
or profane as in  Mr 7:2  Ac 10:14 , not just what is common to
all ( Tit 1:4 ). {Or he that} (kai ho). "And he that." {Maketh
an abomination and a lie} (poi(936e) bdelugma kai pseudos). Like
Babylon ( 17:4  which see for delugma) and  21:8  for those in
the lake of fire and brimstone, and  22:15  for "every one loving
and doing a lie." These recurrent glimpses of pagan life on earth
and of hell in contrast to heaven in this picture raise the
question already mentioned whether John is just running parallel
pictures of heaven and hell after the judgment or whether, as
Charles says: "The unclean and the abominable and the liars are
still on earth, but, though the gates are open day and night,
they cannot enter." In apocalyptic writing literalism and
chronology cannot be insisted on as in ordinary books. The series
of panoramas continue to the end. {But only they which are
written} (ei m(8820)hoi gegrammenoi). "Except those written." For
"the book of life" see  3:5  13:8  20:15 . Cf.  Da 12:1 .

經文:

啟示錄 22:1-22:1

註釋:

 {He shewed me} (edeixen moi). The angel as in  21:9,10 
(cf.  1:1  4:1 ). Now the interior of the city. {A river of water
of life} (potamon hudatos z(9388)s). For hud(9372) z(9388)s (water of
life) see  7:17  21:6  22:17  Joh 4:14 . There was a river in the
Garden of Eden ( Ge 2:10 ). The metaphor of river reappears in
 Zec 14:8  Eze 47:9 , and the fountain of life in  Joe 3:18  Jer
2:13  Pr 10:11  13:14  14:27  16:22  Ps 36:10 . {Bright as
crystal} (lampron h(9373) krustallon). See  4:6  for krustallon
and  15:6  19:8  22:16  for lampron. "Sparkling like rock
crystal" (Swete), shimmering like mountain water over the rocks.
{Proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb}
(ekporeuomenon ek tou thronou tou theou kai tou arniou). Cf.
 Eze 47:1  Zec 14:8 . Already in  3:21  Christ is pictured as
sharing the Father's throne as in  Heb 1:3 . See also  22:3 .
This phrase has no bearing on the doctrine of the Procession of
the Holy Spirit.

經文:

啟示錄 22:2-22:2

註釋:

 {In the midst of the street thereof} (en mes(9369) t(8873) plateias
aut(8873)). Connected probably with the river in verse  1 , though
many connect it with verse  2 . Only one street mentioned here as
in  21:21 . {On this side of the river and on that} (	ou potamou
enteuthen kai ekeithen). Enteuthen occurs as a preposition in
 Da 12:5  (Theodoret) and may be so here (post-positive), purely
adverbial in  Joh 19:18 . {The tree of life} (xulon z(9388)s). For
the metaphor see  Ge 1:11f.  and  Re 2:7  22:14 . Xulon is used
for a green tree in  Lu 23:31  Eze 47:12 . {Bearing} (poioun).
Neuter active participle of poie(935c) (making, producing, as in  Mt
7:17 ). Some MSS. have poi(936e) (masculine), though xulon is
neuter. {Twelve manner of fruits} (karpous d(9364)eka). "Twelve
fruits." {Yielding} (apodidoun). Neuter active participle of
apodid(936d)i, to give back, but some MSS. have apodidous
(masculine) like poi(936e). {For the healing of the nations} (eis
therapeian t(936e) ethn(936e)). Spiritual healing, of course, as leaves
(phulla) are often used for obtaining medicines. Here again the
problem occurs whether this picture is heaven before the judgment
or afterwards. Charles distinguishes sharply between the Heavenly
City for the millennial reign and the New Jerusalem that descends
from heaven after the judgment. Charles rearranges these chapters
to suit his theory. But chronology is precarious here.

經文:

啟示錄 22:3-22:3

註釋:

 {There shall be no curse any more} (pan katathema ouk estai
eti). No other example of katathema has been found outside of
the _Didache_ XVI. 5, though the verb katathematiz(935c) occurs in
 Mt 26:74 , meaning to curse, while we have anathematiz(935c) in  Mr
14:71  in the same sense. It may be a syncopated form of
katanathema. The usual anathema (curse) occurs in  1Co 16:22  Ga 1:8  Ro 9:3 . For pan with ouk=ouden see  21:27 . {Shall
do him service} (latreusousin aut(9369)). Future active of
latreu(935c), linear idea, "shall keep on serving." See  7:15  for
present active indicative of this same verb with the dative
aut(9369) as here, picturing the worship of God in heaven. See
 27:1  for "the throne of God and of the Lamb."

經文:

啟示錄 22:4-22:4

註釋:

 1Jo
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經文:

啟示錄 22:5-22:5

註釋:

 {Shall be night no more} (
ux ouk estai eti). As in
 21:25 . {They need} (echousin chreian). Present active
indicative, "They have need," though A has hexousin (shall
have), future like estai. Here again there is repetition of
part of  21:23 , but for the purpose of showing the
delightsomeness of the New Jerusalem with no need of lamp or sun
(change to ph(9373) with h(886c)iou instead of ph(9374)os, "they have
no light of sun"). {Shall give them light} (ph(9374)isei). Future
active of ph(9374)iz(935c), while aorist eph(9374)isen in  21:23 . {They
shall reign} (asileusousin). Future active of asileu(935c).
Reign eternally in contrast with the limited millennial reign of
 20:4,6 . This glorious eternal reign with Christ occurs
repeatedly in the book ( 1:6  3:21  5:10 ) as in  Lu 22:30 .
Christ's Kingdom is spiritual ( Joh 18:36f. ). "The visions of
the Apocalypse are now ended; they have reached their climax in
the New Jerusalem" (Swete). Now John gives the parting utterances
of some of the speakers, and it is not always clear who is
speaking.

經文:

啟示錄 22:6-22:6

註釋:

 {He said unto me} (eipen moi). Apparently the same angel
as in  22:1  ( 21:9,15 ). {These words} (houtoi hoi logoi). The
same words used in  21:5  by the angel there. Whatever the
application there, here the angel seems to endorse as "faithful
and true" (pistoi kai al(8874)hinoi) not merely the preceding
vision ( 21:9-22:5 ), but the revelations of the entire book. The
language added proves this: "Sent his angel to shew unto his
servants the things which must shortly come to pass" (apesteilen
ton aggelon autou deixai tois doulois autou ha dei genesthai en
tachei), a direct reference to  1:1  concerning the purpose of
Christ's revelation to John in this book. For "the God of the
spirits of the prophets" (ho theos t(936e) pneumat(936e) t(936e) proph(8874)(936e))
see  19:10  1Co 14:32 . Probably the prophets' own spirits
enlightened by the Holy Spirit ( 10:7  11:8  22:9 ).

經文:

啟示錄 22:7-22:7

註釋:

 {And behold, I come quickly} (kai idou erchomai tachu).
Christ is the speaker, either through this angel or more probably
directly from Christ without introduction as in verses  12,16 .
About Christ coming quickly see  2:5,16  3:11  16:15 , and
already in  1:2f . Once more we must recall that 	achu and en
tachei are according to God's time, not ours ( 2Pe 3:8 ).
{Blessed} (makarios). This beatitude is like in substance the
first ( 1:3 ) and is in Christ's own words like the one in
 16:15 . This book is here called a "prophecy" (proph(8874)eias) as
in verses  10,18,19 . It is Christ's revelation from God, a
direct message from God. Part of it is prediction of doom on
Christ's enemies, but most of it is a comforting picture of final
triumph and bliss for the faithful in a time of great distress
and persecution.

經文:

啟示錄 22:8-22:8

註釋:

 {And I John} (Kag(9320)I(9361)nn(8873)). Here John the Seer is the
speaker. He had already given his name ( 1:1,4,9 ). Here he
claims to be the "one who hears and sees these things" (ho
akou(936e) kai blep(936e) tauta). {I fell down to worship} (epesa
proskun(8873)ai). Second aorist active indicative of pipt(935c) (with
-a form) and the first aorist active infinitive of purpose of
proskune(935c). It was a natural, though a wrong, thing to do,
especially after Christ's own voice followed that of the angel
"which shewed me these things" (	ou deiknuontos tauta).
Genitive singular of the articular present active participle of
deiknu(935c). Cf.  1:1  4:1  17:1  21:9f.  22:1,6 .

經文:

啟示錄 22:9-22:9

註釋:

 {See thou do it not} (Hora m(885c)). The angel promptly
interposes (legei, dramatic present). See  19:10  for
discussion of this same phrase hora m(885c) when John had once
before started to worship the angel in his excitement. Here we
have added to the words in  19:10  "the prophets (	(936e)
proph(8874)(936e)) and also "them which keep the words of this book"
(	(936e) t(8872)ount(936e) tous logous tou bibliou toutou), the last a
repetition from  22:7 . In both places we have "Worship God"
(	(9369) the(9369) proskun(8873)on). And not an angel.

經文:

啟示錄 22:10-22:10

註釋:

 {And he saith unto me} (kai legei moi). The angel resumes
as in  19:9 . {Seal not up} (m(8820)sphragis(8869)s). Prohibition with
m(885c) and the ingressive first aorist active subjunctive of
sphragiz(935c). Charles takes this to be the command of Christ
because in verses  7,18  "the words of the prophecy of this book"
come from Christ. But that is not a conclusive argument, though
Charles, as already stated, rearranges these chapters to suit his
own notion. Once only ( 10:4 ) was John directed to seal and not
to write. See there for discussion of sphragiz(935c). This book is
to be left open for all to read ( 1:3  13:18  17:9  22:7,18 ).
{At hand} (eggus). As in  1:3 .

經文:

啟示錄 22:11-22:11

註釋:

 1Pe
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經文:

啟示錄 22:12-22:12

註釋:

 {My reward is with me} (ho misthos mou met' emou). It is
Christ speaking again and he repeats his promise of coming
quickly as in verse  7 . He speaks now as the Rewarder (ho
misthapodot(8873)) of  Heb 11:6 . Cf.  Re 11:18  Isa 40:10  62:11 .
{To render} (apodounai). Second aorist active infinitive of
purpose of apodid(936d)i, to give back. Each will receive the
reward according to his own work ( Re 2:23  2Co 5:10  Ro 2:26 ).

經文:

啟示錄 22:13-22:13

註釋:

 {I am the Alpha and the Omega} (Eg(9320)to Alpha kai to O).
Applied to God in  1:8  21:6 , and here alone to Christ, crowning
proof in this book of Christ's deity. So in  21:6  God is termed,
as Christ is here, h(8820)arch(8820)kai to telos (the beginning and the
end), while ho pr(9374)os kai ho eschatos (the first and the last)
is applied only to Christ ( 1:17  2:8 ). Solemn assurance is thus
given that Christ is qualified to be the Judge of verse  12  (cf.
 Mt 25:31-46 ). In  Heb 12:2  Jesus is the arch(8867)os kai
telei(9374)(8873) t(8873) piste(9373) (the author and finisher of faith). Christ
was the Creator of the universe for the Father. So now he is the
Consummation of redemption.

經文:

啟示錄 22:14-22:14

註釋:

 {Blessed} (makarioi). This is the last beatitude of the
book and "deals with the issues of the higher life" (Swete).
{They that wash their robes} (hoi plunontes tas stolas aut(936e)).
Present active articular participle of plun(935c). See  7:14  for
this very verb with stolas, while in  3:4  the negative
statement occurs. Cf.  1Co 6:11 . {That they may have the right}
(hina estai h(8820)exousia aut(936e)). Purpose clause with hina and
the future middle of eimi (a common construction in this book,
 6:4,11  9:5,20  13:12  14:13 ), that there may be their right."
{To come to the tree of life} (epi to xulon t(8873) z(9388)s). "Over
the tree of life." On exousia epi = "power over" see  6:8  13:7  16:9  Lu 9:1 . On "the tree of life" see  2:7  22:2 . {May
enter in} (eiselth(9373)in). Purpose clause with hina and the
second aorist active subjunctive of eiserchomai parallel with
hina estai (future). {By the gates} (	ois pul(9373)in).
Associative instrumental case of pul(936e) ( 21:12 ), "by the gate
towers."

經文:

啟示錄 22:15-22:15

註釋:

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經文:

啟示錄 22:16-22:16

註釋:

 {I Jesus} (Eg(9320)I(8873)ous). The last and most solemn
attestation to the book that from Jesus (the historic Jesus known
to the churches), in harmony with  1:1f . {Have sent}
(epempsa). First aorist active indicative of pemp(935c), used here
in the same sense as aposteilas in  1:1  as his personal
messenger. It is the Jesus of history here speaking, who is also
the Christ of theology and the Lamb of God. {For the churches}
(epi tais ekkl(8873)iais). For this use of epi see  10:11  Joh
12:16 . It is not just for the seven churches ( 1:4 ), but for
all the churches in the world then and now. {I am the root and
the offspring of David} (Eg(9320)eimi h(8820)riza kai to genos Daueid).
See  5:5  for "the root of David," to which John now adds 	o
genos in the sense of "offspring" ( Ac 17:28f. ), not of family
or race ( Ac 4:6  7:13 ). Cf.  Mt 22:42-45 . {The bright, the
morning star} (ho ast(8872) ho lampros ho pr(9369)nos). The Davidic
King is called a star in  Nu 24:17  Lu 1:78 . This "day-star"
(ph(9373)phoros) is interpreted as Christ ( 2Pe 1:19 ). In  Re
2:28  the phrase "the morning star" occurs in Christ's words,
which is here interpreted. Christ is the Light that was coming
into the world ( Joh 1:9  8:12 ).

經文:

啟示錄 22:17-22:17

註釋:

 {The Spirit and the bride} (	o pneuma kai h(8820)numph(885c)). The
Holy Spirit, speaking through the prophets or the Spirit of
prophecy ( 2:7  16:4  18:24 ), joins with the bride ( 21:2 ), the
people of God, in a response to the voice of Jesus just heard.
After the picture of heaven in  22:1-5  there is intense longing
( 19:7 ) of God's people for the consummation of the marriage of
the Lamb and the Bride. So now "the prophets and the saints"
(Swete) make a common plea to the Lord Jesus to "come" (Erchou,
present middle imperative of erchomai, Come on) as he has just
said twice that he would do ( 22:1,12 ). The call for Christ is
to be repeated by every hearer (ho akou(936e)) as in  1:3 . {Let
him come} (erchesth(935c)). Change of person and this verb applied
not to Christ as just before, but to the one who wishes to greet
Christ. The thirsty man is bidden to come himself before it is
too late. See  5:6  for dipsa(935c), used for spiritual thirst, and
in particular  Joh 6:35  7:37  for one thirsting for the water of
life ( 21:6  22:1 ). Cf.  Isa 55:1 . {He that will} (ho
thel(936e)). Even if not yet eagerly thirsting. This one is welcome
also. For this use of 	hel(935c) see  Php 2:13 . {Let him take}
(labet(935c)). Second ingressive aorist active imperative of
lamban(935c). In accordance with the free promise in  21:6 ,
"freely" (d(9372)ean) here as there. This gracious and wide
invitation is cheering after the gloomy picture of the doomed and
the damned. The warnings against the dragon and the two beasts
with all their dreadful consequences are meant to deter men from
falling victims to all the devil's devices then and now. The door
of mercy still stands wide open today, for the end has not yet
come. The series of panoramas is over, with the consummation
pictured as a reality. Now we drop back to the standpoint before
we saw the visions through John's eyes. In verse  17  we hear the
voice of the Spirit of God inviting all who hear and see to heed
and to come and drink of the water of life freely offered by the
Lamb of God.

經文:

啟示錄 22:18-22:18

註釋:

 {I testify} (Eg(9320)martur(935c)). Commentators disagree keenly
about the words in verses  18,19 . Charles rejects them as an
interpolation and out of harmony with the rest of the book.
Beckwith takes them to be John's own warning, drawn from  De 4:2 
"to every man that heareth" (panti t(9369) akouonti, dative of the
articular present active participle of akou(935c), which compare
 1:3 ). Swete properly holds these verses to be from Jesus
himself, still bearing solemn witness to this book, with warning
against wilful perversion of its teachings. {If any man shall
add} (ean tis epith(8869)). Condition of the third class with ean
and the second aorist active subjunctive of epitith(886d)i, with
epi added with auta, as also in the conclusion epith(8873)ei ep'
auton (future active). This warning is directed against
perversions of this book, not about the New Testament or the
Bible as a whole, though it may be true there also. Surely no
warning was more needed when we consider the treatment accorded
the Apocalypse, so that Dr. Robert South said that the Apocalypse
either found one crazy or left him so.

經文:

啟示錄 22:19-22:19

註釋:

 {If any man shall take away} (ean tis aphel(8869)). Also
condition of the third class with ean and second aorist active
subjunctive of aphaire(935c), with apo repeated both in the
condition and in the conclusion (aphelei apo, future active
indicative of aphaire(935c) for the more usual aphair(8873)ei). {Which
are written in this book} (	(936e) gegrammen(936e) en t(9369) bibli(9369)
tout(9369)). Ablative neuter plural articular perfect passive
participle in apposition with ek tou xulou t(8873) z(9388)s (from the
tree of life) and ek t(8873) pole(9373) t(8873) hagias (out of the holy
city). Such a man is unworthy of his inheritance.

經文:

啟示錄 22:20-22:20

註釋:

 {He which testifieth} (ho martur(936e)). That is Jesus
( 1:2 ) who has just spoken ( 22:18 ). {Yea: I come quickly}
(Nai, erchomai tachu). Affirmation again of the promise in
 22:7,12 . On Nai (Yes) see  1:7  for the Lord's assent to the
call. Then John expresses his absolute belief in the Lord's
promise: "Amen: come, Lord Jesus" (Am(886e), erchou, Kurie I(8873)ou).
On Am(886e) see  1:7 . On erchou see  22:17 . Note Kurie with
I(8873)ou. As in  1Co 12:3  Php 2:11 . For Paul's confidence in the
deity of Christ and the certainty of his second coming see  Tit
2:13  2Ti 4:8 . Marana tha ( 1Co 16:22 ).

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