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                     THE EPISTLE TO PHILEMON
                        FROM ROME A.D. 63

                      BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION

        This little letter was sent to Philemon by Onesimus, a
converted runaway slave of Philemon, along with Tychicus who is
going to Colossae with Onesimus ( Col 4:7-9 ) as the bearer also
of the so-called Epistle to the Ephesians ( Eph 6:21f. ). Hence
it is clear that these three Epistles were carried to the
Province of Asia at the same time. Colossians was probably
written before Ephesians which appears to be a general treatment
of the same theme. Whether Philemon was actually penned before
the other two there is no way of knowing. But it is put first
here as standing apart. Probably Paul wrote it himself without
dictation because in verse  19  it constitutes a note in his own
hand to Philemon for what Onesimus may owe him. Paul applies the
spirit of Christianity to the problem of slavery in words that
have ultimately set the slaves free from bondage to men.

經文:

腓利門書 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 {A prisoner of Christ Jesus} (desmios Christou I(8873)ou). As
verse  9  and in  Eph 3:1  4:1 . Old adjective from desmos
(bond, de(935c), to bind). Apparently used here on purpose rather
than apostolos as more effective with Philemon and a more
touching occasion of pride as Paul writes with his manacled right
hand. {Timothy} (Timotheos). With Paul in Ephesus ( Ac 19:22 )
and probably known to Philemon. Associated with Paul also in I
and II Thess., II Cor., Philipp., Col. {To Philemon}
(Phil(886d)oni). A resident of Colossae and a convert of Paul's
(verse  19 ), perhaps coming to Ephesus while Paul was there when
his ministry had so much influence over the province of Asia ( Ac
19:9f., 26  1Co 16:19 ). The name Philemon occurs in the legend
of Baucis and Philemon (Ovid's _Metamorphoses_), but with no
connection with the brother here. He was active in the church in
Colossae ("our co-worker," sunerg(9369) h(886d)(936e)) and was beloved
(agap(8874)(9369)) by Paul.

經文:

腓利門書 1:2-1:2

註釋:

 {To Apphia our sister} (Apphi(8369) t(8869) adelph(8869)). Dative case
in address. A common name in Phrygian inscriptions and apparently
the wife of Philemon. "Sister" is in the Christian sense. {To
Archippus} (Archipp(9369)). Dative case in address. It is uncertain
whether he is the son of Philemon or not. Apparently he is
prominent in the church in Colossae, possibly even pastor,
probably not in Laodicea as some understand  Col 4:17  to imply.
{Fellow-soldier} (sunstrati(9374)(8869)). Old word, only here and  Php
2:25  in N.T. In metaphorical sense. Perhaps while Paul was in
Ephesus. {To the church in thy house} (	(8869) kat' oikon sou
ekkl(8873)i(8369)). The church that met in the house of Philemon. In
large cities there would be several meeting-places. Before the
third century there is no certain evidence of special church
buildings for worship (White, _Exp. Grk. T._). See  Ac 12:12  for
Mary's house in Jerusalem,  1Co 16:19  for the house of Aquila
and Prisca in Ephesus,  Ro 16:5  for the house of Prisca and
Aquila in Rome,  Col 4:15  for the house of Nympha in Laodicea.

經文:

腓利門書 1:4-1:4

註釋:

 {Always} (pantote). Goes with eucharist(935c) though so far
away in the Greek sentence. {Making mention of thee} (mneian sou
poioumenos). See  1Th 1:2  for this phrase. {In} (epi). Upon
the occasion of.

經文:

腓利門書 1:5-1:5

註釋:

 {Hearing} (akou(936e)). Through Epaphras ( Col 1:7,8  4:12 ),
possibly from Onesimus also. {And towards all the saints} (kai
eis pantas tous hagious). He spoke of "thy love and faith" (sou
t(886e) agap(886e) kai t(886e) pistin) "towards the Lord Jesus" (pros ton
Kurion I(8873)oun) and by a sort of momentum (Vincent) he carries
both words over to the saints, though it can be explained as
chiasm ( Ga 4:4 ) also.

經文:

腓利門書 1:6-1:6

註釋:

 {That} (hop(9373)). Rather than the more common final particle
hina. Connected with mneian poioumenos. {The fellowship of
thy faith} (h(8820)koin(936e)ia t(8873) piste(9373) sou). Partnership like  Php
1:5  in (objective genitive, piste(9373)). {Effectual} (energ(8873)).
Common adjective, like energos (at work), in N.T. only here,
 1Co 16:9  Heb 4:12 . Papyri use energos of a mill in working
order, of ploughed land, etc. {In you} (en humin). Some MSS.
have en h(886d)in (in us), itacism and common.

經文:

腓利門書 1:7-1:7

註釋:

 {I had} (eschon). Ingressive second aorist active
indicative of ech(935c), not eichom(886e) as the Textus Receptus has
it. Paul refers to his joy when he first heard the good news
about Philemon's activity (verse  5 ). {The hearts} (	a
splagchna). See  Php 1:8  for this use of this word for the
nobler viscera (heart, lungs, liver) and here for the emotional
nature. {Have been refreshed} (anapepautai). Perfect passive
indicative of old compound verb anapau(935c) as in  Mt 11:28 , a
relief and refreshment whether temporary ( Mr 6:31 ) or eternal
( Re 14:13 ).

經文:

腓利門書 1:8-1:8

註釋:

 {Though I have} (ech(936e)). Concessive participle (present
active). {That which is befitting} (	o an(886b)on). Neuter singular
accusative of the articular participle (present active) of
an(886b)(935c), to come up to requirements and so to be befitting. For
idea in an(886b)(935c), see  Col 3:18  Eph 5:4 . This idiom is in later
writers. {I rather beseech} (m(836c)lon parakal(935c)). Rather than
command (epitass(935c)) which he has a perfect right to do.

經文:

腓利門書 1:9-1:9

註釋:

 {Paul the aged} (Paulos presbut(8873)). Paul is called

eanias (a young man) at the stoning of Stephen ( Ac 7:58 ). He
was perhaps a bit under sixty now. Hippocrates calls a man
presbut(8873) from 49 to 56 and ger(936e) after that. The papyri use
presbut(8873) for old man as in  Lu 1:18  of Zacharias and in  Tit
2:2 . But in  Eph 6:20  Paul says presbeu(9320)en halusei (I am an
ambassador in a chain). Hence Lightfoot holds that here
presbut(8873) = presbeut(8873) because of common confusion by the
scribes between u and eu. In the LXX four times the two words
are used interchangeably. There is some confusion also in the
papyri and the inscriptions. Undoubtedly ambassador
(presbeut(8873)) is possible here as in  Eph 6:20  (presbeu(935c))
though there is no real reason why Paul should not term himself
properly "Paul the aged."

經文:

腓利門書 1:10-1:10

註釋:

 1Co
4:15 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
4' or engs='1Co
4'
經文:

腓利門書 1:11-1:11

註釋:

 {Onesimus} (On(8873)imon). A common name among slaves and made
like Chresimus, Chrestus. The word is from on(8873)is (profit) and
that from onin(886d)i, to profit, to help. {Who was aforetime
unprofitable to thee} (	on pote soi achr(8873)ton). "The once to
thee useless one." Play (pun) on the meaning of the name Onesimus
(on(8873)imos, useful) as once "useless" (achr(8873)tos, verbal
adjective, a privative and chraomai, to use). {But now is
profitable to thee and to me} (
uni de soi kai emoi
euchr(8873)ton). "But now to thee and to me useful." Still further
play on the name Onesimus by euchr(8873)ton (verbal adjective from
eu and chraomai, to use). Ethical dative here (soi, emoi).

經文:

腓利門書 1:12-1:12

註釋:

 {I have sent back} (anepempsa). Epistolary aorist. As it
will look when Onesimus arrives. {In his own person} (auton).
"Himself," intensive pronoun with hon (whom). {My very heart}
(	a ema splagchna). As in verse  7 . He almost loves Onesimus
as his own son.

經文:

腓利門書 1:13-1:13

註釋:

 {I would fain have kept} (eboulom(886e) katechein). Imperfect
middle and present infinitive, "I was wishing to hold back."
Again from the standpoint of the arrival of Onesimus. {In thy
behalf} (huper sou). So "in thy stead," "in place of thee." {He
might minister} (diakon(8869)). Present active subjunctive
(retained after eboulom(886e)) with hina, purpose continued,
"that he might keep on ministering."

經文:

腓利門書 1:14-1:14

註釋:

 1Co
9:17 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
9' or engs='1Co
9'
經文:

腓利門書 1:15-1:15

註釋:

 {Perhaps} (	acha). Old adverb, in N.T. only here and  Ro
5:7 . {That thou shouldst have him} (hina auton apech(8869)s).
Final clause with hina and present active subjunctive of
apech(935c), to have back, "that thou might keep on having him
back." {For ever} (ai(936e)ion). "Eternal," here and hereafter.
Surely a noble thing for Paul to say and a word that would touch
the best in Philemon.

經文:

腓利門書 1:16-1:16

註釋:

 {No longer as a servant} (ouketi h(9373) doulon). "No longer
as a slave." So it has to be here. So it should be always. Paul
sends Onesimus, the converted runaway slave, back to his legal
master, but shows that he expects Philemon the Christian to treat
Onesimus as a brother in Christ, not as a slave. {But more than a
servant} (all' huper doulon). "But beyond a slave."  {A brother
beloved} (adelphon agap(8874)on). A brother in Christ. {How much
rather to thee} (pos(9369) de m(836c)lon soi). "By how much more to
thee," because of Philemon's legal ownership of this now
Christian slave. "In the flesh Philemon had the brother for a
slave; in the Lord he had the slave for a brother" (Meyer).

經文:

腓利門書 1:17-1:17

註釋:

 {If then thou countest me a partner} (ei oun me echeis
koin(936e)on). As I assume that you do, condition of the first
class. {Receive him as myself} (proslabou auton h(9373) eme). "Take
him to thyself (indirect second aorist middle of proslamban(935c) as
in  Ac 18:26 ) as myself." Surpassing delicacy and consummate
tact. These words sound the death-knell of human slavery wherever
the spirit of Christ is allowed to have its way. It has been a
long and hard fight to break the shackles of human bondage even
in Christian countries and there are still millions of slaves in
pagan and Mohammedan lands. Paul wrote these words with wisdom
and courage and sincerity.

經文:

腓利門書 1:18-1:18

註釋:

 {But if he hath wronged thee at all} (ei de ti (8864)ik(8873)e
se). Condition of the first class, assumed to be true. Onesimus
did wrong ((8864)ik(8873)e, first aorist active indicative of adik(886f),
to wrong, without justice). He had probably robbed Philemon
before he ran away. {Or oweth} ((8820)opheilei). Delicate way of
putting the stealing. {Put that to mine account} (	outo emoi
ellog(835c)). Present active imperative of elloga(935c). In the _Koin(825f)
verbs in -e(935c) often appear in -a(935c) like elee(932c) elea(935c). So with
elloge(935c) as elloga(935c), late verb in inscriptions and papyri
(Deissmann, _Light, etc._, p. 84), though in N.T. only here and
 Ro 5:13 . It means to set to one's account.

經文:

腓利門書 1:19-1:19

註釋:

 {Write} (egrapsa). Epistolary aorist. {With mine hand}
(	(8869) em(8869) cheiri). Instrumental case and a note of hand that
can be collected. See  2Th 3:17  1Co 16:21  Col 4:18 . {I will
repay it} (eg(9320)apotis(935c)). Future active indicative of apotin(935c)
(apoti(935c)) to pay back, to pay off. The more usual word was
apod(9373)(935c). This is Paul's promissory note. Deissmann (_Light,
etc._, p. 331) notes how many of the papyri are concerning debts.
{That I say not} (hina m(8820)leg(935c)). Neat idiom as in  2Co 9:4 ,
delicately reminding Philemon that Paul had led him also to
Christ. {Thou owest to me even thine own self besides} (kai
seauton moi prosopheileis). Old verb, only here in N.T., Paul
using the verb opheil(935c) of verse  18  with pros added. He used
every available argument to bring Philemon to see the higher
ground of brotherhood in Christ about Onesimus.

經文:

腓利門書 1:20-1:20

註釋:

 {Let me have joy of thee} (eg(9320)sou onaim(886e)). Second aorist
middle optative of onin(886d)i, old verb, only here in N.T.
Optative the regular construction for a wish about the future.
"May I get profit from thee in the Lord." {Refresh my heart in
Christ} (anapauson mou ta splagchna en Christ(9369)). See verse  7 
for anapauson (first aorist active imperative of anapau(935c)) and
splagchna (3 times in this letter,  7,12,20 ).

經文:

腓利門書 1:21-1:21

註釋:

 {Obedience} (hupako(8869)). "Compliance" seems less harsh to
us in the light of  9 . {I write} (egrapsa). Epistolary aorist
again. {Even beyond what I say} (kai huper ha leg(935c)). That can
only mean that Paul "knows" (eid(9373), second perfect active
participle of oida) that Philemon will set Onesimus free. He
prefers that it come as Philemon's idea and wish rather than as a
command from Paul. Paul has been criticized for not denouncing
slavery in plain terms. But, when one considers the actual
conditions in the Roman empire, he is a wise man who can suggest
a better plan than the one pursued here for the ultimate
overthrow of slavery.

經文:

腓利門書 1:22-1:22

註釋:

 {But withal} (hama de). Along with your kindly reception
of Onesimus. On hama, see  Ac 24:26  27:40 . {A lodging}
(xenian). Old word from xenos, stranger. In N.T. only here
and  Ac 28:23 . {I shall be granted unto you} (charisth(8873)omai
humin). First future passive of charizomai. Used either as a
favour as here and  Ac 3:14  or for destruction ( Ac 25:11 ).

經文:

腓利門書 1:23-1:23

註釋:

 {Epaphras} (Epaphr(8373)). The Colossian preacher who
apparently started the work in Colossae, Hierapolis, and
Laodicea, and who had come to Rome to enlist Paul's help in the
fight against incipient Gnosticism in the Lycus Valley. {My
fellow-prisoner} (ho sunaichmal(9374)os mou). See on 爹o 16:7| for
this word, also in  Col 4:10 . Used metaphorically like the verb
aichmal(9374)iz(935c) in  2Co 10:5 , though some hold that Epaphras
became a prisoner with Paul in Rome.

經文:

腓利門書 1:24-1:24

註釋:

 The other "co-workers" (sunergoi) here (Mark, Aristarchus,
Demas, Luke) are all named in detail in  Col 4:10-14  with kindly
words.

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