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                    EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS
                     FROM ROME ABOUT A.D. 61

                      BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION

        There is something to be said for the idea that Paul
wrote the Epistle to the Philippians while a prisoner in Ephesus
if he ever was a prisoner there. All that can be said for that
view has been presented by Professor George S. Duncan in _St.
Paul's Ephesian Ministry_ (1930). But, when all is considered
carefully in the light of the facts in the Acts and the Epistles,
the best that one can say is that a possible case is made out
with many difficulties remaining unexplained. The argument is
more ingenious than convincing. It is not possible here to review
the arguments _pro_ and _con_ that convince me that Paul was in
Rome when he wrote this letter to Philippi. It is not clear
whether it was written before the three that went together
(Philemon, Colossians, Ephesians) or afterwards. Probably there
was no great difference in time, but there was time for
Epaphroditus to come to Rome, to fall sick, for the news to reach
Philippi and for Epaphroditus to hear of their concern about him.
The church in Philippi was Paul's joy and pride and they had
helped him before as they did this time.

        The Epistle is a beautiful expression of gratitude for
the love and gifts of the Philippian saints. He is a prisoner of
hope in Rome with possible death before him, but with the note of
joy running through all that Paul says. He hopes to be set free
and to see them again.

        Meanwhile he tells the Philippians about the difficulties
and triumphs in Rome. The Judaizers have followed Paul here and
there is an echo in chapters  Php 1  3  of their opposition. But
Paul rises to full stature in the great Christological passages
in chapters  Php 2  3  which prepare the way for the controversy
with the Gnostics over the Person of Christ in Colossians and
Ephesians.

        Some special books on Philippians are those by Beet
(1891), Burns (1917), Dibelius (1911), Ellicott (new ed. 1890),
Wohlenberg in Zahn Komm. (3rd ed. 1917), Haupt in Meyer Komm. (8
ed. 1902), Jones in Westm. Comm. (1920), Johnstone (1904), Jowett
(1909), Kennedy in Exp. Gk. Test. (1903), Klopper (1893),
Knabenbauer (1913), Lightfoot (9 ed. 1891), Lipsius (1893),
Lohmeyer in Meyer Komm. (8 ed. 1930), Lueken (1906), Martin (New
Cent. Bible), Michael (1928), Moule (Phil. Studies), Plummer
(1919), Rainy (Exp. Bible 1893), Robertson (1917), Vincent (Int.
Crit., 2 ed. 1910).

經文:

腓立比書 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 {Paul} (Paulos). He does not mention his apostleship as he
usually does. Omitted also in I and II Thess. and Philemon.
{Timothy} (Timotheos). In no sense the author, but associated
with Paul because with him here in Rome as in Corinth when I and
II Thessalonians written and in Ephesus when I Corinthians sent
and in Macedonia when II Corinthians written. Timothy was with
Paul when the Philippian church was founded ( Ac 16:1,13  17:14 ). He had been there twice since ( Ac 19:22  20:3f. ). {To
all the saints} (p(8373)i tois hagiois). The word saint (hagios)
here is used for the professing Christians as in  1Co 1:2  which
see as well as  Ro 1:7  for the origin of the word. The word
"all" (p(8373)i) means that all individual believers are included.
Paul employs this word frequently in Philippians. {In Christ
Jesus} (en Christ(9369) I(8873)ou). The centre for all Christian
relations and activities for Paul and for us. {In Philippi} (en
Philippois). See on 涉c 16:12| for discussion of this name.
{With the bishops} (sun episkopois). "Together with bishops,"
thus singled out from "all the saints." See  Ac 20:17,28  for the
use of this most interesting word as equivalent to presbuteros
(elder). It is an old word from episkeptomai, to look upon or
after, to inspect, so the overseer or superintendent. In the
second century episcopos (Ignatius) came to mean one superior
to elders, but not so in the N.T. The two New Testament church
officers are here mentioned (bishops or elders and deacons). The
plural is here employed because there was usually one church in a
city with several pastors (bishops, elders). {And deacons} (kai
diakonois). Technical sense here of the other church officers as
in  1Ti 3:8-13 , not the general use as in  Mt 22:13 . The origin
of the office is probably seen in  Ac 6:1-6 . The term is often
applied to preachers ( 1Co 3:5  2Co 3:6 ). The etymology (dia,
konis) suggests raising a dust by hastening.

經文:

腓立比書 1:3-1:3

註釋:

 {Upon} (epi). Basis of the thanksgiving. {All} (p(8373)(8869)).
Note frequent use of "all" here (p(8373)(8869), pantote, always,
p(8373)(8869), again, pant(936e) hum(936e), you all). The use of "you all"
recurs several times ( 4,7  _bis_,  8 ).

經文:

腓立比書 1:4-1:4

註釋:

 {With joy} (meta charas). Keynote of the Epistle. Paul is a
happy prisoner as in Philippi when he and Silas sang praises at
midnight though in prison ( Ac 16:25 ).

經文:

腓立比書 1:5-1:5

註釋:

 {For your fellowship} (epi t(8869) koin(936e)i(8369) hum(936e)). "On the
basis of your contribution" as in  2Co 8:4  9:13  Ac 2:42 . The
particular kind of "partnership" or "fellowship" involved is the
contribution made by the Philippians for the spread of the gospel
( 1:7  sugkoin(936e)ous and  4:14  where sugkoin(936e)(8873)antes
occurs). {In furtherance of the gospel} (eis to euaggelion).
"For the gospel." {From the first day until now} (apo t(8873) pr(9374)(8873)
h(886d)eras achri tou nun). As when in Thessalonica ( Php 4:15f. ),
in Corinth ( Ac 18:5  2Co 11:7-10 ), and now in Rome.

經文:

腓立比書 1:6-1:6

註釋:

 1Th
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經文:

腓立比書 1:7-1:7

註釋:

 {Because I have you in my heart} (dia to echein me en t(8869)
kardi(8369) humas). Or "because you hold me in your heart."
Literally, "because of the holding me (or you) in the heart as to
you (or me)." One accusative is the object of the infinitive
echein, the other is the accusative of general reference. There
is no way to decide which is the idea meant except to say that
love begets love. The pastor who, like Paul, holds his people in
his heart will find them holding him in their hearts. {In the
defence} (en t(8869) apologi(8369)). Old word (our word apology, but
not our idea of apologizing), in the original sense in  Ac 22:1  25:16 . So also in verse  16  below. {Confirmation}
(ebai(9373)ei). Old word from ebaio(935c) (ebaios, bain(935c)), to
make stable. In N.T. only here and  Heb 6:16  about oath.
{Partakers with me of grace} (sugkoin(936e)ous mou t(8873) charitos).
Literally, "my co-sharers in grace" (objective genitive). "Grace
prompted them to alleviate his imprisonment, to cooperate with
him in defending and propagating the gospel, and to suffer for
its sake" (Vincent, _Int. Crit. Comm_.).

經文:

腓立比書 1:8-1:8

註釋:

 {My witness} (martus mou). Same solemn oath in  Ro 1:9 . {I
long after} (epipoth(935c)). Longing (pothos) directed toward
(epi) the Philippians. Old word, chiefly in Paul in N.T. {In
the tender mercies} (en splagchnois). Literally "in the bowels"
as the seat of the affections.

經文:

腓立比書 1:9-1:9

註釋:

 {May abound} (perisseu(8869)). Present active subjunctive of
perisseu(935c), may keep on overflowing, a perpetual flood of love,
"yet more and more" (eti mallon kai mallon), but with necessary
limitations (river banks), "in knowledge" (en epign(9373)ei, in
full knowledge) "and all discernment" (p(8373)(8869) aisth(8873)ei). The
delicate spiritual perception (aisth(8873)is, old word from
aisthanomai, only here in N.T. as the verb only in  Lu 9:45  in
N.T.) can be cultivated as in aisth(8874)(8872)ion ( Heb 5:14 )

經文:

腓立比書 1:10-1:10

註釋:

 {So that ye may} (eis to humas). Either purpose or result
(eis to plus infinitive as in  Ro 1:11,20  3:26 , etc.).
{Approve the things that are excellent} (dokimazein ta
diapheronta). Originally, "test the things that differ." Cf.
same idiom in  Ro 2:28 . The verb was used for assaying metals.
Either sense suits this context, but the first step is to
distinguish between good and evil and that is not always easy in
our complex civilization. {Sincere} (eilikrineis). Old word of
uncertain origin from krin(935c), to judge, by heil(885c) (sunlight) or
to sift by rapid rolling (eilos). At any rate it means pure,
unsullied. {Void of offence} (aproskopoi). Alpha privative
pros and kopt(935c), to cut, "not stumbled against" (not causing
others to stumble) or if active "not stumbling against." Passive
sense probably, not active as in  1Co 10:32 . Common in the
papyri, though not in ancient Greek writers.

經文:

腓立比書 1:11-1:11

註釋:

 {Fruits of righteousness} (karpon dikaiosun(8873)). Singular,
collective idea, fruit of righteousness. Accusative case retained
with perfect passive participle.

經文:

腓立比書 1:12-1:12

註釋:

 {The things which happened unto me} (	a kat' eme). "The
things concerning me" = "my affairs" as common in Josephus. {Have
fallen out rather} (mallon el(886c)uthen). "Have come rather."
Second perfect active indicative of erchomai. {Unto the
progress} (eis prokop(886e)). Late word from prokopt(935c), common
verb, to cut or strike forward, but this late substantive does
not occur in classical Greek. It is a technical term in Stoic
philosophy for "progress toward wisdom" and it appears also in
the papyri and the LXX. In N.T. only here, verse  25  1Ti 4:15 .

經文:

腓立比書 1:13-1:13

註釋:

 {Throughout the whole praetorian guard} (en hol(9369) t(9369)
prait(9372)i(9369)). There were originally ten thousand of these picked
soldiers, concentrated in Rome by Tiberius. They had double pay
and special privileges and became so powerful that emperors had
to court their favour. Paul had contact with one after another of
these soldiers. It is a Latin word, but the meaning is not
certain, for in the other New Testament examples ( Mt 27:27  Mr
15:16  Joh 18:28,33  19:9  Ac 23:35 ) it means the palace of the
provincial governor either in Jerusalem or Caesarea. In Rome
"palace" would have to be the emperor's palace, a possible
meaning for Paul a provincial writing to provincials (Kennedy).
Some take it to mean the camp or barracks of the praetorian
guard. The Greek, "in the whole praetorium," allows this meaning,
though there is no clear example of it. Mommsen and Ramsay argue
for the judicial authorities (_praefecti praetorio_) with the
assessors of the imperial court. At any rate Paul, chained to a
soldier, had access to the soldiers and the officials.

經文:

腓立比書 1:14-1:14

註釋:

 {The most of the brethren} (	ous pleionas t(936e) adelph(936e)).
"The more part of the brethren." The comparative with the article
with the sense of the superlative as often in the _Koin(825f). {In
the Lord} (en Kuri(9369)). It is not clear whether this phrase is
to be connected with "brethren" or with "being confident"
(pepoithotas), probably with pepoithotas. If so, then
"through my bonds" (	ois desmois mou) would be the instrumental
case and mean that by means of Paul's bonds the brethren "are
more abundantly bold" (perissoter(9373) tolm(8369)n).

經文:

腓立比書 1:15-1:15

註釋:

 {Even of envy and strife} (kai dia phthonon kai erin).
"Even because of" (accusative after dia). Surely the lowest of
motives for preaching Christ. Envy is an old word and an old sin
and strife (eris) is more rivalry than schism. It is petty and
personal jealousy of Paul's power and prowess by the Judaizers in
Rome whom Paul has routed in the east, but who now exult at the
opportunity of annoying their great antagonist by their
interpretation of Christ. Jealousy is always against those of
one's own class or profession as preachers with preachers,
doctors with doctors. {Of goodwill} (di' eudokian). Because of
goodwill toward Paul.

經文:

腓立比書 1:16-1:16

註釋:

 {Of love} (ex agap(8873)). Out of love to Paul as well as to
Christ. Put  1Co 13  here as a flash-light.

經文:

腓立比書 1:17-1:17

註釋:

 {Of faction} (ex eritheias). Out of partisanship. From
eritheu(935c), to spin wool, and that from erithos, a hireling.
The papyri examples suit the idea of selfish ambition (Moulton
and Milligan's _Vocabulary_). See  2Co 12:20  Ga 5:20 . {Not
sincerely} (ouch hagn(9373)). "Not purely," that is with mixed and
impure motives. {To raise up affliction for my bonds} (	hlipsin
egeirein tois desmois mou). Now that Paul is down they jump on
him in mean and nagging ways. Dative case in desmois. "To make
my chains gall me" (Lightfoot).

經文:

腓立比書 1:18-1:18

註釋:

 {What then?} (	i gar?). Sharp problem put up to Paul by
the conduct of the Judaizers. {Only that} (pl(886e) hoti). Same
idiom in  Ac 20:23 . Pl(886e) is adverb pleon (more besides). As
a preposition pl(886e) means "except." This essential thing Paul
sees in spite of all their envy and selfishness that Christ is
preached. {Whether in pretence} (eite prophasei). Either from
prophain(935c), to shew forth, or proph(886d)i, to speak forth, the
ostensible presentation often untrue. See  Ac 27:30 . Paul sees
clearly through the pious pretence of these Judaizers and
rejoices that people get some knowledge of Christ. Some Christ is
better than no Christ. {Yea, and will rejoice} (alla kai
char(8873)omai). Note affirmative, not adversative, use of alla.
Volitive use of the future (second future passive) indicative
(char(8873)omai) of chair(935c). Paul is determined to rejoice in
spite of the efforts of the Judaizers to prod him to anger.

經文:

腓立比書 1:19-1:19

註釋:

 {Will turn} (apob(8873)etai). Future middle indicative of
apobain(935c), old verb, to come from, to come back, to turn out.
{To my salvation} (eis s(9374)(8872)ian). For his release from prison
as he strongly hopes to see them again ( 1:26 ). Lightfoot takes
the word to be Paul's eternal salvation and it must be confessed
that verse  20  (the close of this sentence) does suit that idea
best. Can it be that Paul carried both conceptions in the word
here? {Supply} (epichor(8867)ias). Late and rare word (one example
in inscription of first century A.D.). In N.T. only here and  Eph
4:16 . From the late verb epichor(8867)e(935c) (double compound, epi,
choros, h(8867)eomai, to furnish supply for the chorus) which see in
 2Co 9:10  Ga 3:5 .

經文:

腓立比書 1:20-1:20

註釋:

 {Earnest expectation} (apokaradokian). In Paul alone from
apokaradoke(935c) (in papyri). See on 爹o 8:19| for only other
example. {Shall be magnified} (megalunth(8873)etai). Future passive
indicative of megalun(935c), old verb, to make great, from megas
(great). See  Ac 19:17 . {In my body} (en t(9369) s(936d)ati mou). See
 Ro 12:1f . It is harder often to make Christ great in the body
than in the spirit.

經文:

腓立比書 1:21-1:21

註釋:

 {For to me} (emoi gar). Fine example of the ethical
dative. Paul gives his own view of living. {To live is Christ}
(	o z(8869)n Christos). No copula (estin), but 	o z(8869)n (the act
of living present active infinitive) is the subject as is shown
by the article 	o. Living is coextensive with Christ. {Gain}
(kerdos). Old word for any gain or profit, interest on money
(so in papyri). In N.T. only here,  Php 3:7  Tit 1:11 . {To die}
(	o apothanein, second aorist active infinitive, single act) is
to cash in both principal and interest and so to have more of
Christ than when living. So Paul faces death with independence
and calm courage.

經文:

腓立比書 1:22-1:22

註釋:

 {If this is the fruit of my work} (	outo moi karpos
ergou). There is no ei (if) here in the Greek, but 	outo
(this) seems to be resumptive and to repeat the conditional
clause just before. If so, kai just after means {then} and
introduces the conclusion of the condition. Otherwise 	outo
introduces the conclusion and kai means {and}. {I wot not} (ou
gn(9372)iz(935c)). "I know not." It seems odd to preserve the old English
word "wot" here. But it is not clear that gn(9372)iz(935c) (old
causative verb from gin(9373)k(935c)) means just to know. Elsewhere in
the N.T., as in  Lu 2:15  Ro 9:22 , it means to make known, to
declare. The papyri examples mean to make known. It makes
perfectly good sense to take its usual meaning here, "I do not
declare what I shall choose."

經文:

腓立比書 1:23-1:23

註釋:

 {I am in a strait} (sunechomai). "I am held together."
Present passive indicative of the common compound verb sunech(935c),
to hold together, to hem together as in  Lu 8:45 . "I am hemmed
in on both sides" (Lightfoot). {Betwixt the two} (ek t(936e) duo).
"From the two (sides)." Pressure to live on, pressure to die and
be with Christ. {To depart} (eis to analusai). Purpose clause,
eis to and the aorist active infinitive analusai, old
compound verb, to unloose (as threads), to break up, to return
( Lu 12:36 , only other N.T. example), to break up camp
(Polybius), to weigh anchor and put out to sea, to depart (often
in old Greek and papyri). Cf. katalu(935c) in  2Co 5:1  for tearing
down the tent. {Very far better} (poll(9369) mallon kreisson).
Double comparative (triple Lightfoot calls it because of
poll(9369)) like Isocrates and the _Koin(825f) often. See  2Co 7:13 
for perissoter(9373) mallon. Poll(9369) is the instrumental case of
measure (by much).

經文:

腓立比書 1:24-1:24

註釋:

 {In the flesh} (en t(8869) sarki). So B D G, but Aleph A C do
not have en. Unnecessary with epimen(935c), to abide by (common
verb).

經文:

腓立比書 1:25-1:25

註釋:

 {And abide with you all} (kai paramen(9320)p(8373)in humin).
Common Pauline idiom to repeat the simple verb (men(935c)) as a
compound (paramen(935c), future active indicative), old verb, to
remain beside followed by locative case. See same idiom in
chair(932c) sunchair(935c) ( Php 2:17 ).

經文:

腓立比書 1:26-1:26

註釋:

 {In Christ Jesus in me} (en Christ(9369) I(8873)ou en emoi). "In
Christ Jesus" as the basis for the glorying (kauch(886d)a), "in me"
as the instance in point. {Through my presence} (dia t(8873) em(8873)
parousias). The word so often used of the second coming of
Christ, but here in its ordinary sense as in  2:12  1Co 16:17 .

經文:

腓立比書 1:27-1:27

註釋:

 {Let your manner of life} (politeuesthe). Old verb from
polit(8873), citizen, and that from polis, city, to be a citizen,
to manage a state's affairs, to live as a citizen. Only twice in
N.T., here and  Ac 23:1 . Philippi as a colony possessed Roman
citizenship and Paul was proud of his own possession of this
right. The Authorized Version missed the figure completely by the
word "conversation" which did refer to conduct and not mere talk
as now, but did not preserve the figure of citizenship. Better
render, "Only do ye live as citizens." {Striving}
(sunathlountes). Rather, "striving together" as in an athletic
contest. Late and rare word (Diodorus). "The very energy of the
Christian faith to produce energetic individualities" (Rainy).
"Striving in concert" (Lightfoot). {For the faith} (	(8869)
pistei). For the teaching of the gospel, objective sense of
pistis (faith).

經文:

腓立比書 1:28-1:28

註釋:

 2Th
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經文:

腓立比書 1:29-1:29

註釋:

 {In the behalf of Christ} (	o huper Christou). Literally,
"the in behalf of Christ." But Paul divides the idea and uses the
article to again both with pisteuein and with paschein.
Suffering in behalf of Christ is one of God's gifts to us.

經文:

腓立比書 1:30-1:30

註釋:

 {Conflict} (ag(936e)a). Athletic or gladiatorial contest as in
 1Ti 6:12  2Ti 4:7 . The Philippians saw Paul suffer ( Ac
16:19-40  1Th 2:2 ) as now they have heard about it in Rome.

經文:

腓立比書 2:1-2:1

註釋:

 {If} (ei). Paul uses four conditions in this verse, all of
the first class, assuming the condition to be true. {Comfort}
(parakl(8873)is). Rather, "ground of appeal to you in Christ." See
 1Co 1:10  Eph 4:1 . {Consolation} (paramuthion). Old word from
paramutheomai, persuasive address, incentive. {Of love}
(agap(8873)). Objective genitive, "in love" (undefined as in  1Co
13 ). {Fellowship} (koin(936e)ia). Partnership in the Holy Spirit
"whose first fruit is love" ( Ga 5:22 ). {Any tender mercies}
(	is splagchna). Common use of this word for the nobler
viscera and so for the higher emotions. But 	is is masculine
singular and splagchna is neuter plural. Lightfoot suggests an
error of an early transcriber or even of the amanuensis in
writing ei tis instead of ei tina.

經文:

腓立比書 2:2-2:2

註釋:

 {Fulfil} (pl(8872)(9373)ate). Better here, "fill full." Paul's cup
of joy will be full if the Philippians will only keep on having
unity of thought and feeling (	o auto phron(8874)e, present active
subjunctive, keep on thinking the same thing). {Being of one
accord} (sunpsuchoi). Late word here for the first time, from
sun and psuch(885c), harmonious in soul, souls that beat together,
in tune with Christ and with each other. {Of one mind} (	o hen
phronountes). "Thinking the one thing." Like clocks that strike
at the same moment. Perfect intellectual telepathy. Identity of
ideas and harmony of feelings.

經文:

腓立比書 2:3-2:3

註釋:

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經文:

腓立比書 2:4-2:4

註釋:

 {Looking} (skopountes). Present active participle of
skope(935c) from skopos (aim, goal). Not keeping an eye on the
main chance for number one, but for the good of others.

經文:

腓立比書 2:5-2:5

註釋:

 {Have this mind in you} (	outo phroneite en humin). "Keep
on thinking this in you which was also in Christ Jesus" (ho kai
en Christ(9369) I(8873)ou). What is that? Humility. Paul presents Jesus
as the supreme example of humility. He urges humility on the
Philippians as the only way to secure unity.

經文:

腓立比書 2:6-2:6

註釋:

 {Being} (huparch(936e)). Rather, "existing," present active
participle of huparch(935c). In the form of God (en morph(8869)
theou). Morph(885c) means the essential attributes as shown in the
form. In his preincarnate state Christ possessed the attributes
of God and so appeared to those in heaven who saw him. Here is a
clear statement by Paul of the deity of Christ. {A prize}
(harpagmon). Predicate accusative with h(8867)(8873)ato. Originally
words in -mos signified the act, not the result (-ma). The
few examples of harpagmos (Plutarch, etc.) allow it to be
understood as equivalent to harpagma, like aptismos and
aptisma. That is to say Paul means a prize to be held on to
rather than something to be won ("robbery"). {To be on an
equality with God} (	o einai isa theoi). Accusative articular
infinitive object of h(8867)(8873)ato, "the being equal with God"
(associative instrumental case 	he(9369) after isa). Isa is
adverbial use of neuter plural with einai as in  Re 21:16 .
{Emptied himself} (heauton eken(9373)e). First aorist active
indicative of keno(935c), old verb from kenos, empty. Of what did
Christ empty himself? Not of his divine nature. That was
impossible. He continued to be the Son of God. There has arisen a
great controversy on this word, a Kenosis doctrine. Undoubtedly
Christ gave up his environment of glory. He took upon himself
limitations of place (space) and of knowledge and of power,
though still on earth retaining more of these than any mere man.
It is here that men should show restraint and modesty, though it
is hard to believe that Jesus limited himself by error of
knowledge and certainly not by error of conduct. He was without
sin, though tempted as we are. "He stripped himself of the
insignia of majesty" (Lightfoot).

經文:

腓立比書 2:7-2:7

註釋:

 {The form of a servant} (morph(886e) doulou). He took the
characteristic attributes (morph(886e) as in verse  6 ) of a slave.
His humanity was as real as his deity. {In the likeness of men}
(en homoi(936d)ati anthr(9370)(936e)). It was a likeness, but a real
likeness (Kennedy), no mere phantom humanity as the Docetic
Gnostics held. Note the difference in tense between huparch(936e)
(eternal existence in the morph(885c) of God) and genomenos
(second aorist middle participle of ginomai, becoming, definite
entrance in time upon his humanity).

經文:

腓立比書 2:8-2:8

註釋:

 {In fashion} (sch(886d)ati). Locative case of sch(886d)a, from
ech(935c), to have, to hold. Bengel explains morph(885c) by _forma_,
homoi(936d)a by _similitudo_, sch(886d)a by _habitus_. Here with
sch(886d)a the contrast "is between what He is in Himself, and what
He _appeared_ in the eyes of men" (Lightfoot). {He humbled
himself} (etapein(9373)en heauton). First aorist active of
	apeino(935c), old verb from 	apeinos. It is a voluntary
humiliation on the part of Christ and for this reason Paul is
pressing the example of Christ upon the Philippians, this supreme
example of renunciation. See Bruce's masterpiece, _The
Humiliation of Christ_. {Obedient} (hup(886b)oos). Old adjective,
giving ear to. See  Ac 7:39  2Co 2:9 . {Unto death} (mechri
thanatou). "Until death." See "until blood" (mechris haimatos,
 Heb 12:4 ). {Yea, the death of the cross} (	hanatou de
staurou). The bottom rung in the ladder from the Throne of God.
Jesus came all the way down to the most despised death of all, a
condemned criminal on the accursed cross.

經文:

腓立比書 2:9-2:9

註釋:

 {Wherefore} (dio). Because of which act of voluntary and
supreme humility. {Highly exalted} (huperups(9373)e). First aorist
indicative of huperupso(935c) (huper and hupsos) late and rare
word (LXX and Byzantine). Here only in N.T. Because of Christ's
voluntary humiliation God lifted him above or beyond (huper)
the state of glory which he enjoyed before the Incarnation. What
glory did Christ have after the Ascension that he did not have
before in heaven? What did he take back to heaven that he did not
bring? Clearly his humanity. He returned to heaven the Son of Man
as well as the Son of God. {The name which is above every name}
(	o onoma to huper pan onoma). What name is that? Apparently
and naturally the name {Jesus}, which is given in verse  10 .
Some think it is "Jesus Christ," some "Lord," some the ineffable
name Jehovah, some merely dignity and honour.

經文:

腓立比書 2:10-2:10

註釋:

 {That in the name of Jesus every knee should bow} (hina en
t(9369) onomati I(8873)ou pan gonu kamps(8869)). First aorist active
subjunctive of kampt(935c), old verb, to bend, to bow, in purpose
clause with hina. Not perfunctory genuflections whenever the
name of Jesus is mentioned, but universal acknowledgment of the
majesty and power of Jesus who carries his human name and nature
to heaven. This universal homage to Jesus is seen in  Ro 8:22  Eph 1:20-22  and in particular  Re 5:13 . {Under the earth}
(katachthoni(936e)). Homeric adjective for departed souls,
subterranean, simply the dead. Here only in the N.T.

經文:

腓立比書 2:11-2:11

註釋:

 {Should confess} (exomolog(8873)(8874)ai). First aorist middle
subjunctive of exomologeomai with hina for purpose. {Lord}
(Kurios). Peter ( Ac 2:36 ) claimed that God made Christ
"Lord." See also  1Co 8:6  12:3  Ro 10:9 . Kennedy laments that
the term Lord has become one of the most lifeless in the
Christian vocabulary, whereas it really declares the true
character and dignity of Jesus Christ and "is the basis and the
object of worship."

經文:

腓立比書 2:12-2:12

註釋:

 {Not as in my presence only} (m(8820)h(9373) en t(8869) parousi(8369)
monon). B and a few other MSS. omit h(9373). The negative m(885c)
goes with the imperative katergazesthe (work out), not with
hup(886b)ousate (obeyed) which would call for ouch. {Much more}
(poll(9369) mallon). They are not to render eye-service only when
Paul is there, but much more when he is away. {Work out}
(katergazesthe). Perfective use of kata (down) in
composition, work on to the finish. This exhortation assumes
human free agency in the carrying on the work of one's salvation.
{With fear and trembling} (meta phobou kai tromou). "Not
slavish terror, but wholesome, serious caution" (Vincent). "A
nervous and trembling anxiety to do right" (Lightfoot). Paul has
no sympathy with a cold and dead orthodoxy or formalism that
knows nothing of struggle and growth. He exhorts as if he were an
Arminian in addressing men. He prays as if he were a Calvinist in
addressing God and feels no inconsistency in the two attitudes.
Paul makes no attempt to reconcile divine sovereignty and human
free agency, but boldly proclaims both.

經文:

腓立比書 2:13-2:13

註釋:

 {Which worketh in you} (ho energ(936e) en humin). Articular
present active participle of energe(935c) from energos (en,
ergon) one at work, common verb from Aristotle on, to be at
work, to energize. God is the Energy and the Energizer of the
universe. Modern scientists, like Eddington, Jeans, and Whitney,
are not afraid to agree with Paul and to put God back of all
activity in nature. {Both to will and to work} (kai to thelein
kai to energein). "Both the willing and the working (the
energizing)." God does it all, then. Yes, but he puts us to work
also and our part is essential, as he has shown in verse  12 ,
though secondary to that of God. {For his good-pleasure} (huper
t(8873) eudokias). So Whitney puts "the will of God" behind
gravitation and all the laws of nature.

經文:

腓立比書 2:14-2:14

註釋:

 {Without murmurings} (ch(9372)is goggusm(936e)). See on  Ac 6:1 
for this late onomatopoetic word from gogguz(935c), to mutter, to
grumble. {Disputings} (dialogism(936e)). Or questionings as in  Lu
24:38 . The grumblings led to disputes.

經文:

腓立比書 2:15-2:15

註釋:

 {That ye may be} (hina gen(8873)the). Rather, "that ye may
become" (second aorist middle subjunctive of ginomai, to
become). {Blameless} (amemptoi). Free from censure
(memphomai, to blame). {Harmless} (akeraioi). Unmixed,
unadulterated as in  Ro 16:19 . {Without blemish} (am(936d)a).
Without spot, "unblemished in reputation and in reality"
(Vincent). {In the midst of} (meson). Preposition with
genitive. {Crooked} (skolias). Old word, curved as opposed to
orthos, straight. See on 涉c 2:40|. {Perverse}
(diestrammen(8873)). Perfect passive participle of diastreph(935c), to
distort, to twist, to turn to one side (dia, in two). Old word.
See  Mt 17:17  Ac 13:10 .

經文:

腓立比書 2:16-2:16

註釋:

 {As lights in the world} (h(9373) ph(9373)t(8872)es en kosm(9369)). As
luminaries like the heavenly bodies. Christians are the light of
the world ( Mt 5:14 ) as they reflect the light from Christ ( Joh
1:4  8:12 ), but here the word is not ph(9373) (light), but
ph(9373)t(8872)es (luminaries, stars). The place for light is the
darkness where it is needed. {Holding forth} (epechontes).
Present active participle of epech(935c). Probably not connected
with the preceding metaphor in ph(9373)t(8872)es. The old meaning of
the verb epech(935c) is to hold forth or to hold out (the word of
life as here). The context seems to call for "holding fast." It
occurs also with the sense of attending to ( Ac 3:5 ). {That I
may have} (emoi). Ethical dative, "to me as a ground of
boasting."

經文:

腓立比書 2:17-2:17

註釋:

 2Ti
4:6 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ti
4' or engs='2Ti
4'
經文:

腓立比書 2:19-2:19

註釋:

 {That I also may be of good comfort} (hina kag(9320)eupsuch(935c)).
Present subjunctive with hina in purpose clause of the late and
rare verb eupsuche(935c), from eupsuchos (cheerful, of good
spirit). In papyri and eupsuchei (be of good cheer) common in
sepulchral inscriptions. {When I know} (gnous). Second aorist
active participle of gin(9373)k(935c).

經文:

腓立比書 2:20-2:20

註釋:

 {Likeminded} (isopsuchon). Old, but very rare adjective
(isos, psuch(885c)), like isotimos in  2Pe 1:1 . Only here in N.T.
Likeminded with Timothy, not with Paul. {Truly} (gn(8873)i(9373)).
"Genuinely." Old adverb, only here in N.T., from gn(8873)ios ( Php
4:3 ), legitimate birth, not spurious.

經文:

腓立比書 2:21-2:21

註釋:

 {They all} (hoi pantes). "The whole of them." Surely Luke
was away from Rome at this juncture.

經文:

腓立比書 2:22-2:22

註釋:

 2Co
2:9 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
2' or engs='2Co
2'
經文:

腓立比書 2:23-2:23

註釋:

 {So soon as I shall see} (h(9373) an aphid(935c)). Indefinite
temporal clause with h(9373) an and the second aorist active
subjunctive of aphora(935c). The oldest MSS. (Aleph A B D) have
aphid(935c) (old aspirated form) rather than apid(935c). {How it will
go with me} (	a peri eme). On the force of apo with hora(935c)
(look away) see  Heb 12:2 . "The things concerning me," the
outcome of the trial. Cf.  1Co 4:17,19 .

經文:

腓立比書 2:24-2:24

註釋:

 {In the Lord} (en Kuri(9369)). Not a perfunctory use of this
phrase. Paul's whole life is centred in Christ ( Ga 2:20 ).

經文:

腓立比書 2:25-2:25

註釋:

 {I counted it} (h(8867)(8873)am(886e)). Epistolary aorist from the
point of view of the readers. {Epaphroditus} (Epaphroditon).
Common name, though only in Philippians in N.T., contracted into
Epaphras, though not the same man as Epaphras in  Col 1:7 . Note
one article 	on (the) with the three epithets given in an
ascending scale (Lightfoot), brother (adelphon, common
sympathy), fellow-worker (sunergon, common work),
fellow-soldier (sunstrati(9374)(886e), common danger as in  Phm 1:2 ).
Mou (my) and hum(936e) (your) come together in sharp contrast.
{Messenger} (apostolon). See  2Co 8:23  for this use of
apostolos as messenger (missionary). {Minister} (leitourgon).
See on 爹o 13:6; 15:16| for this ritualistic term.

經文:

腓立比書 2:26-2:26

註釋:

 {He longed after} (epipoth(936e) (886e)). Periphrastic imperfect
of epipothe(935c) ( Php 1:8 ), "he was yearning after." {You all}
(pantas humas). So again ( 1:5,7,8 ). {Was sore troubled}
(ad(886d)on(936e)). Periphrastic imperfect again (repeat (886e)) of the
old word ad(886d)one(935c) either from an unused ad(886d)(936e) (a privative
and d(886d)os, away from home, homesick) or from ad(886d)(936e), ad(8873)ai
(discontent, bewilderment). The _Vocabulary_ of Moulton and
Milligan gives one papyrus example in line with the latter
etymology. See already  Mt 26:37  Mr 14:33 . In any case the
distress of Epaphroditus was greatly increased when he knew that
the Philippians (the home-folks) had learned of his illness,
"because ye had heard that he was sick" (dioti (886b)ousate hoti
(8873)then(8873)e), "because ye heard that he fell sick" (ingressive
aorist). {He was sick} ((8873)then(8873)e). Ingressive aorist, "he did
become sick." {Nigh unto death} (parapl(8873)ion thanat(9369)). Only
example in N.T. of this compound adverbial preposition (from the
adjective parapl(8873)ios) with the dative case.

經文:

腓立比書 2:28-2:28

註釋:

 {Ye may rejoice} (char(8874)e). Second aorist passive
subjunctive with hina in final clause of chair(935c), to rejoice.
{That I may be the less sorrowful} (kag(9320)alupoteros (935c)). Present
subjunctive with hina and comparative of old compound adjective
alupos (a privative and lup(885c), more free from grief).
Beautiful expression of Paul's feelings for the Philippians and
for Epaphroditus.

經文:

腓立比書 2:29-2:29

註釋:

 {In honour} (entimous). Old compound adjective (en,
tim(885c)), prized, precious ( Lu 7:2  14:8  1Pe 2:4,6 ). Predicate
accusative. Noble plea in behalf of Christ's minister.

經文:

腓立比書 2:30-2:30

註釋:

 {Hazarding his life} (paraboleusamenos t(8869) psuch(8869)). First
aorist middle participle of paraboleu(935c) (from the adjective
parabolos), to place beside. The old Greek writers used
paraballomai, to expose oneself to danger. But Deissmann
(_Light from the Ancient East_, p. 88) cites an example of
paraboleusamenos from an inscription at Olbia or the Black Sea
of the second century A.D. where it plainly means "exposing
himself to danger" as here. Lightfoot renders it here "having
gambled with his life." The word parabolani (riskers) was
applied to the Christians who risked their lives for the dying
and the dead.

經文:

腓立比書 3:1-3:1

註釋:

 {Finally} (	o loipon). Accusative of general reference,
literally, "as for the rest." So again in  4:8 . It (or just
loipon) is a common phrase towards the close of Paul's Epistles
( 2Th 3:1  2Co 13:11 ). In  Eph 6:10  we have 	ou loipou
(genitive case). But Paul uses the idiom elsewhere also as in
 1Co 7:29  1Th 4:1  before the close of the letter is in sight.
It is wholly needless to understand Paul as about to finish and
then suddenly changing his mind like some preachers who announce
the end a half dozen times. {To write the same things} (	a auta
graphein). Present active articular infinitive, "the going on
writing the same things." What things? He has just used
chairete (go on rejoicing) again and he will repeat it in
 4:4 . But in verse  2  he uses lepete three times. At any
rate Paul, as a true teacher, is not afraid of repetition.
{Irksome} (okn(8872)on). Old adjective from okne(935c), to delay, to
hesitate. It is not tiresome to me to repeat what is "safe"
(asphales) for you. Old adjective from a privative and
sphall(935c), to totter, to reel. See  Ac 21:34 .

經文:

腓立比書 3:2-3:2

註釋:

 1Ki
18:28 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ki
18' or engs='1Ki
18'
經文:

腓立比書 3:3-3:3

註釋:

 {For we} (h(886d)eis gar). We believers in Christ, the children
of Abraham by faith, whether Jew or Gentile, the spiritual
circumcision in contrast to the merely physical ( Ro 2:25-29  Col
2:11  Eph 2:11 ). See  Ga 5:12  for apotemnein (to cut off) in
sense of mutilation also. {By the Spirit of God} (pneumati
theou). Instrumental case, though the dative case as the object
of latreu(935c) makes good sense also (worshipping the Spirit of
God) or even the locative (worshipping in the Spirit of God).
{No} (ouk). Actual condition rather than m(885c) with the
participle. {In the flesh} (en sarki). Technical term in Paul's
controversy with the Judaizers ( 2Co 11:18  Gal 6:13f. ).
External privileges beyond mere flesh.

經文:

腓立比書 3:4-3:4

註釋:

 {Might have} (ech(936e)). Rather, "even though myself having."
{Confidence} (pepoith(8873)in). Late word, condemned by the
Atticists, from pepoitha (just used). See  2Co 1:15  3:4 .

經文:

腓立比書 3:5-3:5

註釋:

 2Co
11:22 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
11' or engs='2Co
11'
經文:

腓立比書 3:6-3:6

註釋:

 {As touching zeal} (kata z(886c)os). So the old MSS. treating
z(886c)os as neuter, not masculine. He was a zealot against
Christianity, "persecuting the church" (di(936b)(936e) t(886e) ekkl(8873)ian).
He was the ringleader in the persecution from the death of
Stephen till his own conversion ( Ac 8:1-9:9 ). {Found blameless}
(genomenos amemptos). "Having become blameless" ( Ga 1:14 ). He
knew and practised all the rules of the rabbis. A marvellous
record, scoring a hundred in Judaism.

經文:

腓立比書 3:7-3:7

註釋:

 {Were gain to me} (en moi kerd(885c)). "Were gains (plural, see
on 氣:21|) to me (ethical dative)." Paul had natural pride in his
Jewish attainments. He was the star of hope for Gamaliel and the
Sanhedrin. {Have I counted} (h(8867)(886d)ai). Perfect middle
indicative, state of completion and still true. {Loss}
(z(886d)ian). Old word for damage, loss. In N.T. only in Phil. and
 Ac 27:10,21 . Debit side of the ledger, not credit.

經文:

腓立比書 3:8-3:8

註釋:

 {Yea, verily, and} (alla men oun ge kai). Five particles
before Paul proceeds (yea, indeed, therefore, at least, even),
showing the force and passion of his conviction. He repeats his
affirmation with the present middle indicative (h(8867)oumai), "I
still count all things loss for the excellency of the knowledge
(	o huperechon, the surpassingness, neuter articular participle
of huperech(935c),  Php 2:3 ) of Christ Jesus my Lord." {Dung}
(skubala). Late word of uncertain etymology, either connected
with sk(9372) (dung) or from es kunas ball(935c), to fling to the dogs
and so refuse of any kind. It occurs in the papyri. Here only in
the N.T. {That I may gain Christ} (hina Christon kerd(8873)(935c)).
First aorist active subjunctive of kerda(935c), Ionic form for
kerdain(935c) with hina in purpose clause. Paul was never
satisfied with his knowledge of Christ and always craved more
fellowship with him.

經文:

腓立比書 3:9-3:9

註釋:

 {Be found in him} (heureth(9320)en aut(9369)). First aorist
(effective) passive subjunctive with hina of heurisk(935c). At
death ( 2Co 5:3 ) or when Christ comes. Cf.  2:8  Ga 2:17 .
{Through faith in Christ} (dia piste(9373) Christou). The objective
genitive Christou, not subjective, as in  Ga 2:16,20  Ro 3:22 .
Explained further by epi t(8869) pistei (on the basis of faith) as
in  Ac 3:16 .

經文:

腓立比書 3:10-3:10

註釋:

 1Co
6:13ff. 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
6' or engs='1Co
6'
經文:

腓立比書 3:11-3:11

註釋:

 {If by any means I may attain} (ei p(9373) katant(8873)(935c)). Not an
expression of doubt, but of humility (Vincent), a modest hope
(Lightfoot). For ei p(9373), see  Ro 1:10  11:14  where
paraz(886c)(9373)(935c) can be either future indicative or aorist
subjunctive like katant(8873)(935c) here (see subjunctive katalab(935c) in
verse  12 ), late compound verb katanta(935c). {Resurrection}
(exanastasin). Late word, not in LXX, but in Polybius and one
papyrus example. Apparently Paul is thinking here only of the
resurrection of believers out from the dead and so double ex
(	en exanastasin t(886e) ek nekr(936e)). Paul is not denying a general
resurrection by this language, but emphasizing that of believers.

經文:

腓立比書 3:12-3:12

註釋:

 {Not that} (ouch hoti). To guard against a
misunderstanding as in  Joh 6:26  12:6  2Co 1:24  Php 4:11,17 .
{I have already obtained} ((8864)(8820)elabon). Rather, "I did already
obtain," constative second aorist active indicative of lamban(935c),
summing up all his previous experiences as a single event. {Or am
already made perfect} ((8820)(8864)(8820)tetelei(936d)ai). Perfect passive
indicative (state of completion) of 	eleio(935c), old verb from
	eleios and that from 	elos (end). Paul pointedly denies that
he has reached a spiritual impasse of non- development. Certainly
he knew nothing of so-called sudden absolute perfection by any
single experience. Paul has made great progress in
Christlikeness, but the goal is still before him, not behind him.
{But I press on} (di(936b)(9320)de). He is not discouraged, but
encouraged. He keeps up the chase (real idea in di(936b)(935c), as in
 1Co 14:1  Ro 9:30  1Ti 6:11 ). {If so be that} (ei kai). "I
follow after." The condition (third class, ei--katalab(935c), second
aorist active subjunctive of katalamban(935c)) is really a sort of
purpose clause or aim. There are plenty of examples in the
_Koin(825f) of the use of ei and the subjunctive as here
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1017), "if I also may lay hold of that
for which (eph' h(9369), purpose expressed by epi) I was laid
hold of (katel(886d)phth(886e), first aorist passive of the same verb
katalamban(935c)) by Christ Jesus." His conversion was the
beginning, not the end of the chase.

經文:

腓立比書 3:13-3:13

註釋:

 {Not yet} (oup(935c)). But some MSS. read ou (not). {To have
apprehended} (kateil(8870)henai). Perfect active infinitive of same
verb katalamban(935c) (perfective use of kata, to grasp
completely). Surely denial enough. {But one thing} (hen de). No
verb in the Greek. We can supply poi(935c) (I do) or di(936b)(935c) (I keep
on in the chase), but no verb is really needed. "When all is
said, the greatest art is to limit and isolate oneself" (Goethe),
concentration. {Forgetting the things which are behind} (	a men
opis(9320)epilanthanomenos). Common verb, usually with the genitive,
but the accusative in the _Koin(825f) is greatly revived with verbs.
Paul can mean either his old pre-Christian life, his previous
progress as a Christian, or both (all of it). {Stretching
forward} (epekteinomenos). Present direct middle participle of
the old double compound epektein(935c) (stretching myself out
towards). Metaphor of a runner leaning forward as he runs.

經文:

腓立比書 3:14-3:14

註釋:

 {Toward the goal} (kata skopon). "Down upon the goal," who
is Jesus himself to whom we must continually look as we run ( Heb
12:2 ). The word means a watchman, then the goal or mark. Only
here in N.T. {Unto the prize} (eis to brabeion). Late word
(Menander and inscriptions) from rabeus (umpire who awards the
prize). In N.T. only here and  1Co 9:24 . {Of the high calling}
(	(8873) an(9320)kl(8873)e(9373)). Literally, "of the upward calling." The goal
continually moves forward as we press on, but yet never out of
sight.

經文:

腓立比書 3:15-3:15

註釋:

 He 5:13 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'He' or engs='He'
經文:

腓立比書 3:16-3:16

註釋:

 {By that same rule let us walk} (	(9369) aut(9369) stoichein)
Aleph A B do not have kanoni (rule). Besides stoichein is the
absolute present active infinitive which sometimes occurs instead
of the principal verb as in  Ro 12:15 . Paul means simply this
that, having come thus far, the thing to do is to go "in the same
path" (	(9369) aut(9369)) in which we have been travelling so far. A
needed lesson for Christians weary with the monotony of routine
in religious life and work.

經文:

腓立比書 3:17-3:17

註釋:

 {Imitators together of me} (sunmim(8874)ai mou). Found only
here so far, though Plato uses summimeisthai. "Vie with each
other in imitating me" (Lightfoot). {Mark} (skopeite). Old verb
from skopos (verse  14 ). "Keep your eyes on me as goal." Mark
and follow, not avoid as in  Ro 16:17 . {An ensample} (	upon).
Originally the impression left by a stroke ( Joh 20:25 ), then a
pattern (mould) as here (cf.  1Th 1:7  1Co 10:6,11  Ro 5:14  6:17 ).

經文:

腓立比書 3:18-3:18

註釋:

 1Jo
2:4 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
2' or engs='1Jo
2'
經文:

腓立比書 3:19-3:19

註釋:

 {Whose god is the belly} (hou to theos h(8820)koilia). The
comic poet Eupolis uses the rare word Koiliodaim(936e) for one who
makes a god of his belly and Seneca speaks of one who _abdomini
servit_. Sensuality in food, drink, sex then as now mastered some
men. These men posed as Christians and gloried in their shame.
{Who mind earthly things} (hoi ta epigeia phronountes).
Anacoluthon. The nominative does not refer to polloi at the
beginning, but with the accusative 	ous echthrous in between.
See  Mr 12:40 .

經文:

腓立比書 3:20-3:20

註釋:

 {Our citizenship} (h(886d)(936e) to politeuma). Old word from
piliteu(935c) ( Php 1:27 ), but only here in N.T. The inscriptions
use it either for citizenship or for commonwealth. Paul was proud
of his Roman citizenship and found it a protection. The
Philippians were also proud of their Roman citizenship. But
Christians are citizens of a kingdom not of this world ( Joh
18:36 ). Milligan (_Vocabulary_) doubts if commentators are
entitled to translate it here: "We are a colony of heaven,"
because such a translation reverses the relation between the
colony and the mother city. But certainly here Paul's heart is in
heaven. {We wait for} (apekdechometha). Rare and late double
compound (perfective use of prepositions like wait out) which
vividly pictures Paul's eagerness for the second coming of Christ
as the normal attitude of the Christian colonist whose home is
heaven.

經文:

腓立比書 3:21-3:21

註釋:

 2Co
11:13ff 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
11' or engs='2Co
11'
經文:

腓立比書 4:1-4:1

註釋:

 {Longed for} (epipoth(8874)oi). Late and rare verbal adjective
(here alone in N.T.) from epipothe(935c). {So stand fast} (houto
st(886b)ete). Present active imperative of st(886b)(935c) (late present
from perfect hest(886b)a from hist(886d)i). See  1:27 . They were
tempted to defection. Standing firm is difficult when a panic
starts.

經文:

腓立比書 4:2-4:2

註釋:

 {Euodia} (Euodian). This name means literally "prosperous
journey" (eu, hodos). It occurs in the inscriptions. {Syntyche}
(Suntuch(886e)). From suntugchan(935c), to meet with and so "pleasant
acquaintance" or "good-luck." Occurs in the inscriptions and
identified with Lydia by some. Klopper suggests that each of
these rival women had church assemblies in their homes, one a
Jewish-Christian church, the other a Gentile-Christian church.
Vincent doubts the great influence of women in Macedonia held by
Lightfoot who also suggests that these two were ladies of rank or
perhaps deaconesses of the church in Philippi. Schinz suggests
that in such a pure church even slight bickerings would make a
real disturbance. "It may have been accidental friction between
two energetic Christian women" (Kennedy).

經文:

腓立比書 4:3-4:3

註釋:

 {True yokefellow} (gn(8873)ie sunzuge). All sorts of
suggestions have been made here, one that it was Lydia who is
termed Paul's wife by the word sunzuge. Unfortunately for that
view gn(8873)ie is masculine vocative singular. Some have suggested
it as a proper name though it is not found in the inscriptions,
but the word does occur as an appellative in one. Lightfoot even
proposes Epaphroditus, the bearer of the Epistle, certainly a
curious turn to take to address him. After all it matters little
that we do not know who the peacemaker was. {Help these women}
(sunlambanou autais). Present middle imperative of
sunlamban(935c), to seize ( Mt 26:55 ), to conceive ( Lu 1:24 ),
then to take hold together with one (associative instrumental
case), to help as here ( Lu 5:7 ). "Take hold with them." {They
laboured with me} (sun(8874)hl(8873)an moi). First aorist active
indicative of sunathle(935c) (for which see  1:27 ) with associative
instrumental case (moi). {With Clement also} (meta kai
Kl(886d)entos). There is no evidence that he was Clement of Rome as
the name is common. {In the book of life} (en bibl(9369) z(9388)s). The
only instance of this expression in the N.T. outside of the
Apocalypse ( 3:5  13:8  17:8 , etc.). Hence real Christians in
spite of their bickerings.

經文:

腓立比書 4:4-4:4

註釋:

 {Again I will say} (palin er(935c)). Future active indicative of
defective verb eipon. {Rejoice} (chairete). Present active
imperative as in  3:1 , repeated for emphasis in spite of
discouragements. Not in the sense of "Farewell" here.

經文:

腓立比書 4:5-4:5

註釋:

 {Your forbearance} (	o epieikes hum(936e)). "Your gentleness,"
"your sweet reasonableness" (Matthew Arnold), "your moderation."
Old adjective (epi, eikos) as in  Jas 3:17  1Ti 3:3 . Article
and neuter singular here= h(8820)epieikeia ( Ac 24:4  2Co 10:1 )
like to chr(8873)ton in  Ro 2:4 . {The Lord is at hand} (ho kurios
eggus). "The Apostle's watchword" (Lightfoot), as in  1Co 16:22 
(Maran atha, Aramaic equivalent, Our Lord cometh). Unless,
indeed, eggus here means near in space instead of {nigh} in
time.

經文:

腓立比書 4:6-4:6

註釋:

 {In nothing be anxious} (m(8864)en merimn(8374)e). Present
imperative in prohibition, "stop being anxious." See m(880a)merimn(8374)e in  Mt 6:31 . {With thanksgiving} (meta
eucharistias). In all the forms of prayer here named
thanksgiving should appear.

經文:

腓立比書 4:7-4:7

註釋:

 {The peace of God} (h(8820)eir(886e)(8820)tou theou). See in  2Th 3:16 
"the Lord of peace" (ho Kurios t(8873) eir(886e)(8873)) and verse  9  for
"the God of peace" (ho theos t(8873) eir(886e)(8873)). {Shall guard}
(phrour(8873)ei). "Shall garrison," future active indicative of
phroure(935c), old verb from phrouros (pro-horos, proora(935c), to
see before, to look out). See  Ac 9:24  2Co 11:32 . God's peace
as a sentinel mounts guard over our lives as Tennyson so
beautifully pictures Love as doing.

經文:

腓立比書 4:8-4:8

註釋:

 {Finally} (	o loipon). See on 氨:1|. {Whatsoever} (hosa).
Thus he introduces six adjectives picturing Christian ideals,
old-fashioned and familiar words not necessarily from any
philosophic list of moral excellencies Stoic or otherwise.
Without these no ideals can exist. They are pertinent now when so
much filth is flaunted before the world in books, magazines and
moving-pictures under the name of realism (the slime of the
gutter and the cess-pool). {Honourable} (semna). Old word from
seb(935c), to worship, revere. So revered, venerated ( 1Ti 3:8 ).
{Pure} (hagna). Old word for all sorts of purity. There are
clean things, thoughts, words, deeds. {Lovely} (prosphil(885c)). Old
word, here only in N.T., from pros and phile(935c), pleasing,
winsome. {Of good report} (euph(886d)a. Old word, only here in
N.T., from eu and ph(886d)(885c), fair-speaking, attractive. {If there
be any} (ei tis). Paul changes the construction from hosa
(whatsoever) to a condition of the first class, as in  2:1 , with
two substantives. {Virtue} (aret(885c)). Old word, possibly from
aresk(935c), to please, used very often in a variety of senses by
the ancients for any mental excellence or moral quality or
physical power. Its very vagueness perhaps explains its rarity in
the N.T., only four times ( Php 4:8  1Pe 2:9  2Pe 1:3,5 ). It is
common in the papyri, but probably Paul is using it in the sense
found in the LXX ( Isa 42:12  43:21 ) of God's splendour and
might (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 95) in connection with
"praise" (epainos) as here or even meaning praise. {Think on
these things} (	auta logizesthe). Present middle imperative for
habit of thought. We are responsible for our thoughts and can
hold them to high and holy ideals.

經文:

腓立比書 4:9-4:9

註釋:

 {In me} (en emoi). Paul dares to point to his life in
Philippi as an illustration of this high thinking. The preacher
is the interpreter of the spiritual life and should be an example
of it. {These things do} (	auta prassete). Practise as a habit
(prass(935c), not poie(935c)).

經文:

腓立比書 4:10-4:10

註釋:

 {I rejoice} (echar(886e)). Second aorist passive indicative of
chair(935c), a timeless aorist. I did rejoice, I do rejoice.
{Greatly} (megal(9373)). Old adverb, only here in N.T., from
megas (great). {Now at length} ((8864)(8820)pote). In N.T. only here
and  Ro 1:10 . Pote is indefinite past (interval), (8864)(885c)
immediate present. {Ye have revived} (anethalete). Second
aorist active indicative of old poetic word (Homer), anathall(935c),
to sprout again, to shoot up, to blossom again. So in the LXX
five times, though rare and literary word. {Your thought for me}
(	o huper emou phronein). Accusative case of the articular
present active infinitive the object of anethalete used
transitively. "You caused your thinking of me to bloom afresh."
{Wherein} (eph' h(9369)). "In which," "upon which" (locative case).
A loose reference to Paul's interests as involved in their
thinking of him. {Ye did indeed take thought} (kai ephroneite).
Imperfect active, "ye were also (or had been also) thinking." {Ye
lacked opportunity} ((886b)aireisthe). Imperfect middle of
akaireomai, late and rare word, here only in N.T., from
akairos (a privative, kairos), not to have a chance, the
opposite of eukaire(935c) ( Mr 6:31 ).

經文:

腓立比書 4:11-4:11

註釋:

 {In respect of want} (kath' huster(8873)in). Late and rare
word from hustere(935c), to be behind or too late, only here and  Mr
12:44  in N.T. {I have learned} (emathon). Simply, "I did
learn" (constative second aorist active indicative of manthan(935c),
to learn, looking at his long experience as a unit. {In
whatsoever state I am} (en hois eimi). "In what things
(circumstances) I am." {To be content} (autark(8873) einai).
Predicate nominative with the infinitive of the old adjective
autark(8873) (from autos and arke(935c), to be self-sufficient),
self-sufficing. Favourite word with the Stoics, only here in
N.T., though autarkeia occurs in  2Co 9:8  1Ti 6:6 . Paul is
contented with his lot and he learned that lesson long ago.
Socrates said as to who is wealthiest: "He that is content with
least, for autarkeia is nature's wealth."

經文:

腓立比書 4:12-4:12

註釋:

 {I know how} (oida). Followed by the infinitive oida has
this sense. So here twice, with 	apeinousthai, to be humbled,
from 	apeinos, and with perisseuein, to overflow. {Have I
learned the secret} (memu(886d)ai). Perfect passive indicative of
mue(935c), old and common word from mu(935c), to close (Latin _mutus_),
and so to initiate with secret rites, here only in N.T. The
common word must(8872)ion (mystery) is from must(8873) (one
initiated) and this from mue(935c), to initiate, to instruct in
secrets. Paul draws this metaphor from the initiatory rites of
the pagan mystery-religions. {To be filled} (chortazesthai).
Old verb from chortos (grass, hay) and so to fatten like an
animal. {To be hungry} (pein(8369)n). Old verb from peina
(hunger) and kin to pen(8873), poor man who has to work for his
living (penomai).

經文:

腓立比書 4:13-4:13

註釋:

 {I can do all things} (panta ischu(935c)). Old verb to have
strength (ischus). {In him that strengtheneth me} (en t(9369)
endunamounti me). Late and rare verb (in LXX) from adjective
endunamos (en, dunamis). Causative verb to empower, to pour
power into one. See same phrase in  1Ti 1:12  	(9369) endunam(9373)anti
me (aorist tense here). Paul has such strength so long as Jesus
keeps on putting power (dunamis) into him.

經文:

腓立比書 4:14-4:14

註釋:

 {That ye had fellowship} (sunkoin(936e)(8873)antes). First aorist
active participle (simultaneous action with the principal verb
kal(9373) epoi(8873)ate). "Ye did well contributing for my affliction."

經文:

腓立比書 4:15-4:15

註釋:

 {In the beginning of the gospel} (en arch(8869) tou
euaggeliou). After he had wrought in Philippi ( 2Th 2:13 ). {Had
fellowship} (ekoin(936e)(8873)en). "Had partnership" (first aorist
active indicative). {In the matter} (eis logon). "As to an
account." No other church opened an account with Paul. {Of giving
and receiving} (dose(9373) kai l(886d)pse(9373)). Credit and debit. A
mercantile metaphor repeated in verse  17  by eis logon hum(936e)
(to your account). Paul had to keep books then with no other
church, though later Thessalonica and Beroea joined Philippi in
support of Paul's work in Corinth ( 2Co 11:8f. ). {But ye only}
(ei m(8820)humeis monoi). Not even Antioch contributed anything but
good wishes and prayers for Paul's work ( Ac 13:1-3 ).

經文:

腓立比書 4:16-4:16

註釋:

 {Once and again} (kai hapax kai dis). "Both once and
twice" they did it "even in Thessalonica" and so before Paul went
to Corinth." See the same Greek idiom in  1Th 2:18 .

經文:

腓立比書 4:17-4:17

註釋:

 {I seek for} (epiz(8874)(935c)). Old verb, in N.T. only here and
 Ro 11:7  (linear present, I am seeking for). Lightfoot calls it
"the Apostle's nervous anxiety to clear himself" of wanting more
gifts. Why not say his delicate courtesy?

經文:

腓立比書 4:18-4:18

註釋:

 {I have all things} (apech(9320)panta). As a receipt in full
in appreciation of their kindness. Apech(935c) is common in the
papyri and the ostraca for "receipt in full" (Deissmann, _Bible
Studies_, p. 110). See  Mt 6:2,5,16 . {I am filled}
(pepl(8872)(936d)ai). Perfect passive indicative of pl(8872)o(935c).
"Classical Greek would hardly use the word in this personal
sense" (Kennedy). {An odour of a sweet smell} (osm(886e) eu(9364)ias).
Osm(885c), old word from oz(935c), to smell. Eu(9364)ia, old word from
eu and oz(935c). In  Eph 5:2  both words come together as here and
in  2Co 2:15  we have eu(9364)ia (only other N.T. example) and in
verse  2Co 2:16  osm(885c) twice. Eu(9364)ias here is genitive of
quality. {Sacrifice} (	husian). Not the act, but the offering
as in  Ro 12:1 . {Well-pleasing} (euareston). As in  Ro 12:1 .

經文:

腓立比書 4:19-4:19

註釋:

 {According to his riches in glory} (kata to ploutos autou
en dox(8869)). God has an abundant treasure in glory and will repay
the Philippians for what they have done for Paul. The spiritual
reward is what spurs men into the ministry and holds them to it.

經文:

腓立比書 4:20-4:20

註釋:

 {The glory} (h(8820)doxa). "The doxology flows out of the joy
of the whole epistle" (Bengel).

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