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                 THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW
                      BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION

        The passing years do not make it any plainer who actually
wrote our Greek Matthew. Papias records, as quoted by Eusebius,
that Matthew wrote the _Logia_ of Jesus in Hebrew (Aramaic). Is
our present Matthew a translation of the Aramaic _Logia_ along
with Mark and other sources as most modern scholars think? If so,
was the writer the Apostle Matthew or some other disciple? There
is at present no way to reach a clear decision in the light of
the known facts. There is no real reason why the Apostle Matthew
could not have written both the Aramaic _Logia_ and our Greek
Matthew, unless one is unwilling to believe that he would make
use of Mark's work on a par with his own. But Mark's book rests
primarily on the preaching of Simon Peter. Scholfield has
recently (1927) published _An Old Hebrew Text of St. Matthew's
Gospel_. We know quite too little of the origin of the Synoptic
Gospels to say dogmatically that the Apostle Matthew was not in
any real sense the author.

        If the book is genuine, as I believe, the date becomes a
matter of interest. Here again there is nothing absolutely
decisive save that it is later than the Gospel according to Mark
which it apparently uses. If Mark is given an early date, between
A.D. 50 to 60, then Matthew's book may be between 60 and 70,
though many would place it between 70 and 80. It is not certain
whether Luke wrote after Matthew or not, though that is quite
possible. There is no definite use of Matthew by Luke that has
been shown. One guess is as good as another and each decides by
his own predilections. My own guess is that A.D. 60 is as good as
any.

        In the Gospel itself we find Matthew the publican ( Mt
9:9  10:3 ) though Mark ( Mr 2:14 ) and Luke ( Lu 5:27 ) call him
Levi the publican. Evidently therefore he had two names like John
Mark. It is significant that Jesus called this man from so
disreputable a business to follow him. He was apparently not a
disciple of John the Baptist. He was specially chosen by Jesus to
be one of the Twelve Apostles, a business man called into the
ministry as was true of the fishermen James and John, Andrew and
Simon. In the lists of the Apostles he comes either seventh or
eighth. There is nothing definite told about him in the Gospels
apart from the circle of the Twelve after the feast which he gave
to his fellow publicans in honor of Jesus.

        Matthew was in the habit of keeping accounts and it is
quite possible that he took notes of the sayings of Jesus as he
heard them. At any rate he gives much attention to the teachings
of Jesus as, for instance, the Sermon on the Mount in chapters
 Mt 5-7 , the parables in  Mt 13 , the denunciation of the
Pharisees in  Mt 23 , the great eschatological discourse in  Mt
24  25 . As a publican in Galilee he was not a narrow Jew and so
we do not expect a book prejudiced in favor of the Jews and
against the Gentiles. He does seem to show that Jesus is the
Messiah of Jewish expectation and hope and so makes frequent
quotations from the Old Testament by way of confirmation and
illustration. There is no narrow nationalism in Matthew. Jesus is
both the Messiah of the Jews and the Saviour of the world.

        There are ten parables in Matthew not in the other
Gospels: The Tares, the Hid Treasure, the Net, the Pearl of Great
Price, the Unmerciful Servant, the Labourers in the Vineyard, the
Two Sons, the Marriage of the King's Son, the Ten Virgins, the
Talents. The only miracles in Matthew alone are the Two Blind
Men, the Coin in the Mouth of the Fish. But Matthew gives the
narrative of the Birth of Jesus from the standpoint of Joseph
while Luke tells that wonderful story from the standpoint of
Mary. There are details of the Death and Resurrection given by
Matthew alone.

        The book follows the same general chronological plan as
that in Mark, but with various groups like the miracles in  Mt 8  9 , the parables in  Mt 13 .

        The style is free from Hebraisms and has few individual
peculiarities. The author is fond of the phrase the kingdom of
heaven and pictures Jesus as the Son of man, but also as the Son
of God. He sometimes abbreviates Mark's statements and sometimes
expands them to be more precise.

        Plummer shows the broad general plan of both Mark and
Matthew to be the same as follows:

        Introduction to the Gospel:  Mr 1:1-13  Mt 3:1-4:11 .

        Ministry in Galilee:  Mr 1:14-6:13  Mt 4:12-13:58 .

        Ministry in the Neighborhood:  Mr 6:14-9:50  Mt
14:1-18:35 .

        Journey through Perea to Jerusalem:  Mr 10:1-52  Mt
19:1-20:34 .

        Last week in Jerusalem:  Mr 11:1-16:8  Mt 21:1-28:8 .

        The Gospel of Matthew comes first in the New Testament,
though it is not so in all the Greek manuscripts. Because of its
position it is the book most widely read in the New Testament and
has exerted the greatest influence on the world. The book
deserves this influence though it is later in date than Mark, not
so beautiful as Luke, nor so profound as John. Yet it is a
wonderful book and gives a just and adequate portraiture of the
life and teachings of Jesus Christ as Lord and Saviour. The
author probably wrote primarily to persuade Jews that Jesus is
the fulfilment of their Messianic hopes as pictured in the Old
Testament. It is thus a proper introduction to the New Testament
story in comparison with the Old Testament prophecy.

                               THE TITLE

        The Textus Receptus has "The Holy Gospel according to
Matthew" (	o kata Matthaion hagion Euaggelion), though the
Elzevirs omit "holy," not agreeing here with Stephanus,
Griesbach, and Scholz. Only minuscules (cursive Greek
manuscripts) and all late have the adjective. Other minuscules
and nine uncials including W (the Washington Codex of the fifth
century), C of the fifth century (the palimpsest manuscript) and
Delta of the ninth together with most Latin manuscripts have
simply "Gospel according to Matthew" (Euaggelion kata
Matthaion). But Aleph and B the two oldest and best Greek
uncials of the fourth century have only "According to Matthew"
(Kata Maththaion) (note double th) and the Greek uncial D of
the fifth or sixth century follows Aleph and B as do some of the
earliest Old Latin manuscripts and the Curetonian Syriac. It is
clear, therefore, that the earliest form of the title was simply
"According to Matthew." It may be doubted if Matthew (or the
author, if not Matthew) had any title at all. The use of
"according to" makes it plain that the meaning is not "the Gospel
of Matthew," but the Gospel as given by Matthew, secundum
Matthaeum, to distinguish the report by Matthew from that by
Mark, by Luke, by John. Least of all is there any authority in
the manuscripts for saying "Saint Matthew," a Roman Catholic
practice observed by some Protestants.

        The word Gospel (Euaggelion) comes to mean good news in
Greek, though originally a reward for good tidings as in Homer's
_Odyssey_ XIV. 152 and in  2Ki 4:10 . In the New Testament it is
the good news of salvation through Christ. The English word
Gospel probably comes from the Anglo-Saxon Godspell, story or
narrative of God, the life of Christ. It was early confused with
the Anglo-Saxon godspell, good story, which seems like a
translation of the Greek euaggelion. But primarily the English
word means the God story as seen in Christ which is the best news
that the world has ever had. One thinks at once of the use of
"word" (Logos) in  Joh 1:1,14 . So then it is, according to the
Greek, not the Good News of Matthew, but the Good News of God,
brought to us in Christ the Word, the Son of God, the Image of
the Father, the Message of the Father. We are to study this story
first as presented by Matthew. The message is God's and it is as
fresh to us today in Matthew's record as when he first wrote it.


經文:

馬太福音 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 {The Book} (iblos).  There is no article in the Greek, but
the following genitives make it definite. It is our word Bible
that is here used, _the_ Book as Sir Walter Scott called it as he
lay dying. The usual word for book is a diminutive form
(iblion), a little book or roll such as we have in  Lu 4:17 ,
"The roll of the prophet Isaiah." The pieces of papyrus
(papuros), our paper, were pasted together to make a roll of
varying lengths according to one's needs. Matthew, of course, is
not applying the word book to the Old Testament, probably not to
his own book, but to "the genealogical table of Jesus Christ"
(iblos genese(9373) I(8873)ou Christou), "the birth roll of Jesus
Christ" Moffatt translates it. We have no means of knowing where
the writer obtained the data for this genealogy. It differs
radically from that in  Lu 3:23-38 . One can only give his own
theory of the difference. Apparently in Matthew we have the
actual genealogy of Joseph which would be the legal pedigree of
Jesus according to Jewish custom. In Luke we apparently have the
actual genealogy of Mary which would be the real line of Jesus
which Luke naturally gives as he is writing for the Gentiles.

{Jesus Christ}. Both words are used. The first is the name
(I(8873)ous) given by the angel to Mary ( Mt 1:21 ) which describes
the mission of the child. The second was originally a verbal
adjective (christos) meaning anointed from the verb to anoint
(chri(935c)). It was used often in the Septuagint as an adjective
like "the anointed priest" ( 1Ki 2:10 ) and then as a substantive
to translate the Hebrew word "Messiah" (Messias). So Andrew
said to Simon: "We have found the Messiah, which is, being
interpreted, Christ" ( Joh 1:41 ). In the Gospels it is sometimes
"the Anointed One," "the Messiah," but finally just a proper name
as here, Jesus Christ. Paul in his later Epistles usually has it
"Christ Jesus."

{The Son of David, the son of Abraham} (huiou Daueid huiou
Abraam). Matthew proposes to show that Jesus Christ is on the
human side the son of David, as the Messiah was to be, and the
son of Abraham, not merely a real Jew and the heir of the
promises, but the promise made to Abraham. So Matthew begins his
line with Abraham while Luke traces his line back to Adam. The
Hebrew and Aramaic often used the word son ((886e)) for the
quality or character, but here the idea is descent. Christians
are called sons of God because Christ has bestowed this dignity
upon us ( Ro 8:14  9:26  Ga 3:26  4:5-7 ). Verse 1 is the
description of the list in verses  2-17 . The names are given in
three groups, Abraham to David ( 2-6 ), David to Babylon Removal
( 6-11 ), Jechoniah to Jesus ( 12-16 ). The removal to Babylon
(metoikesias Babul(936e)os) occurs at the end of verse  11 , the
beginning of verse  12 , and twice in the resume in verse  17 .
This great event is used to mark off the two last divisions from
each other. It is a good illustration of the genitive as the case
of genus or kind. The Babylon removal could mean either to
Babylon or from Babylon or, indeed, the removal of Babylon. But
the readers would know the facts from the Old Testament, the
removal of the Jews to Babylon. Then verse  17  makes a summary
of the three lists, fourteen in each by counting David twice and
omitting several, a sort of mnemonic device that is common
enough. Matthew does not mean to say that there were only
fourteen in actual genealogy. The names of the women (Thamar,
Rahab, Ruth, Bathsheba the wife of Uriah) are likewise not
counted. But it is a most interesting list.

經文:

馬太福音 1:2-1:2

註釋:

 {Begat} (egenn(8873)en). This word comes, like some of the
early chapters of Genesis, with regularity through verse 16,
until the birth of Jesus is reached when there is a sudden
change. The word itself does not always mean immediate parentage,
but merely direct descent. In verse  16  we have "Joseph the
husband of Mary, from whom was begotten Jesus who is called
Christ" (	on I(9373)(8870)h ton andra Marias ex h(8873) egenn(8874)h(8820)I(8873)ous ho
legomenos Christos). The article occurs here each time with the
object of "begat," but not with the subject of the verb to
distinguish sharply the proper names. In the case of David the
King ( 1:6 ) and Joseph the husband of Mary ( 1:16 ) the article
is repeated. The mention of the brethren of Judah ( 1:2 ) and of
both Phares and Zara ( 1:3 ) may show that Matthew was not
copying a family pedigree but making his own table. All the Greek
manuscripts give verse  16  as above save the Ferrar Group of
minuscules which are supported by the Sinaitic Syriac Version.
Because of this fact Von Soden, whose text Moffatt translates,
deliberately prints his text "_Jacob begat Jesus_" (I(9373)(8870)h de
egenn(8873)en I(8873)oun). But the Sinaitic Syriac gives the Virgin
Birth of Jesus in Mt  1:18-25 . Hence it is clear that "begat"
here in  1:16  must merely mean line of descent or the text has
been tampered with in order to get rid of the Virgin Birth idea,
but it was left untouched in  1:18-25 . I have a full discussion
of the problem in chapter XIV of _Studies in the Text of the New
Testament_. The evidence as it now stands does not justify
changing the text of the Greek uncials to suit the Sinaitic
Syriac. The Virgin Birth of Jesus remains in  1:16 . The spelling
of these Hebrew names in English is usually according to the
Hebrew form, not the Greek. In the Greek itself the Hebrew
spelling is often observed in violation of the Greek rules for
the ending of words with no consonants save _n,r,s_. But the list
is not spelled consistently in the Greek, now like the Hebrew as
in Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, now like the Greek as in Judah,
Solomon, Hezekiah, though the Hebrew style prevails.

經文:

馬太福音 1:18-1:18

註釋:

 {The birth of Jesus Christ} (	ou [I(8873)ou] Christou h(880a)genesis). In the Greek Jesus Christ comes before birth as the
important matter after  1:16 . It is not certain whether "Jesus"
is here a part of the text as it is absent in the old Syriac and
the Old Latin while the Washington Codex has only "Christ." The
Vatican Codex has "Christ Jesus." But it is plain that the story
of the birth of Jesus Christ is to be told briefly as follows,
"on this wise" (hout(9373)), the usual Greek idiom. The oldest and
best manuscripts have the same word genealogy (genesis) used in
 1:1 , not the word for birth (begotten) as in  1:16 
(genn(8873)is). "It is in fact the word Genesis. The evangelist is
about to describe, not the genesis of the heaven and the earth,
but the genesis of Him who made the heaven and the earth, and who
will yet make a new heaven and a new earth" (Morison).

{Betrothed to Joseph} (Mn(8873)teutheis(8873) t(9369) I(9373)(8870)h). Matthew
proceeds to explain his statement in  1:16  which implied that
Joseph, though the legal father of Jesus in the royal line, was
not the actual father of Mary's Son. Betrothal with the Jews was
a serious matter, not lightly entered into and not lightly
broken. The man who betrothed a maiden was legally husband ( Ge
29:21  De 22:23f. ) and "an informal cancelling of betrothal was
impossible" (McNeile). Though they did not live together as
husband and wife till actual marriage, breach of faithfulness on
the part of the betrothed was treated as adultery and punished
with death. _The New Testament in Braid Scots_ actually has
"mairry't till Joseph" for "betrothed to Joseph." Matthew uses
the genitive absolute construction here, a very common Greek
idiom.

{Of the Holy Ghost} (ek pneumatos hagiou). The discovery that
Mary was pregnant was inevitable and it is plain that she had not
told Joseph. She "was found with child" (heureth(8820)en gastri
echousa). This way of putting it, the usual Greek idiom, plainly
shows that it was the discovery that shocked Joseph. He did not
as yet know what Matthew plainly asserts that the Holy Ghost, not
Joseph and not any man, was responsible for the pregnancy of
Mary. The problem of the Virgin Birth of Jesus has been a
disturbing fact to some through all the ages and is today to
those who do not believe in the pre-existence of Christ, the Son
of God, before his Incarnation on earth. This is the primal fact
about the Birth of Christ. The Incarnation of Christ is clearly
stated by Paul ( 2Co 8:9  Php 2:5-11 ; and involved in  Col
1:15-19 ) and by John ( Joh 1:14  17:5 ). If one frankly admits
the actual pre-existence of Christ and the real Incarnation, he
has taken the longest and most difficult step in the matter of
the supernatural Birth of Christ. That being true, no merely
human birth without the supernatural element can possibly explain
the facts. Incarnation is far more than the Indwelling of God by
the Holy Spirit in the human heart. To admit real incarnation and
also full human birth, both father and mother, creates a greater
difficulty than to admit the Virgin Birth of Jesus begotten by
the Holy Spirit, as Matthew here says, and born of the Virgin
Mary. It is true that only Matthew and Luke tell the story of the
supernatural birth of Jesus, though  Joh 1:14  seems to refer to
it. Mark has nothing whatever concerning the birth and childhood
of Jesus and so cannot be used as a witness on the subject. Both
Matthew and Luke present the birth of Jesus as not according to
ordinary human birth. Jesus had no human father. There is such a
thing in nature as parthenogenesis in the lower orders of life.
But that scientific fact has no bearing here. We see here God
sending his Son into the world to be the world's Saviour and he
gave him a human mother, but not a human father so that Jesus
Christ is both Son of God and Son of Man, the God Man. Matthew
tells the story of the birth of Jesus from the standpoint of
Joseph as Luke gives it from the standpoint of Mary. The two
narratives harmonize with each other. One credits these most
wonderful of all birth narratives according as he believes in the
love and power of Almighty God to do what he wills. There is no
miracle with God who has all power and all knowledge. The laws of
nature are simply the expression of God's will, but he has not
revealed all his will in the laws that we discover. God is
Spirit. He is Person. He holds in his own power all life.  Joh
3:16  is called the Little Gospel because it puts briefly the
love of God for men in sending his own Son to live and die for
us.

經文:

馬太福音 1:19-1:19

註釋:

 {A Righteous Man} (dikaios). Or just, not benignant or
merciful. The same adjective is used of Zacharias and Elizabeth
( Lu 1:6 ) and Simeon ( Lu 2:25 ). "An upright man," the _Braid
Scots_ has it. He had the Jewish conscientiousness for the
observance of the law which would have been death by stoning ( De
22:23 ). Though Joseph was upright, he would not do that. "As a
good Jew he would have shown his zeal if he had branded her with
public disgrace" (McNeile). {And yet not willing} (kai m(880a)thel(936e)). So we must understand kai here, "and yet." Matthew
makes a distinction here between "willing" (	hel(936e)) and
"wishing" (eboul(8874)h(885c)), that between purpose (	hel(935c)) and
desire (oulomai) a distinction not always drawn, though
present here. It was not his purpose to "make her a public
example" (deigmatisai), from the root (deiknumi to show), a
rare word ( Col 2:15 ). The Latin Vulgate has it _traducere_, the
Old Latin _divulgare_, Wycliff _pupplische_ (publish), Tyndale
_defame_,  Moffatt _disgrace_, Braid Scots "Be i the mooth o' the
public." The substantive (deigmatismos) occurs on the Rosetta
Stone in the sense of "verification." There are a few instances
of the verb in the papyri though the meaning is not clear
(Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_). The compound form appears
(paradeigmatiz(935c)) in  Heb 6:6  and there are earlier instances
of this compound than of the uncompounded, curiously enough. But
new examples of the simple verb, like the substantive, may yet be
found. The papyri examples mean to furnish a sample (P Tebt.
5.75), to make trial of (P Ryl. I. 28.32). The substantive means
exposure in (P Ryl. I. 28.70). At any rate it is clear that
Joseph "was minded to put her away privily." He could give her a
bill of divorcement (apolusai), the g(8874) laid down in the
Mishna, without a public trial. He had to give her the writ
(g(8874)) and pay the fine ( De 24:1 ). So he proposed to do this
privately (lathrai) to avoid all the scandal possible. One is
obliged to respect and sympathize with the motives of Joseph for
he evidently loved Mary and was appalled to find her untrue to
him as he supposed. It is impossible to think of Joseph as the
actual father of Jesus according to the narrative of Matthew
without saying that Matthew has tried by legend to cover up the
illegitimate birth of Jesus. The Talmud openly charges this sin
against Mary. Joseph had "a short but tragic struggle between his
legal conscience and his love" (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 1:20-1:20

註釋:

 {An angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream}
(aggelos kuriou kat' onar ephan(8820)aut(9369)). This expression
(aggelos kuriou) is without the article in the New Testament
except when, as in  1:24 , there is reference to the angel
previously mentioned. Sometimes in the Old Testament Jehovah
Himself is represented by this phrase. Surely Joseph needed God's
help if ever man did. If Jesus was really God's Son, Joseph was
entitled to know this supreme fact that he might be just to both
Mary and her Child. It was in a dream, but the message was
distinct and decisive for Joseph. He is called "Son of David" as
had been shown by Matthew in  Mt 1:16 . Mary is called his "wife"
(	(886e) gunaika sou). He is told "not to become afraid"
(ingressive first aorist passive subjunctive in prohibition, (m(880a)phob(8874)h(8869)s), "to take to his side" (paralabein, ingressive
aorist active infinitive) her whom he had planned
(enthum(8874)hentos, genitive absolute again, from en and
	humos) to send away with a writ of divorce. He had pondered
and had planned as best he knew, but now God had called a halt
and he had to decide whether he was willing to shelter Mary by
marrying her and, if necessary, take upon himself whatever stigma
might attach to her. Joseph was told that the child was begotten
of the Holy Spirit and thus that Mary was innocent of any sin.
But who would believe it now if he told it of her? Mary knew the
truth and had not told him because she could not expect him to
believe it.

經文:

馬太福音 1:21-1:21

註釋:

 {Thou shalt call his name Jesus} (Kalesies to onoma autou
I(8873)oun). The rabbis named six whose names were given before
birth: "Isaac, Ishmael, Moses, Solomon, Josiah, and the name of
the Messiah, whom may the Holy One, blessed be His name, bring in
our day." The angel puts it up to Joseph as the putative father
to name the child. "Jesus is the same as Joshua, a contraction of
Jehoshuah ( Nu 13:16  1Ch 7:27 ), signifying in Hebrew, 'Jehovah
is helper,' or 'Help of Jehovah'" (Broadus). So Jesus is the
Greek form of Joshua ( Heb 4:8 ). He is another Joshua to lead
the true people of God into the Promised Land. The name itself
was common enough as Josephus shows. Jehovah is Salvation as seen
in Joshua for the Hebrews and in Jesus for all believers. "The
meaning of the name, therefore, finds expression in the title
_Saviour_ applied to our Lord ( Lu 1:47  2:11  Joh 4:42 )"
(Vincent). He will save (s(9373)ei) his people from their sins and
so be their Saviour (S(9374)(8872)). He will be prophet, priest, and
king, but "Saviour" sums it all up in one word. The explanation
is carried out in the promise, "for he is the one who (autos)
will save (s(9373)ei with a play on the name Jesus) his people from
their sins." Paul will later explain that by the covenant people,
the children of promise, God means the spiritual Israel, all who
believe whether Jews or Gentiles. This wonderful word touches the
very heart of the mission and message of the Messiah. Jesus
himself will show that the kingdom of heaven includes all those
and only those who have the reign of God in their hearts and
lives. {From their sins} (apo t(936e) hamarti(936e) aut(936e)). Both sins
of omission and of commission. The substantive (hamartia) is
from the verb (hamartanein) and means missing the mark as with
an arrow. How often the best of us fall short and fail to score.
Jesus will save us away from (apo) as well as out of (ex) our
sins. They will be cast into oblivion and he will cover them up
out of sight.

經文:

馬太福音 1:22-1:22

註釋:

 {That it may be fulfilled} (hina pl(8872)(9374)h(8869)). Alford says
that "it is impossible to interpret hina in any other sense
than in order that." That was the old notion, but modern
grammarians recognize the non-final use of this particle in the
_Koin(825f) and even the consecutive like the Latin _ut_. Some even
argue for a causal use. If the context called for result, one
need not hesitate to say so as in  Mr 11:28  Joh 9:36  1Jo 1:9  Re 9:20  13:13 . See discussion in my _Grammar of the Greek New
Testament in the Light of Historical Research_, pp. 997-9. All
the same it is purpose here, God's purpose, Matthew reports the
angel as saying, spoken "by (hupo, immediate agent) the Lord
through (dia, intermediate agent) the prophet." {"All this has
happened"} (	outo de holon gegonen, present perfect
indicative), stands on record as historical fact. But the Virgin
Birth of Jesus is not due to this interpretation of  Isa 7:14 .
It is not necessary to maintain (Broadus) that Isaiah himself saw
anything more in his prophecy than that a woman then a virgin,
would bear a son and that in the course of a few years Ahaz would
be delivered from the king of Syria and Israel by the coming of
the Assyrians. This historical illustration finds its richest
fulfilment in the birth of Jesus from Mary. "Words of themselves
are empty. They are useful only as vessels to convey things from
mind to mind" (Morison). The Hebrew word for young woman is
translated by virgin (parthenos), but it is not necessary to
conclude that Isaiah himself contemplated the supernatural birth
of Jesus. We do not have to say that the idea of the Virgin Birth
of Jesus came from Jewish sources. Certainly it did not come from
the pagan myths so foreign to this environment, atmosphere and
spirit. It is far simpler to admit the supernatural fact than try
to explain the invention of the idea as a myth to justify the
deification of Jesus. The birth, life, and death of Jesus throw a
flood of light on the Old Testament narrative and prophecies for
the early Christians. In Matthew and John in particular we often
see "that the events of Christ's life were divinely ordered for
the express purpose of fulfilling the Old Testament" (McNeile).
See  Mt 2:15,23  4:14-17  8:17  12:17-21  13:25  21:4f.  Joh
12:38f.  13:18  19:24,28,36f .

經文:

馬太福音 1:23-1:23

註釋:

 {They shall call} (kalesousin). Men, people, will call his
name Immanuel, God with us. "The interest of the evangelist, as
of all New Testament writers, in prophecy, was purely religious"
(Bruce). But surely the language of Isaiah has had marvellous
illustration in the Incarnation of Christ. This is Matthew's
explanation of the meaning of Immanuel, a descriptive appellation
of Jesus Christ and more than a mere motto designation. God's
help, Jesus=the Help of God, is thus seen. One day Jesus will say
to Philip: "He that has seen me has seen the Father" ( Joh
14:9 ).

經文:

馬太福音 1:24-1:24

註釋:

 {Took unto him his wife} (parelaben t(886e) gunaika autou).
The angel had told him not to be afraid to "take to his side"
Mary his wife ( 1:20 ). So when he awoke from his sleep he
promptly obeyed the angel and "took his wife home" (Moffatt). One
can only imagine the relief and joy of Mary when Joseph nobly
rose to his high duty toward her. I have tried to sketch Mary's
problems in _Mary the Mother of Jesus: Her Problems and Her
Glory._

經文:

馬太福音 1:25-1:25

註釋:

 {And knew her not} (kai ouk egin(9373)ken aut(886e)). Note the
imperfect tense, continuous or linear action. Joseph lived in
continence with Mary till the birth of Jesus. Matthew does not
say that Mary bore no other children than Jesus. "Her firstborn"
is not genuine here, but is a part of the text in  Lu 2:7 . The
perpetual virginity of Mary is not taught here. Jesus had
brothers and sisters and the natural meaning is that they were
younger children of Joseph and Mary and not children of Joseph by
a previous marriage. So Joseph "called his name Jesus" as the
angel had directed and the child was born in wedlock. Joseph
showed that he was an upright man in a most difficult situation.

經文:

馬太福音 2:1-2:1

註釋:

 Mt. 1:5 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Mt.' or engs='Mt.'
經文:

馬太福音 2:2-2:2

註釋:

 {For we saw his star in the east} (eidomen gar autou ton
astera en t(8869) anatol(8869)). This does not mean that they saw the
star which was in the east. That would make them go east to
follow it instead of west from the east. The words "in the east"
are probably to be taken with "we saw" i.e. we were in the east
when we saw it, or still more probably "we saw his star at its
rising" or "when it rose" as Moffatt puts it. The singular form
here (	(8869) anatol(8869)) does sometimes mean "east" ( Re 21:13 ),
though the plural is more common as in  Mt 2:1 . In  Lu 1:78  the
singular means dawn as the verb (aneteilen) does in  Mt 4:16 
(Septuagint). The Magi ask where is the one born king of the
Jews. They claim that they had seen his star, either a miracle or
a combination of bright stars or a comet. These men may have been
Jewish proselytes and may have known of the Messianic hope, for
even Vergil had caught a vision of it. The whole world was on
tiptoe of expectancy for something. Moulton (_Journal of
Theological Studies_, 1902, p. 524) "refers to the Magian belief
that a star could be the _fravashi_, the counterpart or angel
(cf.  Mt 18:10 ) of a great man" (McNeile). They came to worship
the newly born king of the Jews. Seneca (_Epistle_ 58) tells of
Magians who came to Athens with sacrifices to Plato after his
death. They had their own way of concluding that the star which
they had seen pointed to the birth of this Messianic king. Cicero
(_De Divin_. i. 47) "refers to the constellation from which, on
the birthnight of Alexander, Magians foretold that the destroyer
of Asia was born" (McNeile). Alford is positive that no miracle
is intended by the report of the Magi or by Matthew in his
narrative. But one must be allowed to say that the birth of
Jesus, if really God's only Son who has become Incarnate, is the
greatest of all miracles. Even the methods of astrologers need
not disturb those who are sure of this fact.

經文:

馬太福音 2:3-2:3

註釋:

 {He was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him} (etarachth(880a)kai p(8373)a Ierosoluma met' autou). Those familiar with the story
of Herod the Great in Josephus can well understand the meaning of
these words. Herod in his rage over his family rivalries and
jealousies put to death the two sons of Mariamne (Aristobulus and
Alexander), Mariamne herself, and Antipater, another son and once
his heir, besides the brother and mother of Mariamne
(Aristobulus, Alexandra) and her grandfather John Hyrcanus. He
had made will after will and was now in a fatal illness and fury
over the question of the Magi. He showed his excitement and the
whole city was upset because the people knew only too well what
he could do when in a rage over the disturbance of his plans.
"The foreigner and usurper feared a rival, and the tyrant feared
the rival would be welcome" (Bruce). Herod was a hated Idumaean.

經文:

馬太福音 2:4-2:4

註釋:

 {He inquired of them where the Christ should be born}
(epunthaneto par' aut(936e) pou ho Christos genn(8374)ai).  The
prophetic present (genn(8374)ai) is given, the very words of Herod
retained by Matthew's report. The imperfect tense (epunthaneto)
suggests that Herod inquired repeatedly, probably of one and
another of the leaders gathered together, both Sadducees (chief
priests) and Pharisees (scribes). McNeile doubts, like Holtzmann,
if Herod actually called together all the Sanhedrin and probably
"he could easily ask the question of a single scribe," because he
had begun his reign with a massacre of the Sanhedrin (Josephus,
_Ant_. XIV. ix. 4). But that was thirty years ago and Herod was
desperately in earnest to learn what the Jews really expected
about the coming of "the Messiah." Still Herod probably got
together not the Sanhedrin since "elders" are not mentioned, but
leaders among the chief priests and scribes, not a formal meeting
but a free assembly for conference. He had evidently heard of
this expected king and he would swallow plenty of pride to be
able to compass the defeat of these hopes.

經文:

馬太福音 2:5-2:5

註釋:

 {And they said unto him} (hoi de eipan aut(9369)). Whether the
ecclesiastics had to search their scriptures or not, they give
the answer that is in accord with the common Jewish opinion that
the Messiah was to come from Bethlehem and of the seed of David
( Joh 7:42 ). So they quote  Mic 5:2 , "a free paraphrase" Alford
calls it, for it is not precisely like the Hebrew text or like
the Septuagint. It may have come from a collection of
_testimonia_ with which J. Rendel Harris has made the world
familiar. He had consulted the experts and now he has their
answer. Bethlehem of Judah is the place. The use of the perfect
passive indicative (gegraptai) is the common form in quoting
scripture. It stands written. {Shall be shepherd} (poimanei).
The Authorized Version had "shall rule," but "shepherd" is
correct. "Homer calls kings 'the shepherds of the people'"
(Vincent). In  Heb 13:20  Jesus is called "the great shepherd of
the sheep." Jesus calls himself "the good shepherd" ( Joh
10:11 ). Peter calls Christ "the chief shepherd" ( 1Pe 2:25 ).
"The Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall be their
shepherd" ( Re 7:17 ). Jesus told Peter to "shepherd" the lambs
( Joh 21:16 ). Our word pastor means shepherd.

經文:

馬太福音 2:7-2:7

註釋:

 {Then Herod privily called the wise men} (	ote H(8872)(9369)d(8873)
lathrai kalesas tous magous). He had manifestly not told members
of the Sanhedrin why he was concerned about the Messiah. So he
conceals his motives to the Magi. And yet he "learned of them
carefully" (ekrib(9373)en), "learned exactly" or "accurately." He
was anxious to see if the Jewish prophecy of the birthplace of
the Messiah agreed with the indications of the star to the Magi.
He kept to himself his purpose. The time of the appearing star
(	on chronon tou phainomenou asteros) is not "the time when the
star appeared," but the age of the star's appearance.

經文:

馬太福音 2:8-2:8

註釋:

 {Sent them to Bethlehem and said} (pempsas autous eis
B(8874)hleem eipen). Simultaneous aorist participle, "sending said."
They were to "search out accurately" (exetasate akrib(9373))
concerning the child. Then "bring me word, that I also may come
and worship him." The deceit of Herod seemed plausible enough and
might have succeeded but for God's intervention to protect His
Son from the jealous rage of Herod.

經文:

馬太福音 2:9-2:9

註釋:

 {Went before them} (pro(8867)en autous). Imperfect tense, kept
on in front of them, not as a guide to the town since they now
knew that, but to the place where the child was, the inn
according to  Lu 2:7 . Justin Martyr says that it was in a cave.
The stall where the cattle and donkeys stayed may have been
beneath the inn in the side of the hill.

經文:

馬太福音 2:10-2:10

註釋:

 {They rejoiced with exceeding great joy} (echar(8873)an charan
megal(886e) sphodra). Second aorist passive indicative with cognate
accusative. Their joy was due to the success of the search.

經文:

馬太福音 2:11-2:11

註釋:

 {Opening their treasures} (anoixantes tous th(8873)aurous
aut(936e)). Here "treasures" means "caskets" from the verb
(	ith(886d)i), receptacle for valuables. In the ancient writers it
meant "treasury" as in 1Macc. 3:29. So a "storehouse" as in  Mt
13:52 . Then it means the things laid up in store, treasure in
heaven ( Mt 6:20 ), in Christ ( Col 2:3 ). In their "caskets" the
Magi had gold, frankincense, and myrrh, all found at that time in
Arabia, though gold was found in Babylon and elsewhere.

經文:

馬太福音 2:12-2:12

註釋:

 {Warned in a dream} (chr(886d)atisthentes kat' onar). The verb
means to transact business (chr(886d)atiz(935c) from chr(886d)a, and that
from chraomai, to use. Then to consult, to deliberate, to make
answer as of magistrates or an oracle, to instruct, to admonish.
In the Septuagint and the New Testament it occurs with the idea
of being warned by God and also in the papyri (Deissmann, _Bible
Studies_, p. 122). Wycliff puts it here: "An answer taken in
sleep."

經文:

馬太福音 2:15-2:15

註釋:

 {Until the death of Herod} (he(9373) t(8873) teleut(8873) H(8872)(9369)dou).
The Magi had been warned in a dream not to report to Herod and
now Joseph was warned in a dream to take Mary and the child along
(mellei z(8874)ein tou apolesai gives a vivid picture of the
purpose of Herod in these three verbs). In Egypt Joseph was to
keep Mary and Jesus till the death of Herod the monster. Matthew
quotes  Ho 11:1  to show that this was in fulfilment of God's
purpose to call his Son out of Egypt. He may have quoted again
from a collection of _testimonia_ rather than from the
Septuagint. There is a Jewish tradition in the Talmud that Jesus
"brought with him magic arts out of Egypt in an incision on his
body" (_Shabb_. 104b). "This attempt to ascribe the Lord's
miracles to Satanic agency seems to be independent of Matthew,
and may have been known to him, so that one object of his account
may have been to combat it" (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 2:16-2:16

註釋:

 {Slew all the male children that were in Bethlehem}
(aneilen pantas tous paidas tous en B(8874)hleem). The flight of
Joseph was justified, for Herod was violently enraged (ethum(9374)h(880a)lian) that he had been mocked by the Magi, deluded in fact
(enepaichth(885c)). Vulgate _illusus esset_. Herod did not know, of
course, how old the child was, but he took no chances and
included all the little boys (	ous paidas, masculine article)
in Bethlehem two years old and under, perhaps fifteen or twenty.
It is no surprise that Josephus makes no note of this small item
in Herod's chamber of horrors. It was another fulfilment of the
prophecy in  Jer 31:15 . The quotation ( 2:18 ) seems to be from
the Septuagint. It was originally written of the Babylonian
captivity but it has a striking illustration in this case also.
Macrobius (_Sat_. II. iv. II) notes that Augustus said that it
was better to be Herod's sow (hus) than his son (huios), for
the sow had a better chance of life.

經文:

馬太福音 2:20-2:20

註釋:

 {For they are dead} (	ethn(886b)asin).  Only Herod had sought
to kill the young child, but it is a general statement of a
particular fact as is common with people who say: "They say." The
idiom may be suggested by  Ex 4:19 : "For all are dead that
sought thy life."

經文:

馬太福音 2:22-2:22

註釋:

 {Warned in a dream} (chr(886d)atistheis kat' onar). He was
already afraid to go to Judea because Archelaus was reigning
(ruling, not technically king, asileuei). In a fret at last
before his death Herod had changed his will again and put
Archelaus, the worst of his living sons, in the place of Antipas.
So Joseph went to Galilee. Matthew has had nothing about the
previous dwelling of Joseph and Mary in Nazareth. We learn that
from Luke who tells nothing of the flight into Egypt. The two
narratives supplement one another and are in no sense
contradictory.

經文:

馬太福音 2:23-2:23

註釋:

 Ps. 22:6,8 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Ps.' or engs='Ps.'
經文:

馬太福音 3:1-3:1

註釋:

 Mt. 3:1 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Mt.' or engs='Mt.'
經文:

馬太福音 3:2-3:2

註釋:

 Isa. 55:7 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Isa.' or engs='Isa.'
經文:

馬太福音 3:4-3:4

註釋:

 {Now John himself} (autos de ho I(9361)n(8873)). Matthew thus
introduces the man himself and draws a vivid sketch of his dress
(note eichen, imperfect tense), his habit, and his food. Would
such an uncouth figure be welcome today in any pulpit in our
cities? In the wilderness it did not matter. It was probably a
matter of necessity with him, not an affectation, though it was
the garb of the original Elijah ( 2Ki 1:8 ), rough sackcloth
woven from the hair of camels. Plummer holds that "John
consciously took Elijah as a model."

經文:

馬太福音 3:6-3:6

註釋:

 {And they were baptized} (kai ebaptizonto). It is the
imperfect tense to show the repetition of the act as the crowds
from Judea and the surrounding country kept going out to him
(exeporeueto), imperfect again, a regular stream of folks going
forth. Moffatt takes it as causative middle, "got baptized,"
which is possible. "The movement of course was gradual. It began
on a small scale and steadily grew till it reached colossal
proportions" (Bruce). It is a pity that baptism is now such a
matter of controversy. Let Plummer, the great Church of England
commentator on Matthew, speak here of John's baptising these
people who came in throngs: "It is his office to bind them to a
new life, symbolized by immersion in water." That is correct,
symbolized, not caused or obtained. The word "river" is in the
correct text, "river Jordan." They came "confessing their sins"
(exomologoumenoi), probably each one confessing just before he
was baptized, "making open confession" (Weymouth). Note ex. It
was a never to be forgotten scene here in the Jordan. John was
calling a nation to a new life. They came from all over Judea and
even from the other side of El Ghor (the Jordan Gorge), Perea.
Mark adds that finally all Jerusalem came.

經文:

馬太福音 3:7-3:7

註釋:

 1Th
1:10 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
1' or engs='1Th
1'
經文:

馬太福音 3:8-3:8

註釋:

 {Fruit worthy of repentance} (Karpon axion t(8873) metanoias).
John demands proof from these men of the new life before he
administers baptism to them. "The fruit is not the change of
heart, but the acts which result from it" (McNeile). It was a
bold deed for John thus to challenge as unworthy the very ones
who posed as lights and leaders of the Jewish people. "Any one
can do (poi(8873)ate, vide  Ge 1:11 ) acts externally good but only
a good man can grow a crop of right acts and habits" (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 3:9-3:9

註釋:

 {And think not to say within yourselves} (kai m(8820)dox(8874)e
legein en heautois). John touched the tender spot, their
ecclesiastical pride. They felt that the "merits of the fathers,"
especially of Abraham, were enough for all Israelites. At once
John made clear that, reformer as he was, a breach existed
between him and the religious leaders of the time. {Of these
stones} (ek t(936e) lith(936e) tout(936e)). "Pointing, as he spoke to the
pebbles on the beach of the Jordan" (Vincent).

經文:

馬太福音 3:10-3:10

註釋:

 {Is the axe laid} (h(8820)axin(8820)keitai). This verb keitai is
used as the perfect passive of 	ith(886d)i. But the idea really is,
"the axe lies at (pros, before) the root of the trees." It is
there ready for business. The prophetic present occurs also with
"is hewn down" and "cast."

經文:

馬太福音 3:11-3:11

註釋:

 {Mightier than I} (ischuroteros mou). Ablative after the
comparative adjective. His baptism is water baptism, but the
Coming One "will baptize in the Holy Spirit and fire." "Life in
the coming age is in the sphere of the Spirit. Spirit and fire
are coupled with one preposition as a double baptism" (McNeile).
Broadus takes "fire" in the sense of separation like the use of
the fan. As the humblest of servants John felt unworthy to take
off the sandals of the Coming One. About astaz(935c) see on 烘t
8:17|.

經文:

馬太福音 3:12-3:12

註釋:

 {Will burn up with unquenchable fire} (katakausei puri
asbest(9369)). Note perfective use of kata. The threshing floor,
the fan, the wheat, the garner, the chaff (achuron, chaff,
straw, stubble), the fire furnish a life-like picture. The "fire"
here is probably judgment by and at the coming of the Messiah
just as in verse  11 . The Messiah "will thoroughly cleanse"
(diakathariei, Attic future of -iz(935c) and note dia-). He will
sweep from side to side to make it clean.

經文:

馬太福音 3:13-3:13

註釋:

 {Then cometh Jesus} (	ote paraginetai ho I(8873)ous). The same
historical present used in  3:1 . He comes all the way from
Galilee to Jordan "to be baptized by him" (	ou baptisth(886e)ai hupo
autou). The genitive articular infinitive of purpose, a very
common idiom. The fame of John had reached Nazareth and the hour
has come for which Jesus has waited.

經文:

馬太福音 3:14-3:14

註釋:

 {Would have hindered} (diek(936c)uen). Rather "tried to
prevent" as Moffatt has it. It is the conative imperfect. The two
men of destiny are face to face for the first time apparently.
The Coming One stands before John and he recognizes him before
the promised sign is given.

經文:

馬太福音 3:15-3:15

註釋:

 {To fulfil all righteousness} (pl(8872)(9373)ai p(8373)an
dikaiosun(886e)). The explanation of Jesus satisfies John and he
baptizes the Messiah though he has no sins to confess. It was
proper (prepon) to do so else the Messiah would seem to hold
aloof from the Forerunner. Thus the ministries of the two are
linked together.

經文:

馬太福音 3:16-3:16

註釋:

 {The Spirit of God descending as a dove} (pneuma theou
katabainon h(9373)ei peristeran). It is not certain whether Matthew
means that the Spirit of God took the form of a dove or came upon
Jesus as a dove comes down. Either makes sense, but Luke ( Lu
3:22 ) has it "in bodily form as a dove" and that is probably the
idea here. The dove in Christian art has been considered the
symbol of the Holy Spirit.

經文:

馬太福音 3:17-3:17

註釋:

 {A voice out of the heavens} (ph(936e)(8820)ek t(936e) ouran(936e)). This
was the voice of the Father to the Son whom he identifies as His
Son, "my beloved Son." Thus each person of the Trinity is
represented (Father, Son, Holy Spirit) at this formal entrance of
Jesus upon his Messianic ministry. John heard the voice, of
course, and saw the dove. It was a momentous occasion for John
and for Jesus and for the whole world. The words are similar to
 Ps 2:7  and the voice at the Transfiguration ( Mt 17:5 ). The
good pleasure of the Father is expressed by the timeless aorist
(eudok(8873)a).

經文:

馬太福音 4:1-4:1

註釋:

 {To be tempted of the devil} (peirasth(886e)ai hupo tou
diabolou). Matthew locates the temptation at a definite time,
"then" (	ote) and place, "into the wilderness" (eis t(886e)
er(886d)on), the same general region where John was preaching. It is
not surprising that Jesus was tempted by the devil immediately
after his baptism which signified the formal entrance upon the
Messianic work. That is a common experience with ministers who
step out into the open for Christ. The difficulty here is that
Matthew says that "Jesus was led up into the wilderness by the
Spirit to be tempted by the devil." Mark ( Mr 1:12 ) puts it more
strongly that the Spirit "drives" (ekballei) Christ into the
wilderness. It was a strong impulsion by the Holy Spirit that led
Jesus into the wilderness to think through the full significance
of the great step that he had now taken. That step opened the
door for the devil and involved inevitable conflict with the
slanderer (	ou diabolou). Judas has this term applied to him
( Joh 6:70 ) as it is to men ( 2Ti 3:3  Tit 2:3 ) and women (she
devils,  1Ti 3:11 ) who do the work of the arch slanderer. There
are those today who do not believe that a personal devil exists,
but they do not offer an adequate explanation of the existence
and presence of sin in the world. Certainly Jesus did not
discount or deny the reality of the devil's presence. The word
"tempt" here (peiraz(935c)) and in  4:3  means originally to test,
to try. That is its usual meaning in the ancient Greek and in the
Septuagint. Bad sense of ekpeiraz(935c) in  4:7  as in  De 6:16 .
Here it comes to mean, as often in the New Testament, to solicit
to sin. The evil sense comes from its use for an evil purpose.

經文:

馬太福音 4:2-4:2

註釋:

 {Had fasted} (
(8873)teusas).  No perfunctory ceremonial fast,
but of communion with the Father in complete abstention from food
as in the case of Moses during forty days and forty nights ( Ex
34:28 ). "The period of the fast, as in the case of Moses was
spent in a spiritual ecstasy, during which the wants of the
natural body were suspended" (Alford). "He afterward hungered"
and so at the close of the period of forty days.

經文:

馬太福音 4:3-4:3

註釋:

 {If thou art the Son of God} (ei huios ei tou theou). More
exactly, "If thou art Son of God," for there is no article with
"Son." The devil is alluding to the words of the Father to Jesus
at the baptism: "This is my Son the Beloved." He challenges this
address by a condition of the first class which assumes the
condition to be true and deftly calls on Jesus to exercise his
power as Son of God to appease his hunger and thus prove to
himself and all that he really is what the Father called him.
{Become bread} (artoi gen(936e)tai). Literally, "that these stones
(round smooth stones which possibly the devil pointed to or even
picked up and held) become loaves" (each stone a loaf). It was
all so simple, obvious, easy. It would satisfy the hunger of
Christ and was quite within his power. {It is written}
(gegraptai). Perfect passive indicative, stands written and is
still in force. Each time Jesus quotes Deuteronomy to repel the
subtle temptation of the devil. Here it is  De 8:3  from the
Septuagint. Bread is a mere detail (Bruce) in man's dependence
upon God.

經文:

馬太福音 4:5-4:5

註釋:

 {Then the devil taketh him} (	ote paralambanei auton ho
diabolos). Matthew is very fond of this temporal adverb
(	ote). See already  2:7  3:13  4:1,5 . Note historic present
with vivid picturesqueness. Luke puts this temptation third, the
geographical order. But was the person of Christ allowed to be at
the disposal of the devil during these temptations? Alford so
holds. {On the pinnacle of the temple} (epi to pterugion tou
hierou). Literally "wing:" the English word "pinnacle" is from
the Latin _pinnaculum_, a diminutive of _pinna_ (wing). "_The
temple_" (	ou hierou) here includes the whole temple area, not
just the sanctuary (ho naos), the Holy Place and Most Holy
Place. It is not clear what place is meant by "wing." It may
refer to Herod's royal portico which overhung the Kedron Valley
and looked down some four hundred and fifty feet, a dizzy height
(Josephus, _Ant_. XV. xi. 5). This was on the south of the temple
court. Hegesippus says that James the Lord's brother was later
placed on the wing of the temple and thrown down therefrom.

經文:

馬太福音 4:6-4:6

註釋:

 {Cast thyself down} (ale seauton kat(935c)). The appeal to hurl
himself down into the abyss below would intensify the nervous
dread that most people feel at such a height. The devil urged
presumptuous reliance on God and quotes Scripture to support his
view ( Ps 91:11f. ). So the devil quotes the Word of God,
misinterprets it, omits a clause, and tries to trip the Son of
God by the Word of God. It was a skilful thrust and would also be
accepted by the populace as proof that Jesus was the Messiah if
they should see him sailing down as if from heaven. This would be
a sign from heaven in accord with popular Messianic expectation.
The promise of the angels the devil thought would reassure Jesus.
They would be a spiritual parachute for Christ.

經文:

馬太福音 4:7-4:7

註釋:

 {Thou shall not tempt} (ouk ekpeiraseis). Jesus quotes
Deuteronomy again ( De 6:16 ) and shows that the devil has wholly
misapplied God's promise of protection.

經文:

馬太福音 4:8-4:8

註釋:

 {And showeth him} (kai deiknusin aut(9369)). This wonderful
panorama had to be partially mental and imaginative, since the
devil caused to pass in review "all the kingdoms of the world and
the glory of them." But this fact does not prove that all phases
of the temptations were subjective without any objective presence
of the devil. Both could be true. Here again we have the vivid
historical present (deiknusin). The devil now has Christ upon a
very high mountain whether the traditional Quarantania or not. It
was from Nebo's summit that Moses caught the vision of the land
of Canaan ( De 34:1-3 ). Luke ( Lu 4:5 ) says that the whole
panorama was "in a moment of time" and clearly psychological and
instantaneous.

經文:

馬太福音 4:9-4:9

註釋:

 {All these things will I give thee} (	auta soi panta d(9373)(935c)).
The devil claims the rule of the world, not merely of Palestine
or of the Roman Empire. "The kingdoms of the cosmos" ( 4:8 ) were
under his sway. This word for world brings out the orderly
arrangement of the universe while h(8820)oikoumen(885c) presents the
inhabited earth. Jesus does not deny the grip of the devil on the
world of men, but the condition (ean and aorist subjunctive,
second class undetermined with likelihood of determination), was
spurned by Jesus. As Matthew has it Jesus is plainly to "fall
down and worship me" (pes(936e) prokun(8873)(8869)s moi), while Luke ( Lu
4:7 ) puts it, "worship before me" (en(9370)ion emou), a less
offensive demand, but one that really involved worship of the
devil. The ambition of Jesus is thus appealed to at the price of
recognition of the devil's primacy in the world. It was
compromise that involved surrender of the Son of God to the world
ruler of this darkness. "The temptation was threefold: to gain a
temporal, not a spiritual, dominion; to gain it at once; and to
gain it by an act of homage to the ruler of this world, which
would make the self-constituted Messiah the vice-regent of the
devil and not of God" (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 4:10-4:10

註釋:

 {Get thee hence, Satan} (Hupage, Satan(835c)). The words
"behind me" (opis(9320)mou) belong to  Mt 16:23 , not here.
"Begone" Christ says to Satan. This temptation is the limit of
diabolical suggestion and argues for the logical order in
Matthew. "Satan" means the adversary and Christ so terms the
devil here. The third time Jesus quotes Deuteronomy, this time
 De 6:13 , and repels the infamous suggestion by Scripture
quotation. The words "him alone thou shalt serve" need be
recalled today. Jesus will warn men against trying to serve God
and mammon ( Mt 6:24 ). The devil as the lord of the evil world
constantly tries to win men to the service of the world and God.
This is his chief camouflage for destroying a preacher's power
for God. The word here in  Mt 4:10  for serve is latreuseis
from latris a hired servant, one who works for hire, then
render worship.

經文:

馬太福音 4:11-4:11

註釋:

 {Then the devil leaveth him} (	ote aphi(8873)in auton ho
diabolos). Note the use of "then" (	ote) again and the
historical present. The movement is swift. "And behold" (kai
idou) as so often in Matthew carries on the life-like picture.
"{Angels came} (aorist tense pros(886c)thon punctiliar action) {and
were ministering} (di(886b)onoun, picturesque imperfect, linear
action) {unto him}."  The victory was won in spite of the fast of
forty days and the repeated onsets of the devil who had tried
every avenue of approach. The angels could cheer him in the
inevitable nervous and spiritual reaction from the strain of
conflict, and probably also with food as in the case of Elijah
( 1Ki 19:6f. ). The issues at stake were of vast import as the
champions of light and darkness grappled for the mastery of men.
 Lu 4:13  adds, that the devil left Jesus only "until a good
opportunity" (achri kairou).

經文:

馬太福音 4:12-4:12

註釋:

 {Now when he heard} (akousas de). The reason for Christ's
return to Galilee is given here to be that John had been
delivered up into prison. The Synoptic Gospels skip from the
temptation of Jesus to the Galilean ministry, a whole year. But
for  Joh 1:19-3:36  we should know nothing of the "year of
obscurity" (Stalker). John supplies items to help fill in the
picture. Christ's work in Galilee began after the close of the
active ministry of the Baptist who lingered on in prison for a
year or more.

經文:

馬太福音 4:13-4:13

註釋:

 {Dwelt in Capernaum} (Kat(9369)k(8873)en eis Kapharnaoum). He went
first to Nazareth, his old home, but was rejected there ( Lu
4:16-31 ). In Capernaum (probably the modern Tell H(966d)) Jesus
was in a large town, one of the centres of Galilean political and
commercial life, a fishing mart, where many Gentiles came. Here
the message of the kingdom would have a better chance than in
Jerusalem with its ecclesiastical prejudices or in Nazareth with
its local jealousies. So Jesus "made his home" (kat(9369)k(8873)en)
here.

經文:

馬太福音 4:16-4:16

註釋:

 {Saw a great light} (ph(9373) eiden mega). Matthew quotes  Isa
9:1f. , and applies the words about the deliverer from Assyria to
the Messiah. "The same district lay in spiritual darkness and
death and the new era dawned when Christ went thither" (McNeile).
Light sprang up from those who were sitting in the region and
shadow of death (en chor(8369) kai ski(8369) thanatou). Death is
personified.

經文:

馬太福音 4:17-4:17

註釋:

 {Began Jesus to preach} ((8872)xato ho I(8873)ous k(8872)ussein). In
Galilee. He had been preaching for over a year already elsewhere.
His message carries on the words of the Baptist about
"repentance" and the "kingdom of heaven" ( Mt 3:2 ) being at
hand. The same word for "preaching" (k(8872)ussein) from k(8872)ux,
herald, is used of Jesus as of John. Both proclaimed the good
news of the kingdom. Jesus is more usually described as the
Teacher, (ho didaskalos) who taught (edidasken) the people.
He was both herald and teacher as every preacher should be.

經文:

馬太福音 4:18-4:18

註釋:

 {Casting a net into the sea} (allantas amphibl(8873)tron eis
t(886e) thalassan). The word here for net is a casting-net (compare
amphiball(935c) in  Mr 1:16 , casting on both sides). The net was
thrown over the shoulder and spread into a circle (amphi). In
 4:20  and  4:21  another word occurs for nets (diktua), a word
used for nets of any kind. The large drag-net (sag(886e)(885c)) appears
in  Mt 13:47 .

經文:

馬太福音 4:19-4:19

註釋:

 {Fishers of men} (haleeis anthr(9370)(936e)). Andrew and Simon
were fishers by trade. They had already become disciples of Jesus
( Joh 1:35-42 ), but now they are called upon to leave their
business and to follow Jesus in his travels and work. These two
brothers promptly (euthe(9373)) accepted the call and challenge of
Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 4:21-4:21

註釋:

 {Mending their nets} (katartizontas ta diktua aut(936e)).
These two brothers, James and John, were getting their nets ready
for use. The verb (katartiz(935c)) means to adjust, to articulate,
to mend if needed ( Lu 6:40  Ro 9:22  Ga 6:1 ). So they promptly
left their boat and father and followed Jesus. They had also
already become disciples of Jesus. Now there are four who follow
him steadily.

經文:

馬太福音 4:23-4:23

註釋:

 {Went about in all Galilee} (peri(8867)en en hol(8869) t(8869)
Galilaiai). Literally Jesus "was going around (imperfect) in all
Galilee." This is the first of the three tours of Galilee made by
Jesus. This time he took the four fishermen whom he had just
called to personal service. The second time he took the twelve.
On the third he sent the twelve on ahead by twos and followed
after them. He was teaching and preaching the gospel of the
kingdom in the synagogues chiefly and on the roads and in the
streets where Gentiles could hear. {Healing all manner of
diseases and all manner of sickness} (	herapeu(936e) p(8373)an noson kai
p(8373)an malakian). The occasional sickness is called malakian,
the chronic or serious disease 
oson.

經文:

馬太福音 4:24-4:24

註釋:

 {The report of him went forth into all Syria} (ap(886c)then h(880a)ako(8820)autou eis hol(886e) t(886e) Syrian). Rumour (ako(885c)) carries things
almost like the wireless or radio. The Gentiles all over Syria to
the north heard of what was going on in Galilee. The result was
inevitable. Jesus had a moving hospital of patients from all over
Galilee and Syria. "{Those that were sick}" (	ous kak(9373)
echontas), literally "those who had it bad," cases that the
doctors could not cure. "{Holden with divers diseases and
torments}" (poikilais nosois kai basanois sunechomenous). "Held
together" or "compressed" is the idea of the participle. The same
word is used by Jesus in  Lu 12:50  and by Paul in  Php 1:23  and
of the crowd pressing on Jesus ( Lu 8:45 ). They brought these
difficult and chronic cases (present tense of the participle
here) to Jesus. Instead of "divers" say "various" (poikilais)
like fever, leprosy, blindness. The adjective means literally
many colored or variegated like flowers, paintings, jaundice,
etc. Some had "torments" (asanois). The word originally
(oriental origin) meant a touchstone, "Lydian stone" used for
testing gold because pure gold rubbed on it left a peculiar mark.
Then it was used for examination by torture. Sickness was often
regarded as "torture." These diseases are further described "in a
descending scale of violence" (McNeile) as "demoniacs, lunatics,
and paralytics" as Moffatt puts it, "demoniacs, epileptics,
paralytics" as Weymouth has it, (daimonizomenous kai
sel(886e)iazomenous kai paralutikous), people possessed by demons,
lunatics or "moon-struck" because the epileptic seizures
supposedly followed the phases of the moon (Bruce) as shown also
in  Mt 17:15 , paralytics (our very word). Our word "lunatic" is
from the Latin _luna_ (moon) and carries the same picture as the
Greek sel(886e)iazomai from sel(886e)(885c) (moon). These diseases are
called "torments."

經文:

馬太福音 4:25-4:25

註釋:

 {Great multitudes} (ochloi polloi).  Note the plural, not
just one crowd, but crowds and crowds. And from all parts of
Palestine including Decapolis, the region of the Ten Greek Cities
east of the Jordan. No political campaign was equal to this
outpouring of the people to hear Jesus and to be healed by Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 5:1-5:1

註釋:

 {He went up into the mountain} (aneb(8820)eis to oros). Not "a"
mountain as the Authorized Version has it. The Greek article is
poorly handled in most English versions. We do not know what
mountain it was. It was the one there where Jesus and the crowds
were. "Delitzsch calls the Mount of Beatitudes the Sinai of the
New Testament" (Vincent). He apparently went up to get in closer
contact with the disciples, "seeing the multitudes." Luke ( Lu
6:12 ) says that he went out into the mountain to pray, Mark ( Mr
3:13 ) that he went up and called the twelve. All three purposes
are true. Luke adds that after a whole night in prayer and after
the choice of the twelve Jesus came down to a level place on the
mountain and spoke to the multitudes from Judea to Phoenicia. The
crowds are great in both Matthew and in Luke and include
disciples and the other crowds. There is no real difficulty in
considering the Sermon on the Mount in Matthew and the Sermon on
the Plain in Luke as one and the same. See full discussion in my
_Harmony of the Gospels_.

經文:

馬太福音 5:2-5:2

註釋:

 {Taught them} (edidasken). Inchoative imperfect, began to
teach. He sat down on the mountain side as the Jewish rabbis did
instead of standing. It was a most impressive scene as Jesus
opened his mouth wide and spoke loud enough for the great throng
to hear him. The newly chosen twelve apostles were there, "a
great number of disciples and a great number of the people" ( Lu
6:17 ).

經文:

馬太福音 5:3-5:3

註釋:

 {Blessed} (makarioi). The English word "blessed" is more
exactly represented by the Greek verbal eulog(8874)oi as in  Lu
1:68  of God by Zacharias, or the perfect passive participle
eulog(886d)enos as in  Lu 1:42  of Mary by Elizabeth and in  Mt
21:9 . Both forms come from euloge(935c), to speak well of (eu,
logos). The Greek word here (makarioi) is an adjective that
means "happy" which in English etymology goes back to hap,
chance, good-luck as seen in our words haply, hapless, happily,
happiness. "Blessedness is, of course, an infinitely higher and
better thing than mere happiness" (Weymouth). English has thus
ennobled "blessed" to a higher rank than "happy." But "happy" is
what Jesus said and the _Braid Scots New Testament_ dares to say
"Happy" each time here as does the _Improved Edition of the
American Bible Union Version_. The Greek word is as old as Homer
and Pindar and was used of the Greek gods and also of men, but
largely of outward prosperity. Then it is applied to the dead who
died in the Lord as in  Re 14:13 . Already in the Old Testament
the Septuagint uses it of moral quality. "Shaking itself loose
from all thoughts of outward good, it becomes the express symbol
of a happiness identified with pure character. Behind it lies the
clear cognition of sin as the fountain-head of all misery, and of
holiness as the final and effectual cure for every woe. For
knowledge as the basis of virtue, and therefore of happiness, it
substitutes faith and love" (Vincent). Jesus takes this word
"happy" and puts it in this rich environment. "This is one of the
words which have been transformed and ennobled by New Testament
use; by association, as in the Beatitudes, with unusual
conditions, accounted by the world miserable, or with rare and
difficult" (Bruce). It is a pity that we have not kept the word
"happy" to the high and holy plane where Jesus placed it. "If you
know these things, happy (makarioi) are you if you do them"
( Joh 13:17 ). "Happy (makarioi) are those who have not seen
and yet have believed" ( Joh 20:29 ). And Paul applies this
adjective to God, "according to the gospel of the glory of the
happy (makariou) God" ( 1Ti 1:11 . Cf. also  Tit 2:13 ). The
term "Beatitudes" (Latin _beatus_) comes close to the meaning of
Christ here by makarioi. It will repay one to make a careful
study of all the "beatitudes" in the New Testament where this
word is employed. It occurs nine times here ( 3-11 ), though the
beatitudes in verses 10 and 11 are very much alike. The copula is
not expressed in either of these nine beatitudes. In each case a
reason is given for the beatitude, "for" (hoti), that shows the
spiritual quality involved. Some of the phrases employed by Jesus
here occur in the Psalms, some even in the Talmud (itself later
than the New Testament, though of separate origin). That is of
small moment. "The originality of Jesus lies in putting the due
value on these thoughts, collecting them, and making them as
prominent as the Ten Commandments. No greater service can be
rendered to mankind than to rescue from obscurity neglected moral
commonplaces " (Bruce). Jesus repeated his sayings many times as
all great teachers and preachers do, but this sermon has unity,
progress, and consummation. It does not contain all that Jesus
taught by any means, but it stands out as the greatest single
sermon of all time, in its penetration, pungency, and power. {The
poor in spirit} (hoi pt(9363)hoi t(9369) pneumati). Luke has only "the
poor," but he means the same by it as this form in Matthew, "the
pious in Israel, for the most part poor, whom the worldly rich
despised and persecuted" (McNeile). The word used here
(pt(9363)hoi) is applied to the beggar Lazarus in  Lu 16:20,22  and
suggests spiritual destitution (from pt(9373)s(935c) to crouch, to
cower). The other word pen(8873) is from penomai, to work for
one's daily bread and so means one who works for his living. The
word pt(9363)hos is more frequent in the New Testament and implies
deeper poverty than pen(8873). "The kingdom of heaven" here means
the reign of God in the heart and life. This is the _summum
bonum_ and is what matters most.

經文:

馬太福音 5:4-5:4

註釋:

 {They that mourn} (hoi penthountes). This is another
paradox. This verb "is most frequent in the LXX for mourning for
the dead, and for the sorrows and sins of others" (McNeile).
"There can be no comfort where there is no grief" (Bruce). Sorrow
should make us look for the heart and hand of God and so find the
comfort latent in the grief.

經文:

馬太福音 5:5-5:5

註釋:

 {The meek} (hoi praeis). Wycliff has it "Blessed be mild
men." The ancients used the word for outward conduct and towards
men. They did not rank it as a virtue anyhow. It was a mild
equanimity that was sometimes negative and sometimes positively
kind. But Jesus lifted the word to a nobility never attained
before. In fact, the Beatitudes assume a new heart, for the
natural man does not find in happiness the qualities mentioned
here by Christ. The English word "meek" has largely lost the fine
blend of spiritual poise and strength meant by the Master. He
calls himself "meek and lowly in heart" ( Mt 11:29 ) and Moses is
also called meek. It is the gentleness of strength, not mere
effeminacy. By "the earth" (	(886e) g(886e)) Jesus seems to mean the
Land of Promise ( Ps 37:11 ) though Bruce thinks that it is the
whole earth. Can it be the solid earth as opposed to the sea or
the air?

經文:

馬太福音 5:6-5:6

註釋:

 {They that hunger and thirst after righteousness} (hoi
pein(936e)tes kai dips(936e)tes t(886e) dikaiosun(886e)). Here Jesus turns one
of the elemental human instincts to spiritual use. There is in
all men hunger for food, for love, for God. It is passionate
hunger and thirst for goodness, for holiness. The word for
"filled" (chortasth(8873)ontai) means to feed or to fatten cattle
from the word for fodder or grass like  Mr 6:39  "green grass"
(chortos chl(9372)os).

經文:

馬太福音 5:7-5:7

註釋:

 {Obtain mercy} (ele(8874)h(8873)ontai) "Sal win pitie theirsels"
(_Braid Scots_). "A self-acting law of the moral world" (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 5:8-5:8

註釋:

 {Shall see God} (	on theon opsontai). Without holiness no
man will see the Lord in heaven ( Heb 12:14 ). The Beatific
Vision is only possible here on earth to those with pure hearts.
No other can see the King now. Sin befogs and beclouds the heart
so that one cannot see God. Purity has here its widest sense and
includes everything.

經文:

馬太福音 5:9-5:9

註釋:

 {The peacemakers} (hoi eir(886e)opoioi). Not merely "peaceable
men" (Wycliff) but "makkers up o' strife" (_Braid Scots_). It is
hard enough to keep the peace. It is still more difficult to
bring peace where it is not. "The perfect peacemaker is the Son
of God ( Eph 2:14f. )" (McNeile). Thus we shall be like our Elder
Brother.

經文:

馬太福音 5:10-5:10

註釋:

 {That have been persecuted for righteousness' sake} (hoi
dedi(9367)menoi heneken dikaiosun(8873)). Posing as persecuted is a
favourite stunt. The kingdom of heaven belongs only to those who
suffer for the sake of goodness, not who are guilty of wrong.

經文:

馬太福音 5:11-5:11

註釋:

 {Falsely, for my sake} (pseudomenoi heneken emou). Codex
Bezae changes the order of these last Beatitudes, but that is
immaterial. What does matter is that the bad things said of
Christ's followers shall be untrue and that they are slandered
for Christ's sake. Both things must be true before one can wear a
martyr's crown and receive the great reward (misthos) in
heaven. No prize awaits one there who deserves all the evil said
of him and done to him here.

經文:

馬太福音 5:13-5:13

註釋:

 {Lost its savour} (m(9372)anth(8869)). The verb is from m(9372)os
(dull, sluggish, stupid, foolish) and means to play the fool, to
become foolish, of salt become tasteless, insipid ( Mr 9:50 ). It
is common in Syria and Palestine to see salt scattered in piles
on the ground because it has lost its flavour, "hae tint its
tang" (_Braid Scots_), the most worthless thing imaginable. Jesus
may have used here a current proverb.

經文:

馬太福音 5:15-5:15

註釋:

 {Under the bushel} (hupo ton modion). Not a bushel. "The
figure is taken from lowly cottage life. There was a projecting
stone in the wall on which the lamp was set. The house consisted
of a single room, so that the tiny light sufficed for all"
(Bruce). It was not put under the bushel (the only one in the
room) save to put it out or to hide it. The bushel was an
earthenware grain measure. "{The stand}" (	(886e) luchnian), not
"candlestick." It is "lamp-stand" in each of the twelve examples
in the Bible. There was the one lamp-stand for the single room.

經文:

馬太福音 5:16-5:16

註釋:

 {Even so} (hout(9373)). The adverb points backward to the
lamp-stand. Thus men are to let their light shine, not to glorify
themselves, but "your Father in heaven." Light shines to see
others by, not to call attention to itself.

經文:

馬太福音 5:17-5:17

註釋:

 {I came not to destroy, but to fulfil} (ouk (886c)thon
katalusai alla pl(8872)(9373)ai). The verb "destroy" means to "loosen
down" as of a house or tent ( 2Co 5:1 ). Fulfil is to fill full.
This Jesus did to the ceremonial law which pointed to him and the
moral law he kept. "He came to fill the law, to reveal the full
depth of meaning that it was intended to hold" (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 5:18-5:18

註釋:

 {One jot or one tittle} (i(9374)a hen (8820)mia kerea). "Not an
iota, not a comma" (Moffatt), "not the smallest letter, not a
particle" (Weymouth). The iota is the smallest Greek vowel, which
Matthew here uses to represent the Hebrew _yod_ (jot), the
smallest Hebrew letter. "Tittle" is from the Latin _titulus_
which came to mean the stroke above an abbreviated word, then any
small mark. It is not certain here whether kerea means a little
horn, the mere point which distinguishes some Hebrew letters from
others or the "hook" letter _Vav_. Sometimes _yod_ and _vav_ were
hardly distinguishable. "In _Vay_. R. 19 the guilt of altering
one of them is pronounced so great that if it were done the world
would be destroyed" (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 5:19-5:19

註釋:

 {Shall do and teach} (poi(8873)(8869) kai didax(8869)). Jesus puts
practice before preaching. The teacher must apply the doctrine to
himself before he is qualified to teach others. The scribes and
Pharisees were men who "say and do not" ( Mt 23:3 ), who preach
but do not perform. This is Christ's test of greatness.

經文:

馬太福音 5:20-5:20

註釋:

 {Shall exceed} (perisseus(8869) pleion). Overflow like a river
out of its banks and then Jesus adds "more" followed by an
unexpressed ablative (	(8873) dikaiosun(8873)), brachylogy. A daring
statement on Christ's part that they had to be better than the
rabbis. They must excel the scribes, the small number of regular
teachers ( 5:21-48 ), and the Pharisees in the Pharisaic life
( 6:1-18 ) who were the separated ones, the orthodox pietists.

經文:

馬太福音 5:22-5:22

註釋:

 {But I say unto you} (eg(9320)de leg(9320)humin). Jesus thus
assumes a tone of superiority over the Mosaic regulations and
proves it in each of the six examples. He goes further than the
Law into the very heart. "{Raca}" (Raka) and "{Thou fool}"
(M(9372)e). The first is probably an Aramaic word meaning "Empty,"
a frequent word for contempt. The second word is Greek (dull,
stupid) and is a fair equivalent of "raca." It is urged by some
that m(9372)e is a Hebrew word, but Field (_Otium Norvicense_)
objects to that idea. "_Raca_ expresses contempt for a man's
head=you stupid! _M(9372)e_ expresses contempt for his heart and
character=you scoundrel" (Bruce).  "{The hell of fire}" (	(886e)
geennan tou puros), "the Gehenna of fire," the genitive case
(	ou puros) as the genus case describing Gehenna as marked by
fire. Gehenna is the Valley of Hinnom where the fire burned
continually. Here idolatrous Jews once offered their children to
Molech ( 2Ki 23:10 ). Jesus finds one cause of murder to be
abusive language. Gehenna "should be carefully distinguished from
Hades (h(8369)d(8873)) which is never used for the place of punishment,
but for the _place of departed spirits_, without reference to
their moral condition" (Vincent). The place of torment is in
Hades ( Lu 16:23 ), but so is heaven.

經文:

馬太福音 5:24-5:24

註釋:

 {First be reconciled} (pr(9374)on diallag(8874)hi). Second aorist
passive imperative. Get reconciled (ingressive aorist, take the
initiative). Only example of this compound in the New Testament
where usually katallass(935c) occurs. Deissmann (_Light from the
Ancient East_, p. 187, New Ed.) gives a papyrus example second
century A.D. A prodigal son, Longinus, writes to his mother
Nilus: "I beseech thee, mother, be reconciled (dialag(8874)i) with
me." The boy is a poor speller, but with a broken heart he uses
the identical form that Jesus does. "The verb denotes mutual
concession after mutual hostility, an idea absent from
katallass(935c)" (Lightfoot). This because of dia (two, between
two).

經文:

馬太福音 5:25-5:25

註釋:

 {Agree with} (isthi euno(936e)). A present periphrastic active
imperative. The verb is from eunoos (friendly, kindly
disposed). "Mak up wi' yere enemy" (_Braid Scots_). Compromise is
better than prison where no principle is involved, but only
personal interest. It is so easy to see principle where pride is
involved. {The officer} (	(9369) hup(8872)et(8869)). This word means "under
rower" on the ship with several ranks of rowers, the bottom rower
(hupo under and (8872)ess(935c), to row), the galley-slave, then any
servant, the attendant in the synagogue ( Lu 4:20 ). Luke so
describes John Mark in his relation to Barnabas and Saul ( Ac
13:5 ). Then it is applied to the "ministers of the word" ( Lu
1:2 ).

經文:

馬太福音 5:26-5:26

註釋:

 {The last farthing} (	on eschaton kodrant(886e)). A Latin
word, _quadrans, 1/4 of an _as_ (assarion) or two mites ( Mr
12:42 ), a vivid picture of inevitable punishment for debt. This
is emphasized by the strong double negative ou m(885c) with the
aorist subjunctive.

經文:

馬太福音 5:27-5:27

註釋:

 {Thou shalt not commit adultery} (ou moicheuseis). These
quotations (verses  21,27,33 ) from the Decalogue ( Ex 20  and
 De 5 ) are from the Septuagint and use ou and the future
indicative (volitive future, common Greek idiom). In  5:43  the
positive form, volitive future, occurs (agap(8873)eis). In  5:41 
the third person (dot(935c)) singular second aorist active
imperative is used. In  5:38  no verb occurs.

經文:

馬太福音 5:28-5:28

註釋:

 {In his heart} (en t(8869) kardi(8369) autou). Not just the centre
of the blood circulation though it means that. Not just the
emotional part of man's nature, but here the inner man including
the intellect, the affections, the will. This word is exceedingly
common in the New Testament and repays careful study always. It
is from a root that means to quiver or palpitate. Jesus locates
adultery in the eye and heart before the outward act. Wunsche
(_Beitrage_) quotes two pertinent rabbinical sayings as
translated by Bruce: "The eye and the heart are the two brokers
of sin." "Passions lodge only in him who sees." Hence the peril
of lewd pictures and plays to the pure.

經文:

馬太福音 5:29-5:29

註釋:

 {Causeth thee to stumble} (skandalizei se). This is far
better than the Authorized Version "_Offend thee_."  _Braid
Scots_ has it rightly "ensnare ye." It is not the notion of
giving offence or provoking, but of setting a trap or snare for
one. The substantive (skandalon, from skandal(8874)hron) means
the stick in the trap that springs and closes the trap when the
animal touches it. Pluck out the eye when it is a snare, cut off
the hand, even the right hand. These vivid pictures are not to be
taken literally, but powerfully plead for self-mastery. Bengel
says: _Non oculum, sed scandalizentem oculum_. It is not
mutilating of the body that Christ enjoins, but control of the
body against sin. The man who plays with fire will get burnt.
Modern surgery finely illustrates the teaching of Jesus. The
tonsils, the teeth, the appendix, to go no further, if left
diseased, will destroy the whole body. Cut them out in time and
the life will be saved. Vincent notes that "the words scandal and
slander are both derived from skandalon. And Wyc. renders, 'if
thy right eye _slander_ thee.'" Certainly slander is a scandal
and a stumbling-block, a trap, and a snare.

經文:

馬太福音 5:31-5:31

註釋:

 Ma 19:7 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Ma' or engs='Ma'
經文:

馬太福音 5:32-5:32

註釋:

 {Saving for the cause of fornication} (parektos logou
porneias). An unusual phrase that perhaps means "except for a
matter of unchastity." "Except on the ground of unchastity"
(Weymouth), "except unfaithfulness" (Goodspeed), and is
equivalent to m(8820)epi pornei(8369) in  Mt 19:9 . McNeile denies that
Jesus made this exception because Mark and Luke do not give it.
He claims that the early Christians made the exception to meet a
pressing need, but one fails to see the force of this charge
against Matthew's report of the words of Jesus. It looks like
criticism to meet modern needs.

經文:

馬太福音 5:34-5:34

註釋:

 {Swear not at all} (m(8820)omosai hol(9373)). More exactly "not to
swear at all" (indirect command, and aorist infinitive).
Certainly Jesus does not prohibit oaths in a court of justice for
he himself answered Caiaphas on oath. Paul made solemn appeals to
God ( 1Th 5:27  1Co 15:31 ). Jesus prohibits all forms of
profanity. The Jews were past-masters in the art of splitting
hairs about allowable and forbidden oaths or forms of profanity
just as modern Christians employ a great variety of vernacular
"cuss-words" and excuse themselves because they do not use the
more flagrant forms.

經文:

馬太福音 5:38-5:38

註釋:

 {An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth} (ophthalmon
anti ophthalmou kai odonta anti odontos). Note anti with the
notion of exchange or substitution. The quotation is from  Ex
21:24  De 19:21  Le 24:20 . Like divorce this _jus talionis_ is a
restriction upon unrestrained vengeance. "It limited revenge by
fixing an exact compensation for an injury" (McNeile). A money
payment is allowed in the Mishna. The law of retaliation exists
in Arabia today.

經文:

馬太福音 5:39-5:39

註釋:

 {Resist not him that is evil} (me antist(886e)ai t(9369) pon(8872)(9369)).
Here again it is the infinitive (second aorist active) in
indirect command. But is it "the evil man" or the "evil deed"?
The dative case is the same form for masculine and neuter.
Weymouth puts it "not to resist a (the) wicked man," Moffatt "not
to resist an injury," Goodspeed "not to resist injury." The
examples will go with either view. Jesus protested when smitten
on the cheek ( Joh 18:22 ). And Jesus denounced the Pharisees
( Mt 23 ) and fought the devil always. The language of Jesus is
bold and picturesque and is not to be pressed too literally.
Paradoxes startle and make us think. We are expected to fill in
the other side of the picture. One thing certainly is meant by
Jesus and that is that personal revenge is taken out of our
hands, and that applies to "lynch-law." Aggressive or offensive
war by nations is also condemned, but not necessarily defensive
war or defence against robbery and murder. Professional pacifism
may be mere cowardice.

經文:

馬太福音 5:40-5:40

註釋:

 {Thy coat ... thy cloke also} (	on chit(936e)a sou kai to
himation). The "coat" is really a sort of shirt or undergarment
and would be demanded at law. A robber would seize first the
outer garment or cloke (one coat). If one loses the undergarment
at law, the outer one goes also (the more valuable one).

經文:

馬太福音 5:41-5:41

註釋:

 {Shall compel thee} (aggareusei). The Vulgate has
_angariaverit_. The word is of Persian origin and means public
couriers or mounted messengers (aggaroi) who were stationed by
the King of Persia at fixed localities, with horses ready for
use, to send royal messages from one to another. So if a man is
passing such a post-station, an official may rush out and compel
him to go back to another station to do an errand for the king.
This was called impressment into service. This very thing was
done to Simon of Cyrene who was thus compelled to carry the cross
of Christ ( Mt 27:32 , (8867)gareusan).

經文:

馬太福音 5:42-5:42

註釋:

 {Turn not thou away} (m(8820)apostraph(8869)s). Second aorist
passive subjunctive in prohibition. "This is one of the clearest
instances of the necessity of accepting the spirit and not the
letter of the Lord's commands (see vv. 32,34,38 ). Not only does
indiscriminate almsgiving do little but injury to society, but
the words must embrace far more than almsgiving" (McNeile).
Recall again that Jesus is a popular teacher and expects men to
understand his paradoxes. In the organized charities of modern
life we are in danger of letting the milk of human kindness dry
up.

經文:

馬太福音 5:43-5:43

註釋:

 {And hate thine enemy} (kai mis(8873)eis). This phrase is not
in  Le 19:18 , but is a rabbinical inference which Jesus
repudiates bluntly. The Talmud says nothing of love to enemies.
Paul in  Ro 12:20  quotes  Pr 25:22  to prove that we ought to
treat our enemies kindly. Jesus taught us to pray for our enemies
and did it himself even when he hung upon the cross. Our word
"neighbour" is "nigh-bor," one who is nigh or near like the Greek
word pl(8873)ion here. But proximity often means strife and not
love. Those who have adjoining farms or homes may be positively
hostile in spirit. The Jews came to look on members of the same
tribe as neighbours as even Jews everywhere. But they hated the
Samaritans who were half Jews and lived between Judea and
Galilee. Jesus taught men how to act as neighbours by the parable
of the Good Samaritan ( Lu 10:29ff. ).

經文:

馬太福音 5:48-5:48

註釋:

 {Perfect} (	eleioi). The word comes from 	elos, end,
goal, limit. Here it is the goal set before us, the absolute
standard of our Heavenly Father. The word is used also for
relative perfection as of adults compared with children.
經文:

馬太福音 6:1-6:1

註釋:

 {Take heed} (prosechete). The Greek idiom includes "mind"
(
oun) which is often expressed in ancient Greek and once in
the Septuagint ( Job 7:17 ). In the New Testament the substantive

ous is understood. It means to "hold the mind on a matter,"
take pains, take heed. "Righteousness" (dikaiosun(886e)) is the
correct text in this verse. Three specimens of the Pharisaic
"righteousness" are given (alms, prayer, fasting). {To be seen}
(	heath(886e)ai). First aorist passive infinitive of purpose. Our
word _theatrical_ is this very word, spectacular performance.
{With your Father} (para t(9369) patri hum(936e)). Literally "beside
your Father," standing by his side, as he looks at it.

經文:

馬太福音 6:2-6:2

註釋:

 {Sound not a trumpet} (m(8820)salpis(8869)s). Is this literal or
metaphorical? No actual instance of such conduct has been found
in the Jewish writings. McNeile suggests that it may refer to the
blowing of trumpets in the streets on the occasion of public
fasts. Vincent suggests the thirteen trumpet-shaped chests of the
temple treasury to receive contributions ( Lu 21:2 ). But at
Winona Lake one summer a missionary from India named Levering
stated to me that he had seen Hindu priests do precisely this
very thing to get a crowd to see their beneficences. So it looks
as if the rabbis could do it also. Certainly it was in keeping
with their love of praise. And Jesus expressly says that "the
hypocrites" (hoi hupokritai) do this very thing. This is an old
word for actor, interpreter, one who personates another, from
hupokrinomai to answer in reply like the Attic apokrinomai.
Then to pretend, to feign, to dissemble, to act the hypocrite, to
wear a mask. This is the hardest word that Jesus has for any
class of people and he employs it for these pious pretenders who
pose as perfect. {They have received their reward} (apechousin
ton misthon aut(936e)). This verb is common in the papyri for
receiving a receipt, "they have their receipt in full," all the
reward that they will get, this public notoriety. "They can sign
the receipt of their reward" (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p.
229). So _Light from the Ancient East_, pp. 110f. Apoch(885c) means
"receipt." So also in  6:5 .

經文:

馬太福音 6:4-6:4

註釋:

 {In secret} (	(9369) krupt(9369)). The Textus Receptus added the
words en t(9369) phaner(9369) (openly) here and in  6:6 , but they are
not genuine. Jesus does not promise a _public_ reward for private
piety.

經文:

馬太福音 6:5-6:5

註釋:

 {In the synagogues and in the corners of the streets} (en
tais sunag(9367)ais kai en tais g(936e)iais t(936e) platei(936e)). These were
the usual places of prayer (synagogues) and the street corners
where crowds stopped for business or talk. If the hour of prayer
overtook a Pharisee here, he would strike his attitude of prayer
like a modern Moslem that men might see that he was pious.

經文:

馬太福音 6:6-6:6

註釋:

 {Into thy closet} (eis to tameion). The word is a late
syncopated form of 	amieion from 	amias (steward) and the
root 	am- from 	emn(935c), to cut. So it is a store-house, a
separate apartment, one's private chamber, closet, or "den" where
he can withdraw from the world and shut the world out and commune
with God.

經文:

馬太福音 6:7-6:7

註釋:

 {Use not vain repetitions} (m(8820)battalog(8873)(8874)e). Used of
stammerers who repeat the words, then mere babbling or
chattering, empty repetition. The etymology is uncertain, but it
is probably onomatopoetic like "babble." The worshippers of Baal
on Mount Carmel ( 1Ki 8:26 ) and of Diana in the amphitheatre at
Ephesus who yelled for two hours ( Ac 19:34 ) are examples. The
Mohammedans may also be cited who seem to think that they "will
be heard for their much speaking" (en t(8869) polulogi(8369)). Vincent
adds "and the Romanists with their _paternosters_ and _avast_."
The Syriac Sinaitic has it: "Do not be saying idle things."
Certainly Jesus does not mean to condemn all repetition in prayer
since he himself prayed three times in Gethsemane "saying the
same words again" ( Mt 26:44 ). "As the Gentiles do," says Jesus.
"The Pagans thought that by endless repetitions and many words
they would inform their gods as to their needs and weary them
('_fatigare deos_') into granting their requests" (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 6:9-6:9

註釋:

 {After this manner therefore pray ye} (hout(9373) oun
proseuchesthe humeis). "You" expressed in contrast with "the
Gentiles." It should be called "The Model Prayer" rather than
"The Lord's Prayer." "Thus" pray as he gives them a model. He
himself did not use it as a liturgy (cf.  Joh 17 ). There is no
evidence that Jesus meant it for liturgical use by others. In  Lu
11:2-4  practically the same prayer though briefer is given at a
later time by Jesus to the apostles in response to a request that
he teach them how to pray. McNeile argues that the form in Luke
is the original to which Matthew has made additions: "The
tendency of liturgical formulas is towards enrichment rather than
abbreviation." But there is no evidence whatever that Jesus
designed it as a set formula. There is no real harm in a
liturgical formula if one likes it, but no one sticks to just one
formula in prayer. There is good and not harm in children
learning and saying this noble prayer. Some people are disturbed
over the words "Our Father" and say that no one has a right to
call God Father who has not been "born again." But that is to say
that an unconverted sinner cannot pray until he is converted, an
absurd contradiction. God is the Father of all men in one sense;
the recognition of Him as the Father in the full sense is the
first step in coming back to him in regeneration and conversion.

{Hallowed be thy name} (hagiasth(8874)(9320)to onoma sou). In the Greek
the verb comes first as in the petitions in verse  10 . They are
all aorist imperatives, punctiliar action expressing urgency.

經文:

馬太福音 6:11-6:11

註釋:

 {Our daily bread} (	on arton h(886d)(936e) ton epiousion). This
adjective "daily" (epiousion) coming after "Give us this day"
(dos h(886d)(8c6e) s(886d)eron) has given expositors a great deal of
trouble. The effort has been made to derive it from epi and
(936e) (ousa). It clearly comes from epi and i(936e) (epi and
eimi) like 	(8869) epious(8869) ("on the coming day," "the next day,"
 Ac 16:12 ). But the adjective epiousios is rare and Origen
said it was made by the Evangelists Matthew and Luke to reproduce
the idea of an Aramaic original. Moulton and Milligan,
_Vocabulary_ say: "The papyri have as yet shed no clear light
upon this difficult word ( Mt 6:11  Lu 11:3 ), which was in all
probability a new coinage by the author of the Greek Q to render
his Aramaic Original" (this in 1919). Deissmann claims that only
about fifty purely New Testament or "Christian" words can be
admitted out of the more than 5,000 used. "But when a word is not
recognizable at sight as a Jewish or Christian new formation, we
must consider it as an ordinary Greek word until the contrary is
proved. Epiousios has all the appearance of a word that
originated in trade and traffic of the everyday life of the
people (cf. my hints in _Neutestamentliche Studien Georg Heinrici
dargebracht_, Leipzig, 1914, pp. 118f.). The opinion here
expressed has been confirmed by A. Debrunner's discovery (_Theol.
Lit. Ztg_. 1925, Col. 119) of epiousios in an ancient
housekeeping book" (_Light from the Ancient East_, New ed. 1927,
p. 78 and note 1). So then it is not a word coined by the
Evangelist or by Q to express an Aramaic original. The word
occurs also in three late MSS. after 2Macc. 1:8, 	ous
epiousious after 	ous artous. The meaning, in view of the
kindred participle (epious(8869)) in  Ac 16:12 , seems to be "for
the coming day," a daily prayer for the needs of the next day as
every housekeeper understands like the housekeeping book
discovered by Debrunner.

經文:

馬太福音 6:12-6:12

註釋:

 {Our debts} (	a opheil(886d)ata h(886d)(936e)). Luke ( Lu 11:4 ) has
"sins" (hamartias). In the ancient Greek opheil(886d)a is common
for actual legal debts as in  Ro 4:4 , but here it is used of
moral and spiritual debts to God. "Trespasses" is a
mistranslation made common by the Church of England Prayer Book.
It is correct in verse  14  in Christ's argument about prayer,
but it is not in the Model Prayer itself. See  Mt 18:28,30  for
sin pictured again by Christ "as debt and the sinner as a debtor"
(Vincent). We are thus described as having wronged God. The word
opheil(885c) for moral obligation was once supposed to be peculiar
to the New Testament. But it is common in that sense in the
papyri (Deismann, _Bible Studies_, p. 221; _Light from the
Ancient East,_ New ed., p. 331). We ask forgiveness "in
proportion as" (h(9373)) we _also_ have forgiven those in debt to
us, a most solemn reflection. Aph(886b)amen is one of the three k
aorists (eth(886b)a, ed(936b)a, h(886b)a). It means to send away, to
dismiss, to wipe off.

經文:

馬太福音 6:13-6:13

註釋:

 {And bring us not into temptation} (kai m(8820)eisenegk(8869)s eis
peirasmon). "Bring" or "lead" bothers many people. It seems to
present God as an active agent in subjecting us to temptation, a
thing specifically denied in  Jas 1:13 . The word here translated
"temptation" (peirasmon) means originally "trial" or "test" as
in  Jas 1:2  and Vincent so takes it here. _Braid Scots_ has it:
"And lat us no be siftit." But God does test or sift us, though
he does not tempt us to evil. No one understood temptation so
well as Jesus for the devil tempted him by every avenue of
approach to all kinds of sin, but without success. In the Garden
of Gethsemane Jesus will say to Peter, James, and John: "Pray
that ye enter not into temptation" ( Lu 22:40 ). That is the idea
here. Here we have a "Permissive imperative" as grammarians term
it. The idea is then: "Do not allow us to be led into
temptation." There is a way out ( 1Co 10:13 ), but it is a
terrible risk.

{From the evil one} (apo tou pon(8872)ou). The ablative case in the
Greek obscures the gender. We have no way of knowing whether it
is ho pon(8872)os (the evil one) or 	o pon(8872)on (the evil thing).
And if it is masculine and so ho pon(8872)os, it can either refer
to the devil as the Evil One _par excellence_ or the evil man
whoever he may be who seeks to do us ill. The word pon(8872)os has
a curious history coming from ponos (toil) and pone(935c) (to
work). It reflects the idea either that work is bad or that this
particular work is bad and so the bad idea drives out the good in
work or toil, an example of human depravity surely.

The Doxology is placed in the margin of the Revised Version. It
is wanting in the oldest and best Greek manuscripts. The earliest
forms vary very much, some shorter, some longer than the one in
the Authorized Version. The use of a doxology arose when this
prayer began to be used as a liturgy to be recited or to be
chanted in public worship. It was not an original part of the
Model Prayer as given by Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 6:14-6:14

註釋:

 {Trespasses} (parapt(936d)ata). This is no part of the Model
Prayer. The word "trespass" is literally "falling to one side," a
lapse or deviation from truth or uprightness. The ancients
sometimes used it of intentional falling or attack upon one's
enemy, but "slip" or "fault" ( Ga 6:1 ) is the common New
Testament idea. Parabasis ( Ro 5:14 ) is a positive violation,
a transgression, conscious stepping aside or across.

經文:

馬太福音 6:16-6:16

註釋:

 {Of a sad countenance} (skuthr(9370)oi). Only here and  Lu
24:17  in the N.T. It is a compound of skuthros (sullen) and
ops (countenance). These actors or hypocrites "put on a gloomy
look" (Goodspeed) and, if necessary, even "disfigure their faces"
(aphanizousin ta pros(9370)a aut(936e)), that they may look like they
are fasting. It is this pretence of piety that Jesus so sharply
ridicules. There is a play on the Greek words aphanizousi
(disfigure) and phan(9373)in (figure). They conceal their real
looks that they may seem to be fasting, conscious and pretentious
hypocrisy.

經文:

馬太福音 6:18-6:18

註釋:

 {In secret} (en t(9369) kruphai(9369)). Here as in  6:4,6  the
Textus Receptus adds en t(9369) phaner(9369) (openly), but it is not
genuine. The word kruphaios is here alone in the New Testament,
but occurs four times in the Septuagint.

經文:

馬太福音 6:19-6:19

註釋:

 {Lay not up for yourselves treasures} (m(8820)th(8873)aurizete
humin th(8873)aurous). Do not have this habit (m(885c) and the present
imperative). See on 烘t 2:11| for the word "treasure." Here there
is a play on the word, "treasure not for yourselves treasures."
Same play in verse  20  with the cognate accusative. In both
verses humin is dative of personal interest and is not
reflexive, but the ordinary personal pronoun. Wycliff has it: "Do
not treasure to you treasures."

{Break through} (diorussousin). Literally "dig through." Easy
to do through the mud walls or sun-dried bricks. Today they can
pierce steel safes that are no longer safe even if a foot thick.
The Greeks called a burglar a "mud-digger" (	oichoruchos).

經文:

馬太福音 6:20-6:20

註釋:

 {Rust} (r(9373)is). Something that "eats" (ibr(9373)k(935c)) or
"gnaws" or "corrodes."

經文:

馬太福音 6:22-6:22

註釋:

 {Single} (haplous). Used of a marriage contract when the
husband is to repay the dowry "pure and simple" (	(886e) phern(886e)
hapl(886e)), if she is set free; but in case he does not do so
promptly, he is to add interest also (Moulton and Milligan's
_Vocabulary_, etc.). There are various other instances of such
usage. Here and in  Lu 11:34  the eye is called "single" in a
moral sense. The word means "without folds" like a piece of cloth
unfolded, _simplex_ in Latin. Bruce considers this parable of the
eye difficult. "The figure and the ethical meaning seem to be
mixed up, moral attributes ascribed to the physical eye which
with them still gives light to the body. This confusion may be
due to the fact that the eye, besides being the organ of vision,
is the seat of expression, revealing inward dispositions." The
"evil" eye (pon(8872)os) may be diseased and is used of stinginess
in the LXX and so haplous may refer to liberality as Hatch
argues (_Essays in Biblical Greek_, p. 80). The passage may be
elliptical with something to be supplied. If our eyes are healthy
we see clearly and with a single focus (without astigmatism). If
the eyes are diseased (bad, evil), they may even be cross-eyed or
cock-eyed. We see double and confuse our vision. We keep one eye
on the hoarded treasures of earth and roll the other proudly up
to heaven. Seeing double is double-mindedness as is shown in
verse  24 .

經文:

馬太福音 6:24-6:24

註釋:

 {No man can serve two masters} (oudeis dunatai dusi kuriois
douleuein). Many try it, but failure awaits them all. Men even
try "to be slaves to God and mammon" (The(9369) douleuein kai
mam(936e)(8369)). Mammon is a Chaldee, Syriac, and Punic word like
_Plutus_ for the money-god (or devil). The slave of mammon will
obey mammon while pretending to obey God. The United States has
had a terrible revelation of the power of the money-god in public
life in the Sinclair-Fall-Teapot-Air-Dome-Oil case. When the
guide is blind and leads the blind, both fall into the ditch. The
man who cannot tell road from ditch sees falsely as Ruskin shows
in _Modern Painters_. He will hold to one (henos anthexetai).
The word means to line up face to face (anti) with one man and
so against the other.

經文:

馬太福音 6:25-6:25

註釋:

 {Be not anxious for your life} (m(8820)merimnate t(8869) psuch(8869)
h(966d)(936e)). This is as good a translation as the Authorized Version
was poor; "Take no thought for your life." The old English word
"thought" meant anxiety or worry as Shakespeare says:

  "The native hue of resolution Is sicklied o'er with the pale
cast of thought."

Vincent quotes Bacon (Henry VII): "Harris, an alderman of London,
was put in trouble and died with thought and anguish." But words
change with time and now this passage is actually quoted
(Lightfoot) "as an objection to the moral teaching of the Sermon
on the Mount, on the ground that it encouraged, nay, commanded, a
reckless neglect of the future." We have narrowed the word to
mere planning without any notion of anxiety which is in the Greek
word. The verb merimna(935c) is from meris, meriz(935c), because care
or anxiety distracts and divides. It occurs in Christ's rebuke to
Martha for her excessive solicitude about something to eat ( Lu
10:41 ). The notion of proper care and forethought appears in
 1Co 7:32  12:25  Php 2:20 . It is here the present imperative
with the negative, a command not to have the habit of petulant
worry about food and clothing, a source of anxiety to many
housewives, a word for women especially as the command not to
worship mammon may be called a word for men. The command can mean
that they must stop such worry if already indulging in it. In
verse  31  Jesus repeats the prohibition with the ingressive
aorist subjunctive: "Do not become anxious," "Do not grow
anxious." Here the direct question with the deliberative
subjunctive occurs with each verb (phag(936d)en, pi(936d)en,
peribal(936d)etha). This deliberative subjunctive of the direct
question is retained in the indirect question employed in verse
 25 . A different verb for clothing occurs, both in the indirect
middle (peribal(936d)etha, fling round ourselves in  31 ,
endus(8873)the, put on yourselves in  25 ).

{For your life} (	(8869) psuch(8869)). "Here psuch(8869) stands for the
life principle common to man and beast, which is embodied in the
s(936d)a: the former needs food, the latter clothing" (McNeile).
Psuch(885c) in the Synoptic Gospels occurs in three senses
(McNeile): either the life principle in the body as here and
which man may kill ( Mr 3:4 ) or the seat of the thoughts and
emotions on a par with kardia and dianoia ( Mt 22:37 ) and
pneuma ( Lu 1:46 ; cf.  Joh 12:27  13:21 ) or something higher
that makes up the real self ( Mt 10:28  16:26 ). In  Mt 16:25 
( Lu 9:25 ) psuch(885c) appears in two senses paradoxical use,
saving life and losing it.

經文:

馬太福音 6:27-6:27

註釋:

 {Unto his stature} (epi t(886e) h(886c)ikian autou). The word
h(886c)ikian is used either of height (stature) or length of life
(age). Either makes good sense here, though probably "stature"
suits the context best. Certainly anxiety will not help either
kind of growth, but rather hinder by auto-intoxication if nothing
more. This is no plea for idleness, for even the birds are
diligent and the flowers grow.

經文:

馬太福音 6:28-6:28

註釋:

 {The lilies of the field} (	a krina tou agrou). The word
may include other wild flowers besides lilies, blossoms like
anemones, poppies, gladioli, irises (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 6:29-6:29

註釋:

 {Was not arrayed} (oude periebaleto). Middle voice and so
"did not clothe himself," "did not put around himself."

經文:

馬太福音 6:30-6:30

註釋:

 {The grass of the field} (	on chorton tou agrou). The
common grass of the field. This heightens the comparison.

經文:

馬太福音 6:33-6:33

註釋:

 {First his kingdom} (pr(9374)on t(886e) basileian). This in answer
to those who see in the Sermon on the Mount only ethical
comments. Jesus in the Beatitudes drew the picture of the man
with the new heart. Here he places the Kingdom of God and his
righteousness before temporal blessings (food and clothing).

經文:

馬太福音 6:34-6:34

註釋:

 {For the morrow} (eis ten aurion). The last resort of the
anxious soul when all other fears are allayed. The ghost of
tomorrow stalks out with all its hobgoblins of doubt and
distrust.

經文:

馬太福音 7:1-7:1

註釋:

 {Judge not} (m(8820)krinete). The habit of censoriousness,
sharp, unjust criticism. Our word critic is from this very word.
It means to separate, distinguish, discriminate. That is
necessary, but pre-judice (prejudgment) is unfair, captious
criticism.

經文:

馬太福音 7:3-7:3

註釋:

 {The mote} (	o karphos). Not dust, but a piece of dried
wood or chaff, splinter (Weymouth, Moffatt), speck (Goodspeed), a
very small particle that may irritate. {The beam} (	(886e) dokon).
A log on which planks in the house rest (so papyri), joist,
rafter, plank (Moffatt), pole sticking out grotesquely. Probably
a current proverb quoted by Jesus like our people in glass houses
throwing stones. Tholuck quotes an Arabic proverb: "How seest
thou the splinter in thy brother's eye, and seest not the
cross-beam in thine eye?"

經文:

馬太福音 7:5-7:5

註釋:

 {Shalt thou see clearly} (diablepseis). Only here and  Lu
6:42  and  Mr 8:25  in the New Testament. Look through, penetrate
in contrast to lepeis, to gaze at, in verse  3 . Get the log
out of your eye and you will see clearly how to help the brother
get the splinter out (ekbalein) of his eye.

經文:

馬太福音 7:6-7:6

註釋:

 {That which is holy unto the dogs} (	o hagion tois kusin).
It is not clear to what "the holy" refers, to ear-rings or to
amulets, but that would not appeal to dogs. Trench (_Sermon on
the Mount_, p. 136) says that the reference is to meat offered in
sacrifice that must not be flung to dogs: "It is not that the
dogs would not eat it, for it would be welcome to them; but that
it would be a profanation to give it to them, thus to make it a
_skubalon_,  Ex 22:31 ." The yelping dogs would jump at it. Dogs
are kin to wolves and infest the streets of oriental cities.
{Your pearls before the swine} (	ous margaritas h(966d)(936e) emprosthen
t(936e) choir(936e)). The word pearl we have in the name Margarita
(Margaret). Pearls look a bit like peas or acorns and would
deceive the hogs until they discovered the deception. The wild
boars haunt the Jordan Valley still and are not far removed from
bears as they trample with their feet and rend with their tusks
those who have angered them.

經文:

馬太福音 7:9-7:9

註釋:

 {Loaf--stone} (arton--lithon). Some stones look like loaves
of bread. So the devil suggested that Jesus make loaves out of
stones ( Mt 4:3 ).

經文:

馬太福音 7:10-7:10

註釋:

 {Fish--serpent} (ichthun--ophin). Fish, common article of
food, and water-snakes could easily be substituted. Anacoluthon
in this sentence in the Greek.

經文:

馬太福音 7:11-7:11

註釋:

 {How much more} (pos(9369) mallon). Jesus is fond of the _a
fortiori_ argument.

經文:

馬太福音 7:12-7:12

註釋:

 {That men should do unto you} (hina poi(9373)in h(966d)(8c6e) hoi
anthr(9370)oi). Luke ( Lu 6:31 ) puts the Golden Rule parallel with
 Mt 5:42 . The negative form is in Tobit 4:15. It was used by
Hillel, Philo, Isocrates, Confucius. "The Golden Rule is the
distilled essence of that 'fulfilment' ( 5:17 ) which is taught
in the sermon" (McNeile). Jesus puts it in positive form.

經文:

馬太福音 7:13-7:13

註釋:

 {By the narrow gate} (dia t(8873) sten(8873) pul(8873)). The
Authorized Version "at the strait gate" misled those who did not
distinguish between "strait" and "straight." The figure of the
Two Ways had a wide circulation in Jewish and Christian writings
(cf.  De 30:19  Jer 21:8  Ps 1 ). See the _Didache_ i-vi;
Barnabas xviii-xx. "The narrow gate" is repeated in verse  14 
and {straitened the way} (	ethlimmen(8820)h(8820)hodos) added. The way
is "compressed," narrowed as in a defile between high rocks, a
tight place like stenoch(9372)ia in  Ro 8:35 . "The way that leads
to life involves straits and afflictions" (McNeile). Vincent
quotes the _Pinax_ or _Tablet_ of Cebes, a contemporary of
Socrates: "Seest thou not, then, a little door, and a way before
the door, which is not much crowded, but very few travel it? This
is the way that leadeth unto true culture." "The broad way"
(euruch(9372)os) is in every city, town, village, with the glaring
white lights that lure to destruction.

經文:

馬太福音 7:15-7:15

註釋:

 {False prophets} (	(936e) pseudoproph(8874)(936e)). There were false
prophets in the time of the Old Testament prophets. Jesus will
predict "false Messiahs and false prophets" ( Mt 24:24 ) who will
lead many astray. They came in due time posing as angels of light
like Satan, Judaizers ( 2Co 11:13ff .) and Gnostics ( 1Jo 4:1  1Ti 4:1 ). Already false prophets were on hand when Jesus spoke
on this occasion (cf.  Ac 13:6  2Pe 2:1 ). In outward appearance
they look like sheep in the sheep's clothing which they wear, but
within they are "ravening wolves" (lukoi harpages), greedy for
power, gain, self. It is a tragedy that such men and women
reappear through the ages and always find victims. Wolves are
more dangerous than dogs and hogs.

經文:

馬太福音 7:16-7:16

註釋:

 {By their fruits ye shall know them} (apo t(936e) karp(936e) aut(936e)
epign(9373)esthe). From their fruits you will recognize them." The
verb "know " (gin(9373)k(935c)) has epi added, fully know. The
illustrations from the trees and vines have many parallels in
ancient writers.

經文:

馬太福音 7:20-7:20

註釋:

 See on 烘t 7:16|.

經文:

馬太福音 7:21-7:21

註釋:

 {Not--but} (ou--all'). Sharp contrast between the mere
talker and the doer of God's will.

經文:

馬太福音 7:22-7:22

註釋:

 {Did we not prophesy in thy name?} (ou t(9369) s(9369) onomati
eproph(8874)eusamen;). The use of ou in the question expects the
affirmative answer. They claim to have prophesied (preached) in
Christ's name and to have done many miracles. But Jesus will tear
off the sheepskin and lay bare the ravening wolf. "I never knew
you" (oudepote egn(936e) h(966d)(8373)). "I was never acquainted with you"
(experimental knowledge). Success, as the world counts it, is not
a criterion of one's knowledge of Christ and relation to him. "I
will profess unto them" (homolog(8873)(9320)autois), the very word used
of profession of Christ before men ( Mt 10:32 ). This word Jesus
will use for public and open announcement of their doom.

經文:

馬太福音 7:24-7:24

註釋:

 {And doeth them} (kai poiei autous). That is the point in
the parable of the wise builder, "who digged and went deep, and
laid a foundation upon the rock" ( Lu 6:48 ).

經文:

馬太福音 7:25-7:25

註釋:

 {Was founded} (	ethemeli(9374)o). Past perfect indicative
passive state of completion in the past. It had been built upon
the rock and it stood. No augment.

經文:

馬太福音 7:26-7:26

註釋:

 {And doeth them not} (kai m(8820)poi(936e) autous). The foolish
builder put his house on the sands that could not hold in the
storm. One is reminded of the words of Jesus at the beginning of
the Sermon in  5:19  about the one "who does and teaches."
Hearing sermons is a dangerous business if one does not put them
into practice.

經文:

馬太福音 7:28-7:28

註釋:

 {The multitudes were astonished} (exepl(8873)sonto hoi
ochloi). They listened spell-bound to the end and were left
amazed. Note the imperfect tense, a buzz of astonishment. The
verb means literally "were struck out of themselves."

經文:

馬太福音 7:29-7:29

註釋:

 {And not as their scribes} (kai ouch h(9373) hoi grammateis
aut(936e)). They had heard many sermons before from the regular
rabbis in the synagogues. We have specimens of these discourses
preserved in the Mishna and Gemara, the Jewish Talmud when both
were completed, the driest, dullest collection of disjounted
comments upon every conceivable problem in the history of
mankind. The scribes quoted the rabbis before them and were
afraid to express an idea without bolstering it up by some
predecessor. Jesus spoke with the authority of truth, the reality
and freshness of the morning light, and the power of God's
Spirit. This sermon which made such a profound impression ended
with the tragedy of the fall of the house on the sand like the
crash of a giant oak in the forest. There was no smoothing over
the outcome.

經文:

馬太福音 8:2-8:2

註釋:

 {If thou wilt} (ean thel(8869)s). The leper knew that Jesus had
the power to heal him. His doubt was about his willingness. "Men
more easily believe in miraculous power than in miraculous love"
(Bruce). This is a condition of the third class (undetermined,
but with prospect of being determined), a hopeful doubt at any
rate. Jesus accepted his challenge by "I will." The command to
"tell no one" was to suppress excitement and prevent hostility.

經文:

馬太福音 8:5-8:5

註釋:

 {Unto him} (aut(9369)). Dative in spite of the genitive
absolute eiselthontos autou as in verse  1 , a not infrequent
Greek idiom, especially in the _koin(825f).

經文:

馬太福音 8:6-8:6

註釋:

 {Grievously tormented} (dein(9373) basanizomenos). Participle
present passive from root asanos (see on 烘t 4:24|). The boy
(pais), slave (doulos,  Lu 7:2 ), was a bedridden
(ebl(8874)ai, perfect passive indicative of all(935c)) paralytic.

經文:

馬太福音 8:7-8:7

註釋:

 {I will come and heal him} (eg(9320)elth(936e) therapeus(9320)auton).
Future indicative, not deliberative subjunctive in question
(McNeile). The word here for heal (	herapeus(935c)) means first to
serve, give medical attention, then cure, restore to health. The
centurion uses the more definite word for healing (iath(8873)etai
 8:8 ) as Matthew does in  8:13  (iath(885c)). Luke ( Lu 9:11 ),
like a physician, says that Jesus healed (iato) those in need
of treatment (	herapeias), but the distinction is not always
observed. In  Ac 28:8  Luke uses iasato of the miraculous
healings in Malta by Paul while he employs etherapeuonto ( Ac
28:9 ) apparently of the practice of Luke the physician (so W. M.
Ramsay). Matthew represents the centurion himself as speaking to
Jesus while Luke has it that two committees from the centurion
brought the messages, apparently a more detailed narrative. What
one does through others he does himself as Pilate "scourged
Jesus" (had him scourged).

經文:

馬太福音 8:9-8:9

註釋:

 {For I also am a man under authority} (kai gar eg(9320)anthr(9370)os
hupo exousian). "Also" is in the text, though the kai here may
mean "even," even I in my subordinate position have soldiers
under me. As a military man he had learned obedience to his
superiors and so expected obedience to his commands, instant
obedience (aorist imperatives and aoristic present indicatives).
Hence his faith in Christ's power over the illness of the boy
even without coming. Jesus had only to speak with a word ( 8:8 ),
say the word, and it would be done.

經文:

馬太福音 8:10-8:10

註釋:

 {So great faith} (	osaut(886e) pistin). In a Roman centurion
and greater than in any of the Jews. In like manner Jesus
marvelled at the great faith of the Canaanitish woman ( Mt
15:28 ).

經文:

馬太福音 8:11-8:11

註釋:

 {Sit down} (anaklith(8873)ontai). Recline at table on couches
as Jews and Romans did. Hence Leonardo da Vinci's famous picture
of the Last Supper is an anachronism with all seated at table in
modern style.

經文:

馬太福音 8:12-8:12

註釋:

 {The sons of the kingdom} (hoi huioi t(8873) basileias). A
favourite Hebrew idiom like "son of hell" ( Mt 23:15 ), "sons of
this age" ( Lu 16:8 ). The Jews felt that they had a natural
right to the privileges of the kingdom because of descent from
Abraham ( Mt 3:9 ). But mere natural birth did not bring
spiritual sonship as the Baptist had taught before Jesus did.

{Into the outer darkness} (eis to skotos to ex(9374)eron).
Comparative adjective like our "further out," the darkness
outside the limits of the lighted palace, one of the figures for
hell or punishment ( Mt 23:13  25:30 ). The repeated article
makes it bolder and more impressive, "the darkness the outside,"
there where the wailing and gnashing of teeth is heard in the
thick blackness of night.

經文:

馬太福音 8:14-8:14

註釋:

 {Lying sick of a fever} (ibl(886d)en(886e) kai puressousan). Two
participles, bedridden (perfect passive of all(935c)) and burning
with fever (present active). How long the fever had had her we
have no means of knowing, possibly a sudden and severe attack
( Mr 1:30 ), as they tell Jesus about her on reaching the house
of Peter. We are not told what kind of fever it was. Fever itself
was considered a disease. "Fever" is from German feuer (fire)
like the Greek pur.

經文:

馬太福音 8:15-8:15

註釋:

 {Touched her hand} (h(8870)sato t(8873) cheiros aut(8873)). In loving
sympathy as the Great Physician and like any good doctor today.

{Ministered} (di(886b)onei). "Began to minister" (conative
imperfect) at once to Jesus at table in gratitude and love.

經文:

馬太福音 8:16-8:16

註釋:

 {When even was come} (opsias genomen(8873)). Genitive
absolute. A beautiful sunset scene at the close of the Sabbath
day ( Mr 1:21 ). Then the crowds came as Jesus stood in the door
of Peter's house ( Mr 1:33  Mt 8:14 ) as all the city gathered
there with the sick, "all those who had it bad" (see on 烘t
4:24|) and he healed them "with a word" (log(9369)). It was a never
to be forgotten memory for those who saw it.

經文:

馬太福音 8:17-8:17

註釋:

 {Himself took our infirmities and bare our diseases} (autos
tas astheneias elaben kai tas nosous ebastasen). A quotation
from  Isa 53:4 . It is not clear in what sense Matthew applies
the words in Isaiah whether in the precise sense of the Hebrew or
in an independent manner. Moffatt translates it: "He took away
our sicknesses, and bore the burden of our diseases." Goodspeed
puts it: "He took our sickness and carried away our diseases."
Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, pp. 102f.) thinks that Matthew has
made a free interpretation of the Hebrew, has discarded the
translation of the Septuagint, and has transposed the two Hebrew
verbs so that Matthew means: "He took upon himself our pains, and
bore our diseases." Plummer holds that "It is impossible, and
also unnecessary, to understand what the Evangelist understood by
'took ' (elaben) and 'bare' (ebastasen). It at least must
mean that Christ removed their sufferings from the sufferers. He
can hardly have meant that the diseases were transferred to
Christ." Bastaz(935c) occurs freely in the papyri with the sense of
lift, carry, endure, carry away (the commonest meaning, Moulton
and Milligan, _Vocabulary_), pilfer. In  Mt 3:11  we have the
common vernacular use to take off sandals. The Attic Greek did
not use it in the sense of carrying off. "This passage is the
cornerstone of the faith-cure theory, which claims that the
atonement of Christ includes provision for _bodily_ no less than
for spiritual healing, and therefore insists on translating 'took
away'" (Vincent). We have seen that the word astaz(935c) will
possibly allow that meaning, but I agree with McNeile: "The
passage, _as Mt. employs it_, has no bearing on the doctrine of
the atonement." But Jesus does show his sympathy with us.
"Christ's sympathy with the sufferers was so intense that he
really felt their weaknesses and pains." In our burdens Jesus
steps under the load with us and helps us to carry on.

經文:

馬太福音 8:19-8:19

註釋:

 {A scribe} (heis grammateus). One (heis)="a," indefinite
article. Already a disciple as shown by "another of the
disciples" (heteros t(936e) math(8874)(936e)) in  8:21 . He calls Jesus
"Teacher" (didaskale), but he seems to be a "bumptious" brother
full of self-confidence and self-complacency. "Even one of that
most unimpressionable class, in spirit and tendency utterly
opposed to the ways of Jesus" (Bruce). Yet Jesus deals gently
with him.

經文:

馬太福音 8:20-8:20

註釋:

 {Holes} (ph(936c)eous). A lurking hole, burrow. {Nests}
(katask(886e)(9373)eis). "Roosts, i.e. leafy, sk(886e)ai for settling at
night (_tabernacula, habitacula_), not nests" (McNeile). In the
Septuagint it is used of God tabernacling in the Sanctuary. The
verb (katask(886e)o(935c)) is there used of birds ( Ps 103:12 ).

{The Son of man} (	ho huios tou anthr(9370)ou). This remarkable
expression, applied to himself by Jesus so often, appears here
for the first time. There is a considerable modern literature
devoted to it. "It means much for the Speaker, who has chosen it
deliberately, in connection with private reflections, at whose
nature we can only guess, by study of the many occasions on which
the name is used" (Bruce). Often it means the Representative Man.
It may sometimes stand for the Aramaic _barnasha_, the man, but
in most instances that idea will not suit. Jesus uses it as a
concealed Messianic title. It is possible that this scribe would
not understand the phrase at all. Bruce thinks that here Jesus
means "the unprivileged Man," worse off than the foxes and the
birds. Jesus spoke Greek as well as Aramaic. It is inconceivable
that the Gospels should never call Jesus "the Son of man" and
always credit it to him as his own words if he did not so term
himself, about eighty times in all, thirty-three in Matthew.
Jesus in his early ministry, except at the very start in  Joh 4 ,
abstains from calling himself Messiah. This term suited his
purpose exactly to get the people used to his special claim as
Messiah when he is ready to make it openly.

經文:

馬太福音 8:21-8:21

註釋:

 {And bury my father} (kai thapsai ton patera mou). The
first man was an enthusiast. This one is overcautious. It is by
no means certain that the father was dead. Tobit urged his son
Tobias to be sure to bury him: "Son, when I am dead, bury me"
(Tobit 4:3). The probability is that this disciple means that,
after his father is dead and buried, he will then be free to
follow Jesus. "At the present day, an Oriental, with his father
sitting by his side, has been known to say respecting his future
projects: 'But I must first bury my father!'" (Plummer). Jesus
wanted first things first. But even if his father was not
actually dead, service to Christ comes first.

經文:

馬太福音 8:22-8:22

註釋:

 {Leave the dead to bury their own dead} (aphes tous nekrous
thapsai tous heaut(936e) nekrous). The spiritually dead are always
on hand to bury the physically dead, if one's real duty is with
Jesus. Chrysostom says that, while it is a good deed to bury the
dead, it is a better one to preach Christ.

經文:

馬太福音 8:24-8:24

註釋:

 {But he was asleep} (autos de ekatheuden). Imperfect, was
sleeping. Picturesque scene. The Sea of Galilee is 680 feet below
the Mediterranean Sea. These sudden squalls come down from the
summit of Hermon with terrific force (seismos megas) like an
earthquake. Mark ( Mr 4:37 ) and Luke ( Lu 8:23 ) term it a
whirlwind (lailaps) in furious gusts.

經文:

馬太福音 8:25-8:25

註釋:

 {Save, Lord; we perish} (Kurie, s(9373)on, apollumetha). More
exactly, "Lord, save us at once (aorist), we are perishing
(present linear)."

經文:

馬太福音 8:27-8:27

註釋:

 {Even the winds and the sea obey him} (Kai hoi an(886d)oi kai
h(8820)thalassa aut(9369) hupakouousin). A nature miracle. Even a sudden
drop in the wind would not at once calm the sea. "J. Weiss
explains that by 'an astonishing coincidence' the storm happened
to lull at the moment that Jesus spoke!" (McNeile). Some minds
are easily satisfied by their own stupidities.

經文:

馬太福音 8:28-8:28

註釋:

 {The country of the Gadarenes} (	en ch(9372)an t(936e) Gadar(886e)(936e)).
This is the correct text in Matthew while in  Mr 5:1  and  Lu
8:26  it is "the country of the Gerasenes." Dr. Thomson
discovered by the lake the ruins of Khersa (Gerasa). This village
is in the district of the city of Gadara some miles southeastward
so that it can be called after Gerasa or Gadara. So Matthew
speaks of "two demoniacs" while Mark and Luke mention only one,
the leading one. "{The tombs}" (	(936e) mn(886d)ei(936e)) were chambers cut
into the mountain side common enough in Palestine then and now.
On the eastern side of the lake the precipitous cliffs are of
limestone formation and full of caves. It is one of the proofs
that one is a maniac that he haunts the tombs. People shunned the
region as dangerous because of the madmen.

經文:

馬太福音 8:29-8:29

註釋:

 {Thou Son of God} (huie tou theou). The recognition of
Jesus by the demons is surprising. The whole subject of
demonology is difficult. Some hold that it is merely the ancient
way of describing disease. But that does not explain the
situation here. Jesus is represented as treating the demons as
real existences separate from the human personality. Missionaries
in China today claim that they have seen demons cast out. The
devil knew Jesus clearly and it is not strange that Jesus was
recognized by the devil's agents. They know that there is nothing
in common between them and the Son of God (h(886d)in kai soi,
ethical dative) and they fear torment "before the time" (pro
kairou). Usually 	a daimonia is the word in the New Testament
for demons, but in  8:31  we have hoi daimones (the only
example in the N.T.). Daimonion is a diminutive of daim(936e). In
Homer daim(936e) is used synonymously with 	heos and 	hea.
Hesiod employed daim(936e) of men of the golden age as tutelary
deities. Homer has the adjective daimonios usually in an evil
sense. Empedocles considered the demons both bad and good. They
were thus used to relieve the gods and goddesses of much
rascality. Grote (_History of Greece_) notes that the Christians
were thus by pagan usage justified in calling idolatry the
worship of demons. See  1Co 10:20f.  1Ti 4:1  Re 9:20  16:13f .
In the Gospels demons are the same as unclean spirits ( Mr
5:12,15  3:22,30  Lu 4:33 ). The demons are disturbers (Vincent)
of the whole life of man ( Mr 5:2f.  7:25  Mt 12:45  Lu
13:11,16 ).

經文:

馬太福音 8:32-8:32

註釋:

 {Rushed down the steep} (h(9372)m(8873)en kata tou kr(886d)nou). Down
from the cliff (ablative case) into the sea. Constative aorist
tense. The influence of mind on matter is now understood better
than formerly, but we have the mastery of the mind of the Master
on the minds of the maniacs, the power of Christ over the demons,
over the herd of hogs. Difficulties in plenty exist for those who
see only folk-lore and legend, but plain enough if we take Jesus
to be really Lord and Saviour. The incidental destruction of the
hogs need not trouble us when we are so familiar with nature's
tragedies which we cannot comprehend.

經文:

馬太福音 8:34-8:34

註釋:

 {That he would depart} (hop(9373) metab(8869)). The whole city was
excited over the destruction of the hogs and begged Jesus to
leave, forgetful of the healing of the demoniacs in their concern
over the loss of property. They cared more for hogs than for
human souls, as often happens today.

經文:

馬太福音 9:1-9:1

註釋:

 {His own city} (	(886e) idian polin). Capernaum ( Mr 2:1  Mt
4:13 ).

經文:

馬太福音 9:2-9:2

註釋:

 {They brought} (prosepheron). Imperfect, "were bringing,"
graphic picture made very vivid by the details in  Mr 2:1-4  and
 Lu 5:17 . "{Lying on a bed}" (stretched on a couch), perfect
passive participle, a little bed or couch (klinidion) in  Lu
5:19 , "a pallet" (krabatos) in  Mr 2:4,9,11 . {Thy sins are
forgiven} (aphientai). Present passive indicative (aoristic
present). Luke ( Lu 5:21 ) has aphe(936e)tai, Doric and Ionic
perfect passive indicative for the Attic apheintai, one of the
dialectical forms appearing in the _Koin(825f).

經文:

馬太福音 9:3-9:3

註釋:

 {This man blasphemeth} (houtos blasph(886d)ei). See the sneer
in "this fellow." "The prophet always is a scandalous, irreverent
blasphemer from the conventional point of view" (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 9:6-9:6

註釋:

 {That ye may know} (hina eid(8874)e). Jesus accepts the
challenge in the thoughts of the scribes and performs the miracle
of healing the paralytic, who so far only had his sins forgiven,
to prove his Messianic power on earth to forgive sins even as God
does. The word exousia may mean either power or authority. He
had both as a matter of fact. Note same word in  9:8 . {Then
saith he to the sick of the palsy} (	ote legei t(9369)
paralutik(9369)). These words of course, were not spoken by Jesus.
Curiously enough Matthew interjects them right in the midst of
the sayings of Jesus in reply to the scorn of the scribes. Still
more remarkable is the fact that Mark ( Mr 2:10 ) has precisely
the same words in the same place save that Matthew has added
	ote, of which he is fond, to what Mark already had. Mark, as
we know, largely reports Peter's words and sees with Peter's
eyes. Luke has the same idea in the same place without the vivid
historical present legei (eipen t(9369) paralelumen(9369)) with the
participle in place of the adjective. This is one of the many
proofs that both Matthew and Luke made use of Mark's Gospel each
in his own way. {Take up thy bed} ((8372)on sou t(886e) klin(886e)). Pack
up at once (aorist active imperative) the rolled-up pallet.

經文:

馬太福音 9:9-9:9

註釋:

 {At the place of toll} (epi to tel(936e)ion). The tax-office or
custom-house of Capernaum placed here to collect taxes from the
boats going across the lake outside of Herod's territory or from
people going from Damascus to the coast, a regular caravan route.
"{Called Matthew}" (Maththaion legomenon) and in  10:3  Matthew
the publican is named as one of the Twelve Apostles. Mark ( Mr
2:14 ) and Luke ( Lu 5:27 ) call this man Levi. He had two names
as was common, Matthew Levi. The publicans (	el(936e)ai) get their
name in English from the Latin _publicanus_ (a man who did public
duty), not a very accurate designation. They were detested
because they practised graft. Even Gabinius the proconsul of
Syria was accused by Cicero of relieving Syrians and Jews of
legitimate taxes for graft. He ordered some of the tax-officers
removed. Already Jesus had spoken of the publican ( 5:46 ) in a
way that shows the public disfavour in which they were held.

經文:

馬太福音 9:10-9:10

註釋:

 {Publicans and sinners} (	el(936e)ai kai hamart(936c)oi). Often
coupled together in common scorn and in contrast with the
righteous (dikaioi in  9:13 ). It was a strange medley at
Levi's feast (Jesus and the four fisher disciples, Nathanael and
Philip; Matthew Levi and his former companions, publicans and
sinners; Pharisees with their scribes or students as on-lookers;
disciples of John the Baptist who were fasting at the very time
that Jesus was feasting and with such a group). The Pharisees
criticize sharply "your teacher" for such a social breach of
"reclining" together with publicans at Levi's feast.

經文:

馬太福音 9:12-9:12

註釋:

 {But they that are sick} (alla hoi kak(9373) echontes).
Probably a current proverb about the physician. As a physician of
body and soul Jesus was bound to come in close touch with the
social outcasts.

經文:

馬太福音 9:13-9:13

註釋:

 {But go ye and learn} (poreuthentes de mathete). With
biting sarcasm Jesus bids these preachers to learn the meaning of
 Ho 6:6 . It is repeated in  Mt 12:7 . Ingressive aorist
imperative (mathete).

經文:

馬太福音 9:14-9:14

註釋:

 {The disciples of John} (hoi math(8874)ai I(9361)nou). One is
surprised to find disciples of the Baptist in the role of critics
of Christ along with the Pharisees. But John was languishing in
prison and they perhaps were blaming Jesus for doing nothing
about it. At any rate John would not have gone to Levi's feast on
one of the Jewish fast-days. "The strict asceticism of the
Baptist ( 11:18 ) and of the Pharisaic rabbis ( Lu 18:12 ) was
imitated by their disciples" (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 9:15-9:15

註釋:

 {The sons of the bride-chamber} (hoi huioi tou numph(936e)os).
It is a late Hebrew idiom for the wedding guests, "the friends of
the bridegroom and all the sons of the bride-chamber" (_Tos.
Berak._ ii. 10). Cf.  Joh 2:29 .

經文:

馬太福音 9:16-9:16

註釋:

 {Undressed cloth} (
hakous agnaphou). An unfulled, raw
piece of woollen cloth that will shrink when wet and tear a
bigger hole than ever. {A worse rent} (cheiron schisma). Our
word "schism." The "{patch}" (pl(8872)(936d)a, filling up) thus does
more harm than good.

經文:

馬太福音 9:17-9:17

註釋:

 {Old wineskins} (askous palaious). Not glass "{bottles}"
but wineskins used as bottles as is true in Palestine yet,
goatskins with the rough part inside. "Our word _bottle_
originally carried the true meaning, being a bottle of leather.
In Spanish _bota_ means a _leather bottle_, a _boot_, and a
_butt_. In Spain wine is still brought to market in pig-skins "
(Vincent). The new wine will ferment and crack the dried-up old
skins. {The wine is spilled} (ekcheitai), poured out.

經文:

馬太福音 9:18-9:18

註釋:

 {Is even now dead} (arti eteleut(8873)en). Aorist tense with
arti and so better, "just now died," "just dead" (Moffatt).
Mark ( Mr 5:23 ) has it "at the point of death," Luke ( Lu 8:42 )
"lay a dying." It is not always easy even for physicians to tell
when actual death has come. Jesus in  9:24  pointedly said, "The
damsel is not dead, but sleepeth," meaning that she did not die
to stay dead.

經文:

馬太福音 9:20-9:20

註釋:

 {The border of his garment} (	ou kraspedou tou himatiou).
The hem or fringe of a garment, a tassel or tuft hanging from the
edge of the outer garment according to  Nu 15:38 . It was made of
twisted wool. Jesus wore the dress of other people with these
fringes at the four corners of the outer garment. The Jews
actually counted the words _Jehovah One_ from the numbers of the
twisted white threads, a refinement that Jesus had no concern
for. This poor woman had an element of superstition in her faith
as many people have, but Jesus honours her faith and cures her.

經文:

馬太福音 9:23-9:23

註釋:

 {The flute-players} (	ous aul(8874)as). The girl was just
dead, but already a crowd "making a tumult" (	horuboumenon)
with wild wailing and screaming had gathered in the outer court,
"brought together by various motives, sympathy, money, desire to
share in the meat and drink going at such a time" (Bruce).
Besides the several flute-players (voluntary or hired) there were
probably "some hired mourning women ( Jer 9:17 ) _praeficae_,
whose duty it was to sing _naenia_ in praise of the dead"
(Bruce). These when put out by Jesus, "laughed him to scorn"
(kategel(936e)), in a sort of loud and repeated (imperfect) guffaw
of scorn. Jesus overcame all this repellent environment.

經文:

馬太福音 9:27-9:27

註釋:

 {As Jesus passed by} (paragonti I(8873)ou). Associative
instrumental case with (886b)olouth(8873)an. It was the supreme
opportunity of these two blind men. Note two demoniacs in  Mt
8:28  and two blind men in  Mt 20:30 . See the same word
parag(936e) used of Jesus in  9:9 .

經文:

馬太福音 9:29-9:29

註釋:

 {Touched their eyes} (h(8870)sato t(936e) ophthalm(936e)). The men had
faith ( 9:28 ) and Jesus rewards their faith and yet he touched
their eyes as he sometimes did with kindly sympathy.

經文:

馬太福音 9:30-9:30

註釋:

 {Were opened} ((886e)e(9369)chth(8873)an). Triple augment (on oi=(9369),
e and then on preposition an = (886e)). {Strictly charged them}
(enebrim(8874)h(8820)autois). A difficult word, compound of en and
rimaomai (to be moved with anger). It is used of horses
snorting (Aeschylus, _Theb_. 461), of men fretting or being angry
( Da 11:30 ). Allen notes that it occurs twice in Mark ( Mr 1:43  14:5 ) when Matthew omits it. It is found only here in Matthew.
John has it twice in a different sense ( Joh 11:33  with en
heaut(9369)). Here and in  Mr 1:32  it has the notion of commanding
sternly, a sense unknown to ancient writers. Most manuscripts
have the middle enebrim(8873)ato, but Aleph and B have the passive
enebrim(8874)h(885c) which Westcott and Hort accept, but without the
passive sense (cf. apekrith(885c)). "The word describes rather a
rush of deep feeling which in the synoptic passages showed itself
in a vehement injunctive and in  Joh 11:33  in look and manner"
(McNeile). Bruce translates Euthymius Zigabenus on  Mr 1:32 :
"Looked severely, contracting His eyebrows, and shaking His head
at them as they are wont to do who wish to make sure that secrets
will be kept." "See to it, let no one know it" (horate, m(8864)eis
gin(9373)ket(935c)). Note elliptical change of persons and number in the
two imperatives.

經文:

馬太福音 9:32-9:32

註釋:

 {A dumb man} (k(9370)hon). Literally blunted in tongue as here
and so dumb, in ear as in  Mt 11:5  and so deaf. Homer used it of
a blunted dart (_Iliad_ xi. 390). Others applied it to mental
dulness.

經文:

馬太福音 9:34-9:34

註釋:

 {By the prince of the devils} (en t(9369) archonti t(936e)
daimoni(936e)). Demons, not devils. The codex Bezae omits this
verse, but it is probably genuine. The Pharisees are becoming
desperate and, unable to deny the reality of the miracles, they
seek to discredit them by trying to connect Jesus with the devil
himself, the prince of the demons. They will renew this charge
later ( Mt 12:24 ) when Jesus will refute it with biting sarcasm.

經文:

馬太福音 9:35-9:35

註釋:

 {And Jesus went about} (kai peri(8867)en ho I(8873)ous). Imperfect
tense descriptive of this third tour of all Galilee.

經文:

馬太福音 9:36-9:36

註釋:

 {Were distressed and scattered} ((8873)an eskulmenoi kai
erimmenoi). Periphrastic past perfect indicative passive. A sad
and pitiful state the crowds were in. Rent or mangled as if by
wild beasts. Skull(935c) occurs in the papyri in sense of plunder,
concern, vexation. "Used here of the common people, it describes
their religious condition. They were harassed, importuned,
bewildered by those who should have taught them; hindered from
entering into the kingdom of heaven ( 23:13 ), laden with the
burdens which the Pharisees laid upon them ( 23:3 ). Erimmenoi
denotes men cast down and prostrate on the ground, whether from
drunkenness, Polyb. v. 48.2, or from mortal wounds" (Allen): This
perfect passive participle from 
hipt(935c), to throw down. The
masses were in a state of mental dejection. No wonder that Jesus
was moved with compassion (esplagchnisth(885c)).

經文:

馬太福音 9:38-9:38

註釋:

 {That he send forth labourers} (hop(9373) ekbal(8869) ergatas).
Jesus turns from the figure of the shepherdless sheep to the
harvest field ripe and ready for the reapers. The verb ekball(935c)
really means to drive out, to push out, to draw out with violence
or without. Prayer is the remedy offered by Jesus in this crisis
for a larger ministerial supply. How seldom do we hear prayers
for more preachers. Sometimes God literally has to push or force
a man into the ministry who resists his known duty.

經文:

馬太福音 10:1-10:1

註釋:

 {His twelve disciples} (	ous d(9364)eka math(8874)as autou). First
mention of the group of "learners" by Matthew and assumed as
already in existence (note the article) as they were ( Mr 3:14 ).
They were chosen before the Sermon on the Mount was delivered,
but Matthew did not mention it in connection with that sermon.

{Gave them authority} (ed(936b)en autois exousian). "Power"
(Moffatt, Goodspeed). One may be surprised that here only the
healing work is mentioned, though Luke ( Lu 9:2 ) has it "to
preach the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick." And Matthew
says ( Mt 10:7 ), "And as ye go, preach." Hence it is not fair to
say that Matthew knows only the charge to heal the sick,
important as that is. The physical distress was great, but the
spiritual even greater. Power is more likely the idea of
exousia here. This healing ministry attracted attention and did
a vast deal of good. Today we have hospitals and skilled
physicians and nurses, but we should not deny the power of God to
bless all these agencies and to cure disease as he wills. Jesus
is still the master of soul and body. But intelligent faith does
not justify us in abstaining from the help of the physician who
must not be confounded with the quack and the charlatan.

經文:

馬太福音 10:2-10:2

註釋:

 {The names of the twelve apostles} (	(936e) d(9364)eka apostol(936e) ta
onomata). This is the official name (missionaries) used here by
Matthew for the first time. The names are given here, but Matthew
does not say that they were chosen at this time. Mark ( Mr
3:13-19 ) and Luke ( Lu 6:12-16 ) state that Jesus "chose" them,
"appointed" them after a night of prayer in the mountain and came
down with them and then delivered the Sermon ( Lu 6:17 ). Simon
heads the list (pr(9374)os) in all four lists including  Ac 1:13f .
He came to be first and foremost at the great Pentecost ( Ac 2 
and  Ac 3 ). The apostles disputed a number of times as to which
was greatest. Judas Iscariot comes last each time save that he is
absent in Acts, being already dead. Matthew calls him the
betrayer (ho paradidous). Iscariot is usually explained as "man
of Kerioth" down near Edom ( Jos 15:25 ). Philip comes fifth and
James the son of Alphaeus the ninth. Bartholomew is the name for
Nathanael. Thaddaeus is Judas the brother of James. Simon Zelotes
is also called Simon the Canaanean (Zealous, Hebrew word). This
is apparently their first preaching and healing tour without
Jesus. He sends them forth by twos ( Mr 6:7 ). Matthew names them
in pairs, probably as they were sent out.

經文:

馬太福音 10:5-10:5

註釋:

 {These twelve Jesus sent forth} (	outous tous d(9364)eka
apesteilen ho I(8873)ous). The word "sent forth" (apesteilen) is
the same root as "apostles." The same word reappears in  10:16 .
{Way of the Gentiles} (hodon ethn(936e)). Objective genitive, way
leading to the Gentiles. This prohibition against going among the
Gentiles and the Samaritans was for this special tour. They were
to give the Jews the first opportunity and not to prejudice the
cause at this stage. Later Jesus will order them to go and
disciple all the Gentiles ( Mt 28:19 ).

經文:

馬太福音 10:6-10:6

註釋:

 {The lost sheep} (	a probata ta apol(936c)ota). The sheep, the
lost ones. Mentioned here first by Matthew. Jesus uses it not in
blame, but in pity (Bruce). Bengel notes that Jesus says "lost"
more frequently than "led astray." "If the Jewish nation could be
brought to repentance the new age would dawn" (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 10:7-10:7

註釋:

 {As ye go, preach} (poreuomenoi k(8872)ussete). Present
participle and present imperative. They were itinerant preachers
on a "preaching tour," heralds (k(8872)ukes) proclaiming good news.
The summary message is the same as that of the Baptist ( 3:2 )
that first startled the country, "the kingdom of heaven has drawn
nigh." He echoed it up and down the Jordan Valley. They are to
shake Galilee with it as Jesus had done ( 4:17 ). That same
amazing message is needed today. But "the apprentice apostles"
(Bruce) could tell not a little about the King of the Kingdom who
was with them.

經文:

馬太福音 10:9-10:9

註釋:

 {Get you no gold} (m(8820)kt(8873)(8873)the). It is not, "Do not
possess" or "own," but "do not acquire" or "procure" for
yourselves, indirect middle aorist subjunctive. Gold, silver,
brass (copper) in a descending scale (nor even bronze). {In your
purses} (eis tas z(936e)as h(966d)(936e)). In your girdles or belts used
for carrying money.

經文:

馬太福音 10:10-10:10

註釋:

 {No wallet} (m(8820)p(8872)an). Better than "scrip." It can be
either a travelling or bread bag. Deissmann (_Light from the
Ancient East_, pp. 108f.) shows that it can mean the beggar's
collecting bag as in an inscription on a monument at Kefr Hanar
in Syria: "While Christianity was still young the beggar priest
was making his rounds in the land of Syria on behalf of the
national goddess." Deissmann also quotes a pun in the
_Didaskalia=Const. Apost_. 3, 6 about some itinerant widows who
said that they were not so much ch(8872)ai (spouseless) as p(8872)ai
(pouchless). He cites also Shakespeare, _Troilus and Cressida_
III. iii. 145: "Time hath, my lord, a wallet at his back, wherein
he puts alms for oblivion." {For the labourer is worthy of his
food} (axios gar ho ergat(8873) t(8873) troph(8873) autou). The sermon is
worth the dinner, in other words. Luke in the charge to the
seventy ( Lu 10:7 ) has the same words with misthou (reward)
instead of 	roph(8873) (food). In  1Ti 5:18  Paul quotes Luke's
form as scripture (h(8820)graph(885c)) or as a well-known saying if
confined to the first quotation. The word for workman here
(ergat(8873)) is that used by Jesus in the prayer for labourers
( Mt 9:38 ). The well-known _Didach(885f) or _Teaching of the Twelve_
(xiii) shows that in the second century there was still a felt
need for care on the subject of receiving pay for preaching. The
travelling sophists added also to the embarrassment of the
situation. The wisdom of these restrictions was justified in
Galilee at this time. Mark ( Mr 6:6-13 ) and Luke ( Lu 9:1-6 )
vary slightly from Matthew in some of the details of the
instructions of Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 10:13-10:13

註釋:

 {If the house be worthy} (ean (8869) h(8820)oikia axia). Third
class condition. What makes a house worthy? "It would naturally
be readiness to receive the preachers and their message"
(McNeile). Hospitality is one of the noblest graces and preachers
receive their share of it. The apostles are not to be burdensome
as guests.

經文:

馬太福音 10:14-10:14

註釋:

 {Shake off the dust} (ektinaxate ton koniorton). Shake
out, a rather violent gesture of disfavour. The Jews had violent
prejudices against the smallest particles of Gentile dust, not as
a purveyor of disease of which they did not know, but because it
was regarded as the putrescence of death. If the apostles were
mistreated by a host or hostess, they were to be treated as if
they were Gentiles (cf.  Mt 18:17  Ac 18:6 ). Here again we have
a restriction that was for this special tour with its peculiar
perils.

經文:

馬太福音 10:15-10:15

註釋:

 {More tolerable} (anektoteron). The papyri use this
adjective of a convalescent. People in their vernacular today
speak of feeling "tolerable." The Galileans were having more
privileges than Sodom and Gomorrah had.

經文:

馬太福音 10:16-10:16

註釋:

 {As sheep in the midst of wolves} (h(9373) probata en mes(9369)
luk(936e)). The presence of wolves on every hand was a fact then and
now. Some of these very sheep ( 10:6 ) at the end will turn out
to be wolves and cry for Christ's crucifixion. The situation
called for consummate wisdom and courage. The serpent was the
emblem of wisdom or shrewdness, intellectual keenness ( Ge 3:1  Ps 58:5 ), the dove of simplicity ( Ho 7:11 ). It was a proverb,
this combination, but one difficult of realization. Either
without the other is bad (rascality or gullibility). The first
clause with arnas for probata is in  Lu 10:3  and apparently
is in a _Fragment of a Lost Gospel_ edited by Grenfell and Hunt.
The combination of wariness and innocence is necessary for the
protection of the sheep and the discomfiture of the wolves. For
"harmless" (akeraioi) Moffatt and Goodspeed have "guileless,"
Weymouth "innocent." The word means "unmixed" (a privative and
kerannumi), "unadulterated," "simple," "unalloyed."

經文:

馬太福音 10:17-10:17

註釋:

 {Beware of men} (prosechete apo t(936e) anthr(9370)(936e)). Ablative
case with apo. Hold your mind (
oun understood) away from.
The article with anthr(9370)(936e) points back to luk(936e) (wolves) in
 10:16 .

{To councils} (eis sunedria). The local courts of justice in
every Jewish town. The word is an old one from Herodotus on for
any deliberative body (concilium). The same word is used for
the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem. {In their synagogues} (en tois
sunag(9367)ais aut(936e)). Here not merely as the place of assembly for
worship, but as an assembly of justice exercising discipline as
when the man born blind was cast out of the synagogue ( Joh
9:35 ). They were now after the exile in every town of any size
where Jews were.

經文:

馬太福音 10:19-10:19

註釋:

 {Be not anxious} (m(8820)merimn(8873)(8874)e). Ingressive aorist
subjunctive in prohibition. "Do not become anxious" ( Mt 6:31 ).
"Self-defence before Jewish kings and heathen governors would be
a terrible ordeal for humble Galileans. The injunction applied to
cases when preparation of a speech would be impossible"
(McNeile). "It might well alarm the bravest of these simple
fishermen to be told that they would have to answer for their
doings on Christ's behalf before Jewish councils and heathen
courts" (Plummer). Christ is not talking about preparation of
sermons. "{In that hour}" (en ekein(8869) t(8869) h(9372)(8369)), if not
before. The Spirit of your Father will speak to you and through
you ( 10:20 ). Here is no posing as martyr or courting a martyr's
crown, but real heroism with full loyalty to Christ.

經文:

馬太福音 10:22-10:22

註釋:

 {Ye shall be hated} (esesthe misoumenoi). Periphrastic
future passive, linear action. It will go on through the ages.
{For my name's sake} (dia to onoma mou). In the O.T. as in the
Targums and the Talmud "the name" as here stands for the person
( Mt 19:29  Ac 5:41  9:16  15:26 ). "He that endureth to the end"
(ho hupomeinas eis telos). Effective aorist participle with
future indicative.

經文:

馬太福音 10:23-10:23

註釋:

 {Till the Son of man be come} (he(9373) elth(8869) ho huios tou
anthr(9370)ou). Moffatt puts it "before the Son of man arrives" as
if Jesus referred to this special tour of Galilee. Jesus could
overtake them. Possibly so, but it is by no means clear. Some
refer it to the Transfiguration, others to the coming of the Holy
Spirit at Pentecost, others to the Second Coming. Some hold that
Matthew has put the saying in the wrong context. Others bluntly
say that Jesus was mistaken, a very serious charge to make in his
instructions to these preachers. The use of he(9373) with aorist
subjunctive for a future event is a good Greek idiom.

經文:

馬太福音 10:25-10:25

註釋:

 {Beelzebub} (eezeboul according to B, eelzeboul by
most Greek MSS., eelzeboub by many non-Greek MSS.). The
etymology of the word is also unknown, whether "lord of a
dwelling" with a pun on "the master of the house"
(oikodespot(886e)) or "lord of flies" or "lord of dung" or "lord of
idolatrous sacrifices." It is evidently a term of reproach. "An
opprobrious epithet; exact form of the word and meaning of the
name have given more trouble to commentators than it is all
worth" (Bruce). See  Mt 12:24 .

經文:

馬太福音 10:26-10:26

註釋:

 {Fear them not therefore} (m(8820)oun phob(8874)h(8874)e autous).
Repeated in verses  28  and  31  (m(8820)phobeisthe present middle
imperative here in contrast with aorist passive subjunctive in
the preceding prohibitions). Note also the accusative case with
the aorist passive subjunctive, transitive though passive. See
same construction in  Lu 12:5 . In  Mt 10:28  the construction is
with apo and the ablative, a translation Hebraism as in  Lu
12:4  (Robertson, _Grammar of the Greek N.T. in the Light of
Historical Research_, p. 577).

經文:

馬太福音 10:28-10:28

註釋:

 {Destroy both soul and body in hell} (kai psuch(886e) kai s(936d)a
apolesai en geenn(8869)). Note "soul" here of the eternal spirit,
not just life in the body. "Destroy" here is not annihilation,
but eternal punishment in Gehenna (the real hell) for which see
on 氤:22|. Bruce thinks that the devil as the tempter is here
meant, not God as the judge, but surely he is wrong. There is no
more needed lesson today than the fear of God.

經文:

馬太福音 10:29-10:29

註釋:

 {Two sparrows} (duo strouthia). Diminutive of strouthos
and means any small bird, sparrows in particular. They are sold
today in the markets of Jerusalem and Jaffa. "For a farthing"
(assariou) is genitive of price. Only here and  Lu 12:6  in the
N.T. Diminutive form of the Roman _as_, slightly more than half
an English penny. {Without your Father} (aneu tou patros
h(966d)(936e)). There is comfort in this thought for us all. Our father
who knows about the sparrows knows and cares about us.

經文:

馬太福音 10:31-10:31

註釋:

 {Than many sparrows} (poll(936e) strouthi(936e)). Ablative case
of comparison with diapherete (our differ).

經文:

馬太福音 10:32-10:32

註釋:

 {Shall confess me} (homolog(8873)ei en emoi). An Aramaic
idiom, not Hebrew, see also  Lu 12:8 . So also here, "him will I
also confess" (homolog(8873)(9320)k'ag(9320)en aut(9369)). Literally this
Aramaic idiom reproduced in the Greek means "confess in me,"
indicating a sense of unity with Christ and of Christ with the
man who takes the open stand for him.

經文:

馬太福音 10:33-10:33

註釋:

 {Shall deny me} (arn(8873)(8874)ai me). Aorist subjunctive here
with hostis, though future indicative homolog(8873)ei above. Note
accusative here (case of extension), saying "no" to Christ,
complete breach. This is a solemn law, not a mere social breach,
this cleavage by Christ of the man who repudiates him, public and
final.

經文:

馬太福音 10:34-10:34

註釋:

 {I came not to send peace, but a sword} (ouk (886c)thon balein
eir(886e)(886e), alla machairan). A bold and dramatic climax. The aorist
infinitive means a sudden hurling of the sword where peace was
expected. Christ does bring peace, not as the world gives, but it
is not the force of compromise with evil, but of conquest over
wrong, over Satan, the triumph of the cross. Meanwhile there will
be inevitably division in families, in communities, in states. It
is no namby-pamby sentimentalism that Christ preaches, no peace
at any price. The Cross is Christ's answer to the devil's offer
of compromise in world dominion. For Christ the kingdom of God is
virile righteousness, not mere emotionalism.

經文:

馬太福音 10:35-10:35

註釋:

 {Set at variance} (dichasai). Literally divide in two,
dicha. Jesus uses  Mic 7:1-6  to describe the rottenness of the
age as Micah had done. Family ties and social ties cannot stand
in the way of loyalty to Christ and righteous living. {The
daughter-in-law} (
umph(886e)). Literally bride, the young wife who
is possibly living with the mother-in-law. It is a tragedy to see
a father or mother step between the child and Christ.

經文:

馬太福音 10:38-10:38

註釋:

 {Doth not take his cross} (ou lambanei ton stauron
autou). The first mention of cross in Matthew. Criminals were
crucified in Jerusalem. It was the custom for the condemned
person to carry his own cross as Jesus did till Simon of Cyrene
was impressed for that purpose. The Jews had become familiar with
crucifixion since the days of Antiochus Epiphanes and one of the
Maccabean rulers (Alexander Jannaeus) had crucified 800
Pharisees. It is not certain whether Jesus was thinking of his
own coming crucifixion when he used this figure, though possible,
perhaps probable. The disciples would hardly think of that
outcome unless some of them had remarkable insight.

經文:

馬太福音 10:39-10:39

註釋:

 {Shall lose it} (apolesei aut(886e)). This paradox appears in
four forms according to Allen (I)  Mt 10:39  (2)  Mr 8:35  Mt
16:25  Lu 9:24  (3)  Lu 17:33  (4)  Joh 12:25 . _The Wisdom of
Sirach_ (Hebrew text) in 51:26 has: "He that giveth his life
findeth her (wisdom)." It is one of the profound sayings of
Christ that he repeated many times. Plato (_Gorgias_ 512) has
language somewhat similar though not so sharply put. The article
and aorist participles here (ho heur(936e), ho apolesas) are
timeless in themselves just like ho dechomenos in verses  40 
and  41 .

經文:

馬太福音 10:41-10:41

註釋:

 {In the name of a prophet} (eis onoma proph(8874)ou).
"Because he is a prophet" (Moffatt). In an Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 37
(A.D. 49) we find onomati eleutherou in virtue of being
free-born. "He that receiveth a prophet from no ulterior motive,
but simply _qua_ prophet (_ut prophetam_, Jer.) would receive a
reward in the coming age equal to that of his guest" (McNeile).
The use of eis here is to be noted. In reality eis is simply
en with the same meaning. It is not proper to say that eis
has always to be translated "into." Besides these examples of
eis onoma in verses  41  and  43  see  Mt 12:41  eis to
k(8872)ugma I(936e)(835c) (see Robertson's _Grammar_, p. 593). {Unto one of
these little ones} (hena t(936e) mikr(936e) tout(936e)). Simple believers
who are neither apostles, prophets, or particularly righteous,
just "learners," "in the name of a disciple" (eis onoma
math(8874)ou). Alford thinks that some children were present (cf.
 Mt 18:2-6 ).

經文:

馬太福音 11:1-11:1

註釋:

 {He departed thence to teach and preach} (meteb(8820)ekeithen
tou didaskein kai k(8872)ussein). In five instances ( 7:28  11:1  13:53  19:1  26:1 ) after great discourses by Jesus "the
transition to what follows is made with the formula, 'And it came
to pass when Jesus had ended'" (McNeile). This is a wrong chapter
division, for  11:1  belongs with the preceding section.
"{Commanding}" (diatass(936e), complementary participle with
etelesen), means giving orders in detail (dia-) for each of
them. Note both "teach and preach" as in  4:23 . Where did Jesus
go? Did he follow behind the twelve as he did with the seventy
"whither he himself was about to come" ( Lu 10:1 )? Bruce holds
with Chrysostom that Jesus avoided the places where they were,
giving them room and time to do their work. But, if Jesus himself
went to the chief cities of Galilee on this tour, he would be
compelled to touch many of the same points. Jesus would naturally
follow behind at some distance. At the end of the tour the
apostles come together in Capernaum and tell Jesus all that they
had done and that they had taught ( Mr 6:30 ). Matthew follows
the general outline of Mark, but the events are not grouped in
chronological order here.

經文:

馬太福音 11:2-11:2

註釋:

 {John heard in the prison} (ho de I(9361)n(8873) akousas en t(9369)
desm(9374)(8872)i(9369)). Probably ( Lu 7:18 ) the raising of the son of the
widow of Nain. The word for prison here is the place where one
was kept bound ( Ac 5:21,23  16:26 ). See  Mt 4:12 . It was in
Machaerus east of the Dead Sea which at this time belonged to the
rule of Herod Antipas (Jos. _Ant_. XVIII. v.2). John's disciples
had access to him. So he sent word by (dia, not duo as in  Lu
7:19 ) them to Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 11:3-11:3

註釋:

 {He that cometh} (ho erchomenos). This phrase refers to
the Messiah ( Mr 11:9  Lu 13:35  19:38  Heb 10:37  Ps 118:26  Da
7:13 ). Some rabbis applied the phrase to some forerunner of the
kingdom (McNeile). Was there to be "another" (heteron) after
Jesus? John had been in prison "long enough to develop a _prison
mood_" (Bruce). It was once clear enough to him, but his
environment was depressing and Jesus had done nothing to get him
out of Machaerus (see chapter IX in my _John the Loyal_). John
longed for reassurance.

經文:

馬太福音 11:4-11:4

註釋:

 {The things which ye do hear and see} (ha akouete kai
blepete). This symbolical message was for John to interpret, not
for them.

經文:

馬太福音 11:5-11:5

註釋:

 {And the dead are raised up} (kai nekroi egeirontai). Like
that of the son of the widow of Nain. Did he raise the dead also
on this occasion? "Tell John your story over again and remind him
of these prophetic texts,  Isa 35:5  61:1 " (Bruce). The items
were convincing enough and clearer than mere eschatological
symbolism. "The poor" in particular have the gospel, a climax.

經文:

馬太福音 11:6-11:6

註釋:

 {Whosoever shall find none occasion of stumbling in me}
(hos an m(8820)skandalisth(8869) en emoi). Indefinite relative clause
with first aorist passive subjunctive. This beatitude is a rebuke
to John for his doubt even though in prison. Doubt is not a proof
of superior intellect, scholarship, or piety. John was in the fog
and that is the time not to make serious decisions. "In some way
even the Baptist had found some occasion of stumbling in Jesus"
(Plummer).

經文:

馬太福音 11:7-11:7

註釋:

 {As these went their way} (	out(936e) poreuomen(936e)). Present
participle genitive absolute. The eulogy of Jesus was spoken as
the two disciples of John were going away. Is it a matter of
regret that they did not hear this wondrous praise of John that
they might cheer him with it? "It may almost be called the
funeral oration of the Baptist, for not long afterwards Herodias
compassed his death" (Plummer). {A reed shaken by the wind}
(kalamon hupo anemou saleuomenon). Latin _calamus_. Used of the
reeds that grew in plenty in the Jordan Valley where John
preached, of a staff made of a reed ( Mt 27:29 ), as a measuring
rod ( Re 11:1 ), of a writer's pen ( 3Jo 1:13 ). The reeds by the
Jordan bent with the wind, but not so John.

經文:

馬太福音 11:9-11:9

註釋:

 {And much more than a prophet} (kai perissoteron
proph(8874)ou). Ablative of comparison after perissoteron itself
comparative though meaning exceeding (surrounded by,
overflowing). John had all the great qualities of the true
prophet: "Vigorous moral conviction, integrity, strength of will,
fearless zeal for truth and righteousness" (Bruce). And then he
was the Forerunner of the Messiah ( Mal 3:1 ).

經文:

馬太福音 11:11-11:11

註釋:

 {He that is but little} (ho mikroteros). The Authorized
Version here has it better, "he that is least." The article with
the comparative is a growing idiom in the vernacular _Koin(825f) for
the superlative as in the modern Greek it is the only idiom for
the superlative (Robertson, _Grammar of the Greek N.T._, p. 668).
The papyri and inscriptions show the same construction. The
paradox of Jesus has puzzled many. He surely means that John is
greater (meiz(936e)) than all others in character, but that the
least in the kingdom of heaven surpasses him in privilege. John
is the end of one age, "until John" ( 11:14 ), and the beginning
of the new era. All those that come after John stand upon his
shoulders. John is the mountain peak between the old and the new.

經文:

馬太福音 11:12-11:12

註釋:

 {Suffereth violence} (iazetai). This verb occurs only
here and in  Lu 16:16  in the N.T. It seems to be middle in Luke
and Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 258) quotes an inscription
"where iazomai is without doubt reflexive and absolute" as in
 Lu 16:16 . But there are numerous papyri examples where it is
passive (Moulton and Milligan, _Vocabulary_, etc.) so that "there
seems little that promises decisive help for the difficult Logion
of  Mt 11:12  Lu 16:16 ." So then in  Mt 11:12  the form can be
either middle or passive and either makes sense, though a
different sense. The passive idea is that the kingdom is forced,
is stormed, is taken by men of violence like "men of violence
take it by force" (iastai harpazousin aut(886e)) or seize it like
a conquered city. The middle voice may mean "experiences
violence" or "forces its way" like a rushing mighty wind (so Zahn
holds). These difficult words of Jesus mean that the preaching of
John "had led to a violent and impetuous thronging to gather
round Jesus and his disciples" (Hort, _Judaistic Christianity_,
p. 26).

經文:

馬太福音 11:14-11:14

註釋:

 {This is Elijah} (autos estin Eleias). Jesus here
endorses John as the promise of Malachi. The people understood
 Mal 4:1  to mean the return of Elijah in person. This John
denied as to himself ( Joh 1:21 ). But Jesus affirms that John is
the Elijah of promise who has come already ( Mt 17:12 ). He
emphasizes the point: "He that hath ears to hear, let him hear."

經文:

馬太福音 11:17-11:17

註釋:

 {Children sitting in the market places} (paidiois
kath(886d)enois en tais agorais). This parable of the children
playing in the market place is given also in  Lu 7:31f . Had
Jesus as a child in Nazareth not played games with the children?
He had certainly watched them often since. The interest of Christ
in children was keen. He has really created the modern child's
world out of the indifference of the past. They would not play
wedding or funeral in a peevish fret. These metaphors in the
Gospels are vivid to those with eyes to see. The agora was
originally the assembly, then the forum or public square where
the people gathered for trade or for talk as in Athens ( Ac
17:17 ) and in many modern towns. So the Roman Forum. The
oriental bazaars today are held in streets rather than public
squares. Even today with all the automobiles children play in the
streets. In English the word "cheap" (Cheapside) meant only
barter and price, not cheap in our sense. The word for mourn
(ekopsasthe) means to beat the heart, direct middle, after the
fashion of eastern funeral lamentations.

經文:

馬太福音 11:19-11:19

註釋:

 {Wisdom is justified by her works} (edikai(9374)h(8820)apo t(936e)
erg(936e) aut(8873)). A timeless aorist passive (Robertson, _Grammar_,
p. 836f.). The word "justified" means "set right" Luke ( Lu
7:35 ) has "by all her children" as some MSS. have here to make
Matthew like Luke. These words are difficult, but understandable.
God's wisdom has planned the different conduct of both John and
Jesus. He does not wish all to be just alike in everything. "This
generation" (verse  16 ) is childish, not childlike, and full of
whimsical inconsistencies in their faultfinding. They exaggerate
in each case. John did not have a demon and Jesus was not a
glutton or a winebibber. "And, worse than either, for philos is
used in a sinister sense and implies that Jesus was the comrade
of the worst characters, and like them in conduct. A malicious
nickname at first, it is now a name of honour: the sinner's
lover" (Bruce). Cf.  Lu 15:2 . The plan of God is justified by
results.

經文:

馬太福音 11:20-11:20

註釋:

 {Most of his mighty works} (hai pleistai dunameis autou).
Literally, "His very many mighty works" if elative as usual in
the papyri (Moulton, _Prolegomena_, p. 79; Robertson, _Grammar_,
p. 670). But the usual superlative makes sense here as the
Canterbury translation has it. This word dunamis for miracle
presents the notion of _power_ like our _dynamite_. The word
	eras is wonder, portent, _miraculum_ (miracle) as in  Ac
2:19 . It occurs only in the plural and always with s(886d)eia. The
word s(886d)eion means sign ( Mt 12:38 ) and is very common in
John's Gospel as well as the word ergon (work) as in  Joh
5:36 . Other words used are paradoxon, our word _paradox_,
strange ( Lu 5:26 ), endoxon, glorious ( Lu 13:17 ),
	haumasion, wonderful ( Mt 21:15 ).

經文:

馬太福音 11:21-11:21

註釋:

 {Chorazin} (Chorazein). Mentioned only here and in  Lu
10:13 . Proof of "the meagreness of our knowledge of Judaism in
the time of Christ" (Plummer) and of the many things not told in
our Gospels ( Joh 21:25 ). We know something of Bethsaida and
more about Capernaum as places of privilege. But (pl(886e),
howbeit) neither of these cities repented, changed their conduct.
Note condition of the second class, determined as unfulfilled in
verses  21  and  23 .

經文:

馬太福音 11:25-11:25

註釋:

 {At that season Jesus answered and said} (en ekein(9369) t(9369)
kair(9369) apokritheis eipen). Spoke to his Father in audible voice.
The time and place we do not know. But here we catch a glimpse of
Jesus in one of his moods of worship. "It is usual to call this
golden utterance a prayer, but it is at once prayer, praise, and
self-communing in a devout spirit" (Bruce). Critics are disturbed
because this passage from the Logia of Jesus or Q of Synoptic
criticism ( Mt 11:25-30  Lu 10:21-24 ) is so manifestly Johannine
in spirit and very language, "the Father" (ho pat(8872)), "the son"
(ho huios), whereas the Fourth Gospel was not written till the
close of the first century and the Logia was written before the
Synoptic Gospels. The only satisfying explanation lies in the
fact that Jesus did have this strain of teaching that is
preserved in John's Gospel. Here he is in precisely the same mood
of elevated communion with the Father that we have reflected in
John 14 to 17. Even Harnack is disposed to accept this Logion as
a genuine saying of Jesus. The word "thank" (homologoumai) is
better rendered "praise" (Moffatt). Jesus praises the Father "not
that the sophoi were ignorant, but that the 
(8870)ioi knew"
(McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 11:26-11:26

註釋:

 {Wellpleasing in thy sight} (eudokia emprosthen sou).
"For such has been thy gracious will" (Weymouth).

經文:

馬太福音 11:27-11:27

註釋:

 {All things have been delivered unto me of my Father}
(panta moi paredoth(8820)hupo tou patros mou). This sublime claim
is not to be whittled down or away by explanations. It is the
timeless aorist like edoth(885c) in  28:18  and "points back to a
moment in eternity, and implies the pre-existence of the Messiah"
(Plummer). The Messianic consciousness of Christ is here as clear
as a bell. It is a moment of high fellowship. Note epigin(9373)kei
twice for "fully know." Note also oul(8874)ai =wills, is willing.
The Son retains the power and the will to reveal the Father to
men.

經文:

馬太福音 11:28-11:28

註釋:

 {Come unto me} (deute pros me). Verses 28 to 30 are not
in Luke and are among the special treasures of Matthew's Gospel.
No sublimer words exist than this call of Jesus to the toiling
and the burdened (pephortismenoi, perfect passive participle,
state of weariness) to come to him. He towers above all men as he
challenges us. "I will refresh you" (k'ago anapaus(9320)h(966d)as). Far
more than mere rest, rejuvenation. The English slang expression
"rest up" is close to the idea of the Greek compound ana-pau(935c).
It is causative active voice.

經文:

馬太福音 11:29-11:29

註釋:

 {Take my yoke upon you and learn of me} (arate ton zugon
mou eph'humas kai mathete ap'emou). The rabbis used yoke for
school as many pupils find it now a yoke. The English word
"school" is Greek for leisure (schol(885c)). But Jesus offers
refreshment (anapausin) in his school and promises to make the
burden light, for he is a meek and humble teacher. Humility was
not a virtue among the ancients. It was ranked with servility.
Jesus has made a virtue of this vice. He has glorified this
attitude so that Paul urges it ( Php 2:3 ), "in lowliness of mind
each counting other better than himself." In portions of Europe
today people place yokes on the shoulders to make the burden
easier to carry. Jesus promises that we shall find the yoke
kindly and the burden lightened by his help. "Easy" is a poor
translation of chr(8873)tos. Moffatt puts it "kindly." That is the
meaning in the Septuagint for persons. We have no adjective that
quite carries the notion of kind and good. The yoke of Christ is
useful, good, and kindly. Cf.  So 1:10 .

經文:

馬太福音 12:1-12:1

註釋:

 {On the sabbath day through the cornfields} (	ois sabbasin
dia t(936e) sporim(936e)). This paragraph begins exactly like  11:25 
"at that season" (en ekein(9369) t(9369) kair(9369)), a general statement
with no clear idea of time. So also  14:1 . The word kairos
means a definite and particular time, but we cannot fix it. The
word "cornfields" does not mean our maize or Indian corn, but
simply fields of grain (wheat or even barley).

經文:

馬太福音 12:2-12:2

註釋:

 {Thy disciples do} (hoi math(8874)ai sou poiousin). These
critics are now watching a chance and they jump at this violation
of their Pharisaic rules for Sabbath observance. The disciples
were plucking the heads of wheat which to the Pharisees was
reaping and were rubbing them in their hands ( Lu 6:1 ) which was
threshing.

經文:

馬太福音 12:3-12:3

註釋:

 {What David did} (	i epoi(8873)en Daueid). From the necessity
of hunger. The first defence made by Christ appeals to the
conduct of David ( 2Sa 21:6 ). David and those with him did "what
was not lawful" (ho ouk exon (886e)) precisely the charge made
against the disciples (ho ouk exestin in verse  2 ).

經文:

馬太福音 12:6-12:6

註釋:

 {One greater than the temple} (	ou hierou meizon).
Ablative of comparison, 	ou hierou. The Textus Receptus has
meiz(936e), but the neuter is correct. Literally, "something
greater than the temple." What is that? It may still be Christ,
or it may be: "The work and His disciples were of more account
than the temple" (Plummer). "If the temple was not subservient to
Sabbath rules, how much less the Messiah!" (Allen).

經文:

馬太福音 12:7-12:7

註釋:

 {The guiltless} (	ous anaitious). So in verse  5 . Common
in ancient Greek. No real ground against, it means an +
aitios. Jesus quotes  Ho 6:6  here as he did in  Mt 9:13 . A
pertinent prophecy that had escaped the notice of the sticklers
for ceremonial literalness and the letter of the law.

經文:

馬太福音 12:9-12:9

註釋:

 {Lord of the Sabbath} (kurios tou sabbatou). This claim
that he as the Son of Man is master of the Sabbath and so above
the Pharisaic regulations angered them extremely. By the phrase
"the Son of man" here Jesus involves the claim of Messiahship,
but as the Representative Man he affirms his solidarity with
mankind, "standing for the human interest" (Bruce) on this
subject.

經文:

馬太福音 12:10-12:10

註釋:

 {Is it lawful?} (ei exestin). The use of ei in direct
questions is really elliptical and seems an imitation of the
Hebrew (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 916). See also  Mt 19:3 . It is
not translated in English.

經文:

馬太福音 12:12-12:12

註釋:

 {How much then is a man} (pos(9369) oun diapherei anthr(9370)os).
Another of Christ's pregnant questions that goes to the roots of
things, an _a fortiori_ argument. "By how much does a human being
differ from a sheep? That is the question which Christian
civilization has not even yet adequately answered" (Bruce). The
poor pettifogging Pharisees are left in the pit.

經文:

馬太福音 12:13-12:13

註釋:

 {Stretch forth thy hand} (ekteinon sou t(886e) cheira).
Probably the arm was not withered, though that is not certain.
But he did the impossible. "He stretched it forth," straight, I
hope, towards the Pharisees who were watching Jesus ( Mr 3:2 ).

經文:

馬太福音 12:14-12:14

註釋:

 {Took counsel against him} (sumboulion elabon kat'
autou). An imitation of the Latin _concilium capere_ and found
in papyri of the second century A.D. (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_,
p. 238.) This incident marks a crisis in the hatred of the
Pharisees toward Jesus. They bolted out of the synagogue and
actually conspired with their hated rivals, the Herodians, how to
put Jesus to death ( Mr 3:6  Mt 12:14  Lu 6:11 ). By "destroy"
(apoles(9373)in) they meant "kill."

經文:

馬太福音 12:15-12:15

註釋:

 {Perceiving} (gnous). Second aorist active participle of
gin(9373)k(935c). Jesus read their very thoughts. They were now plain to
any one who saw their angry countenances.

經文:

馬太福音 12:17-12:17

註釋:

 {That it might be fulfilled} (hina pl(8872)(9374)h(8869)). The final
use of hina and the sub-final just before (verse  16 ). The
passage quoted is  Isa 42:1-4  "a very free reproduction of the
Hebrew with occasional side glances at the Septuagint" (Bruce),
possibly from an Aramaic collection of _Testimonia_ (McNeile).
Matthew applies the prophecy about Cyrus to Christ.

經文:

馬太福音 12:18-12:18

註釋:

 {My beloved} (ho agap(8874)os mou). This phrase reminds one
of  Mt 3:17  (the Father's words at Christ's baptism).

經文:

馬太福音 12:20-12:20

註釋:

 {A bruised reed} (kalamon suntetrimmenon). Perfect
passive participle of suntrib(935c). A crushed reed he will not
break. The curious augment in kateaxei (future active
indicative) is to be noted. The copyists kept the augment where
it did not belong in this verb (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1212)
even in Plato. "Smoking flax" (linon tuphomenon). The wick of a
lamp, smoking and flickering and going out. Only here in N.T.
Flax in  Ex 9:31 . Vivid images that picture Jesus in the same
strain as his own great words in  Mt 11:28-30 .

經文:

馬太福音 12:23-12:23

註釋:

 {Is this the Son of David?} (m(8874)i houtos estin ho huios
Daueid?). The form of the question expects the answer "no," but
they put it so because of the Pharisaic hostility towards Jesus.
The multitudes "were amazed" or "stood out of themselves"
(existanto), imperfect tense, vividly portraying the situation.
They were almost beside themselves with excitement.

經文:

馬太福音 12:24-12:24

註釋:

 {The Pharisees} (hoi de Pharisaioi). Already ( Mt
9:32-34 ) we have had in Matthew the charge that Jesus is in
league with the prince of demons, though the incident may be
later than this one. See on 氣0:25| about "Beelzebub." The
Pharisees feel that the excited condition of the crowds and the
manifest disposition to believe that Jesus is the Messiah (the
Son of David) demand strenuous action on their part. They cannot
deny the fact of the miracles for the blind and dumb men both saw
and spoke ( 12:22 ). So in desperation they suggest that Jesus
works by the power of Beelzebub the prince of the demons.

經文:

馬太福音 12:25-12:25

註釋:

 {Knowing their thoughts} (eid(9373) de tas enthum(8873)eis
aut(936e)). What they were revolving in their minds. They now find
out what a powerful opponent Jesus is. By parables, by a series
of conditions (first class), by sarcasm, by rhetorical question,
by merciless logic, he lays bare their hollow insincerity and the
futility of their arguments. Satan does not cast out Satan. Note
timeless aorist passive emeristh(885c) in  26 , ephthasen in  28 
(simple sense of arriving as in  Php 3:16  from phthan(935c)).
Christ is engaged in deathless conflict with Satan the strong man
( 29 ). "Goods" (skeu(885c)) means house-gear, house furniture, or
equipment as in  Lu 17:36  and  Ac 27:17 , the tackling of the
ship.

經文:

馬太福音 12:30-12:30

註釋:

 {He that is not with me} (ho m(8820)(936e) met' emou). With these
solemn words Jesus draws the line of cleavage between himself and
his enemies then and now. Jesus still has his enemies who hate
him and all noble words and deeds because they sting what
conscience they have into fury. But we may have our choice. We
either gather with (sunag(936e)) Christ or scatter (skorpizei) to
the four winds. Christ is the magnet of the ages. He draws or
drives away. "Satan is the arch-waster, Christ the collector,
Saviour" (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 12:31-12:31

註釋:

 {But the blasphemy against the Spirit} (h(8820)de tou
pneumatos blasph(886d)ia). Objective genitive. This is the
unpardonable sin. In  32  we have kata tou pneumatos tou hagiou
to make it plainer. What is the blasphemy against the Holy
Spirit? These Pharisees had already committed it. They had
attributed the works of the Holy Spirit by whose power Jesus
wrought his miracles ( 12:28 ) to the devil. That sin was without
excuse and would not be forgiven in their age or in the coming
one ( 12:32 ). People often ask if they can commit the
unpardonable sin. Probably some do who ridicule the manifest work
of God's Spirit in men's lives and attribute the Spirit's work to
the devil.

經文:

馬太福音 12:34-12:34

註釋:

 {Ye offspring of vipers} (genn(886d)ata echidn(936e)). These same
terrible words the Baptist had used to the Pharisees and
Sadducees who came to his baptism ( Mt 3:7 ). But these Pharisees
had deliberately made their choice and had taken Satan's side.
The charge against Jesus of being in league with Satan reveals
the evil heart within. The heart "spurts out" (ekballei) good
or evil according to the supply (treasure, 	h(8873)aurou) within.
Verse  33  is like  Mt 7:17-19 . Jesus often repeated his crisp
pungent sayings as every teacher does.

經文:

馬太福音 12:36-12:36

註釋:

 {Every idle word} (pan rh(886d)a argon). An ineffective,
useless word (a privative and ergon). A word that does no
good and so is pernicious like pernicious anaemia. It is a solemn
thought. Jesus who knows our very thoughts ( 12:25 ) insists that
our words reveal our thoughts and form a just basis for the
interpretation of character ( 12:37 ). Here we have judgment by
words as in  25:31-46  where Jesus presents judgment by deeds.
Both are real tests of actual character. Homer spoke of "winged
words" (pteroenta epea). And by the radio our words can be
heard all round the earth. Who knows where they stop?

經文:

馬太福音 12:38-12:38

註釋:

 {A sign from thee} (apo sou s(886d)eion). One wonders at the
audacity of scribes and Pharisees who accused Jesus of being in
league with Satan and thus casting out demons who can turn round
and blandly ask for a "sign from thee." As if the other miracles
were not signs! "The demand was impudent, hypocritical,
insulting" (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 12:39-12:39

註釋:

 {An evil and adulterous generation} (genea pon(8872)a kai
moichalis). They had broken the marriage tie which bound them to
Jehovah (Plummer). See  Ps 73:27  Isa 57:3ff.  62:5  Eze 23:27  Jas 4:4  Re 2:20 . What is "the sign of Jonah?"

經文:

馬太福音 12:40-12:40

註釋:

 {The whale} (	ou k(8874)ous). Sea-monster, huge fish. In  Jon
2:1  the LXX has k(8874)ei megal(9369). "Three days and three nights"
may simply mean three days in popular speech. Jesus rose "on the
third day" ( Mt 16:21 ), not "on the fourth day." It is just a
fuller form for "after three days" ( Mr 8:31  10:34 ).

經文:

馬太福音 12:41-12:41

註釋:

 {In the judgment} (en t(8869) krisei). Except here and in the
next verse Matthew has "day of judgment" (h(886d)era krise(9373)) as in
 10:15  11:22,24  12:36 . Luke ( Lu 10:14 ) has en t(8869) krisei.
{They repented at the preaching of Jonah} (meteno(8873)on eis to
k(8872)ugma I(936e)a). Note this use of eis just like en. Note also
pleion (neuter), not plei(936e) (masc.). See the same idiom in
 12:6  and  12:48 . Jesus is something greater than the temple,
than Jonah, than Solomon. "You will continue to disbelieve in
spite of all I can say or do, and at last you will put me to
death. But I will rise again, a sign for your confusion, if not
for your conversion" (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 12:44-12:44

註釋:

 {Into my house} (eis ton oikon mou). So the demon
describes the man in whom he had dwelt. "The demon is ironically
represented as implying that he left his victim voluntarily, as a
man leaves his house to go for a walk" (McNeile). "Worse than the
first" is a proverb.

經文:

馬太福音 12:46-12:46

註釋:

 {His mother and his brothers} (h(8820)m(8874)(8872) kai hoi adelphoi
autou). Brothers of Jesus, younger sons of Joseph and Mary. The
charge of the Pharisees that Jesus was in league with Satan was
not believed by the disciples of Jesus, but some of his friends
did think that he was beside himself ( Mr 3:21 ) because of the
excitement and strain. It was natural for Mary to want to take
him home for rest and refreshment. So the mother and brothers are
pictured standing outside the house (or the crowd). They send a
messenger to Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 12:47-12:47

註釋:

 Aleph, B, L, Old Syriac, omit this verse as do Westcott and
Hort. It is genuine in  Mr 3:32  Lu 8:20 . It was probably copied
into Matthew from Mark or Luke.

經文:

馬太福音 12:49-12:49

註釋:

 {Behold my mother and my brothers} (idou h(8820)m(8874)(8872) mou kai
hoi adelphoi mou). A dramatic wave of the hand towards his
disciples (learners) accompanied these words. Jesus loved his
mother and brothers, but they were not to interfere in his
Messianic work. The real spiritual family of Jesus included all
who follow him. But it was hard for Mary to go back to Nazareth
and leave Jesus with the excited throng so great that he was not
even stopping to eat ( Mr 3:20 ).

經文:

馬太福音 13:1-13:1

註釋:

 {On that day} (en t(8869) h(886d)erai ekein(8869)). So this group of
parables is placed by Matthew on the same day as the blasphemous
accusation and the visit of the mother of Jesus. It is called
"the Busy Day," not because it was the only one, but simply that
so much is told of this day that it serves as a specimen of many
others filled to the full with stress and strain. {Sat by the
seaside} (ekath(8874)o para t(886e) thalassan). The accusative case
need give no difficulty. Jesus came out of the stuffy house and
took his seat (ekath(8874)o, imperfect) along the shore with the
crowds stretched up and down, a picturesque scene.

經文:

馬太福音 13:2-13:2

註釋:

 {And all the multitude stood on the beach} (kai pas ho
ochlos epi ton aigialon hist(886b)ei). Past perfect tense of
hist(886d)i with imperfect sense, had taken a stand and so stood.
Note accusative also with epi upon the beach where the waves
break one after the other (aigialos is from hals, sea, and
agnumi, to break, or from aiss(935c), to rush). Jesus had to get
into a boat and sit down in that because of the crush of the
crowd.

經文:

馬太福音 13:3-13:3

註釋:

 Heb. 9:9 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Heb.' or engs='Heb.'
經文:

馬太福音 13:4-13:4

註釋:

 {As he sowed} (en t(9369) speirein auton). Literally, "in the
sowing as to him," a neat Greek idiom unlike our English temporal
conjunction. Locative case with the articular present infinitive.
{By the wayside} (para t(886e) hodon). People will make paths along
the edge of a ploughed field or even across it where the seed
lies upon the beaten track. {Devoured} (katephagen).  "Ate
down." We say, "ate up." Second aorist active indicative of
katesthi(935c) (defective verb).

經文:

馬太福音 13:5-13:5

註釋:

 {The rocky places} (	a petr(9364)(885c)). In that limestone country
ledges of rock often jut out with thin layers of soil upon the
layers of rock. {Straightway they sprang up} (euthe(9373)
exaneteilen). "Shot up at once" (Moffatt). Double compound
(ex, out of the ground, ana, up). Ingressive aorist of
exanatell(935c).

經文:

馬太福音 13:6-13:6

註釋:

 {The sun was risen} (h(886c)iou anateilantos). Genitive
absolute. "The sun having sprung up" also, same verb except the
absence of ex (anatell(932c) exanatell(935c)).

經文:

馬太福音 13:7-13:7

註釋:

 {The thorns grew up} (aneb(8873)an hai akanthai). Not "sprang
up" as in verse  5 , for a different verb occurs meaning "came
up" out of the ground, the seeds of the thorns being already in
the soil, "upon the thorns" (epi tas akanthas) rather than
"among the thorns." But the thorns got a quick start as weeds
somehow do and "choked them" (apepnixan auta, effective aorist
of apopnig(935c)), "choked them off" literally. Luke ( Lu 8:33 )
uses it of the hogs in the water. Who has not seen vegetables and
flowers and corn made yellow by thorns and weeds till they sicken
and die?

經文:

馬太福音 13:8-13:8

註釋:

 {Yielded fruit} (edidou karpon). Change to imperfect tense
of did(936d)i, to give, for it was continuous fruit-bearing. {Some
a hundredfold} (ho men hekaton). Variety, but fruit. This is
the only kind that is worth while. The hundredfold is not an
exaggeration (cf.  Ge 26:12 ). Such instances are given by
Wetstein for Greece, Italy, and Africa. Herodotus (i. 93) says
that in Babylonia grain yielded two hundredfold and even to three
hundredfold. This, of course, was due to irrigation as in the
Nile Valley.

經文:

馬太福音 13:9-13:9

註釋:

 {He that hath ears let him hear} (ho ech(936e) (9374)a akouet(935c)),
So also in  11:15  and  13:43 . It is comforting to teachers and
preachers to observe that even Jesus had to exhort people to
listen and to understand his sayings, especially his parables.
They will bear the closest thought and are often enigmatical.

經文:

馬太福音 13:10-13:10

註釋:

 {Why speakest thou unto them in parables?} (dia ti en
parabolais laleis autois). Already the disciples are puzzled
over the meaning of this parable and the reason for giving them
to the people. So they "came up" closer to Jesus and asked him.
Jesus was used to questions and surpassed all teachers in his
replies.

經文:

馬太福音 13:11-13:11

註釋:

 {To know the mysteries} (gn(936e)ai ta must(8872)ia). Second
aorist active infinitive of gin(9373)k(935c). The word must(8872)ion is
from must(8873), one initiated, and that from mue(935c) (mu(935c)), to
close or shut (Latin, _mutus_). The mystery-religions of the east
had all sorts of secrets and signs as secret societies do today.
But those initiated knew them. So the disciples have been
initiated into the secrets of the kingdom of heaven. Paul will
use it freely of the mystery once hidden, but now revealed, now
made known in Christ ( Ro 16:25  1Co 2:7 , etc.). In  Php 4:12 
Paul says: "I have learned the secret or been initiated"
(memu(886d)ai). So Jesus here explains that his parables are open
to the disciples, but shut to the Pharisees with their hostile
minds. In the Gospels must(8872)ion is used only here and in the
parallel passages ( Mr 4:11  Lu 8:10 ).

經文:

馬太福音 13:13-13:13

註釋:

 {Because seeing} (hoti blepontes). In the parallel
passages in  Mr 4:12  and  Lu 8:10  we find hina with the
subjunctive. This does not necessarily mean that in Mark and Luke
hina=hoti with the causal sense, though a few rare instances of
such usage may be found in late Greek. For a discussion of the
problem see my chapter on "The Causal Use of _Hina_"  in _Studies
in Early Christianity_ (1928) edited by Prof. S.J. Case. Here in
Matthew we have first "an adaptation of  Isa 6:9f.  which is
quoted in full in v.  14f. " (McNeile). Thus Matthew presents "a
striking paradox, 'though they see, they do not (really) see'"
(McNeile). Cf.  Joh 9:41 . The idiom here in Matthew gives no
trouble save in comparison with Mark and Luke which will be
discussed in due turn. The form suniousin is an omega verb form
(suni(935c)) rather than the mi verb (suni(886d)i) as is common in
the _Koin(825f).

經文:

馬太福音 13:14-13:14

註釋:

 {Is fulfilled} (anapl(8872)outai). Aoristic present passive
indicative. Here Jesus points out the fulfilment and not with
Matthew's usual formula (hina or hop(9373) pl(9372)(8874)h(8869) to rh(8874)hen
(see  1:22 ). The verb anapl(8872)o(935c) occurs nowhere else in the
Gospels, but occurs in the Pauline Epistles. It means to fill up
like a cup, to fill another's place ( 1Co 14:16 ), to fill up
what is lacking ( Php 2:30 ). Here it means that the prophecy of
Isaiah is fully satisfied in the conduct of the Pharisees and
Jesus himself points it out. Note two ways of reproducing the
Hebrew idiom (infinitive absolute), one by ako(8869) the other by
lepontes. Note also the strong negative ou m(885c) with aorist
subjunctive.

經文:

馬太福音 13:15-13:15

註釋:

 {Is waxed gross} (epachunth(885c)). Aorist passive tense. From
pachus, thick, fat, stout. Made callous or dull -- even fatty
degeneration of the heart. {Dull of hearing} (	ois (9373)in bare(9373)
(886b)ousan). Another aorist. Literally, "They heard (or hear)
heavily with their ears." The hard of hearing are usually
sensitive. {Their eyes they have closed} (	ous ophthalmous aut(936e)
ekammusan). The epic and vernacular verb kammu(935c) is from
katamu(935c) (to shut down). We say shut up of the mouth, but the
eyes really shut down. The Hebrew verb in  Isa 6:10  means to
smear over. The eyes can be smeared with wax or cataract and thus
closed. "Sealing up the eyes was an oriental punishment"
(Vincent). See  Isa 29:10  44:18 . {Lest} (m(8870)ote). This
negative purpose as a judgment is left in the quotation from
Isaiah. It is a solemn thought for all who read or hear the word
of God. {And I should heal them} (kai iasomai autous). Here the
LXX changes to the future indicative rather than the aorist
subjunctive as before.

經文:

馬太福音 13:16-13:16

註釋:

 {Blessed are your eyes} (hum(936e) de makarioi hoi
ophthalmoi). A beatitude for the disciples in contrast with the
Pharisees. Note position of "Happy" here also as in the
Beatitudes in  Mt 5 .

經文:

馬太福音 13:18-13:18

註釋:

 {Hear then ye the parable} (humeis oun akousate t(886e)
parabol(886e)). Jesus has given in  13:13  one reason for his use of
parables, the condemnation which the Pharisees have brought on
themselves by their spiritual dulness: "Therefore I speak to them
in parables" (dia touto en parab(936c)ais antois lal(935c)). He can go
on preaching the mysteries of the kingdom without their
comprehending what he is saying, but he is anxious that the
disciples really get personal knowledge (gn(936e)ai, verse  11 ) of
these same mysteries. So he explains in detail what he means to
teach by the Parable of the Sower. He appeals to them (note
position of h(966d)eis) to listen as he explains.

經文:

馬太福音 13:19-13:19

註釋:

 {When anyone heareth} (pantos akouontos). Genitive
absolute and present participle, "while everyone is listening and
not comprehending" (m(8820)sunientos), "not putting together" or
"not grasping." Perhaps at that very moment Jesus observed a
puzzled look on some faces.

{Cometh the evil one and snatcheth away} (erchetai ho pon(8872)os
kai harpazei). The birds pick up the seeds while the sower sows.
The devil is busy with his job of snatching or seizing like a
bandit or rogue the word of the kingdom before it has time even
to sprout. How quickly after the sermon the impression is gone.
"This is he" (houtos estin). Matthew, like Mark, speaks of the
people who hear the words as the seed itself. That creates some
confusion in this condensed form of what Jesus actually said, but
the real point is clear. {The seed sown in his heart} (	o
esparmenon en t(8869) kardi(8369) autou, perfect passive participle of
speir(935c), to sow) and "the man sown by the wayside" (ho para t(886e)
hodon spareis, aorist passive participle, along the wayside) are
identified. The seed in the heart is not of itself responsible,
but the man who lets the devil snatch it away.

經文:

馬太福音 13:21-13:21

註釋:

 {Yet hath he not root in himself} (ouk echei de rhizan en
heaut(9369)). Cf.  Col 2:7  and  Eph 3:18  erriz(936d)emoi. Stability
like a tree. Here the man has a mushroom growth and "endureth for
a while" (proskairos), temporary, quick to sprout, quick to
stumble (skandalizetai). What a picture of some converts in our
modern revivals. They drop away overnight because they did not
have the root of the matter in them. This man does not last or
hold out.

{Tribulation} (	hlipse(9373)). From 	hlib(935c), to press, to oppress,
to squeeze (cf.  7:14 ). The English word is from the Latin
_tribulum_, the roller used by the Romans for pressing wheat. Cf.
our "steam roller" Trench (_Synonyms of the N.T._, pp. 202-4):
"When, according to the ancient law of England, those who
wilfully refused to plead, had heavy weights placed on their
breasts, and were pressed and crushed to death, this was
literally 	hlipsis." The iron cage was stenoch(9372)ia.

經文:

馬太福音 13:22-13:22

註釋:

 {Choke the word} (sunpnigei ton logon). We had
apepnixan (choked off) in  13:7 . Here it is sunpnigei (choke
together), historical present and singular with both subjects
lumped together. "Lust for money and care go together and between
them spoil many an earnest religious nature" (Bruce), "thorns"
indeed. The thorns flourish and the character sickens and dies,
choked to death for lack of spiritual food, air, sunshine.

經文:

馬太福音 13:23-13:23

註釋:

 {Verily beareth fruit} (d(8820)karpophorei). Who in reality
(d(885c)) does bear fruit (cf.  Mt 7:16-20 ). The fruit reveals the
character of the tree and the value of the straw for wheat. Some
grain must come else it is only chaff, straw, worthless. The
first three classes have no fruit and so show that they are
unfruitful soil, unsaved souls and lives. There is variety in
those who do bear fruit, but they have some fruit. The lesson of
the parable as explained by Jesus is precisely this, the variety
in the results of the seed sown according to the soil on which it
falls. Every teacher and preacher knows how true this is. It is
the teacher's task as the sower to sow the right seed, the word
of the kingdom. The soil determines the outcome. There are
critics today who scout this interpretation of the parable by
Jesus as too allegorical with too much detail and probably not
that really given by Jesus since modern scholars are not agreed
on the main point of the parable. But the average Christian sees
the point all right. This parable was not meant to explain all
the problems of human life.

經文:

馬太福音 13:24-13:24

註釋:

 {Set he before them} (pareth(886b)en). So again in  13:31 .
He placed another parable beside (para) the one already given
and explained. The same verb (paratheinai) occurs in  Lu 9:16 .
{Is likened} (h(936d)oi(9374)h(885c)). Timeless aorist passive and a common
way of introducing these parables of the kingdom where a
comparison is drawn ( 18:23  22:2  25:1 ). The case of
anthr(9370)(9369) is associative instrumental.

經文:

馬太福音 13:25-13:25

註釋:

 {While men slept} (en t(9369) katheudein tous anthr(9370)ous).
Same use of the articular present infinitive with en and the
accusative as in  13:4 . {Sowed tares also} (epespeiren ta
zizania). Literally "sowed upon," "resowed" (Moffatt). The enemy
deliberately sowed "the darnel" (zizania is not "tares," but
"darnel," a bastard wheat) over (epi) the wheat, "in the midst
of the wheat." This bearded darnel, _lolium temulentum_, is
common in Palestine and resembles wheat except that the grains
are black. In its earlier stages it is indistinguishable from the
wheat stalks so that it has to remain till near the harvest.
Modern farmers are gaining more skill in weeding it out.

經文:

馬太福音 13:26-13:26

註釋:

 {Then appeared also} (	ote ephan(8820)kai). The darnel became
plain (ephan(885c), second aorist passive, effective aorist of
phain(935c) to show) by harvest.

經文:

馬太福音 13:29-13:29

註釋:

 {Ye root up the wheat with them} (ekriz(9373)(8874)e hama autois
ton siton). Literally, "root out." Easy to do with the roots of
wheat and darnel intermingled in the field. So sullegontes is
not "gather up," but "gather together," here and verses  28  and
 30 . Note other compound verbs here, "grow together"
(sunauxanesthai), "burn up" (katakausai, burn down or
completely), "bring together" (sunagete).

經文:

馬太福音 13:30-13:30

註釋:

 {My barn} (	(886e) apoth(886b)(886e) mou). See already  3:12  6:26 .
Granary, storehouse, place for putting things away.

經文:

馬太福音 13:31-13:31

註釋:

 {Is like} (homoia estin). Adjective for comparison with
associative instrumental as in  13:13,44,45,47,52 . {Grain of
mustard seed} (kokk(9369) sinape(9373)). Single grain in contrast with
the collective sperma ( 17:20 ). {Took and sowed} (lab(936e)
espeiren). Vernacular phrasing like Hebrew and all
conversational style. In _Koin(825f).

經文:

馬太福音 13:32-13:32

註釋:

 {A tree} (dendron). "Not in nature, but in size" (Bruce).
"An excusable exaggeration in popular discourse."

經文:

馬太福音 13:33-13:33

註釋:

 {Is like unto leaven} (homoia estin zum(8869)). In its
pervasive power. Curiously enough some people deny that Jesus
here likens the expanding power of the Kingdom of heaven to
leaven, because, they say, leaven is the symbol of corruption.
But the language of Jesus is not to be explained away by such
exegetical jugglery. The devil is called like a lion by Peter
( 1Pe 5:8 ) and Jesus in Revelation is called the Lion of the
Tribe of Judah ( Re 5:5 ). The leaven permeates all the "wheaten
meal" (aleurou) till the whole is leavened. There is nothing in
the "three measures," merely a common amount to bake. Dr. T.R.
Glover in his _Jesus of History_ suggests that Jesus used to
notice his mother using that amount of wheat flour in baking
bread. To find the Trinity here is, of course, quite beside the
mark. The word for leaven, zum(885c), is from ze(935c), to boil, to
seethe, and so pervasive fermentation.

經文:

馬太福音 13:35-13:35

註釋:

 {I will utter} (ereuxomai). To cast forth like a river,
to gurgle, to disgorge, the passion of a prophet. From  Ps 19:2  78:2 . The Psalmist claims to be able to utter "things hidden
from the foundation of the world" and Matthew applies this
language to the words of Jesus. Certain it is that the life and
teaching of Jesus throw a flood of light on the purposes of God
long kept hidden (kekrummena).

經文:

馬太福音 13:36-13:36

註釋:

 {Explain unto us} (diasaph(8873)on h(886d)in). Also in  18:31 .
"Make thoroughly clear right now" (aorist tense of urgency). The
disciples waited till Jesus left the crowds and got into the
house to ask help on this parable. Jesus had opened up the
Parable of the Sower and now they pick out this one, passing by
the mustard seed and the leaven.

經文:

馬太福音 13:38-13:38

註釋:

 {The field is the world} (ho de agros estin ho kosmos).
The article with both "field" and "world" in Greek means that
subject and predicate are coextensive and so interchangeable. It
is extremely important to understand that both the good seed and
the darnel (tares) are sown in the world, not in the Kingdom, not
in the church. The separation comes at the consummation of the
age (sunteleia ai(936e)os,  39 ), the harvest time. They all grow
together in the field (the world).

經文:

馬太福音 13:41-13:41

註釋:

 {Out of his kingdom} (ek t(8873) basileias autou). Out from
the midst of the kingdom, because in every city the good and the
bad are scattered and mixed together. Cf. ek mesou t(936e) dikai(936e)
in  13:49  "from the midst of the righteous." What this means is
that, just as the wheat and the darnel are mixed together in the
field till the separation at harvest, so the evil are mixed with
the good in the world (the field). Jesus does not mean to say
that these "stumbling-blocks" (	a skandala) are actually in the
Kingdom of heaven and really members of the Kingdom. They are
simply mixed in the field with the wheat and God leaves them in
the world till the separation comes. Their destiny is "the
furnace of fire" (	(886e) kaminon tou puros).

經文:

馬太福音 13:43-13:43

註釋:

 {Shine forth} (eklampsousin). Shine out as the sun comes
from behind a cloud (Vincent) and drive away the darkness after
the separation has come (cf.  Da 12:3 ).

經文:

馬太福音 13:44-13:44

註釋:

 {And hid} (kai ekrupsen). Not necessarily bad morality.
"He may have hid it to prevent it being stolen, or to prevent
himself from being anticipated in buying a field" (Plummer). But
if it was a piece of sharp practice, that is not the point of the
parable. That is, the enormous wealth of the Kingdom for which
any sacrifice, all that one has, is not too great a price to pay.

經文:

馬太福音 13:46-13:46

註釋:

 {He went and sold} (apelth(936e) pepraken). Rather eagerly
and vividly told thus, "He has gone off and sold." The present
perfect indicative, the dramatic perfect of vivid picture. Then
he bought it. Present perfect, imperfect, aorist tenses together
for lively action. Empor(9369) is a merchant, one who goes in and
out, travels like a drummer.

經文:

馬太福音 13:47-13:47

註釋:

 {A net} (sag(886e)(8869)). Drag-net. Latin, _sagena_, English,
seine. The ends were stretched out and drawn together. Only
example of the word in the N.T. Just as the field is the world,
so the drag-net catches all the fish that are in the sea. The
separation comes afterwards. Vincent pertinently quotes Homer's
_Odyssey_ (xxii. 384-389) where the slain suitors in the halls of
Ulysses are likened to fishes on the shore caught by nets with
myriad meshes.

經文:

馬太福音 13:48-13:48

註釋:

 {Vessels} (agg(885c)). Here only in the N.T. In  Mt 25:4  we
have aggeia.

經文:

馬太福音 13:52-13:52

註釋:

 {Made a disciple to the kingdom of heaven} (matheteutheis
t(8869) basilei(8369) t(936e) ouran(936e)). First aorist passive participle. The
verb is transitive in  28:19 . Here a scribe is made a learner to
the kingdom. "The mere scribe, Rabbinical in spirit, produces
only the old and stale. The disciple of the kingdom like the
Master, is always fresh-minded, yet knows how to value all old
spiritual treasures of Holy Writ, or Christian tradition"
(Bruce). So he uses things fresh (kaina) and ancient
(palaia). "He hurls forth" (ekballei) both sorts.

經文:

馬太福音 13:54-13:54

註釋:

 {Is not this the carpenter's son?} (ouch houtos estin ho
tou tekt(936e)os huios?). The well-known, the leading, or even for a
time the only carpenter in Nazareth till Jesus took the place of
Joseph as the carpenter. What the people of Nazareth could not
comprehend was how one with the origin and environment of Jesus
here in Nazareth could possess the wisdom which he appeared to
have in his teaching (edidasken). That has often puzzled people
how a boy whom they knew could become the man he apparently is
after leaving them. They knew Joseph, Mary, the brothers (four of
them named) and sisters (names not given). Jesus passed here as
the son of Joseph and these were younger brothers and sisters
(half brothers and sisters technically).

經文:

馬太福音 13:57-13:57

註釋:

 {And they were offended in him} (kai eskandalizonto en
aut(9369)). Graphic imperfect passive. Literally, "They stumbled at
him," "They were repelled by him" (Moffatt), "They turned against
him" (Weymouth). It was unpardonable for Jesus not to be
commonplace like themselves. {Not without honour} (ouk estin
atimos). This is a proverb found in Jewish, Greek, and Roman
writers. Seen also in the _Logia of Jesus_ (_Oxyr. Papyri_ i. 3).

經文:

馬太福音 13:58-13:58

註釋:

 {Mighty works} (dunameis). Powers. The "disbelief"
(apistian) of the townspeople blocked the will and the power of
Jesus to work cures.

經文:

馬太福音 14:1-14:1

註釋:

 {Herod the tetrarch} (H(8872)(9369)d(8873) tetraarch(8873)). Herod Antipas
ruler of Galilee and Perea, one-fourth of the dominion of Herod
the Great. {The report concerning Jesus} (	(886e) akou(886e) I(8873)ou).
See on 氦:24|. Cognate accusative, heard the hearing (rumour),
objective genitive. It is rather surprising that he had not heard
of Jesus before.

經文:

馬太福音 14:2-14:2

註釋:

 {His servants} (	ois paisin autou). Literally "boys," but
here the courtiers, not the menials of the palace. {Work in him}
(energousin). Cf. our "energize." "The powers of the invisible
world, vast and vague in the king's imagination" (Bruce). John
wrought no miracles, but one _redivivus_ might be under the
control of the unseen powers. So Herod argued. A guilty
conscience quickened his fears. Possibly he could see again the
head of John on a charger. "The King has the Baptist on the
brain" (Bruce). Cf. Josephus (_War_, I. xxx. 7) for the story
that the ghosts of Alexander and Aristobulus haunted the palace
of Herod the Great. There were many conjectures about Jesus as a
result of this tour of Galilee and Herod Antipas feared this one.

經文:

馬太福音 14:3-14:3

註釋:

 {For the sake of Herodias} (dia H(8872)(9369)diada). The death of
John had taken place some time before. The Greek aorists here
(ed(8873)en, apetheto) are not used for past perfects. The Greek
aorist simply narrates the event without drawing distinctions in
past time. This Herodias was the unlawful wife of Herod Antipas.
She was herself a descendant of Herod the Great and had married
Herod Philip of Rome, not Philip the Tetrarch. She had divorced
him in order to marry Herod Antipas after he had divorced his
wife, the daughter of Aretas King of Arabia. It was a nasty mess
equal to any of our modern divorces. Her first husband was still
alive and marriage with a sister-in-law was forbidden to Jews
( Le 18:16 ). Because of her Herod Antipas had put John in the
prison at Machaerus. The bare fact has been mentioned in  Mt
4:12  without the name of the place. See  11:2  also for the
discouragement of John en t(9369) desm(9374)(8872)i(9369) (place of bondage),
here en t(8869) phulak(8869) (the guard-house). Josephus (_Ant_. xviii.
5.2) tells us that Machaerus is the name of the prison. On a high
hill an impregnable fortress had been built. Tristram (_Land of
Moab_) says that there are now remains of "two dungeons, one of
them deep and its sides scarcely broken in" with "small holes
still visible in the masonry where staples of wood and iron had
once been fixed. One of these must surely have been the
prison-house of John the Baptist." "On this high ridge Herod the
Great built an extensive and beautiful palace" (Broadus). "The
windows commanded a wide and grand prospect, including the Dead
Sea, the course of the Jordan, and Jerusalem" (Edersheim, _Life
and Times of Jesus_).

經文:

馬太福音 14:4-14:4

註釋:

 {For John said unto him} (elegen gar I(9361)n(8873) aut(9369)).
Possibly the Pharisees may have put Herod up to inveigling John
to Machaerus on one of his visits there to express an opinion
concerning his marriage to Herodias (Broadus) and the imperfect
tense (elegen) probably means that John said it repeatedly. It
was a blunt and brave thing that John said. It cost him his head,
but it is better to have a head like John's and lose it than to
have an ordinary head and keep it. Herod Antipas was a politician
and curbed his resentment toward John by his fear of the people
who still held (eichon, imperfect tense) him as a prophet.

經文:

馬太福音 14:6-14:6

註釋:

 {When Herod's birthday came} (genesiois genomenois tou
H(8872)(9369)dou). Locative of time (cf.  Mr 6:21 ) without the genitive
absolute. The earlier Greeks used the word genesia for funeral
commemorations (birthdays of the dead), genethlia being the
word for birthday celebrations of living persons. But that
distinction has disappeared in the papyri. The word genesia in
the papyri (_Fayum Towns_, 114-20, 115-8, 119-30) is always a
birthday feast as here in Matthew and Mark. Philo used both words
of birthday feasts. Persius, a Roman satirist (_Sat_. V.
180-183), describes a banquet on Herod's Day. {Danced in the
midst} ((9372)ch(8873)ato en t(9369) mes(9369)). This was Salome, daughter of
Herodias by her first marriage. The root of the verb means some
kind of rapid motion. "Leaped in the middle," Wycliff puts it. It
was a shameful exhibition of lewd dancing prearranged by Herodias
to compass her purpose for John's death. Salome had stooped to
the level of an almeh, or common dancer.

經文:

馬太福音 14:7-14:7

註釋:

 {Promised with an oath} (meta horkou h(936d)olog(8873)en).
Literally, "confessed with an oath." For this verb in the sense
of promise, see  Ac 7:17 . Note middle voice of ait(8873)(8874)ai (ask
for herself). Cf.  Es 5:3  7:2 .

經文:

馬太福音 14:8-14:8

註釋:

 {Put forward} (probibastheisa). See  Ac 19:33  for a
similar verb (probalont(936e)), "pushing forward." Here (Acts) the
Textus Receptus uses probibaz(935c). "It should require a good deal
of 'educating' to bring a young girl to make such a grim request"
(Bruce). {Here} (h(9364)e). On the spot. Here and now. {In a
charger} (epi pinaki). Dish, plate, platter. Why the obsolete
"charger"?

經文:

馬太福音 14:9-14:9

註釋:

 {Grieved} (lup(8874)heis). Not to hurt, for in verse  5  we
read that he wanted (	hel(936e)) to put him to death
(apokteinai). Herod, however, shrank from so dastardly a deed
as this public display of brutality and bloodthirstiness. Men who
do wrong always have some flimsy excuses for their sins. A man
here orders a judicial murder of the most revolting type "for the
sake of his oath" (dia tous horkous). "More like profane
swearing than deliberate utterance once for all of a solemn oath"
(Bruce). He was probably maudlin with wine and befuddled by the
presence of the guests.

經文:

馬太福音 14:10-14:10

註釋:

 {Beheaded John} (apekephalisen I(9361)n(886e)). That is, he had
John beheaded, a causative active tense of a late verb
apokephaliz(935c). Took his head off.

經文:

馬太福音 14:11-14:11

註釋:

 {She brought it to her mother} ((886e)egken t(8869) m(8874)ri aut(8873)).
A gruesome picture as Herodias with fiendish delight witnesses
the triumph of her implacable hatred of John for daring to
reprove her for her marriage with Herod Antipas. A woman scorned
is a veritable demon, a literal she-devil when she wills to be.
Kipling's "female of the species" again. Legends actually picture
Salome as in love with John, sensual lust, of which there is no
proof.

經文:

馬太福音 14:12-14:12

註釋:

 {And they went and told Jesus} (kai elthontes ap(8867)geilan
t(9369) I(8873)ou). As was meet after they had given his body decent
burial. It was a shock to the Master who alone knew how great
John really was. The fate of John was a prophecy of what was
before Jesus. According to  Mt 14:13  the news of the fate of
John led to the withdrawal of Jesus to the desert privately, an
additional motive besides the need for rest after the strain of
the recent tour.

經文:

馬太福音 14:13-14:13

註釋:

 {In a boat} (en ploi(9369)) "on foot" (pez(8869), some MSS.
pez(9369)). Contrast between the lake and the land route.

經文:

馬太福音 14:14-14:14

註釋:

 {Their sick} (	ous arr(9373)tous aut(936e)). "Without strength"
(
h(936e)numi and a privative). Esplagchnisth(885c) is a deponent
passive. The verb gives the oriental idea of the bowels
(splagchna) as the seat of compassion.

經文:

馬太福音 14:15-14:15

註釋:

 {When even was come} (opsias genomen(8873)). Genitive
absolute. Not sunset about 6 P.M. as in  8:16  and as in  14:23 ,
but the first of the two "evenings" beginning at 3 P.M. {The
place is desert} (er(886d)os estin ho topos). Not a desolate
region, simply lonely, comparatively uninhabited with no large
towns near. There were "villages" (k(936d)as) where the people
could buy food, but they would need time to go to them. Probably
this is the idea of the disciples when they add: {The time is
already past} (h(8820)h(9372)a (8864)(8820)par(886c)then). They must hurry.

經文:

馬太福音 14:16-14:16

註釋:

 {Give ye them to eat} (dote autois h(966d)eis phagein). The
emphasis is on h(966d)eis in contrast (note position) with their
"send away" (apoluson). It is the urgent aorist of instant
action (dote). It was an astounding command. The disciples were
to learn that "no situation appears to Him desperate, no crisis
unmanageable" (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 14:17-14:17

註釋:

 {And they say unto him} (hoi de legousin aut(9369)). The
disciples, like us today, are quick with reasons for their
inability to perform the task imposed by Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 14:18-14:18

註釋:

 {And he said} (ho de eipen). Here is the contrast between
the helpless doubt of the disciples and the confident courage of
Jesus. He used "_the_ five loaves and two fishes" which they had
mentioned as a reason for doing nothing. "Bring them hither unto
me." They had overlooked the power of Jesus in this emergency.

經文:

馬太福音 14:19-14:19

註釋:

 {To sit down on the grass} (anaklith(886e)ai epi tou
chortou). "Recline," of course, the word means, first aorist
passive infinitive. A beautiful picture in the afternoon sun on
the grass on the mountain side that sloped westward. The orderly
arrangement (Mark) made it easy to count them and to feed them.
Jesus stood where all could see him "break" (klasas) the thin
Jewish cakes of bread and give to the disciples and they to the
multitudes. This is a nature miracle that some men find it hard
to believe, but it is recorded by all four Gospels and the only
one told by all four. It was impossible for the crowds to
misunderstand and to be deceived. If Jesus is in reality Lord of
the universe as John tells us ( Joh 1:1-18 ) and Paul holds ( Col
1:15-20 ), why should we balk at this miracle? He who created the
universe surely has power to go on creating what he wills to do.

經文:

馬太福音 14:20-14:20

註釋:

 {Were filled} (echortasth(8873)an). Effective aorist passive
indicative of chortaz(935c). See  Mt 5:6 . From the substantive
chortos grass. Cattle were filled with grass and people usually
with other food. They all were satisfied. {Broken pieces} (	(936e)
klasmat(936e)). Not the scraps upon the ground, but the pieces
broken by Jesus and still in the "twelve baskets" (d(9364)eka
kophinous) and not eaten. Each of the twelve had a basketful
left over (	o perisseuon). One hopes that the boy ( Joh 6:9 )
who had the five loaves and two fishes to start with got one of
the basketsful, if not all of them. Each of the Gospels uses the
same word here for baskets (kophinos), a wicker-basket, called
"coffins" by Wycliff. Juvenal (_Sat_. iii. 14) says that the
grove of Numa near the Capenian gate of Rome was "let out to Jews
whose furniture is a basket (_cophinus_) and some hay" (for a
bed). In the feeding of the Four Thousand (Matthew and Mark) the
word sphuris is used which was a sort of hamper or large
provisions basket.

經文:

馬太福音 14:21-14:21

註釋:

 {Beside women and children} (ch(9372)is gunaik(936e) kai
paidi(936e)). Perhaps on this occasion there were not so many as
usual because of the rush of the crowd around the head of the
lake. Matthew adds this item and does not mean that the women and
children were not fed, but simply that "the eaters" (hoi
esthiontes) included five thousand men (andres) besides the
women and children.

經文:

馬太福音 14:22-14:22

註釋:

 {Constrained} ((886e)agkasen). Literally, "compelled" or
"forced." See this word also in  Lu 14:23 . The explanation for
this strong word in  Mr 6:45  and  Mt 14:22  is given in  Joh
6:15 . It is the excited purpose of the crowd to take Jesus by
force and to make him national king. This would be political
revolution and would defeat all the plans of Jesus about his
kingdom. Things have reached a climax. The disciples were
evidently swept off their feet by the mob psychology for they
still shared the Pharisaic hope of a political kingdom. With the
disciples out of the way Jesus could handle the crowd more
easily, {till he should send the multitudes away} (he(9373) hou
apolus(8869) tous ochlous). The use of the aorist subjunctive with
he(9373) or he(9373) hou is a neat and common Greek idiom where the
purpose is not yet realized. So in  18:30  26:36 . "While"
sometimes renders it well. The subjunctive is retained after a
past tense instead of the change to the optative of the ancient
Attic. The optative is very rare anyhow, but Luke uses it with
prin (885c) in  Ac 25:16 .

經文:

馬太福音 14:23-14:23

註釋:

 {Into the mountain} (eis to oros). After the dismissal of
the crowd Jesus went up alone into the mountain on the eastern
side of the lake to pray as he often did go to the mountains to
pray. If ever he needed the Father's sympathy, it was now. The
masses were wild with enthusiasm and the disciples wholly
misunderstood him. The Father alone could offer help now.

經文:

馬太福音 14:24-14:24

註釋:

 {Distressed} (asanizomenon). Like a man with demons
( 8:29 ). One can see, as Jesus did ( Mr 6:48 ), the boat bobbing
up and down in the choppy sea.

經文:

馬太福音 14:25-14:25

註釋:

 {Walking upon the sea} (peripat(936e) epi t(886e) thalassan).
Another nature miracle. Some scholars actually explain it all
away by urging that Jesus was only walking along the beach and
not on the water, an impossible theory unless Matthew's account
is legendary. Matthew uses the accusative (extension) with epi
in verse  25  and the genitive (specifying case) in  26 .

經文:

馬太福音 14:26-14:26

註釋:

 {They were troubled} (etarachth(8873)an). Much stronger than
that. They were literally "terrified" as they saw Jesus walking
on the sea. {An apparition} (phantasma), or "ghost," or
"spectre" from phantaz(935c) and that from phain(935c). They cried out
"from fear" (apo tou phobou) as any one would have done. "A
little touch of sailor superstition" (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 14:28-14:28

註釋:

 {Upon the waters} (epi ta hudata). The impulsiveness of
Peter appears as usual. Matthew alone gives this Peter episode.

經文:

馬太福音 14:30-14:30

註釋:

 {Seeing the wind} (lep(936e) ton anemon). Cf.  Ex 20:18  and
 Re 1:12  "to see the voice" (	(886e) ph(936e)(886e)). "It is one thing to
see a storm from the deck of a stout ship, another to see it in
the midst of the waves" (Bruce). Peter was actually beginning to
sink (katapontizesthai) to plunge down into the sea, "although
a fisherman and a good swimmer" (Bengel). It was a dramatic
moment that wrung from Peter the cry: "Lord, save me" (Kurie,
s(9373)on me), and do it quickly the aorist means. He could walk on
the water till he saw the wind whirl the water round him.

經文:

馬太福音 14:31-14:31

註釋:

 {Didst thou doubt?} (edistasas?). Only here and  28:17 
in the N.T. From distaz(935c) and that from dis (twice). Pulled
two ways. Peter's trust in the power of Christ gave way to his
dread of the wind and waves. Jesus had to take hold of Peter
(epelabeto, middle voice) and pull him up while still walking
on the water.

經文:

馬太福音 14:32-14:32

註釋:

 {Ceased} (ekopasen). From kopos, toil. The wind grew
weary or tired, exhausted itself in the presence of its Master
(cf.  Mr 4:39 ). Not a mere coincidence that the wind ceased now.

經文:

馬太福音 14:33-14:33

註釋:

 {Worshipped him} (prosekun(8873)an aut(9369)). And Jesus accepted
it. They were growing in appreciation of the person and power of
Christ from the attitude in  8:27 . They will soon be ready for
the confession of  16:16 . Already they can say: "Truly God's Son
thou art." The absence of the article here allows it to mean a
Son of God as in  27:54  (the centurion). But they probably mean
"the Son of God" as Jesus was claiming to them to be.

經文:

馬太福音 14:34-14:34

註釋:

 {Gennesaret} (Genn(8873)aret). A rich plain four miles long
and two broad. The first visit of Jesus apparently with the usual
excitement at the cures. People were eager to touch the hem of
Christ's mantle like the woman in  9:20 . Jesus honoured their
superstitious faith and "as many as touched were made whole"
(hosoi h(8870)santo dies(9374)hesan), completely (di-) healed.

經文:

馬太福音 15:1-15:1

註釋:

 {From Jerusalem} (apo Ierosolum(936e)). Jerusalem is the
headquarters of the conspiracy against Jesus with the Pharisees
as the leaders in it. Already we have seen the Herodians
combining with the Pharisees in the purpose to put Jesus to death
( Mr 3:6  Mt 12:14  Lu 6:11 ). Soon Jesus will warn the disciples
against the Sadducees also ( Mt 16:6 ). Unusual order here,
"Pharisees and scribes." "The guardians of tradition in the
capital have their evil eye on Jesus and co-operate with the
provincial rigorists" (Bruce), if the Pharisees were not all from
Jerusalem.

經文:

馬太福音 15:2-15:2

註釋:

 {The tradition of the elders} (	(886e) paradosin t(936e)
presbuter(936e)). This was the oral law, handed down by the elders
of the past in _ex cathedra_ fashion and later codified in the
Mishna. Handwashing before meals is not a requirement of the Old
Testament. It is, we know, a good thing for sanitary reasons, but
the rabbis made it a mark of righteousness for others at any
rate. This item was magnified at great length in the oral
teaching. The washing (
iptontai, middle voice, note) of the
hands called for minute regulations. It was commanded to wash the
hands before meals, it was one's duty to do it after eating. The
more rigorous did it between the courses. The hands must be
immersed. Then the water itself must be "clean" and the cups or
pots used must be ceremonially "clean." Vessels were kept full of
clean water ready for use ( Joh 2:6-8 ). So it went on _ad
infinitum_. Thus a real issue is raised between Jesus and the
rabbis. It was far more than a point of etiquette or of
hygienics. The rabbis held it to be a mortal sin. The incident
may have happened in a Pharisee's house.

經文:

馬太福音 15:3-15:3

註釋:

 {Ye also} (kai h(966d)eis). Jesus admits that the disciples
had transgressed the rabbinical traditions. Jesus treats it as a
matter of no great importance in itself save as they had put the
tradition of the elders in the place of the commandment of God.
When the two clashed, as was often the case, the rabbis
transgress the commandment of God "because of your tradition"
(dia t(886e) paradosin h(966d)(936e)). The accusative with dia means
that, not "by means of." Tradition is not good or bad in itself.
It is merely what is handed on from one to another. Custom tended
to make these traditions binding like law. The Talmud is a
monument of their struggle with tradition. There could be no
compromise on this subject and Jesus accepts the issue. He stands
for real righteousness and spiritual freedom, not for bondage to
mere ceremonialism and tradition. The rabbis placed tradition
(the oral law) above the law of God.

經文:

馬太福音 15:5-15:5

註釋:

 {But ye say} (h(966d)eis de legete). In sharp contrast to the
command of God. Jesus had quoted the fifth commandment ( Ex
20:12,16 ) with the penalty "die the death" (	hanat(9369)
teleutat(935c)), "go on to his end by death," in imitation of the
Hebrew idiom. They dodged this command of God about the penalty
for dishonouring one's father or mother by the use "Corban"
(korban) as Mark calls it ( Mr 7:11 ). All one had to do to
evade one's duty to father or mother was to say "Corban" or
"Gift" (D(9372)on) with the idea of using the money for God. By an
angry oath of refusal to help one's parents, the oath or vow was
binding. By this magic word one set himself free (ou m(880a)tim(8873)ei, he shall not honour) from obedience to the fifth
commandment. Sometimes unfilial sons paid graft to the rabbinical
legalists for such dodges. Were some of these very faultfinders
guilty?

經文:

馬太福音 15:6-15:6

註釋:

 {Ye have made void the word of God} (ekur(9373)ate ton logon
tou theou). It was a stinging indictment that laid bare the
hollow pretence of their quibbles about handwashing. Kuros
means force or authority, akuros is without authority, null and
void. It is a late verb, akuro(935c) but in the LXX,  Gal 3:17 ; and
in the papyri Adjective, verb, and substantive occur in legal
phraseology like cancelling a will, etc. The moral force of God's
law is annulled by their hairsplitting technicalities and immoral
conduct.

經文:

馬太福音 15:7-15:7

註釋:

 {Well did Isaiah prophesy of you} (kal(9373) eproph(8874)eusen peri
h(966d)(936e) Esaias). There is sarcasm in this pointed application of
Isaiah's words ( Isa 29:13 ) to these rabbis. He "beautifully
pictured" them. The portrait was to the very life, "teaching as
their doctrines the commandments of men." They were indeed far
from God if they imagined that God would be pleased with such
gifts at the expense of duty to one's parents.

經文:

馬太福音 15:11-15:11

註釋:

 {This defileth the man} (	outo koinoi ton anthr(9370)on).
This word is from koinos which is used in two senses, either
what is "common" to all and general like the _Koin(825f) Greek, or
what is unclean and "common" either ceremonially or in reality.
The ceremonial "commonness" disturbed Peter on the housetop in
Joppa ( Ac 10:14 ). See also  Ac 21:28  Heb 9:13 . One who is
thus religiously common or unclean is cut off from doing his
religious acts. "Defilement" was a grave issue with the
rabbinical ceremonialists. Jesus appeals to the crowd here: {Hear
and understand} (akouete kai suniete). He has a profound
distinction to draw. Moral uncleanness is what makes a man
common, defiles him. That is what is to be dreaded, not to be
glossed over. "This goes beyond the tradition of the elders and
virtually abrogates the Levitical distinctions between clean and
unclean" (Bruce). One can see the pettifogging pretenders shrivel
up under these withering words.

經文:

馬太福音 15:12-15:12

註釋:

 {Were offended} (eskandalisth(8873)an). First aorist passive.
"Were caused to stumble," "have taken offence" (Moffatt), "have
turned against you" (Weymouth), "were shocked" (Goodspeed), "War
ill-pleased" (Braid Scots). They took umbrage at the public
rebuke and at such a scorpion sting in it all. It cut to the
quick because it was true. It showed in the glowering
countenances of the Pharisees so plainly that the disciples were
uneasy. See on 氤:29|.

經文:

馬太福音 15:14-15:14

註釋:

 {They are blind guides} (	uphloi eisin hod(8867)oi). Graphic
picture. Once in Cincinnati a blind man introduced me to his
blind friend. He said that he was showing him the city. Jesus is
not afraid of the Pharisees. Let them alone to do their worst.
Blind leaders and blind victims will land in the ditch. A
proverbial expression in the O.T.

經文:

馬太福音 15:15-15:15

註釋:

 {Declare unto us the parable} (phrason h(966d)in t(886e)
parabol(886e)). Explain the parable (pithy saying) in verse  11 ,
not in verse  14 . As a matter of fact, the disciples had been
upset by Christ's powerful exposure of the "Corban" duplicity and
the words about "defilement" in verse  11 .

經文:

馬太福音 15:16-15:16

註釋:

 {Are ye also even yet without understanding?} (Akm(886e) kai
h(966d)eis asunetoi este). Akm(886e) is an adverbial accusative
(classic aichm(885c), point (of a weapon)=akm(886e) chronou at this
point of time, just now=eti. It occurs in papyri and
inscriptions, though condemned by the old grammarians. "In spite
of all my teaching, are ye also like the Pharisees without
spiritual insight and grasp?" One must never forget that the
disciples lived in a Pharisaic environment. Their religious
world-outlook was Pharisaic. They were lacking in spiritual
intelligence or sense, "totally ignorant" (Moffatt).

經文:

馬太福音 15:17-15:17

註釋:

 {Perceive ye not?} (ou noeite). Christ expects us to make
use of our 
ous, intellect, not for pride, but for insight. The
mind does not work infallibly, but we should use it for its
God-given purpose. Intellectual laziness or flabbiness is no
credit to a devout soul.

經文:

馬太福音 15:18-15:18

註釋:

 {Out of the mouth} (ek tou stomatos). Spoken words come
out of the heart and so are a true index of character. By "heart"
(kardias) Jesus means not just the emotional nature, but the
entire man, the inward life of "evil thoughts" (dialogismoi
pon(8872)oi) that issue in words and deeds. "These defile the man,"
not "eating with unwashed hands." The captious quibblings of the
Pharisees, for instance, had come out of evil hearts.

經文:

馬太福音 15:22-15:22

註釋:

 {A Canaanitish woman} (gun(8820)Chananaia). The Phoenicians
were descended from the Canaanites, the original inhabitants of
Palestine. They were of Semitic race, therefore, though pagan.
{Have pity on me} (ele(8873)on me). She made her daughter's case
her own, "badly demonized."

經文:

馬太福音 15:23-15:23

註釋:

 {For she crieth after us} (hoti krazei opisthen h(886d)(936e)).
The disciples greatly disliked this form of public attention, a
strange woman crying after them. They disliked a sensation. Did
they wish the woman sent away with her daughter healed or
unhealed?

經文:

馬太福音 15:24-15:24

註釋:

 {I was not sent} (ouk apestal(886e)). Second aorist passive
indicative of apostell(935c). Jesus takes a new turn with this woman
in Phoenicia. He makes a test case of her request. In a way she
represented the problem of the Gentile world. He calls the Jews
"the lost sheep of the house of Israel" in spite of the conduct
of the Pharisees.

經文:

馬太福音 15:27-15:27

註釋:

 {Even the dogs} (kai ta kunaria). She took no offence at
the implication of being a Gentile dog. The rather she with quick
wit took Christ's very word for little dogs (kunaria) and
deftly turned it to her own advantage, for the little dogs eat of
the crumbs (psichi(936e), little morsels, diminutive again) that
fall from the table of their masters (kuri(936e)), the children.

經文:

馬太福音 15:28-15:28

註釋:

 {As thou wilt} (h(9373) theleis). Her great faith and her
keen rejoinder won her case.

經文:

馬太福音 15:29-15:29

註釋:

 {And sat there} (ekath(8874)o ekei). "Was sitting there" on
the mountain side near the sea of Galilee, possibly to rest and
to enjoy the view or more likely to teach.

經文:

馬太福音 15:30-15:30

註釋:

 {And they cast them down at his feet} (kai eripsan autous
para tous podas autou). A very strong word, flung them down,
"not carelessly, but in haste, because so many were coming on the
same errand" (Vincent). It was a great day for "they glorified
the God of Israel."

經文:

馬太福音 15:32-15:32

註釋:

 {Three days} (h(886d)erai treis). A parenthetic nominative
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 460). {What to eat} (	i phag(9373)in).
Indirect question with the deliberative subjunctive retained. In
the feeding of the five thousand Jesus took compassion on the
people and healed their sick ( 14:14 ). Here the hunger of the
multitude moves him to compassion (splagchnizomai, in both
instances). So he is unwilling (ou thel(935c)) to send them away
hungry. {Faint} (ekluth(9373)in). Unloosed, (eklu(935c)) exhausted.

經文:

馬太福音 15:33-15:33

註釋:

 {And the disciples say to him} (kai legousin aut(9369) hoi
math(8874)ai). It seems strange that they should so soon have
forgotten the feeding of the five thousand ( Mt 14:13-21 ), but
they did. Soon Jesus will remind them of both these
demonstrations of his power ( 16:9,10 ). They forgot both of
them, not just one. Some scholars scout the idea of two miracles
so similar as the feeding of the five thousand and the four
thousand, though both are narrated in detail by both Mark and
Matthew and both are later mentioned by Jesus. Jesus repeated his
sayings and wrought multitudes of healings. There is no reason in
itself why Jesus should not on occasion repeat a nature miracle
like this elsewhere. He is in the region of Decapolis, not in the
country of Philip (Trachonitis).

經文:

馬太福音 15:34-15:34

註釋:

 {A few small fishes} (oliga ichthudia, diminutive again).

經文:

馬太福音 15:35-15:35

註釋:

 {On the ground} (epi t(886e) g(886e)). No mention of "grass" as
in  14:19  for this time, midsummer, the grass would be parched
and gone.

經文:

馬太福音 15:36-15:36

註釋:

 {Gave thanks} (eucharist(8873)as). In  14:19  the word used
for "grace" or "blessing" is eulog(8873)en. Vincent notes that the
Jewish custom was for the head of the house to say the blessing
only if he shared the meal unless the guests were his own
household. But we need not think of Jesus as bound by the
peccadilloes of Jewish customs.

經文:

馬太福音 15:39-15:39

註釋:

 {The borders of Magadan} (eis ta horia Magadan). On the
eastern side of the Sea of Galilee and so in Galilee again. Mark
terms it Dalmanutha ( Mr 8:10 ). Perhaps after all the same place
as Magdala, as most manuscripts have it.

經文:

馬太福音 16:1-16:1

註釋:

 {The Pharisees and Sadducees} (hoi Pharisaioi kai
Saddoukaioi). The first time that we have this combination of
the two parties who disliked each other exceedingly. Hate makes
strange bedfellows. They hated Jesus more than they did each
other. Their hostility has not decreased during the absence of
Jesus, but rather increased. {Tempting him} (peirazontes).
Their motive was bad. {A sign from heaven} (s(886d)eion ek tou
ouranou). The scribes and Pharisees had already asked for a sign
( 12:38 ). Now this new combination adds "from heaven." What did
they have in mind? They may not have had any definite idea to
embarrass Jesus. The Jewish apocalypses did speak of spectacular
displays of power by the Son of Man (the Messiah). The devil had
suggested that Jesus let the people see him drop down from the
pinnacle of the temple and the people expected the Messiah to
come from an unknown source ( Joh 7:27 ) who would do great signs
( Joh 7:31 ). Chrysostom (_Hom_. liii.) suggests stopping the
course of the sun, bridling the moon, a clap of thunder.

經文:

馬太福音 16:2-16:2

註釋:

 {Fair weather} (eudia). An old poetic word from eu and
Zeus as the ruler of the air and giver of fair weather. So men
today say "when the sky is red at sunset." It occurs on the
Rosetta Stone and in a fourth century A.D. Oxyr. papyrus for
"calm weather" that made it impossible to sail the boat. Aleph
and B and some other MSS. omit verses 2 and 3. W omits part of
verse 2. These verses are similar to  Lu 12:54-56 . McNeile
rejects them here. Westcott and Hort place in brackets. Jesus
often repeated his sayings. Zahn suggests that Papias added these
words to Matthew.

經文:

馬太福音 16:3-16:3

註釋:

 {Lowring} (stugnaz(936e)). A sky covered with clouds. Used
also of a gloomy countenance as of the rich young ruler in  Mr
10:22 . Nowhere else in the New Testament. This very sign of a
rainy day we use today. The word for "foul weather" (cheim(936e))
is the common one for winter and a storm. {The signs of the
times} (	a s(886d)eia t(936e) kair(936e)). How little the Pharisees and
Sadducees understood the situation. Soon Jerusalem would be
destroyed and the Jewish state overturned. It is not always easy
to discern (diakrinein, discriminate) the signs of our own
time. Men are numerous with patent keys to it all. But we ought
not to be blind when others are gullible.

經文:

馬太福音 16:4-16:4

註釋:

 Same words in  12:39  except 	ou proph(8874)ou, a real
doublet.

經文:

馬太福音 16:5-16:5

註釋:

 {Came} (elthontes). Probably= "went" as in  Lu 15:20 
(ire, not venire). So in  Mr 8:13  ap(886c)then. {Forgot}
(epelathonto). Perhaps in the hurry to leave Galilee, probably
in the same boat by which they came across from Decapolis.

經文:

馬太福音 16:7-16:7

註釋:

 {They reasoned} (dielogizonto). It was pathetic, the
almost jejune inability of the disciples to understand the
parabolic warning against "the leaven of the Pharisees and
Sadducees" (verse  6 ) after the collision of Christ just before
with both parties in Magadan. They kept it up, imperfect tense.
It is "loaves" (artous) rather than "bread."

經文:

馬太福音 16:8-16:8

註釋:

 Jesus asks four pungent questions about the intellectual
dulness, refers to the feeding of the five thousand and uses the
word kophinous ( 14:20 ) for it and sphuridas for the four
thousand ( 15:37 ), and repeats his warning ( 16:11 ). Every
teacher understands this strain upon the patience of this Teacher
of teachers.

經文:

馬太福音 16:12-16:12

註釋:

 {Then understood they} (	ote sun(886b)an). First aorist
active indicative of suni(886d)i, to grasp, to comprehend. They saw
the point after this elaborate rebuke and explanation that by
"leaven" Jesus meant "teaching."

經文:

馬太福音 16:13-16:13

註釋:

 {Caesarea Philippi} (Kaisarias t(8873) Philippou). Up on a
spur of Mt. Hermon under the rule of Herod Philip. {He asked}
((8872)(9374)(835c)). Began to question, inchoative imperfect tense. He was
giving them a test or examination. The first was for the opinion
of men about the Son of Man.

經文:

馬太福音 16:14-16:14

註釋:

 {And they said} (hoi de eipan). They were ready to
respond for they knew that popular opinion was divided on that
point ( 14:1f. ). They give four different opinions. It is always
a risky thing for a pastor to ask for people's opinions of him.
But Jesus was not much concerned by their answers to this
question. He knew by now that the Pharisees and Sadducees were
bitterly hostile to him. The masses were only superficially
following him and they looked for a political Messiah and had
vague ideas about him. How much did the disciples understand and
how far have they come in their development of faith? Are they
still loyal?

經文:

馬太福音 16:15-16:15

註釋:

 {But who say ye that I am?} (h(966d)eis de tina me legete
einai?). This is what matters and what Jesus wanted to hear.
Note emphatic position of {h(966d)eis}, "But _you_, who say ye that I
am?"

經文:

馬太福音 16:16-16:16

註釋:

 Peter is the spokesman now: "Thou art the Christ, the Son
of the living God" (Su ei ho Christos ho huios tou theou tou
z(936e)tos). It was a noble confession, but not a new claim by
Jesus. Peter had made it before ( Joh 6:69 ) when the multitude
deserted Jesus in Capernaum. Since the early ministry (John 4)
Jesus had avoided the word Messiah because of its political
meaning to the people. But now Peter plainly calls Jesus the
Anointed One, the Messiah, the Son of the God the living one
(note the four Greek articles). This great confession of Peter
means that he and the other disciples believe in Jesus as the
Messiah and are still true to him in spite of the defection of
the Galilean populace (John 6).

經文:

馬太福音 16:17-16:17

註釋:

 {Blessed art thou} (makarios ei). A beatitude for Peter.
Jesus accepts the confession as true. Thereby Jesus on this
solemn occasion solemnly claims to be the Messiah, the Son of the
living God, his deity in other words. The disciples express
positive conviction in the Messiahship or Christhood of Jesus as
opposed to the divided opinions of the populace. "The terms in
which Jesus speaks of Peter are characteristic--warm, generous,
unstinted. The style is not that of an ecclesiastical editor
laying the foundation for church power, and prelatic pretentions,
but of a noble-minded Master eulogizing in impassioned terms a
loyal disciple" (Bruce). The Father had helped Peter get this
spiritual insight into the Master's Person and Work.

經文:

馬太福音 16:18-16:18

註釋:

 {And I also say unto thee} (k'ag(9320)de soi leg(935c)). "The
emphasis is not on 'Thou art Peter' over against 'Thou art the
Christ,' but on Kag(935c): 'The Father hath revealed to thee one
truth, and I also tell you another" (McNeile). Jesus calls Peter
here by the name that he had said he would have ( Joh 1:42 ).
Peter (Petros) is simply the Greek word for Cephas (Aramaic).
Then it was prophecy, now it is fact. In verse  17  Jesus
addresses him as "Simon Bar-Jonah," his full patronymic (Aramaic)
name. But Jesus has a purpose now in using his nickname "Peter"
which he had himself given him. Jesus makes a remarkable play on
Peter's name, a pun in fact, that has caused volumes of
controversy and endless theological strife. {On this rock} (epi
taut(8869) t(8869) petr(8369)) Jesus says, a ledge or cliff of rock like
that in  7:24  on which the wise man built his house. Petros is
usually a smaller detachment of the massive ledge. But too much
must not be made of this point since Jesus probably spoke Aramaic
to Peter which draws no such distinction (K(8870)h(835c)). What did
Jesus mean by this word-play?

{I will build my church} (oikodom(8873)(9320)mou t(886e) ekkl(8873)ian). It is
the figure of a building and he uses the word ekkl(8873)ian which
occurs in the New Testament usually of a local organization, but
sometimes in a more general sense. What is the sense here in
which Jesus uses it? The word originally meant "assembly" ( Ac
19:39 ), but it came to be applied to an "unassembled assembly"
as in  Ac 8:3  for the Christians persecuted by Saul from house
to house. "And the name for the new Israel, ekkl(8873)ia, in His
mouth is not an anachronism. It is an old familiar name for the
congregation of Israel found in Deut. ( De 18:26  23:2 ) and
Psalms ( Ps 22:36 ), both books well known to Jesus" (Bruce). It
is interesting to observe that in  Ps 89  most of the important
words employed by Jesus on this occasion occur in the LXX text.
So oikodom(8873)(935c) in  Ps 89:5 ; ekkl(8873)ia in  Ps 89:6 ;
katischu(935c) in  Ps 89:22 ; Christos in  Ps 89:39,52 ; h(8369)d(8873)
in  Ps 89:49  (ek cheiros h(8369)dou). If one is puzzled over the
use of "building" with the word ekkl(8873)ia it will be helpful to
turn to  1Pe 2:5 . Peter, the very one to whom Jesus is here
speaking, writing to the Christians in the five Roman provinces
in Asia ( 1Pe 1:1 ), says: "You are built a spiritual house"
(oikodomeisthe oikos pneumatikos). It is difficult to resist
the impression that Peter recalls the words of Jesus to him on
this memorable occasion. Further on ( 1Pe 2:9 ) he speaks of them
as an elect race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, showing
beyond controversy that Peter's use of building a spiritual house
is general, not local. This is undoubtedly the picture in the
mind of Christ here in  16:18 . It is a great spiritual house,
Christ's Israel, not the Jewish nation, which he describes. What
is the rock on which Christ will build his vast temple? Not on
Peter alone or mainly or primarily. Peter by his confession was
furnished with the illustration for the rock on which His church
will rest. It is the same kind of faith that Peter has just
confessed. The perpetuity of this church general is guaranteed.

{The gates of Hades} (pulai h(8369)dou) {shall not prevail against
it} (ou katischusousin aut(8873)). Each word here creates
difficulty. Hades is technically the unseen world, the Hebrew
Sheol, the land of the departed, that is death. Paul uses
	hanate in  1Co 15:55  in quoting  Ho 13:14  for h(8369)d(885c). It is
not common in the papyri, but it is common on tombstones in Asia
Minor, "doubtless a survival of its use in the old Greek
religion" (Moulton and Milligan, _Vocabulary_). The ancient
pagans divided Hades (a privative and idein, to see, abode of
the unseen) into Elysium and Tartarus as the Jews put both
Abraham's bosom and Gehenna in Sheol or Hades (cf.  Lu 16:25 ).
Christ was in Hades ( Ac 2:27,31 ), not in Gehenna. We have here
the figure of two buildings, the Church of Christ on the Rock,
the House of Death (Hades). "In the Old Testament the 'gates of
Hades' (Sheol) never bears any other meaning ( Isa 38:10 ; Wisd.
16:3; 3Macc. 5:51) than death," McNeile claims. See also  Ps
9:13  107:18  Job 38:17  (pulai thanatou pul(9372)oi h(8369)dou). It is
not the picture of Hades _attacking_ Christ's church, but of
death's possible victory over the church. "The ekkl(8873)ia is
built upon the Messiahship of her master, and death, the gates of
Hades, will not prevail against her by keeping Him imprisoned. It
was a mysterious truth, which He will soon tell them in plain
words (verse  21 ); it is echoed in  Ac 2:24,31 " (McNeile).
Christ's church will prevail and survive because He will burst
the gates of Hades and come forth conqueror. He will ever live
and be the guarantor of the perpetuity of His people or church.
The verb katischu(935c) (literally have strength against, ischu(935c)
from ischus and kat-) occurs also in  Lu 21:36  23:23 . It
appears in the ancient Greek, the LXX, and in the papyri with the
accusative and is used in the modern Greek with the sense of
gaining the mastery over. The wealth of imagery in  Mt 16:18 
makes it difficult to decide each detail, but the main point is
clear. The ekkl(8873)ia which consists of those confessing Christ
as Peter has just done will not cease. The gates of Hades or bars
of Sheol will not close down on it. Christ will rise and will
keep his church alive. _Sublime Porte_ used to be the title of
Turkish power in Constantinople.

經文:

馬太福音 16:19-16:19

註釋:

 {The Keys of the kingdom} (	as kleidas t(8873) basileias).
Here again we have the figure of a building with keys to open
from the outside. The question is raised at once if Jesus does
not here mean the same thing by "kingdom" that he did by "church"
in verse  18 . In  Re 1:18  3:7  Christ the Risen Lord has "the
keys of death and of Hades." He has also "the keys of the kingdom
of heaven" which he here hands over to Peter as "gatekeeper" or
"steward" (oikonomos) provided we do not understand it as a
special and peculiar prerogative belonging to Peter. The same
power here given to Peter belongs to every disciple of Jesus in
all the ages. Advocates of papal supremacy insist on the primacy
of Peter here and the power of Peter to pass on this supposed
sovereignty to others. But this is all quite beside the mark. We
shall soon see the disciples actually disputing again ( Mt 18:1 )
as to which of them is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven as
they will again ( 20:21 ) and even on the night before Christ's
death. Clearly neither Peter nor the rest understood Jesus to say
here that Peter was to have supreme authority. What is added
shows that Peter held the keys precisely as every preacher and
teacher does. To "bind" (d(8873)(8869)s) in rabbinical language is to
forbid, to "loose" (lus(8869)s) is to permit. Peter would be like a
rabbi who passes on many points. Rabbis of the school of Hillel
"loosed" many things that the school of Schammai "bound." The
teaching of Jesus is the standard for Peter and for all preachers
of Christ. Note the future perfect indicative (estai dedemenon,
estai lelumenon), a state of completion. All this assumes, of
course, that Peter's use of the keys will be in accord with the
teaching and mind of Christ. The binding and loosing is repeated
by Jesus to all the disciples ( 18:18 ). Later after the
Resurrection Christ will use this same language to all the
disciples ( Joh 20:23 ), showing that it was not a special
prerogative of Peter. He is simply first among equals, _primus
inter pares_, because on this occasion he was spokesman for the
faith of all. It is a violent leap in logic to claim power to
forgive sins, to pronounce absolution, by reason of the technical
rabbinical language that Jesus employed about binding and
loosing. Every preacher uses the keys of the kingdom when he
proclaims the terms of salvation in Christ. The proclamation of
these terms when accepted by faith in Christ has the sanction and
approval of God the Father. The more personal we make these great
words the nearer we come to the mind of Christ. The more
ecclesiastical we make them the further we drift away from him.

經文:

馬太福音 16:20-16:20

註釋:

 {That they should tell no man} (hina m(8864)eni eip(9373)in).
Why? For the very reason that he had himself avoided this claim
in public. He was the Messiah (ho Christos), but the people
would inevitably take it in a political sense. Jesus was plainly
profoundly moved by Peter's great confession on behalf of the
disciples. He was grateful and confident of the final outcome.
But he foresaw peril to all. Peter had confessed him as the
Messiah and on this rock of faith thus confessed he would build
his church or kingdom. They will all have and use the keys to
this greatest of all buildings, but for the present they must be
silent.

經文:

馬太福音 16:21-16:21

註釋:

 {From that time began} (apo tote (8872)xato). It was a
suitable time for the disclosure of the greatest secret of his
death. It is now just a little over six months before the cross.
They must know it now to be ready then. The great confession of
Peter made this seem an appropriate time. He will repeat the
warnings ( 17:22f.  with mention of betrayal;  20:17-19  with the
cross) which he now "began." So the necessity (dei, must) of
his suffering death at the hands of the Jerusalem ecclesiastics
who have dogged his steps in Galilee is now plainly stated. Jesus
added his resurrection "on the third day" (	(8869) trit(8869) h(886d)er(8369)),
not "on the fourth day," please observe. Dimly the shocked
disciples grasped something of what Jesus said.

經文:

馬太福音 16:22-16:22

註釋:

 {Peter took him} (proslabomenos auton ho Petros). Middle
voice, "taking to himself," aside and apart, "as if by a right of
his own. He acted with greater familiarity after the token of
acknowledgment had been given. Jesus, however, reduces him to his
level" (Bengel). "Peter here appears in a new character; a minute
ago speaking under inspiration from heaven, now under inspiration
from the opposite quarter" (Bruce). Syriac Sinaitic for  Mr 8:32 
has it "as though pitying him." But this exclamation and
remonstrance of Peter was soon interrupted by Jesus. {God have
mercy on thee} (hile(9373). Supply ei(885c) or est(9320)ho theos). {This
shall never be} (ou m(8820)estai soi touto). Strongest kind of
negation, as if Peter would not let it happen. Peter had perfect
assurance.

經文:

馬太福音 16:23-16:23

註釋:

 {But he turned} (ho de strapheis). Second aorist passive
participle, quick ingressive action, away from Peter in
revulsion, and toward the other disciples ( Mr 8:33  has
epistrapheis and id(936e) tous math(8874)as autou). {Get thee behind
me, Satan} (Hupage opis(9320)mou, Satan(835c)). Just before Peter played
the part of a rock in the noble confession and was given a place
of leadership. Now he is playing the part of Satan and is ordered
to the rear. Peter was tempting Jesus not to go on to the cross
as Satan had done in the wilderness. "None are more formidable
instruments of temptation than well-meaning friends, who care
more for our comfort than for our character" (Bruce). "In Peter
the banished Satan had once more returned" (Plummer). {A
stumbling-block unto me} (skandalon ei emou). Objective
genitive. Peter was acting as Satan's catspaw, in ignorance,
surely, but none the less really. He had set a trap for Christ
that would undo all his mission to earth. "Thou art not, as
before, a noble block, lying in its right position as a massive
foundation stone. On the contrary, thou art like a stone quite
out of its proper place, and lying right across the road in which
I must go--lying as a stone of stumbling" (Morison). {Thou
mindest not} (ou phroneis). "Your outlook is not God's, but
man's" (Moffatt). You do not think God's thoughts. Clearly the
consciousness of the coming cross is not a new idea with Jesus.
We do not know when he first foresaw this outcome any more than
we know when first the Messianic consciousness appeared in Jesus.
He had the glimmerings of it as a boy of twelve, when he spoke of
"My Father's house." He knows now that he must die on the cross.

經文:

馬太福音 16:24-16:24

註釋:

 {Take up his cross} (arat(9320)ton stauron autou). Pick up at
once, aorist tense. This same saying in  10:38 , which see. But
pertinent here also in explanation of Christ's rebuke to Peter.
Christ's own cross faces him. Peter had dared to pull Christ away
from his destiny. He would do better to face squarely his own
cross and to bear it after Jesus. The disciples would be familiar
with cross-bearing as a figure of speech by reason of the
crucifixion of criminals in Jerusalem. {Follow} (akaloutheit(935c)).
Present tense. Keep on following.

經文:

馬太福音 16:25-16:25

註釋:

 {Save his life} (	(886e) psuch(886e) autou s(9373)ai). Paradoxical
play on word "life" or "soul," using it in two senses. So about
"saving" and "losing" (apolesei).

經文:

馬太福音 16:26-16:26

註釋:

 {Gain} (kerd(8873)(8869)) and {profit} (z(886d)i(9374)h(8869)). Both aorist
subjunctives (one active, the other passive) and so punctiliar
action, condition of third class, undetermined, but with prospect
of determination. Just a supposed case. The verb for "forfeit"
occurs in the sense of being fined or mulcted of money. So the
papyri and inscriptions. {Exchange} (antallagma). As an
exchange, accusative in apposition with 	i. The soul has no
market price, though the devil thinks so. "A man must give,
surrender, his life, and nothing less to God; no antallagma is
possible" (McNeile). This word antallagma occurs twice in the
_Wisdom of Sirach_: "There is no exchange for a faithful friend"
(6:15); "There is no exchange for a well-instructed soul"
(26:14).

經文:

馬太福音 16:28-16:28

註釋:

 {Some of them that stand here} (	ines t(936e) hode hest(9374)(936e)).
A _crux interpretum_ in reality. Does Jesus refer to the
Transfiguration, the Resurrection of Jesus, the great Day of
Pentecost, the Destruction of Jerusalem, the Second Coming and
Judgment? We do not know, only that Jesus was certain of his
final victory which would be typified and symbolized in various
ways. The apocalyptic eschatological symbolism employed by Jesus
here does not dominate his teaching. He used it at times to
picture the triumph of the kingdom, not to set forth the full
teaching about it. The kingdom of God was already in the hearts
of men. There would be climaxes and consummations.

經文:

馬太福音 17:1-17:1

註釋:

 {After six days} (meth' h(886d)er(8373) hex). This could be on the
sixth day, but as Luke ( Lu 9:28 ) puts it "about eight days" one
naturally thinks of a week as the probable time, though it is not
important. {Taketh with him} (paralambanei). Literally, {takes
along}. Note historical present. These three disciples form an
inner group who have shown more understanding of Jesus. So at
Gethsemane. {Apart} (kat' idian) means "by themselves"
({alone}, monous, Mark has it) up (anapherei) into a high
mountain, probably Mount Hermon again, though we do not really
know. "The Mount of Transfiguration does not concern geography"
(Holtzmann).

經文:

馬太福音 17:2-17:2

註釋:

 {He was transfigured before them} (metemorph(9374)h(8820)emprosthen
aut(936e)). The word is the same as the metamorphoses (cf. Ovid) of
pagan mythology. Luke does not use it. The idea is change
(meta-) of form (morph(885c)). It really presents the essence of a
thing as separate from the sch(886d)a (fashion), the outward
accident. So in  Ro 12:2  Paul uses both verbs,
sunschematizesthe (be not fashioned) and metamorphousthe (be
ye transformed in your inner life). So in  1Co 7:31  sch(886d)a is
used for the fashion of the world while in  Mr 16:12  morph(885c) is
used of the form of Jesus after his resurrection. The false
apostles are described by metasch(886d)atisomai in  2Co 11:13-15 .
In  Php 2:6  we have en morph(8869) used of the Preincarnate state
of Christ and morph(886e) doulou of the Incarnate state ( Php
2:7 ), while sch(886d)ati h(9373) anthr(9370)os emphasizes his being found
"in fashion as a man." But it will not do in  Mt 17:2  to use the
English transliteration metamorph(9373)is because of its pagan
associations. So the Latin _transfigured_ (Vulgate
_transfiguratus est_) is better. "The deeper force of
metamorphousthai is seen in  2Co 3:18  (with reference to the
shining on Moses' face),  Ro 12:2 " (McNeile). The word occurs in
a second-century papyrus of the pagan gods who are invisible.
Matthew guards against the pagan idea by adding and explaining
about the face of Christ "as the sun" and his garments "as the
light."

經文:

馬太福音 17:3-17:3

註釋:

 {There appeared} ((9370)hth(885c)). Singular aorist passive verb
with Moses (to be understood also with Elijah), but the
participle sunlalountes is plural agreeing with both.
"Sufficient objectivity is guaranteed by the vision being enjoyed
by all three" (Bruce). The Jewish apocalypses reveal popular
expectations that Moses and Elijah would reappear. Both had
mystery connected with their deaths. One represented law, the
other prophecy, while Jesus represented the gospel (grace). They
spoke of his decease ( Lu 9:31 ), the cross, the theme uppermost
in the mind of Christ and which the disciples did not comprehend.
Jesus needed comfort and he gets it from fellowship with Moses
and Elijah.

經文:

馬太福音 17:4-17:4

註釋:

 {And Peter answered} (apokritheis de ho Petros). "Peter to
the front again, but not greatly to his credit" (Bruce). It is
not clear what Peter means by his saying: "It is good for us to
be here" (kalon estin h(886d)(8373) h(9364)e einai). Luke ( Lu 9:33 ) adds
"not knowing what he said," as they "were heavy with sleep." So
it is not well to take Peter too seriously on this occasion. At
any rate he makes a definite proposal. {I will make} (pai(8873)(935c)).
Future indicative though aorist subjunctive has same form.
{Tabernacles} (sk(886e)as), booths. The Feast of Tabernacles was
not far away. Peter may have meant that they should just stay up
here on the mountain and not go to Jerusalem for the feast.

經文:

馬太福音 17:5-17:5

註釋:

 {Overshadowed} (epeskiasen). They were up in cloud-land
that swept round and over them. See this verb used of Mary ( Lu
1:35 ) and of Peter's shadow ( Ac 5:15 ). {This is} (houtos
estin). At the baptism ( Mt 3:17 ) these words were addressed to
Jesus. Here the voice out of the bright cloud speaks to them
about Jesus. {Hear ye him} (akouete autou). Even when he speaks
about his death. A sharp rebuke to Peter for his consolation to
Jesus about his death.

經文:

馬太福音 17:7-17:7

註釋:

 {And touched them} (kai hapsamenos aut(936e)). Tenderness in
their time of fear.

經文:

馬太福音 17:8-17:8

註釋:

 {Lifting up their eyes} (eparantes tous ophthalmous
aut(936e)). After the reassuring touch of Jesus and his words of
cheer. {Jesus only} (I(8873)oun monon). Moses and Elijah were gone
in the bright cloud.

經文:

馬太福音 17:9-17:9

註釋:

 {Until} (he(9373) hou). This conjunction is common with the
subjunctive for a future event as his Resurrection (egerth(8869))
was. Again ( Mr 9:10 ) they were puzzled over his meaning. Jesus
evidently hopes that this vision of Moses and Elijah and his own
glory might stand them in good stead at his death.

經文:

馬太福音 17:10-17:10

註釋:

 {Elijah must first come} (Eleian dei elthein pr(9374)on). So
this piece of theology concerned them more than anything else.
They had just seen Elijah, but Jesus the Messiah had come before
Elijah. The scribes used  Mal 4:5 . Jesus had also spoken again
of his death (resurrection). So they are puzzled.

經文:

馬太福音 17:12-17:12

註釋:

 {Elijah is come already} (Eleias (8864)(8820)(886c)then). Thus Jesus
identifies John the Baptist with the promise in Malachi, though
not the real Elijah in person which John denied ( Joh 1:21 ).
{They knew him not} (ouk epign(9373)an auton). Second aorist active
indicative of epigin(9373)k(935c), to recognize. Just as they do not
know Jesus now ( Joh 1:26 ). They killed John as they will Jesus
the Son of Man.

經文:

馬太福音 17:13-17:13

註釋:

 {Then understood} (	ote sun(886b)an). One of the three k
aorists. It was plain enough even for them. John was Elijah in
spirit and had prepared the way for the Messiah.

經文:

馬太福音 17:15-17:15

註釋:

 {Epileptic} (sel(886e)iazetai). Literally, "moonstruck,"
"lunatic." The symptoms of epilepsy were supposed to be
aggravated by the changes of the moon (cf.  4:24 ). {He has it
bad} (kak(9373) echei) as often in the Synoptic Gospels.

經文:

馬太福音 17:17-17:17

註釋:

 {Perverse} (diestrammen(885c)). Distorted, twisted in two,
corrupt. Perfect passive participle of diastreph(935c).

經文:

馬太福音 17:20-17:20

註釋:

 {Little faith} (oligopistian). A good translation. It was
less than "a grain of mustard seed" (kokkon sinape(9373)). See
 13:31  for this phrase. They had no miracle faith. Bruce holds
"this mountain" to be the Mount of Transfiguration to which Jesus
pointed. Probably so. But it is a parable. Our trouble is always
with "this mountain" which confronts our path. Note the form
metaba (meta and (8874)hi).

經文:

馬太福音 17:23-17:23

註釋:

 {And they were exceeding sorry} (kai elup(8874)h(8873)an
sphodra). So they at last understood that he was talking about
his death and resurrection.

經文:

馬太福音 17:24-17:24

註釋:

 {They that received the half-shekel} (hoi ta didrachma
lambanontes). This temple tax amounted to an Attic drachma or
the Jewish half-shekel, about one-third of a dollar. Every Jewish
man twenty years of age and over was expected to pay it for the
maintenance of the temple. But it was not a compulsory tax like
that collected by the publicans for the government. "The tax was
like a voluntary church-rate; no one could be compelled to pay"
(Plummer). The same Greek word occurs in two Egyptian papyri of
the first century A.D. for the receipt for the tax for the temple
of Suchus (Milligan and Moulton's _Vocabulary_). This tax for the
Jerusalem temple was due in the month Adar (our March) and it was
now nearly six months overdue. But Jesus and the Twelve had been
out of Galilee most of this time. Hence the question of the
tax-collectors. The payment had to be made in the Jewish coin,
half-shekel. Hence the money-changers did a thriving business in
charging a small premium for the Jewish coin, amounting to some
forty-five thousand dollars a year, it is estimated. It is
significant that they approached Peter rather than Jesus, perhaps
not wishing to embarrass "Your Teacher," "a roundabout hint that
the tax was overdue" (Bruce). Evidently Jesus had been in the
habit of paying it (Peter's).

經文:

馬太福音 17:25-17:25

註釋:

 {Jesus spake first to him} (proephthasen auton ho I(8873)ous
leg(936e)). Here only in the N.T. One example in a papyrus B.C. 161
(Moulton and Milligan, _Vocabulary_). The old idiomatic use of
phthan(935c) with the participle survives in this example of
prophthan(935c) in  Mt 17:25 , meaning to anticipate, to get before
one in doing a thing. The _Koin(825f) uses the infinitive thus with
phthan(935c) which has come to mean simply to arrive. Here the
anticipation is made plain by the use of pro-. See Robertson's
_Grammar_, p. 1120. The "prevent" of the Authorized Version was
the original idea of _praevenire_, to go before, to anticipate.
Peter felt obliged to take the matter up with Jesus. But the
Master had observed what was going on and spoke to Peter first.
{Toll or tribute} (	el(8820)(8820)k(886e)son). Customs or wares collected
by the publicans (like phoros,  Ro 13:7 ) and also the
capitation tax on persons, indirect and direct taxation. K(886e)sos
is the Latin _census_, a registration for the purpose of the
appraisement of property like h(8820)apograph(885c) in  Lu 2:2  Ac
5:37 . By this parable Jesus as the Son of God claims exemption
from the temple tax as the temple of his Father just as royal
families do not pay taxes, but get tribute from the foreigners or
aliens, subjects in reality.

經文:

馬太福音 17:26-17:26

註釋:

 {The sons} (hoi huioi). Christ, of course, and the
disciples also in contrast with the Jews. Thus a reply to Peter's
prompt "Yes." Logically (arage) free from the temple tax, but
practically not as he proceeds to show.

經文:

馬太福音 17:27-17:27

註釋:

 {Lest we cause them to stumble} (hina m(8820)skandalis(936d)en
autous). He does not wish to create the impression that he and
the disciples despise the temple and its worship. Aorist tense
(punctiliar single act) here, though some MSS. have present
subjunctive (linear). "A hook" (agkistron). The only example in
the N.T. of fishing with a hook. From an unused verb agkiz(935c), to
angle, and that from agkos, a curve (so also agkal(885c) the inner
curve of the arm,  Lu 2:38 ). {First cometh up} (	on anabanta
pr(9374)on ichthun). More correctly, "the first fish that cometh
up." {A shekel} (stat(8872)a). Greek stater = four drachmae, enough
for two persons to pay the tax. {For me and thee} (anti emou kai
sou). Common use of anti in commercial transactions, "in
exchange for." Here we have a miracle of foreknowledge. Such
instances have happened. Some try to get rid of the miracle by
calling it a proverb or by saying that Jesus only meant for Peter
to sell the fish and thus get the money, a species of nervous
anxiety to relieve Christ and the Gospel of Matthew from the
miraculous. "All the attempts have been in vain which were made
by the older Rationalism to put a non-miraculous meaning into
these words" (B. Weiss). It is not stated that Peter actually
caught such a fish though that is the natural implication. Why
provision is thus only made for Peter along with Jesus we do not
know.

經文:

馬太福音 18:1-18:1

註釋:

 {Who then is greatest} (	is ara meiz(936e) estin). The ara
seems to point back to the tax-collection incident when Jesus had
claimed exemption for them all as "sons" of the Father. But it
was not a new dispute, for jealousy had been growing in their
hearts. The wonderful words of Jesus to Peter on Mount Hermon
( Mt 16:17-19 ) had evidently made Peter feel a fresh sense of
leadership on the basis of which he had dared even to rebuke
Jesus for speaking of his death ( 16:22 ). And then Peter was one
of the three (James and John also) taken with the Master up on
the Mount of Transfiguration. Peter on that occasion had spoken
up promptly. And just now the tax-collectors had singled out
Peter as the one who seemed to represent the group. Mark ( Mr
9:33 ) represents Jesus as asking them about their dispute on the
way into the house, perhaps just after their question in  Mt
18:1 . Jesus had noticed the wrangling. It will break out again
and again ( Mt 20:20-28  Lu 22:24 ). Plainly the primacy of Peter
was not yet admitted by the others. The use of the comparative
meiz(936e) (so ho meiz(936e) in verse  4 ) rather than the
superlative megistos is quite in accord with the _Koin(825f) idiom
where the comparative is displacing the superlative (Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 667ff.). But it is a sad discovery to find the
disciples chiefly concerned about their own places (offices) in
the political kingdom which they were expecting.

經文:

馬太福音 18:2-18:2

註釋:

 {Called to him} (proskalesamenos). Indirect middle voice
aorist participle. It may even be Peter's "little child"
(paidion) as it was probably in Peter's house ( Mr 9:33 ). {Set
him} (est(8873)en). Transitive first aorist active indicative, not
intransitive second aorist, est(885c). {In the midst of them} (en
mes(9369) aut(936e)). Luke adds ( Lu 9:47 ) "by his side" (par'
heaut(9369)). Both are true.

經文:

馬太福音 18:3-18:3

註釋:

 {Except ye turn and become} (ean m(8820)straph(8874)e kai
gen(8873)the). Third-class condition, undetermined but with prospect
of determination. Straph(8874)e is second aorist passive
subjunctive and gen(8873)the second aorist middle subjunctive. They
were headed in the wrong direction with their selfish ambition.
"His tone at this time is markedly severe, as much as when He
denounces the Pharisaism in the bud He had to deal with" (Bruce).
The strong double negative ou m(8820)eiselth(8874)e means that they
will otherwise not get into the kingdom of heaven at all, let
alone have big places in it.

經文:

馬太福音 18:4-18:4

註釋:

 {This little child} (	o paidion touto). This saying about
humbling oneself Jesus repeated a number of times as for instance
in  Mt 23:12 . Probably Jesus pointed to the child by his side.
The ninth-century story that the child was Ignatius is worthless.
It is not that the child humbled himself, but that the child is
humble from the nature of the case in relation to older persons.
That is true, however "bumptious" the child himself may be. Bruce
observes that to humble oneself is "the most difficult thing in
the world for saint as for sinner."

經文:

馬太福音 18:5-18:5

註釋:

 {In my name} (epi t(9369) onomati mou). For "one such little
child" (any believer in Christ) Luke ( Lu 9:48 ) has "this
little child" as a representative or symbol. "On the basis or
ground of my name," "for my sake." Very much like eis onoma in
 10:41  which does not differ greatly from en onomati ( Ac
10:48 ).

經文:

馬太福音 18:6-18:6

註釋:

 {These little ones} (	(936e) mikr(936e) tout(936e)). In the same sense
as "one such little one" above. The child is the type of
believers. {A great millstone} (mulos onikos), literally, "a
millstone turned by an ass." The upper millstone was turned by an
ass (onos). There were no examples of the adjective onikos
(turned by an ass) outside the N.T. until the papyri revealed
several for loads requiring an ass to carry them, stones
requiring an ass to move them, etc. Deissmann (_Light from the
Ancient East_, p. 81) notes it also in papyri examples about the
sale of an ass and tax for an ass's burden of goods. {The depth
of the sea} (	(9369) pelagei t(8873) thalass(8873)). "The sea of the sea."
Pelagos probably from pl(8873)so, to beat, and so the beating,
splashing waves of the sea. "Far out into the open sea, a vivid
substitute for eis t(886e) thalassan" (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 18:7-18:7

註釋:

 {Through whom} (di' ou). Jesus recognizes the
inevitableness of stumbling-blocks, traps, hindrances, the world
being as it is, but he does not absolve the man who sets the trap
(cf.  Lu 17:1 ).

經文:

馬太福音 18:8-18:8

註釋:

 In verses  8  and  9  we have one of the dualities or
doublets in Matthew ( 5:29-30 ). Jesus repeated his pungent
sayings many times. Instead of eis geennan ( 5:29 ) we have
eis to pur to ai(936e)ion and at the end of verse  9  	ou puros
is added to 	(886e) geennan. This is the first use in Matthew of
ai(936e)ios. We have it again in  19:16,29  with zo(885c), in  25:41 
with pur, in  25:46  with kolasin and zo(886e). The word means
ageless, without beginning or end as of God ( Ro 16:26 ), without
beginning as in  Ro 16:25 , without end as here and often. The
effort to make it mean "aeonian" fire will make it mean
"aeonian" life also. If the punishment is limited, _ipso facto_
the life is shortened. In verse  9  also monophthalmon occurs.
It is an Ionic compound in Herodotus that is condemned by the
Atticists, but it is revived in the vernacular _Koin(825f). Literally
one-eyed. Here only and  Mr 9:47  in the New Testament.

經文:

馬太福音 18:10-18:10

註釋:

 {Despise} (kataphron(8873)(8874)e). Literally, "think down on,"
with the assumption of superiority. {Their angels} (hoi aggeloi
aut(936e)). The Jews believed that each nation had a guardian angel
( Da 10:13,20f.  12:1 ). The seven churches in Revelation ( Re
1:20 ) have angels, each of them, whatsoever the meaning is. Does
Jesus mean to teach here that each little child or child of faith
had a special angel who appears in God's presence, "see the face
of my Father" (lepousin to pros(9370)on tou patros mou) in special
intimacy? Or does he simply mean that the angels do take an
interest in the welfare of God's people ( Heb 1:14 )? There is
comfort to us in that thought. Certainly Jesus means that the
Father takes special care of his "little ones" who believe in
Him. There are angels in God's presence ( Lu 1:19 ).

經文:

馬太福音 18:12-18:12

註釋:

 {Leave the ninety and nine} (aph(8873)ei ta enen(886b)onta ennea
epi ta or(8820)kai poreutheis z(8874)ei to plan(936d)enon?). This is the
text of Westcott and Hort after BL, etc. This text means: "Will
he not leave the ninety and nine upon the mountains and going
does he not seek (change to present tense) the wandering one?" On
the high pastures where the sheep graze at will one has wandered
afield. See this parable later in  Lu 15:4-7 . Our word "planet"
is from planaomai, wandering (moving) stars they were called as
opposed to fixed stars. But now we know that no stars are fixed.
They are all moving and rapidly.

經文:

馬太福音 18:14-18:14

註釋:

 {The will of your Father} (	hel(886d)a emprosthen). Observe
that Westcott and Hort read mou here rather than h(966d)(936e) after
B Sahidic Coptic. Either makes good sense, though "your" carries
on the picture of God's care for "each one of these little ones"
(hen t(936e) mikr(936e) tout(936e)) among God's children. The use of
emprosthen with 	hel(886d)a is a Hebraism like emprosthen sou
in  11:25  with eudokia, "before the face" of God.

經文:

馬太福音 18:15-18:15

註釋:

 {If thy brother sin against thee} (ean hamart(8873)(8869) adelphos
sou). Literally, commit a sin (ingressive aorist subjunctive of
hamartan(935c)). Aleph B Sahidic do not have "against thee" (eis
se). {Shew him his fault} (elegxon). Such private reproof is
hard to do, but it is the way of Christ. {Thou hast gained}
(ekerd(8873)as). Aorist active indicative of kerdain(935c) in
conclusion of a third-class condition, a sort of timeless aorist,
a blessed achievement already made.

經文:

馬太福音 18:16-18:16

註釋:

 {Take with thee} (paralabe meta sou). Take alone (para)
with (meta) thee.

經文:

馬太福音 18:17-18:17

註釋:

 {Refuse to hear} (parakous(8869)). Like  Isa 65:12 . Many
papyri examples for ignoring, disregarding, hearing without
heeding, hearing aside (para-), hearing amiss, overhearing ( Mr
5:36 ). {The church} (	(8869) ekkl(8873)i(8369)). The local body, not the
general as in  Mt 16:18  which see for discussion. The problem
here is whether Jesus has in mind an actual body of believers
already in existence or is speaking prophetically of the local
churches that would be organized later (as in Acts). There are
some who think that the Twelve Apostles constituted a local
ekkl(8873)ia, a sort of moving church of preachers. That could only
be true in essence as they were a band of ministers and not
located in any one place. Bruce holds that they were "the
nucleus" of a local church at any rate.

經文:

馬太福音 18:18-18:18

註釋:

 {Shall be bound in heaven} (estai dedemena en ouran(9369)).
Future passive periphrastic perfect indicative as in "shall be
loosed" (estai lelumena). In  16:19  this same unusual form
occurs. The binding and the loosing is there addressed to Peter,
but it is here repeated for the church or for the disciples as
the case may be.

經文:

馬太福音 18:19-18:19

註釋:

 {Shall agree} (sumph(936e)(8873)(9373)in). Our word "symphony" is
this very root. It is no longer looked at as a concord of voices,
a chorus in harmony, though that would be very appropriate in a
church meeting rather than the rasping discord sometimes heard
even between two brethren or sisters. {Of my Father} (para tou
patros mou). From the side of, "by my Father."

經文:

馬太福音 18:20-18:20

註釋:

 {There am I} (ekei eimi). This blessed promise implies
that those gathered together are really disciples with the spirit
of Christ as well as "in his name" (eis to emon onoma). One of
the Oxyrhynchus _Sayings of Our Lord_ is: "Wherever there are
(two) they are not without God, and wherever there is one alone I
say I am with him." Also this: "Raise the stone and there thou
shalt find me, cleave the wood and there am I." See  Mal 3:16 .

經文:

馬太福音 18:21-18:21

註釋:

 {Until seven times?} (he(9373) heptakis?) Peter thought that
he was generous as the Jewish rule was three times ( Am 1:6 ).
His question goes back to verse  15 . "Against me" is genuine
here. "The man who asks such a question does not really know what
forgiveness means" (Plummer).

經文:

馬太福音 18:22-18:22

註釋:

 {Until seventy times seven} (he(9373) hebdom(886b)ontakis hepta).
It is not clear whether this idiom means seventy-seven or as the
Revised Version has it (490 times). If heptakis were written it
would clearly be 490 times. The same ambiguity is seen in  Ge
4:24 , the LXX text by omitting kai. In the _Test. of the
Twelve Patriarchs, Benj._ vii. 4, it is used in the sense of
seventy times seven. But it really makes little difference
because Jesus clearly means unlimited forgiveness in either case.
"The unlimited revenge of primitive man has given place to the
unlimited forgiveness of Christians" (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 18:23-18:23

註釋:

 {Make a reckoning} (sun(8372)ai logon). Seen also in  25:19 .
Perhaps a Latinism, _rationes conferre_. First aorist active
infinitive of sunair(935c), to cast up accounts, to settle, to
compare accounts with. Not in ancient Greek writers, but in two
papyri of the second century A.D. in the very sense here and the
substantive appears in an ostracon from Nubia of the early third
century (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 117).

經文:

馬太福音 18:24-18:24

註釋:

 {Ten thousand talents} (muri(936e) talant(936e)). A talent was
6,000 denarii or about a thousand dollars or 240 pounds. Ten
thousand times this is about ten or twelve million dollars, an
enormous sum for that period. We live today in the age of
national debts of billions of dollars or even of pounds sterling.
The imperial taxes of Judea, Idumea, and Samaria for one year
were only 600 talents while Galilee and Perea paid 200 (Josephus,
_Ant_. xi. 4). But oriental kings were free in the use of money
and in making debts like the native kings of India today.

經文:

馬太福音 18:25-18:25

註釋:

 {Had not wherewith to pay} (m(8820)echontos autou apodounai).
There is no "wherewith" in the Greek. This idiom is seen in  Lu
7:42  14:14  Heb 6:13 . Genitive absolute though auton in the
same clause as often in the N.T. {To be sold} (prath(886e)ai).
First aorist passive infinitive of piprask(935c). This was according
to the law ( Ex 22:3  Le 25:39,47 ). Wife and children were
treated as property in those primitive times.

經文:

馬太福音 18:27-18:27

註釋:

 {The debt} (	o danion). The loan. Common in the papyri
for a loan. The interest had increased the debt enormously. "This
heavy oriental usury is of the scenery of the parable" (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 18:28-18:28

註釋:

 {A hundred pence} (hekaton d(886e)aria). A denarius was worth
about eight and a half pence. The hundred denarii here were equal
to some "fifty shillings" (Bruce), "about 4 pounds" (McNeile),
"twenty pounds" (Moffatt), "twenty dollars" (Goodspeed), "100
shillings" (Weymouth) . These are various efforts to represent in
modern language the small amount of this debt compared with the
big one. {Took him by the throat} (epnigen). "Held him by the
throat" (Allen). It is imperfect, probably inchoative, "began to
choke or throttle him." The Roman law allowed this indignity.
Vincent quotes Livy (iv. 53) who tells how the necks were twisted
(_collum torsisset_) and how Cicero (_Pro Cluentio_, xxi.) says:
"Lead him to the judgment seat with twisted neck (_collo
obtorto_)." {What thou owest} (ei ti opheileis). Literally, "if
thou owest anything," however little. He did not even know how
much it was, only that he owed him something. "The 'if' is simply
the expression of a pitiless logic" (Meyer).

經文:

馬太福音 18:30-18:30

註釋:

 {And he would not} (ho de ouk (8874)helen). Imperfect tense
of persistent refusal. {Till he should pay} (he(9373) apod(9369)). This
futuristic aorist subjunctive is the rule with he(9373) for a
future goal. He was to stay in prison till he should pay. "He
acts on the instinct of a base nature, and also doubtless in
accordance with long habits of harsh tyrannical behaviour towards
men in his power" (Bruce). On imprisonment for debt among the
Greeks and Romans see Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_,
pp. 270,330.

經文:

馬太福音 18:31-18:31

註釋:

 {Told} (diesaph(8873)an). Made wholly clear to their own
lord. That is the usual result in the long run. There is a limit
to what people will put up with.

經文:

馬太福音 18:33-18:33

註釋:

 {Shouldst thou not?} (ouk edei se?) "Was it not
necessary?" The king fits the cap on this wicked slave that he
put on the poor debtor.

經文:

馬太福音 18:34-18:34

註釋:

 {The tormentors} (	ois basanistais). Not to prison
simply, but to terrible punishment. The papyri give various
instances of the verb asaniz(935c), to torture, used of slaves and
others. "Livy (ii. 23) pictures an old centurion complaining that
he was taken by his creditor, not into servitude, but to a
workhouse and torture, and showing his back scarred with fresh
wounds" (Vincent). {Till he should pay all} (he(9373) [hou] apod(9369)
pan). Just as in verse  30 , his very words. But this is not
purgatorial, but punitive, for he could never pay back that vast
debt.

經文:

馬太福音 18:35-18:35

註釋:

 {From your hearts} (apo t(936e) kardi(936e) h(966d)(936e)). No sham or
lip pardon, and as often as needed. This is Christ's full reply
to Peter's question in  18:21 . This parable of the unmerciful
servant is surely needed today.

經文:

馬太福音 19:1-19:1

註釋:

 {He departed} (met(8872)en). Literally, to lift up, change
something to another place. Transitive in the LXX and in a
Cilician rock inscription. Intransitive in  13:53  and here, the
only N.T. instances. Absence of hoti or kai after kai
egeneto, one of the clear Hebraisms in the N.T. (Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 1042f.). This verse is a sort of formula in
Matthew at the close of important groups of logia as in  7:28  11:1  13:53 . {The borders of Judea beyond Jordan} (eis ta horia
t(8873) Ioudaias peran tou Iordanou). This is a curious expression.
It apparently means that Jesus left Galilee to go to Judea by way
of Perea as the Galileans often did to avoid Samaria. Luke ( Lu
17:11 ) expressly says that he passed through Samaria and Galilee
when he left Ephraim in Northern Judea ( Joh 11:54 ). He was not
afraid to pass through the edge of Galilee and down the Jordan
Valley in Perea on this last journey to Jerusalem. McNeile is
needlessly opposed to the trans-Jordanic or Perean aspect of this
phase of Christ's work.

經文:

馬太福音 19:3-19:3

註釋:

 {Pharisees tempting him} (Pharisaioi peirazontes auton).
They "could not ask a question of Jesus without sinister motives"
(Bruce). See  4:1  for the word (peiraz(935c)). {For every cause}
(kata pasan aitian). This clause is an allusion to the dispute
between the two theological schools over the meaning of  De
24:1 . The school of Shammai took the strict and unpopular view
of divorce for unchastity alone while the school of Hillel took
the liberal and popular view of easy divorce for any passing whim
if the husband saw a prettier woman (modern enough surely) or
burnt his biscuits for breakfast. It was a pretty dilemma and
meant to do Jesus harm with the people. There is no real trouble
about the use of kata here in the sense of propter or because
of (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 509).

經文:

馬太福音 19:5-19:5

註釋:

 {Shall cleave} (koll(8874)h(8873)etai). First future passive,
"shall be glued to," the verb means. {The twain shall become one
flesh} (esontai hoi duo eis sarka mian). This use of eis
after eimi is an imitation of the Hebrew, though a few examples
occur in the older Greek and in the papyri. The frequency of it
is due to the Hebrew and here the LXX is a direct translation of
the Hebrew idiom.

經文:

馬太福音 19:6-19:6

註釋:

 {What therefore God hath joined together} (ho oun ho theos
sunezeuxen). Note "what," not "whom." The marriage relation God
has made. "The creation of sex, and the high doctrine as to the
cohesion it produces between man and woman, laid down in Gen.,
interdict separation" (Bruce). The word for "joined together"
means "yoked together," a common verb for marriage in ancient
Greek. It is the timeless aorist indicative (sunezeuxen), true
always. {Bill} (iblion). A little iblos (see on 氣:1|), a
scroll or document (papyrus or parchment). This was some
protection to the divorced wife and a restriction on laxity.

經文:

馬太福音 19:8-19:8

註釋:

 {For your hardness of heart} (pros t(886e) skl(8872)okardian
h(966d)(936e)). The word is apparently one of the few Biblical words
(LXX and the N.T.). It is a heart dried up (skl(8872)os), hard and
tough. {But from the beginning it hath not been so} (ap' arch(8873)
de ouk gegonen hout(9373)). The present perfect active of ginomai
to emphasize the permanence of the divine ideal. "The original
ordinance has never been abrogated nor superseded, but continues
in force" (Vincent). "How small the Pharisaic disputants must
have felt in presence of such holy teaching, which soars above
the partisan view of controversialists into the serene region of
ideal, universal, eternal truth" (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 19:9-19:9

註釋:

 {Except for fornication} (parektos logou porneias). This
is the marginal reading in Westcott and Hort which also adds
"maketh her an adulteress" (poiei aut(886e) moicheuth(886e)ai) and also
these words: "and he that marrieth her when she is put away
committeth adultery" (kai ho apolelumen(886e) gam(8873)as moichatai).
There seems to be a certain amount of assimilation in various
manuscripts between this verse and the words in  5:32 . But,
whatever reading is accepted here, even the short one in Westcott
and Hort (m(8820)epi pornei(8369), not for fornication), it is plain
that Matthew represents Jesus in both places as allowing divorce
for fornication as a general term (porneia) which is
technically adultery (moicheia from moicha(9320)or moicheu(935c)).
Here, as in  5:31f. , a group of scholars deny the genuineness of
the exception given by Matthew alone. McNeile holds that "the
addition of the saving clause is, in fact, opposed to the spirit
of the whole context, and must have been made at a time when the
practice of divorce for adultery had already grown up." That in
my opinion is gratuitous criticism which is unwilling to accept
Matthew's report because it disagrees with one's views on the
subject of divorce. He adds: "It cannot be supposed that Matthew
wished to represent Jesus as siding with the school of Shammai."
Why not, if Shammai on this point agreed with Jesus? Those who
deny Matthew's report are those who are opposed to remarriage at
all. Jesus by implication, as in  5:31 , does allow remarriage of
the innocent party, but not of the guilty one. Certainly Jesus
has lifted the whole subject of marriage and divorce to a new
level, far beyond the petty contentions of the schools of Hillel
and Shammai.

經文:

馬太福音 19:10-19:10

註釋:

 {The disciples say unto him} (legousin aut(9369) hoi
math(8874)ai). "Christ's doctrine on marriage not only separated Him
	oto caelo from Pharisaic opinions of all shades, but was too
high even for the Twelve" (Bruce). {The case} (h(8820)aitia). The
word may refer to the use in verse  3  "for every cause." It may
have a vague idea here = 
es, condition. But the point clearly
is that "it is not expedient to marry" (ou sumpherei gam(8873)ai)
if such a strict view is held. If the bond is so tight a man had
best not commit matrimony. It is a bit unusual to have
anthr(9370)os and gun(885c) contrasted rather than an(8872) and gun(885c).

經文:

馬太福音 19:11-19:11

註釋:

 {But they to whom it is given} (all' hois dedotai). A
neat Greek idiom, dative case of relation and perfect passive
indicative. The same idea is repeated at the close of verse  12 .
It is a voluntary renunciation of marriage for the sake of the
kingdom of heaven. "Jesus recognizes the severity of the demand
as going beyond the capacity of all but a select number." It was
a direct appeal to the spiritual intelligence of the disciples
not to misconceive his meaning as certainly the monastic orders
have done.

經文:

馬太福音 19:13-19:13

註釋:

 {Rebuked them} (epetim(8873)en autois). No doubt people did
often crowd around Jesus for a touch of his hand and his
blessing. The disciples probably felt that they were doing Jesus
a kindness. How little they understood children and Jesus. It is
a tragedy to make children feel that they are in the way at home
and at church. These men were the twelve apostles and yet had no
vision of Christ's love for little children. The new child world
of today is due directly to Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 19:14-19:14

註釋:

 {Suffer} (aphete). "Leave them alone." Second aorist
active imperative. {Forbid them not} (m(8820)k(936c)uete). "Stop
hindering them." The idiom of m(885c) with the present imperative
means just that. {Of such} (	(936e) toiout(936e)). The childlike as in
 18:3f .

經文:

馬太福音 19:16-19:16

註釋:

 {What good thing} (	i agathon). Mark ( Mr 10:17 ) has the
adjective "good" with "Teacher." {May have} (sch(935c)). Ingressive
aorist subjunctive, "may get," "may acquire."

經文:

馬太福音 19:17-19:17

註釋:

 {Concerning that which is good} (peri tou agathou). He
had asked Jesus in verse  16  "what good thing" he should do. He
evidently had a light idea of the meaning of agathos. "This was
only a teacher's way of leading on a pupil" (Bruce). So Jesus
explains that "One there is who is good," one alone who is really
good in the absolute sense.

經文:

馬太福音 19:20-19:20

註釋:

 {What lack I yet?} (	i eti huster(933f)) Here is a
psychological paradox. He claims to have kept all these
commandments and yet he was not satisfied. He had an uneasy
conscience and Jesus called him to something that he did not
have. He thought of goodness as quantitative (a series of acts)
and not qualitative (of the nature of God). Did his question
reveal proud complacency or pathetic despair? A bit of both most
likely.

經文:

馬太福音 19:21-19:21

註釋:

 {If thou wouldest be perfect} (ei theleis teleios einai).
Condition of the first class, determined as fulfilled. Jesus
assumes that the young man really desires to be perfect (a big
adjective that, perfect as God is the goal,  5:48 ). {That thou
hast} (sou ta huparchonta). "Thy belongings." The Greek neuter
plural participle used like our English word "belongings." It was
a huge demand, for he was rich.

經文:

馬太福音 19:22-19:22

註釋:

 {Went away sorrowful} (ap(886c)then lupoumenos). "Went away
grieved." He felt that Jesus had asked too much of him. He
worshipped money more than God when put to the test. Does Jesus
demand this same test of every one? Not unless he is in the grip
of money. Different persons are in the power of different sins.
One sin is enough to keep one away from Christ.

經文:

馬太福音 19:23-19:23

註釋:

 {It is hard} (duskol(9373)). With difficulty. Adverb from
duskolos, hard to find food, fastidious, faultfinding, then
difficult.

經文:

馬太福音 19:24-19:24

註釋:

 {It is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye}
(eukop(9374)eron estin kam(886c)on dia tr(886d)atos rhaphidos eiselthein).
Jesus, of course, means by this comparison, whether an eastern
proverb or not, to express the impossible. The efforts to explain
it away are jejune like a ship's cable, kamilon or 
haphis as
a narrow gorge or gate of entrance for camels which recognized
stooping, etc. All these are hopeless, for Jesus pointedly calls
the thing "impossible" (verse  26 ). The Jews in the Babylonian
Talmud did have a proverb that a man even in his dreams did not
see an elephant pass through the eye of a needle (Vincent). The
Koran speaks of the wicked finding the gates of heaven shut "till
a camel shall pass through the eye of a needle." But the Koran
may have got this figure from the New Testament. The word for an
ordinary needle is 
haphis, but, Luke ( Lu 18:25 ) employs
elon(885c), the medical term for the surgical needle not elsewhere
in the N.T.

經文:

馬太福音 19:25-19:25

註釋:

 {Were astonished} (exepl(8873)sonto). Imperfect descriptive
of their blank amazement. They were literally "struck out."

經文:

馬太福音 19:26-19:26

註釋:

 {Looking on them} (emblepsas). Jesus saw their amazement.

經文:

馬太福音 19:27-19:27

註釋:

 {What then shall we have?} (	i ara estai h(886d)in?) A
pathetic question of hopeless lack of comprehension.

經文:

馬太福音 19:28-19:28

註釋:

 {In the regeneration} (en t(8869) palingenesi(8369)). The new
birth of the world is to be fulfilled when Jesus sits on his
throne of glory. This word was used by the Stoics and the
Pythagoreans. It is common also in the mystery religions (Angus,
_Mystery Religions and Christianity_, pp. 95ff.). It is in the
papyri also. We must put no fantastic ideas into the mouth of
Jesus. But he did look for the final consummation of his kingdom.
What is meant by the disciples also sitting on twelve thrones is
not clear.

經文:

馬太福音 19:29-19:29

註釋:

 {A hundredfold} (hekatonplasiona). But Westcott and Hort
read pollaplasiona, manifold. Eternal life is the real reward.

經文:

馬太福音 19:30-19:30

註釋:

 {The last first and the first last} (hoi eschatoi pr(9374)oi
kai hoi pr(9374)oi eschatoi). This paradoxical enigma is probably in
the nature of a rebuke to Peter and refers to ranks in the
kingdom. There are many other possible applications. The
following parable illustrates it.

經文:

馬太福音 20:1-20:1

註釋:

 {For} (gar). The parable of the house illustrates the
aphorism in  19:30 . {A man that is a householder} (anthr(9370)(9369)
oikodespot(8869)). Just like anthr(9370)(9369) basilei ( 18:23 ). Not
necessary to translate anthr(9370)(9369), just "a householder."

{Early in the morning} (hama pr(9369)). A classic idiom. Hama as
an "improper" preposition is common in the papyri. Pr(9369) is just
an adverb in the locative. At the same time with early dawn,
break of day, country fashion for starting to work. {To hire}
(misth(9373)asthai). The middle voice aorist tense, to hire for
oneself.

經文:

馬太福音 20:2-20:2

註釋:

 {For a penny a day} (ek d(886e)ariou t(886e) h(886d)eran). See on
氣8:28|. "Penny" is not adequate, "shilling" Moffatt has it. The
ek with the ablative represents the agreement (sunph(936e)(8873)as)
with the workmen (ergat(936e)). "The day" the Greek has it, an
accusative of extent of time.

經文:

馬太福音 20:3-20:3

註釋:

 {Standing in the marketplace idle} (hest(9374)as agor(8369)
argous). The market place was the place where men and masters
met for bargaining. At Hamadan in Persia, Morier in _Second
Journey through Persia_, as cited by Trench in his _Parables_,
says: "We observed every morning, before the sun rose, that a
numerous band of peasants were collected, with spades in their
hands, waiting to be hired for the day to work in the surrounding
fields."

經文:

馬太福音 20:4-20:4

註釋:

 {Whatsoever is right} (ho ean (8869) dikaion). "Is fair"
(Allen), not anything he pleased, but a just proportionate wage.
Indefinite relative with subjunctive ean=an.

經文:

馬太福音 20:6-20:6

註釋:

 {All the day idle} (hol(886e) t(886e) h(886d)eran argoi). Extent of
time (accusative) again. Argoi is a privative and ergon,
work, no work. The problem of the unemployed.

經文:

馬太福音 20:10-20:10

註釋:

 {Every man a penny} (ana d(886e)arion kai autoi). Literally,
"themselves also a denarius apiece" (distributive use of ana).
Bruce asks if this householder was a humorist when he began to
pay off the last first and paid each one a denarius according to
agreement. False hopes had been raised in those who came first
who got only what they had agreed to receive.

經文:

馬太福音 20:11-20:11

註釋:

 {They murmured} (egogguzon). Onomatopoetic word, the
meaning suiting the sound. Our words murmur and grumble are
similar. Probably here inchoative imperfect, began to grumble. It
occurs in old Ionic and in the papyri.

經文:

馬太福音 20:12-20:12

註釋:

 {Equal unto us} (isous autous h(886d)in). Associative
instrumental case h(886d)in after isous. It was a regular protest
against the supposed injustice of the householder. {The burden of
the day and the scorching wind} (	o baros t(8873) h(886d)eras kai ton
kaus(936e)a). These last "did" work for one hour. Apparently they
worked as hard as any while at it. A whole day's work on the part
of these sweat-stained men who had stood also the sirocco, the
hot, dry, dust-laden east wind that blasted the grain in
Pharaoh's dream ( Ge 41:6 ), that withered Jonah's gourd ( Jon
4:8 ), that blighted the vine in Ezekiel's parable ( Eze 17:10 ).
They seemed to have a good case.

經文:

馬太福音 20:13-20:13

註釋:

 {To one of them} (heni aut(936e)). Evidently the spokesman of
the group. "Friend" (hetaire). Comrade. So a kindly reply to
this man in place of an address to the whole gang.  Ge 31:40  Job
27:21  Ho 13:15 . The word survives in modern Greek.

經文:

馬太福音 20:14-20:14

註釋:

 {Take up} (aron). First aorist active imperative of
air(935c). Pick up, as if he had saucily refused to take it from the
table or had contemptuously thrown the denarius on the ground. If
the first had been paid first and sent away, there would probably
have been no murmuring, but "the murmuring is needed to bring out
the lesson" (Plummer). The d(886e)arius was the common wage of a
day labourer at that time. {What I will} (ho thel(935c)). This is
the point of the parable, the _will_ of the householder. {With
mine own} (en tois emois). In the sphere of my own affairs.
There is in the _Koin(825f) an extension of the instrumental use of
en.

經文:

馬太福音 20:15-20:15

註釋:

 {Is thine eye evil?} (ho ophthalmos sou pon(8872)os estin?)
See on 泰:22-24| about the evil eye and the good eye. The
complainer had a grudging eye while the householder has a liberal
or generous eye. See  Ro 5:7  for a distinction between dikaios
and agathos.

經文:

馬太福音 20:16-20:16

註釋:

 {The last first and the first last} (hoi esch(8374)oi pr(9374)oi
kai hoi pr(9374)oi eschatoi). The adjectives change places as
compared with  19:30 . The point is the same, though this order
suits the parable better. After all one's work does not rest
wholly on the amount of time spent on it. "Even so hath Rabbi Bun
bar Chija in twenty-eight years wrought more than many studious
scholars in a hundred years" (Jer. _Berak._ ii. 5c).

經文:

馬太福音 20:17-20:17

註釋:

 {Apart} (kat' idian). This is the prediction in Matthew
of the cross ( 16:21  17:22  20:17 ). "Aside by themselves"
(Moffatt). The verb is parelaben. Jesus is having his inward
struggle ( Mr 10:32 ) and makes one more effort to get the Twelve
to understand him.

經文:

馬太福音 20:19-20:19

註釋:

 {And to crucify} (kai staur(9373)ai). The very word now. The
details fall on deaf ears, even the point of the resurrection on
the third day.

經文:

馬太福音 20:20-20:20

註釋:

 {Then} (	ote). Surely an inopportune time for such a
request just after the pointed prediction of Christ's
crucifixion. Perhaps their minds had been preoccupied with the
words of Jesus ( 19:28 ) about their sitting on twelve thrones
taking them in a literal sense. The mother of James and John,
probably Salome, possibly a sister of the Master's mother ( Joh
19:25 ), apparently prompted her two sons because of the family
relationship and now speaks for them. {Asking a certain thing}
(aitousa ti). "Asking something," "plotting perhaps when their
Master was predicting" (Bruce). The "something" put forward as a
small matter was simply the choice of the two chief thrones
promised by Jesus ( 19:28 ).

經文:

馬太福音 20:22-20:22

註釋:

 {Ye know not what ye ask} (ouk oidate ti aiteisthe). How
often that is true. Aiteisthe is indirect middle voice, "ask
for yourselves," "a selfish request." {We are able}
(dunametha). Amazing proof of their ignorance and
self-confidence. Ambition had blinded their eyes. They had not
caught the martyr spirit.

經文:

馬太福音 20:23-20:23

註釋:

 {Ye shall drink} (piesthe). Future middle from pin(935c).
Christ's cup was martyrdom. James was the first of the Twelve to
meet the martyr's death ( Ac 12:2 ) and John the last if reports
are true about him. How little they knew what they were saying.

經文:

馬太福音 20:24-20:24

註釋:

 {Moved with indignation} ((8867)anakt(8873)an). A strong word for
angry resentment. In the papyri. The ten felt that James and John
had taken advantage of their relation to Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 20:25-20:25

註釋:

 {Called them unto him} (proskalesamenos autous). Indirect
middle again, calling to him.

經文:

馬太福音 20:26-20:26

註釋:

 Php. 1:1 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Php.' or engs='Php.'
經文:

馬太福音 20:28-20:28

註釋:

 {A ransom for many} (lutron anti poll(936e)). The Son of man
is the outstanding illustration of this principle of
self-abnegation in direct contrast to the self-seeking of James
and John. The word translated "ransom" is the one commonly
employed in the papyri as the price paid for a slave who is then
set free by the one who bought him, the purchase money for
manumitting slaves. See examples in Moulton and Milligan's
_Vocabulary_ and Deissmann's _Light from the Ancient East_, pp.
328f. There is the notion of exchange also in the use of anti.
Jesus gave his own life as the price of freedom for the slaves of
sin. There are those who refuse to admit that Jesus held this
notion of a substitutionary death because the word in the N.T.
occurs only here and the corresponding passage in  Mr 10:45 . But
that is an easy way to get rid of passages that contradict one's
theological opinions. Jesus here rises to the full consciousness
of the significance of his death for men.

經文:

馬太福音 20:29-20:29

註釋:

 {From Jericho} (apo Iereich(935c)). So  Mr 10:46 . But Luke
( Lu 18:35 ) places the incident as they were drawing near to
Jericho (eis Iereich(935c)). It is probable that Mark and Matthew
refer to the old Jericho, the ruins of which have been
discovered, while Luke alludes to the new Roman Jericho. The two
blind men were apparently between the two towns. Mark ( Mr
10:46 ) and Luke ( Lu 18:35 ) mention only one blind man,
Bartimaeus (Mark). In Kentucky there are two towns about a half
mile apart both called Pleasureville (one Old Pleasureville, the
other New Pleasureville).

經文:

馬太福音 20:30-20:30

註釋:

 {That Jesus was passing by} (hoti I(8873)ous paragei). These
men "were sitting by the wayside" (kath(886d)enoi para ten hodon)
at their regular stand. They heard the crowd yelling that Jesus
of Nazareth was passing by (paragei, present indicative of
direct discourse retained in the indirect). It was their one
opportunity, now or never. They had heard of what he had done for
other blind men. They hail him as "the son of David" (the
Messiah). It is just one of many such incidents when Jesus stood
still and opened their eyes, so many that even the multitude was
impatient with the cries of these poor men that their eyes be
opened (anoig(9373)in, second aorist passive subjunctive).

經文:

馬太福音 20:34-20:34

註釋:

 {Touched their eyes} (h(8870)sato t(936e) ommat(936e)). A synonym for
ophthalm(936e) in  Mr 8:23  and here alone in the N.T. In the LXX
and a common poetic word (Euripides) and occurs in the papyri. In
modern Greek matia mou (abbreviation) means "light of my eye,"
"my darling." The verb haptomai is very common in the Synoptic
Gospels. The touch of Christ's hand would sooth the eyes as they
were healed.

經文:

馬太福音 21:1-21:1

註釋:

 {Unto Bethphage} (eis Bethphag(885c)). An indeclinable Aramaic
name here only in O.T. or N.T. ( Mr 11:1  Lu 19:29 ). It means
"house of unripe young figs." It apparently lay on the eastern
slope of Olivet or at the foot of the mountain, a little further
from Jerusalem than Bethany. Both Mark and Luke speak of Christ's
coming "unto Bethphage and Bethany" as if Bethphage was reached
first. It is apparently larger than Bethany. {Unto the Mount of
Olives} (eis to oros t(936e) Elai(936e)). Matthew has thus three
instances of eis with Jerusalem, Mount of Olives. Mark and Luke
use pros with Mount of Olives, the Mount of Olive trees
(elai(936e) from elaia, olive tree), the mountain covered with
olive trees.

經文:

馬太福音 21:2-21:2

註釋:

 {Into the village that is over against you} (eis t(886e) k(936d)(886e)
t(886e) katenanti h(966d)(936e)). Another use of eis. If it means "into"
as translated, it could be Bethany right across the valley and
this is probably the idea. {And a colt with her} (kai p(936c)on met'
aut(8873)). The young of any animal. Here to come with the mother
and the more readily so.

經文:

馬太福音 21:3-21:3

註釋:

 {The Lord} (ho kurios). It is not clear how the word would
be understood here by those who heard the message though it is
plain that Jesus applies it to himself. The word is from kuros,
power or authority. In the LXX it is common in a variety of uses
which appear in the N.T. as master of the slave ( Mt 10:24 ), of
the harvest ( 9:38 ), of the vineyard ( 20:8 ), of the emperor
( Ac 13:27 ), of God ( Mt 11:20  11:25 ), and often of Jesus as
the Messiah ( Ac 10:36 ). Note  Mt 8:25 . This is the only time
in Matthew where the words ho kurios are applied to Jesus
except the doubtful passage in  28:6 . A similar usage is shown
by Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_ and Deissmann's _Light
from the Ancient East_. Particularly in Egypt it was applied to
"the Lord Serapis" and Ptolemy and Cleopatra are called "the
lords, the most great gods" (hoi kurioi theoi megistoi). Even
Herod the Great and Herod Agrippa I are addressed as "Lord King."
In the west the Roman emperors are not so termed till the time of
Domitian. But the Christians boldly claimed the word for Christ
as Jesus is here represented as using it with reference to
himself. It seems as if already the disciples were calling Jesus
"Lord" and that he accepted the appellative and used it as here.

經文:

馬太福音 21:4-21:4

註釋:

 {By the prophet} (dia tou proph(8874)ou). The first line is
from  Isa 62:11 , the rest from  Zec 9:9 . John ( Joh 12:14f. )
makes it clear that Jesus did not quote the passage himself. In
Matthew it is not so plain, but probably it is his own comment
about the incident. It is not Christ's intention to fulfil the
prophecy, simply that his conduct did fulfil it.

經文:

馬太福音 21:5-21:5

註釋:

 {The daughter of Zion} (	(8869) thugatri Si(936e)). Jerusalem as
in  Isa 22:4  (daughter of my people). So Babylon ( Isa 47:1 ),
daughter of Tyre for Tyre ( Ps 45:12 ). {Riding} (epibeb(886b)(9373)).
Perfect active participle of epibain(935c), "having gone upon." {And
upon a colt the foal of an ass} (kai epi p(936c)on huion
hupozugiou). These words give trouble if kai is here taken to
mean "and." Fritzsche argues that Jesus rode alternately upon
each animal, a possible, but needless interpretation. In the
Hebrew it means by common Hebrew parallelism "upon an ass, even
upon a colt." That is obviously the meaning here in Matthew. The
use of hupozugiou (a beast of burden, under a yoke) for ass is
common in the LXX and in the papyri (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_
p. 161).

經文:

馬太福音 21:7-21:7

註釋:

 {And he sat thereon} (kai epekathisen epan(9320)aut(936e)), Mark
( Mr 11:7 ) and Luke ( Lu 19:35 ) show that Jesus rode the colt.
Matthew does not contradict that, referring to the garments (	a
himatia) put on the colt by "them" (aut(936e)). not to the two
asses. The construction is somewhat loose, but intelligible. The
garments thrown on the animals were the outer garments
(himatia), Jesus "took his seat" (epekathisen, ingressive
aorist active) upon the garments.

經文:

馬太福音 21:8-21:8

註釋:

 {The most part of the multitude} (ho pleistos ochlos). See
 11:20  for this same idiom, article with superlative, a true
superlative (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 670). {In the way} (en t(8869)
hod(9369)). This the most of the crowd did. The disciples put their
garments on the asses. Note change of tenses (constative aorist
estr(9373)an, descriptive imperfects ekopton kai estr(936e)nuon
showing the growing enthusiasm of the crowd). When the colt had
passed over their garments, they would pick the garments up and
spread them again before.

經文:

馬太福音 21:9-21:9

註釋:

 {That went before him and that followed} (hoi proagontes
auton kai hoi akolouthountes). Note the two groups with two
articles and the present tense (linear action) and the imperfect
ekrazon "were crying" as they went. {Hosanna to the Son of
David} (Hosanna t(9369) hui(9369) Daueid). They were now proclaiming
Jesus as the Messiah and he let them do it. "Hosanna" means
"Save, we pray thee." They repeat words from the _Hallel_ ( Ps
148:1 ) and one recalls the song of the angelic host when Jesus
was born ( Lu 2:14 ). "Hosanna in the highest" (heaven) as well
as here on earth.

經文:

馬太福音 21:10-21:10

註釋:

 {Was stirred} (eseisth(885c)). Shaken as by an earthquake.
"Even Jerusalem frozen with religious formalism and socially
undemonstrative, was stirred with popular enthusiasm as by a
mighty wind or by an earthquake" (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 21:12-21:12

註釋:

 {Cast out} (exebalen). Drove out, assumed authority over
"the temple of God" (probably correct text with 	ou theou,
though only example of the phrase). John ( Joh 2:14 ) has a
similar incident at the beginning of the ministry of Jesus. It is
not impossible that he should repeat it at the close after three
years with the same abuses in existence again. It is amazing how
short a time the work of reformers lasts. The traffic went on in
the court of the Gentiles and to a certain extent was necessary.
Here the tables of {the money-changers} (	(936e) kollubist(936e), from
kollubos, a small coin) were overturned. See on 氣7:24| for the
need of the change for the temple tax. The doves were the poor
man's offering.

經文:

馬太福音 21:13-21:13

註釋:

 {A den of robbers} (sp(886c)aion l(8869)st(936e)). By charging
exorbitant prices.

經文:

馬太福音 21:15-21:15

註釋:

 {The children} (	ous paidas). Masculine and probably boys
who had caught the enthusiasm of the crowd.

經文:

馬太福音 21:16-21:16

註釋:

 {Hearest thou} (akoueis). In a rage at the desecration of
the temple by the shouts of the boys they try to shame Jesus, as
responsible for it.

{Thou hast perfected} (kat(8872)tis(935c)). The quotation is from  Ps
8:3  (LXX text). See  4:21  where the same verb is used for
mending nets. Here it is the timeless aorist middle indicative
with the perfective use of kata-. It was a stinging rebuke.

經文:

馬太福音 21:17-21:17

註釋:

 {To Bethany} (eis B(8874)hanian). House of depression or
misery, the Hebrew means. But the home of Martha and Mary and
Lazarus there was a house of solace and comfort to Jesus during
this week of destiny. He {lodged there} ((8875)listh(8820)ekei) whether
at the Bethany home or out in the open air. It was a time of
crisis for all.

經文:

馬太福音 21:18-21:18

註釋:

 {He hungered} (epeinasen). Ingressive aorist indicative,
became hungry, felt hungry (Moffatt). Possibly Jesus spent the
night out of doors and so had no breakfast.

經文:

馬太福音 21:19-21:19

註釋:

 {A fig tree} (suk(886e) mian). "A single fig tree" (Margin of
Rev. Version). But heis was often used = 	is or like our
indefinite article. See  Mt 8:10  26:69 . The Greek has strictly
no indefinite article as the Latin has no definite article. {Let
there be no fruit from thee henceforward for ever} (ou m(886b)eti
sou karpos gen(8874)ai eis ton ai(936e)a). Strictly speaking this is a
prediction, not a prohibition or wish as in  Mr 11:14  (optative
phagoi). "On you no fruit shall ever grow again" (Weymouth).
The double negative ou m(885c) with the aorist subjunctive (or
future indicative) is the strongest kind of negative prediction.
It sometimes amounts to a prohibition like ou and the future
indicative (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 926f.). The early figs
start in spring before the leaves and develop after the leaves.
The main fig crop was early autumn ( Mr 11:14 ). There should
have been figs on the tree with the crop of leaves. It was a
vivid object lesson. Matthew does not distinguish between the two
mornings as Mark does ( Mr 11:13,20 ), but says "immediately"
(parachr(886d)a) twice ( 21:19,20 ). This word is really para to
chr(886d)a like our "on the spot" (Thayer). It occurs in the papyri
in monetary transactions for immediate cash payment.

經文:

馬太福音 21:21-21:21

註釋:

 Lk 17:6 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Lk' or engs='Lk'
經文:

馬太福音 21:22-21:22

註釋:

 {Believing} (pisteuontes). This is the point of the
parable of the mountain, "faith in the efficacy of prayer"
(Plummer).

經文:

馬太福音 21:24-21:24

註釋:

 {One question} (logon hena). Literally "one word" or "a
word." The answer to Christ's word will give the answer to their
query. The only human ecclesiastical authority that Jesus had
came from John.

經文:

馬太福音 21:25-21:25

註釋:

 {The baptism of John} (	o baptisma to I(9361)nou). This
represents his relation to Jesus who was baptized by him. At once
the ecclesiastical leaders find themselves in a dilemma created
by their challenge of Christ. {They reasoned with themselves}
(dielogizonto). Picturesque imperfect tense describing their
hopeless quandary.

經文:

馬太福音 21:29-21:29

註釋:

 {I will not} (ou thel(935c)). So many old manuscripts, though
the Vatican manuscript (B) has the order of the two sons
reversed. Logically the "I, sir" (eg(932c) kurie) suits better for
the second son (verse  30 ) with a reference to the blunt refusal
of the first. So also the manuscripts differ in verse  31 
between the first (ho pr(9374)os) and the last (ho husteros or
eschatos). But the one who actually did the will of the father
is the one who {repented and went} (metamel(8874)heis ap(886c)then).
This word really means "repent," to be sorry afterwards, and must
be sharply distinguished from the word metanoe(935c) used 34 times
in the N.T. as in  Mt 3:2  and metanoia used 24 times as in  Mt
3:8 . The verb metamelomai occurs in the N.T. only five times
( Mt 21:29,32  27:3  2Co 7:8  Heb 7:21  from  Ps 109:4 ). Paul
distinguishes sharply between mere sorrow and the act
"repentance" which he calls metanoian ( 2Co 7:9 ). In the case
of Judas ( Mt 27:3 ) it was mere remorse. Here the boy got sorry
for his stubborn refusal to obey his father and went and obeyed.
Godly sorrow leads to repentance (metanoian), but mere sorrow
is not repentance.

經文:

馬太福音 21:31-21:31

註釋:

 {Go before you} (proagousin). "In front of you"
(Weymouth). The publicans and harlots march ahead of the
ecclesiastics into the kingdom of heaven. It is a powerful
indictment of the complacency of the Jewish theological leaders.

經文:

馬太福音 21:32-21:32

註釋:

 {In the way of righteousness} (en hod(9369) dikaiosun(8873)). In
the path of righteousness. Compare the two ways in  Mt 7:13,14 
and "the way of God" ( 22:16 ).

經文:

馬太福音 21:33-21:33

註釋:

 {A hedge} (phragmon). Or fence as a protection against
wild beasts. {Digged a winepress} ((9372)uxen l(886e)on). Out of the
solid rock to hold the grapes and wine as they were crushed. Such
wine-vats are to be seen today in Palestine. {Built a tower}
((9369)kodom(8873)en purgon). This for the vinedressers and watchmen
( 2Ch 26:10 ). Utmost care was thus taken. Note "a booth in a
vineyard" ( Isa 1:8 ). See also  Isa 24:20  Job 27:18 . Let it
out (exedeto, exedoto the usual form). For hire, the terms not
being given. The lease allowed three forms, money-rent, a
proportion of the crop, or a definite amount of the produce
whether it was a good or bad year. Probably the last form is that
contemplated here.

經文:

馬太福音 21:34-21:34

註釋:

 {His servants} (	ous doulous autou). These slaves are
distinguished from {the husbandmen} (ge(9372)goi, workers of the
soil) or workers of the vineyard who had leased it from the
householder before he went away. The conduct of the husbandmen
towards the householder's slaves portrays the behaviour of the
Jewish people and the religious leaders in particular towards the
prophets and now towards Christ. The treatment of God's prophets
by the Jews pointedly illustrates this parable.

經文:

馬太福音 21:35-21:35

註釋:

 {They will reverence my son} (entrap(8873)ontai ton huion
mou). Second future passive from entrep(935c), to turn at, but used
transitively here as though active or middle. It is the picture
of turning with respect when one worthy of it appears.

經文:

馬太福音 21:38-21:38

註釋:

 {Take his inheritance} (sch(936d)en t(886e) kl(8872)onomian autou).
Ingressive aorist active subjunctive (hortatory, volitive) of
ech(935c). Let us get his inheritance.

經文:

馬太福音 21:41-21:41

註釋:

 {He will miserably destroy those miserable men} (kakous
kak(9373) apolesei autous). The paronomasia or assonance is very
clear. A common idiom in literary Greek. "He will put the
wretches to a wretched death" (Weymouth). {Which} (hoitines).
Who, which very ones of a different character.

經文:

馬太福音 21:42-21:42

註釋:

 {The stone which} (lithon hon). Inverse attraction of the
antecedent into the case of the relative. {The builders rejected}
(apedokimasan hoi oikodomountes). From  Ps 118:22 . A most
telling quotation. These experts in building God's temple had
rejected the corner-stone chosen by God for his own house. But
God has the last word and sets aside the building experts and
puts his Son as the Head of the corner. It was a withering
indictment.

經文:

馬太福音 21:43-21:43

註釋:

 {Shall be taken away from you} (arth(8873)etai aph' h(966d)(936e)).
Future passive indicative of air(935c). It was the death-knell of
the Jewish nation with their hopes of political and religious
world leadership.

經文:

馬太福音 21:44-21:44

註釋:

 {Shall be broken to pieces} (sunthlasth(8873)etai). Some
ancient manuscripts do not have this verse. But it graphically
pictures the fate of the man who rejects Christ. The verb means
to shatter. We are familiar with an automobile that dashes
against a stone wall, a tree, or a train and the ruin that
follows. {Will scatter him as dust} (likm(8873)ei). The verb was
used of winnowing out the chaff and then of grinding to powder.
This is the fate of him on whom this Rejected Stone falls.

經文:

馬太福音 21:45-21:45

註釋:

 {Perceived} (egn(9373)an). Ingressive second aorist active of
gin(9373)k(935c). There was no mistaking the meaning of these parables.
The dullest could see the point.

經文:

馬太福音 21:46-21:46

註釋:

 {Took him} (eichon). Descriptive imperfect of ech(935c), to
hold. This fear of the people was all that stayed the hands of
the rabbis on this occasion. Murderous rage was in their hearts
towards Jesus. People do not always grasp the application of
sermons to themselves.

經文:

馬太福音 22:1-22:1

註釋:

 {Again in parables} (palin en parabolais). Matthew has
already given two on this occasion (The Two Sons, The Wicked
Husbandmen). He alone gives this Parable of the Marriage Feast of
the King's Son. It is somewhat similar to that of The Supper in
 Lu 14:16-23  given on another occasion. Hence some scholars
consider this merely Matthew's version of the Lucan parable in
the wrong place because of Matthew's habit of grouping the
sayings of Jesus. But that is a gratuitous indictment of
Matthew's report which definitely locates the parable here by
palin. Some regard it as not spoken by Jesus at all, but an
effort on the part of the writer to cover the sin and fate of the
Jews, the calling of the Gentiles, and God's demand for
righteousness. But here again it is like Jesus and suits the
present occasion.

經文:

馬太福音 22:2-22:2

註釋:

 {A marriage feast} (gamous). The plural, as here
( 2,3,4,9 ), is very common in the papyri for the wedding
festivities (the several acts of feasting) which lasted for days,
seven in  Jud 14:17 . The very phrase here, gamous poiein,
occurs in the Doric of Thera about B.C. 200. The singular gamos
is common in the papyri for the wedding contract, but Field
(_Notes_, p. 16) sees no difference between the singular here in
 22:8  and the plural (see also  Ge 29:22  Es 9:22 ; Macc.
10:58).

經文:

馬太福音 22:3-22:3

註釋:

 {To call them that were bidden} (kalesai tous
kekl(886d)enous). "Perhaps an unconscious play on the words, lost in
both A.V. and Rev., {to call the called}" (Vincent). It was a
Jewish custom to invite a second time the already invited ( Es
5:8  6:14 ). The prophets of old had given God's invitation to
the Jewish people. Now the Baptist and Jesus had given the second
invitation that the feast was ready. {And they would not come}
(kai ouk (8874)helon elthein). This negative imperfect
characterizes the stubborn refusal of the Jewish leaders to
accept Jesus as God's Son ( Joh 1:11 ). This is "The Hebrew
Tragedy" (Conder).

經文:

馬太福音 22:4-22:4

註釋:

 {My dinner} (	o ariston mou). It is breakfast, not dinner.
In  Lu 14:12  both ariston (breakfast) and deipnon (dinner)
are used. This noon or midday meal, like the French breakfast at
noon, was sometimes called deipnon mes(886d)brinon (midday dinner
or luncheon). The regular dinner (deipnon) came in the evening.
The confusion arose from applying ariston to the early morning
meal and then to the noon meal (some not eating an earlier meal).
In  Joh 21:12,15  arista(935c) is used of the early morning meal,
"Break your fast" (arist(8873)ate). When ariston was applied to
luncheon, like the Latin _prandium_, akratisma was the term for
the early breakfast. {My fatlings} (	a sitista). Verbal from
sitiz(935c), to feed with wheat or other grain, to fatten. Fed-up or
fatted animals.

經文:

馬太福音 22:5-22:5

註釋:

 {Made light of it} (amel(8873)antes). Literally, neglecting,
not caring for. They may even have ridiculed the invitation, but
the verb does not say so. However, to neglect an invitation to a
wedding feast is a gross discourtesy. {One to his own farm} (hos
men eis ton idion agron) or field, {another to his merchandise}
(hos de epi t(886e) emporian autou) only example in the N.T., from
emporos, merchant, one who travels for traffic (emporeuomai),
a drummer.

經文:

馬太福音 22:7-22:7

註釋:

 {Armies} (strateumata). Bands of soldiers, not grand
armies.

經文:

馬太福音 22:9-22:9

註釋:

 {The partings of the highways} (	as diexodous t(936e) hod(936e)).
Vulgate, _exitus viarum_. Diodoi are cross-streets, while
diexodoi (double compound) seem to be main streets leading out
of the city where also side-streets may branch off, "by-ways."

經文:

馬太福音 22:10-22:10

註釋:

 {The wedding} (ho gamos). But Westcott and Hort rightly
read here ho numph(936e), marriage dining hall. The same word in
 9:15  means the bridechamber.

經文:

馬太福音 22:12-22:12

註釋:

 {Not having a wedding-garment} (m(8820)ech(936e) enduma gamou).
M(885c) is in the _Koin(825f) the usual negative with participles unless
special emphasis on the negative is desired as in ouk
endedumenon. There is a subtle distinction between m(885c) and ou
like our subjective and objective notions. Some hold that the
wedding-garment here is a portion of a lost parable separate from
that of the Wedding Feast, but there is no evidence for that
idea. Wunsche does report a parable by a rabbi of a king who set
no time for his feast and the guests arrived, some properly
dressed waiting at the door; others in their working clothes did
not wait, but went off to work and, when the summons suddenly
came, they had no time to dress properly and were made to stand
and watch while the others partook of the feast.

經文:

馬太福音 22:13-22:13

註釋:

 {Was speechless} (epsim(9374)h(885c)). Was muzzled, dumb from
confusion and embarrassment. It is used of the ox ( 1Ti 5:18 ).
{The outer darkness} (	o skotos to ex(9374)eron). See  Mt 8:12 .
All the blacker from the standpoint of the brilliantly lighted
banquet hall. {There shall be} (ekei estai). Out there in the
outer darkness.

經文:

馬太福音 22:14-22:14

註釋:

 {For many are called, but few chosen} (polloi gar eisin
kl(8874)oi oligoi de eklektoi). This crisp saying of Christ occurs
in various connections. He evidently repeated many of his sayings
many times as every teacher does. There is a distinction between
the called (kl(8874)oi) and the chosen (eklektoi) called out from
the called.

經文:

馬太福音 22:15-22:15

註釋:

 {Went} (poreuthentes). So-called deponent passive and
redundant use of the verb as in  9:13 : "Go and learn." {Took
counsel} (sumboulion elabon). Like the Latin _consilium capere_
as in  12:14 . {Ensnare in his talk} (pagideus(9373)in en log(9369)).
From pagis, a snare or trap. Here only in the N.T. In the LXX
( 1Ki 28:9  Ec 9:12 ; Test. of Twelve Patriarchs, _Joseph_ 7:1).
Vivid picture of the effort to trip Jesus in his speech like a
bird or wild beast.

經文:

馬太福音 22:16-22:16

註釋:

 {Their disciples} (	ous math(8874)as aut(936e)). Students,
pupils, of the Pharisees as in  Mr 2:18 . There were two
Pharisaic theological seminaries in Jerusalem (Hillel, Shammai).
{The Herodians} (	(936e) Her(9369)dian(936e)). Not members of Herod's
family or Herod's soldiers, but partisans or followers of Herod.
The form in -ianos is a Latin termination like that in
Christianos ( Ac 11:26 ). Mentioned also in  Mr 3:6  combining
with the Pharisees against Jesus. {The person of men} (pros(9370)on
anthr(9370)(936e)). Literally, face of men. Paying regard to appearance
is the sin of partiality condemned by James ( Jas 2:1,9 ) when
pros(9370)ol(886d)psia, pros(9370)ol(886d)ptein are used, in imitation of the
Hebrew idiom. This suave flattery to Jesus implied "that Jesus
was a reckless simpleton" (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 22:19-22:19

註釋:

 {Tribute money} (	o nomisma tou k(886e)sou). K(886e)sos, Latin
_census_, was a capitation tax or head-money, _tributum capitis_,
for which silver denaria were struck, with the figure of Caesar
and a superscription, e.g. "Tiberiou Kaisaros" (McNeile).
Nomisma is the Latin _numisma_ and occurs here only in the
N.T., is common in the old Greek, from 
omiz(935c) sanctioned by law
or custom.

經文:

馬太福音 22:20-22:20

註釋:

 {This image and superscription} (h(8820)eik(936e) haut(8820)kai h(880a)epigraph(885c)). Probably a Roman coin because of the image (picture)
on it. The earlier Herods avoided this practice because of Jewish
prejudice, but the Tetrarch Philip introduced it on Jewish coins
and he was followed by Herod Agrippa I. This coin was pretty
certainly stamped in Rome with the image and name of Tiberius
Caesar on it.

經文:

馬太福音 22:21-22:21

註釋:

 {Render} (apodote). "Give back" to Caesar what is already
Caesar's.

經文:

馬太福音 22:24-22:24

註釋:

 1Sa
18:22 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Sa
18' or engs='1Sa
18'
經文:

馬太福音 22:33-22:33

註釋:

 {They were astonished} (exepl(8873)sonto). Descriptive
imperfect passive showing the continued amazement of the crowds.
They were struck out (literally).

經文:

馬太福音 22:34-22:34

註釋:

 {He had put the Sadducees to silence} (ephim(9373)en tous
Saddoukaious). Muzzled the Sadducees. The Pharisees could not
restrain their glee though they were joining with the Sadducees
in trying to entrap Jesus. {Gathered themselves together}
(sun(8863)hth(8873)an epi to auto). First aorist passive, were gathered
together. Epi to auto explains more fully sun-. See also  Ac
2:47 . "Mustered their forces" (Moffatt).

經文:

馬太福音 22:36-22:36

註釋:

 {The great commandment in the law} (entol(8820)megal(8820)en t(9369)
nom(9369)). The positive adjective is sometimes as high in rank as
the superlative. See megas in  Mt 5:19  in contrast with
elachistos. The superlative megistos occurs in the N.T. only
in  2Pe 1:4 . Possibly this scribe wishes to know which
commandment stood first ( Mr 12:28 ) with Jesus. "The scribes
declared that there were 248 affirmative precepts, as many as the
members of the human body; and 365 negative precepts, as many as
the days in the year, the total being 613, the number of letters
in the Decalogue" (Vincent). But Jesus cuts through such
pettifogging hair-splitting to the heart of the problem.

經文:

馬太福音 22:42-22:42

註釋:

 {The Christ} (	ou Christou). The Messiah, of course, not
Christ as a proper name of Jesus. Jesus here assumes that  Ps
110  refers to the Messiah. By his pungent question about the
Messiah as David's son and Lord he really touches the problem of
his Person (his Deity and his Humanity). Probably the Pharisees
had never faced that problem before. They were unable to answer.

經文:

馬太福音 23:2-23:2

註釋:

 {Sit on Moses' seat} (epi t(8873) M(9375)se(9373) kathedras
ekathisan). The gnomic or timeless aorist tense, ekathisan,
not the aorist "for" the perfect. The "seat of Moses" is a brief
form for the chair of the professor whose function it is to
interpret Moses. "The heirs of Moses' authority by an unbroken
tradition can deliver _ex cathedra_ pronouncements on his
teaching" (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 23:3-23:3

註釋:

 {For they say and do not} (legousin kai ou poiousin). "As
teachers they have their place, but beware of following their
example" (Bruce). So Jesus said: "Do not ye after their works "
(m(8820)poieite). Do not practice their practices. They are only
preachers. Jesus does not here disapprove any of their teachings
as he does elsewhere. The point made here is that they are only
teachers (or preachers) and do not practice what they teach as
God sees it.

經文:

馬太福音 23:4-23:4

註釋:

 {With their finger} (	(9369) daktul(9369) aut(936e)). A picturesque
proverb. They are taskmasters, not burden-bearers, not
sympathetic helpers.

經文:

馬太福音 23:5-23:5

註釋:

 {To be seen of men} (pros to theath(886e)ai tois anthr(9370)ois).
See  6:1  where this same idiom occurs. Ostentation regulates the
conduct of the rabbis. {Phylacteries} (phulakt(8872)ia). An
adjective from phulakt(8872), phulass(935c) (to guard). So a fortified
place, station for garrison, then a safeguard, protecting charm
or amulet. The rabbis wore 	ephillin or prayer-fillets, small
leather cases with four strips of parchment on which were written
the words of  Ex 13:1-10,11-16  De 6:4-9  11:13-21 . They took
literally the words about "a sign unto thy hand," "a memorial
between thine eyes," and "frontlets." "That for the head was to
consist of a box with four compartments, each containing a slip
of parchment inscribed with one of the four passages. Each of
these strips was to be tied up with a well-washed hair from a
calf's tail; lest, if tied with wool or thread, any fungoid
growth should ever pollute them. The phylactery of the arm was to
contain a single slip, with the same four passages written in
four columns of seven lines each. The black leather straps by
which they were fastened were wound seven times round the arm and
three times round the hand. They were reverenced by the rabbis as
highly as the scriptures, and, like them, might be rescued from
the flames on a sabbath. They profanely imagined that God wore
the _tephillin_" (Vincent). It is small wonder that Jesus
ridiculed such minute concern for pretentious externalism and
literalism. These _tephillin_ "are still worn at the present day
on the forehead and left arm by Jews at the daily Morning Prayer"
(McNeile) . "The size of the phylacteries indexed the measure of
zeal, and the wearing of large ones was apt to take the place of
obedience" (Bruce). Hence they made them "broad." The
superstitious would wear them as mere charms to ward off evil.
{Enlarge the borders} (megalunousin ta kraspeda). In  9:20  we
see that Jesus, like the Jews generally, wore a tassel or tuft,
hem or border, a fringe on the outer garment according to  Nu
15:38 . Here again the Jewish rabbi had minute rules about the
number of the fringes and the knots (see on 消:20|). They made a
virtue of the size of the fringes also. "Such things were useful
as reminders; they were fatal when they were regarded as charms"
(Plummer).

經文:

馬太福音 23:6-23:6

註釋:

 {The chief place at feasts} (	(886e) pr(9374)oklisian en tois
deipnois). Literally, the first reclining place on the divan at
the meal. The Persians, Greeks, Romans, Jews differed in their
customs, but all cared for the post of honour at formal functions
as is true of us today. Hostesses often solve the point by
putting the name of each guest at the table. At the last passover
meal the apostles had an ugly snarl over this very point of
precedence ( Lu 22:24  Joh 13:2-11 ), just two days after this
exposure of the Pharisees in the presence of the apostles. {The
chief seats in the synagogues} (	as pr(9374)okathedrias en tais
sunag(9367)ais). "An insatiable hunger for prominence" (Bruce).
These chief seats (Zuchermandel) were on the platform looking to
the audience and with the back to the chest in which were kept
the rolls of scripture. The Essenes had a different arrangement.
People today pay high prices for front seats at the theatre, but
at church prefer the rear seats out of a curious mock-humility.
In the time of Jesus the hypocrites boldly sat up in front. Now,
if they come to church at all, they take the rear seats.

經文:

馬太福音 23:7-23:7

註釋:

 {Salutations} (aspasmous). The ordinary courtiers were
coveted because in public. They had an itch for notice. There are
occasionally today ministers who resent it if they are not called
upon to take part in the services at church. They feel that their
ministerial dignity has not been recognized.

經文:

馬太福音 23:8-23:8

註釋:

 {But be not ye called Rabbi} (humeis de m(8820)kl(8874)h(8874)e
Rabbei). An apparent aside to the disciples. Note the emphatic
position of humeis. Some even regard verses  8-10  as a later
addition and not part of this address to the Pharisees, but the
apostles were present. Euthymius Zigabenus says: "Do not seek to
be called (ingressive aorist subjunctive), if others call you
this it will not be your fault." This is not far from the
Master's meaning. Rabbi means "my great one," "my Master,"
apparently a comparatively new title in Christ's time.

經文:

馬太福音 23:9-23:9

註釋:

 {Call no man your father} (patera m(8820)kales(8874)e h(966d)(936e)).
Jesus meant the full sense of this noble word for our heavenly
Father. "Abba was not commonly a mode of address to a living
person, but a title of honour for Rabbis and great men of the
past" (McNeile). In Gethsemane Jesus said: "Abba, Father" ( Mr
14:36 ). Certainly the ascription of "Father" to pope and priest
seems out of harmony with what Jesus here says. He should not be
understood to be condemning the title to one's real earthly
father. Jesus often leaves the exceptions to be supplied.

經文:

馬太福音 23:10-23:10

註釋:

 {Masters} (kath(8867)(8874)ai). This word occurs here only in the
N.T. It is found in the papyri for teacher (Latin, _doctor_). It
is the modern Greek word for professor. "While didaskalos
represents Rab, kath(8867)(8874)es stands for the more honourable
Rabban, -b(936e)" (McNeile). Dalman (_Words of Jesus_, p. 340)
suggests that the same Aramaic word may be translated by either
didaskalos or kath(8867)(8874)es. {The Christ} (ho Christos). The
use of these words here by Jesus like "Jesus Christ" in his
Prayer ( Joh 17:3 ) is held by some to show that they were added
by the evangelist to what Jesus actually said, since the Master
would not have so described himself. But he commended Peter for
calling him "the Christ the Son of the living God" ( Mt
16:16f. ). We must not empty the consciousness of Jesus too much.

經文:

馬太福音 23:12-23:12

註釋:

 {Exalt himself} (hups(9373)ei heauton). Somewhat like  18:4  20:26 . Given by Luke in other contexts ( 14:11  18:14 ).
Characteristic of Christ.

經文:

馬太福音 23:13-23:13

註釋:

 {Hypocrites} (hupokritai). This terrible word of Jesus
appears first from him in the Sermon on the Mount ( Mt 6:2,5,16  7:5 ), then in  15:7  and  22:18 . Here it appears "with terrific
iteration" (Bruce) save in the third of the seven woes
( 23:13,15,23,25,27,29 ). The verb in the active (hupokrin(935c))
meant to separate slowly or slightly subject to gradual inquiry.
Then the middle was to make answer, to take up a part on the
stage, to act a part. It was an easy step to mean to feign, to
pretend, to wear a masque, to act the hypocrite, to play a part.
This hardest word from the lips of Jesus falls on those who were
the religious leaders of the Jews (Scribes and Pharisees), who
had justified this thunderbolt of wrath by their conduct toward
Jesus and their treatment of things high and holy. The _Textus
Receptus has eight woes, adding verse  14  which the Revised
Version places in the margin (called verse  13  by Westcott and
Hort and rejected on the authority of Aleph B D as a manifest
gloss from  Mr 12:40  and  Lu 20:47 ). The MSS. that insert it
put it either before 13 or after 13. Plummer cites these seven
woes as another example of Matthew's fondness for the number
seven, more fancy than fact for Matthew's Gospel is not the
Apocalypse of John. These are all illustrations of Pharisaic
saying and not doing (Allen). {Ye shut the kingdom of heaven}
(kleiete t(886e) basileian t(936e) ouran(936e)). In  Lu 11:52  the lawyers
are accused of keeping the door to the house of knowledge locked
and with flinging away the keys so as to keep themselves and the
people in ignorance. These custodians of the kingdom by their
teaching obscured the way to life. It is a tragedy to think how
preachers and teachers of the kingdom of God may block the door
for those who try to enter in (	ous eiserchomenous, conative
present middle participle). {Against} (emprosthen). Literally,
before. These door-keepers of the kingdom slam it shut in men's
faces and they themselves are on the outside where they will
remain. They hide the key to keep others from going in.

經文:

馬太福音 23:15-23:15

註釋:

 {Twofold more a son of hell than yourselves} (huion
geenn(8873) diploteron h(966d)(936e)). It is a convert to Pharisaism rather
than Judaism that is meant by "one proselyte" (hena
pros(886c)uton), from proserchomai, newcomers, aliens. There were
two kinds of proselytes: of the gate (not actual Jews, but
God-fearers and well-wishers of Judaism, like Cornelius), of
righteousness who received circumcision and became actual Jews.
But a very small per cent of the latter became Pharisees. There
was a Hellenistic Jewish literature (Philo, Sibylline Oracles,
etc.) designed to attract Gentiles to Judaism. But the Pharisaic
missionary zeal (compass, periag(8874)e, go around) was a
comparative failure. And success was even worse, Jesus says with
pitiless plainness. The "son of Gehenna" means one fitted for and
so destined for Gehenna. "The more converted the more perverted"
(H.J. Holtzmann). The Pharisees claimed to be in a special sense
sons of the kingdom ( Mt 8:12 ). They were more partisan than
pious. Diplous (twofold, double) is common in the papyri. The
comparative here used, as if from diplos, appears also in
Appian. Note the ablative of comparison h(966d)(936e). It was a withering
thrust.

經文:

馬太福音 23:16-23:16

註釋:

 {Ye blind guides} (hod(8867)oi tuphloi). Note omission of
"Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites" with this third woe. In
 15:14  Jesus had already called the Pharisees "blind guides"
(leaders). They split hairs about oaths, as Jesus had explained
in  5:33-37 , between the temple and the gold of the temple. {He
is a debtor} (opheilei). He owes his oath, is bound by his
oath. A.V., {is guilty}, is old English, obsolete sense of guilt
as fine or payment.

經文:

馬太福音 23:17-23:17

註釋:

 {Ye fools} (m(9372)oi). In  5:22  Jesus had warned against
calling a man m(9372)os in a rage, but here he so terms the blind
Pharisees for their stupidity, description of the class. "It
shows that not the word but the spirit in which it is uttered is
what matters" (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 23:23-23:23

註釋:

 {Ye tithe} (apodekatoute). The tithe had to be paid upon
"all the increase of thy seed" ( De 14:22  Le 27:30 ). The
English word tithe is tenth. These small aromatic herbs, mint
(	o h(8864)uosmon, sweet-smelling), anise or dill (an(8874)hon),
cummin (kuminon, with aromatic seeds), show the Pharisaic
scrupulous conscientiousness, all marketable commodities. "The
Talmud tells of the ass of a certain Rabbi which had been so well
trained as to refuse corn of which the tithes had not been taken"
(Vincent). {These ye ought} (	auta edei). Jesus does not
condemn tithing. What he does condemn is doing it to the neglect
of the {weightier matters} (	a barutera). The Pharisees were
externalists; cf.  Lu 11:39-44 .

經文:

馬太福音 23:24-23:24

註釋:

 {Strain out the gnat} (diulizontes ton k(936e)(9370)a). By
filtering through (dia), not the "straining at" in swallowing
so crudely suggested by the misprint in the A.V. {Swallow the
camel} (	(886e) de kam(886c)on katapinontes). Gulping or drinking down
the camel. An oriental hyperbole like that in  19:24 . See also
 5:29,30  17:20  21:21 . Both insects and camels were
ceremonially unclean ( Le 11:4,20,23,42 ). "He that kills a flea
on the Sabbath is as guilty as if he killed a camel" (Jer.
_Shabb._ 107).

經文:

馬太福音 23:25-23:25

註釋:

 {From extortion and excess} (ex harpag(8873) kai akrasias). A
much more serious accusation. These punctilious observers of the
external ceremonies did not hesitate at robbery (harpages) and
graft (akrasias), lack of control. A modern picture of
wickedness in high places both civil and ecclesiastical where the
moral elements in life are ruthlessly trodden under foot. Of
course, the idea is for both the outside ektos and the inside
(entos) of the cup and the platter (fine side dish). But the
inside is the more important. Note the change to singular in
verse  26  as if Jesus in a friendlier tone pleads with a
Pharisee to mend his ways.

經文:

馬太福音 23:27-23:27

註釋:

 {Whited sepulchre} (	aphois kekoniamenois). The perfect
passive participle is from konia(935c) and that from konia, dust
or lime. Whitened with powdered lime dust, the sepulchres of the
poor in the fields or the roadside. Not the rock-hewn tombs of
the well-to-do. These were whitewashed a month before the
passover that travellers might see them and so avoid being
defiled by touching them ( Nu 19:16 ). In  Ac 23:3  Paul called
the high priest a whited wall. When Jesus spoke the sepulchres
had been freshly whitewashed. We today speak of whitewashing
moral evil.

經文:

馬太福音 23:29-23:29

註釋:

 {The tombs of the prophets} (	ous taphous t(936e) proph(8874)(936e)).
Cf.  Lu 11:48-52 . They were bearing witness against themselves
(heautois, verse  31 ) to "the murder-taint in your blood"
(Allen). "These men who professed to be so distressed at the
murdering of the Prophets, were themselves compassing the death
of Him who was far greater than any Prophet" (Plummer). There are
four monuments called Tombs of the Prophets (Zechariah, Absalom,
Jehoshaphat, St. James) at the base of the Mount of Olives. Some
of these may have been going up at the very time that Jesus
spoke. In this seventh and last woe Jesus addresses the Jewish
nation and not merely the Pharisees.

經文:

馬太福音 23:32-23:32

註釋:

 {Fill ye up} (pl(8872)(9373)ate). The keenest irony in this
command has been softened in some MSS. to the future indicative
(pl(8872)(9373)ete). "Fill up the measure of your fathers; crown their
misdeeds by killing the prophet God has sent to you. Do at last
what has long been in your hearts. The hour is come" (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 23:33-23:33

註釋:

 {Ye serpents, ye offspring of vipers} (opheis genn(886d)ata
echidn(936e)). These blistering words come as a climax and remind
one of the Baptist ( 3:17 ) and of the time when the Pharisees
accused Jesus of being in league with Beelzebub ( 12:34 ). They
cut to the bone like whip-cords. {How shall ye escape} (p(9373)
phug(8874)e). Deliberate subjunctive. There is a curse in the Talmud
somewhat like this: "Woe to the house of Annas! Woe to their
serpent-like hissings."

經文:

馬太福音 23:35-23:35

註釋:

 {Zachariah son of Barachiah} (Zachariou huiou Barachiou).
Broadus gives well the various alternatives in understanding and
explaining the presence of "son of Barachiah" here which is not
in  Lu 11:51 . The usual explanation is that the reference is to
Zachariah the son of Jehoiada the priest who was slain in the
court of the temple ( 2Ch 24:20ff. ). How the words, "son of
Barachiah," got into Matthew we do not know. A half-dozen
possibilities can be suggested. In the case of Abel a reckoning
for the shedding of his blood was foretold ( Ge 4:10 ) and the
same thing was true of the slaying of Zachariah ( 2Ch 24:22 ).

經文:

馬太福音 23:37-23:37

註釋:

 {How often would I have gathered} (posakis (8874)hel(8873)a
episunagein). More exactly, how often did I long to gather to
myself (double compound infinitive). The same verb (episunagei)
is used of the hen with the compound preposition hupokat(935c).
Everyone has seen the hen quickly get together the chicks under
her wings in the time of danger. These words naturally suggest
previous visits to Jerusalem made plain by John's Gospel.

經文:

馬太福音 24:1-24:1

註釋:

 {Went out from the temple} (exelth(936e) apo tou hierou). All
the discourses since  Mt 21:23  have been in the temple courts
(hieron, the sacred enclosure). But now Jesus leaves it for
good after the powerful denunciation of the scribes and Pharisees
in chapter 23. His public teaching is over. It was a tragic
moment. As he was going out (eporeueto, descriptive imperfect)
the disciples, as if to relieve the thought of the Master came to
him (pros(886c)thon) to show (epideixai, ingressive aorist
infinitive) the buildings of the temple (	as oikodomas tou
hierou). They were familiar to Jesus and the disciples, but
beautiful like a snow mountain (Josephus, _Wars_ V,5,6), the
monument that Herod the Great had begun and that was not yet
complete ( Joh 2:20 ). Great stones were there of polished
marble.

經文:

馬太福音 24:2-24:2

註釋:

 {One stone upon another} (lithos epi lithon). Stone upon
stone. A startling prediction showing that the gloomy current of
the thoughts of Jesus were not changed by their words of
admiration for the temple.

經文:

馬太福音 24:3-24:3

註釋:

 2Th
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2' or engs='2Th
2'
經文:

馬太福音 24:4-24:4

註釋:

 {Lead you astray} (h(966d)(8373) plan(8873)(8869)). This warning runs all
through the discourse. It is amazing how successful deceivers
have been through the ages with their eschatological programs.
The word in the passive appears in  18:12  when the one sheep
wanders astray. Here it is the active voice with the causative
sense to lead astray. Our word planet comes from this root.

經文:

馬太福音 24:5-24:5

註釋:

 {In my name} (epi t(9369) onomati mou). They will arrogate to
themselves false claims of Messiahship in (on the basis of) the
name of Christ himself. Josephus (_Wars_ VI, 54) gives there
false Christs as one of the reasons for the explosion against
Rome that led to the city's destruction. Each new hero was
welcomed by the masses including Barcochba. "I am the Messiah,"
each would say. Forty odd years ago two men in Illinois claimed
to be Messiah, each with followers (Schlatter, Schweinfurth). In
more recent years Mrs. Annie Besant has introduced a theosophical
Messiah and Mrs. Eddy made claims about herself on a par with
those of Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 24:6-24:6

註釋:

 {See that ye be not troubled} (horate m(8820)throeisthe).
Asyndeton here with these two imperatives as  Mr 8:15  orate
blepete (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 949). Look out for the wars
and rumours of wars, but do not be scared out of your wits by
them. Throe(935c) means to cry aloud, to scream, and in the passive
to be terrified by an outcry. Paul uses this very verb (m(8864)e
throeisthai) in  2Th 2:2  as a warning against excitement over
false reports that he had predicted the immediate second coming
of Christ. {But the end is not yet} (all' oup(9320)estin to telos).
It is curious how people overlook these words of Jesus and
proceed to set dates for the immediate end. That happened during
the Great War and it has happened since.

經文:

馬太福音 24:8-24:8

註釋:

 {The beginning of travail} (arch(8820)odin(936e)). The word means
birth-pangs and the Jews used the very phrase for the sufferings
of the Messiah which were to come before the coming of the
Messiah (Book of Jubilees, 23:18; Apoc. of Baruch 27-29). But the
word occurs with no idea of birth as the pains of death ( Ps
18:5  Ac 2:24 ). These woes, says Jesus, are not a proof of the
end, but of the beginning.

經文:

馬太福音 24:9-24:9

註釋:

 {Ye shall be hated} (esesthe misoumenoi). Periphrastic
future passive to emphasize the continuous process of the linear
action. For tribulation (	hlipsin see  13:21 ), a word common
in the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse for the oppression
(pressure) that the Christians received. {For my name's sake}
(dia to onoma mou). The most glorious name in the world today,
but soon to be a byword of shame ( Ac 5:41 ). The disciples would
count it an honour to be dishonoured for the Name's sake.

經文:

馬太福音 24:11-24:11

註釋:

 {False prophets} (pseudoproph(8874)ai). Jesus had warned
against them in the Sermon on the Mount ( 7:15 ). They are still
coming.

經文:

馬太福音 24:12-24:12

註釋:

 {Shall wax cold} (psug(8873)etai). Second future passive
indicative from psuch(935c). To breathe cool by blowing, to grow
cold, "spiritual energy blighted or chilled by a malign or
poisonous wind" (Vincent). {The love of many} (h(8820)agap(8820)t(936e)
poll(936e)). Love of the brotherhood gives way to mutual hatred and
suspicion.

經文:

馬太福音 24:14-24:14

註釋:

 {Shall be preached} (keruchth(8873)etai). Heralded in all the
inhabited world. En hol(8869) t(8869) oikoumen(8869) supply g(8869). It is
not here said that all will be saved nor must this language be
given too literal and detailed an application to every
individual.

經文:

馬太福音 24:15-24:15

註釋:

 {The abomination of desolation} (	o bdelugma t(8873)
erem(9373)e(9373)). An allusion to  Da 9:27  11:31  12:11 . Antiochus
Epiphanes erected an altar to Zeus on the altar of Jehovah
(1Macc. 1:54,59; 6:7; 2Macc. 6:1-5). The desolation in the mind
of Jesus is apparently the Roman army ( Lu 21:20 ) in the temple,
an application of the words of Daniel to this dread event. The
verb delussomai is to feel nausea because of stench, to abhor,
to detest. Idolatry was a stench to God ( Lu 16:15  Re 17:4 ).
Josephus tells us that the Romans burned the temple and offered
sacrifices to their ensigns placed by the eastern gate when they
proclaimed Titus as Emperor.

{Let him that readeth understand} (ho anaginosk(936e) noeit(935c)). This
parenthesis occurs also in  Mr 13:14 . It is not to be supposed
that Jesus used these words. They were inserted by Mark as he
wrote his book and he was followed by Matthew.

經文:

馬太福音 24:16-24:16

註釋:

 {Flee unto the mountains} (pheuget(9373)an eis ta or(885c)). The
mountains east of the Jordan. Eusebius (_H.E._ iii,5,3) says that
the Christians actually fled to Pella at the foot of the
mountains about seventeen miles south of the Sea of Galilee. They
remembered the warning of Jesus and fled for safety.

經文:

馬太福音 24:17-24:17

註釋:

 {On the housetop} (epi tou d(936d)atos). They could escape
from roof to roof and so escape, "the road of the roofs," as the
rabbis called it. There was need for haste.

經文:

馬太福音 24:18-24:18

註釋:

 {In the field} (en t(9369) agr(9369)). The peasant worked in his
time and left his mantle at home then as now.

經文:

馬太福音 24:20-24:20

註釋:

 {In winter nor on a sabbath} (cheim(936e)os, genitive of
time, m(8864)e sabbat(9369), locative of time). In winter because of
the rough weather. On a sabbath because some would hesitate to
make such a journey on the sabbath. Josephus in his _Wars_ gives
the best illustration of the horrors foretold by Jesus in verse
 21 .

經文:

馬太福音 24:22-24:22

註釋:

 {Had been shortened} (ekolob(9374)h(8873)an). From kolobos,
lopped, mutilated, as the hands, the feet. It is a second-class
condition, determined as unfulfilled. It is a prophetic figure,
the future regarded as past. {For the elect's sake} (dia tous
eklektous). See  Mt 22:14  for another use of this phrase by
Jesus and also  24:31 . The siege was shortened by various
historical events like the stopping of the strengthening of the
walls by Herod Agrippa by orders from the Emperor, the sudden
arrival of Titus, the neglect of the Jews to prepare for a long
siege. "Titus himself confessed that God was against the Jews,
since otherwise neither his armies nor his engines would have
availed against their defences" (Vincent).

經文:

馬太福音 24:23-24:23

註釋:

 {Lo, here is the Christ, or here} (idou h(9364)e ho Christos (880a)h(9364)e). The false prophets ( 24:11 ) create the trouble and now
false Christs (pseudo-Christoi, verse  24 ) offer a way out of
these troubles. The deluded victims raise the cries of "Lo,
here," when these false Messiahs arise with their panaceas for
public ills (political, religious, moral, and spiritual).

經文:

馬太福音 24:24-24:24

註釋:

 {Great signs and wonders} (s(886d)eia megala kai terata). Two
of the three words so often used in the N.T. about the works
(erga) of Jesus, the other being dunameis (powers). They
often occur together of the same work ( Joh 4:48  Ac 2:22  4:30  2Co 12:12  Heb 2:4 ). Teras is a wonder or prodigy, dunamis,
a mighty work or power, s(886d)eion, a sign of God's purpose.
Miracle (miraculum) presents only the notion of wonder or
portent. The same deed can be looked at from these different
angles. But the point to note here is that mere "signs and
wonders" do not of themselves prove the power of God. These
charlatans will be so skilful that they will, {if possible} (ei
dunaton), lead astray the very elect. The implication is that it
is not possible. People become excited and are misled and are
unable to judge of results. Often it is _post hoc, sed non
propter hoc_. Patent-medicine men make full use of the credulity
of people along this line as do spiritualistic mediums.
Sleight-of-hand men can deceive the unwary.

經文:

馬太福音 24:26-24:26

註釋:

 {In the wilderness} (en t(8869) er(886d)(9369)). Like Simon son of
Gioras (Josephus, _War_, IV,9,5,&7). {In the inner chambers} (en
tois tameiois). Like John of Giscala (Josephus, _War_, V,6,1).
False Messiahs act the role of the Great Unseen and Unknown.

經文:

馬太福音 24:27-24:27

註釋:

 {As seen} (phainetai). Visible in contrast to the
invisibility of the false Messiahs. Cf.  Re 1:7 . Like a flash of
lightning.

經文:

馬太福音 24:28-24:28

註釋:

 {Carcase} (pt(936d)a). As in  14:12 , the corpse. Originally
a fallen body from pipt(935c), to fall, like Latin _cadaver_ from
_cado_, to fall. The proverb here as in  Lu 17:37 , is like that
in  Job 39:30  Pr 30:17 . {Eagles} (aetoi). Perhaps the griffon
vulture, larger than the eagle, which (Aristotle) was often seen
in the wake of an army and followed Napoleon's retreat from
Russia.

經文:

馬太福音 24:29-24:29

註釋:

 {Immediately} (euthe(9373)). This word, common in Mark's
Gospel as euthus, gives trouble if one stresses the time
element. The problem is how much time intervenes between "the
tribulation of those days" and the vivid symbolism of verse  29 .
The use of en tachei in  Re 1:1  should make one pause before
he decides. Here we have a prophetic panorama like that with
foreshortened perspective. The apocalyptic pictures in verse  29 
also call for sobriety of judgment. One may compare Joel's
prophecy as interpreted by Peter in  Ac 21:16-22 . Literalism is
not appropriate in this apocalyptic eschatology.

經文:

馬太福音 24:30-24:30

註釋:

 {The sign of the Son of Man in heaven} (	o s(886d)eion tou
huiou tou anthr(9370)ou en ouran(9369)). Many theories have been
suggested like the cross in the sky, etc. Bruce sees a reference
to  Da 7:13  "one like the Son of man" and holds that Christ
himself is the sign in question (the genitive of apposition).
This is certainly possible. It is confirmed by the rest of the
verse: "They shall see the Son of man coming." See  Mt 16:27  26:64 . The Jews had repeatedly asked for such a sign (Broadus)
as in  Mt 12:38  16:1  Joh 2:18 .

經文:

馬太福音 24:31-24:31

註釋:

 {With a great sound of a trumpet} (meta salpiggos ph(936e)(8873)
megal(8873)). Some MSS. omit (ph(936e)(8873)) "sound." The trumpet was the
signal employed to call the hosts of Israel to march as to war
and is common in prophetic imagery ( Isa 27:13 ). Cf. the seventh
angel ( Re 11:15 ). Clearly "the coming of the son of man is not
to be identified with the judgment of Jerusalem but rather forms
its preternatural background" (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 24:32-24:32

註釋:

 {Putteth forth its leaves} (	a phulla ekphu(8869)). Present
active subjunctive according to Westcott and Hort. If accented
ekphu(8869) (last syllable), it is second aorist passive
subjunctive (Erasmus).

經文:

馬太福音 24:34-24:34

註釋:

 {This generation} (h(8820)genea haut(885c)). The problem is
whether Jesus is here referring to the destruction of Jerusalem
or to the second coming and end of the world. If to the
destruction of Jerusalem, there was a literal fulfilment. In the
Old Testament a generation was reckoned as forty years. This is
the natural way to take verse  34  as of  33  (Bruce), "all
things" meaning the same in both verses.

經文:

馬太福音 24:36-24:36

註釋:

 {Not even the Son} (oude ho huios). Probably genuine,
though absent in some ancient MSS. The idea is really involved in
the words "but the Father only" (ei m(8820)ho pat(8872) monos). It is
equally clear that in this verse Jesus has in mind the time of
his second coming. He had plainly stated in verse  34  that those
events (destruction of Jerusalem) would take place in that
generation. He now as pointedly states that no one but the Father
knows the day or the hour when these things (the second coming
and the end of the world) will come to pass. One may, of course,
accuse Jesus of hopeless confusion or extend his confession of
ignorance of the date of the second coming to the whole chain of
events. So McNeile: "It is impossible to escape the conclusion
that Jesus as Man, expected the End, within the lifetime of his
contemporaries." And that after his explicit denial that he knew
anything of the kind! It is just as easy to attribute ignorance
to modern scholars with their various theories as to Jesus who
admits his ignorance of the date, but not of the character of the
coming.

經文:

馬太福音 24:37-24:37

註釋:

 {The days of Noah} (hai h(886d)erai tou N(9365)). Jesus had used
this same imagery before to the Pharisees ( Lu 17:26-30 ). In
Noah's day there was plenty of warning, but utter unpreparedness.
Most people are either indifferent about the second coming or
have fanciful schemes or programs about it. Few are really eager
and expectant and leave to God the time and the plans.

經文:

馬太福音 24:38-24:38

註釋:

 {Were eating} ((8873)an tr(9367)ontes). Periphrastic imperfect.
The verb means to chew raw vegetables or fruits like nuts or
almonds.

經文:

馬太福音 24:41-24:41

註釋:

 {At the mill} (en t(9369) mul(9369)). So Westcott and Hort and
not mul(936e)i (millhouse) Textus Receptus. The millstone and then
hand-mill which was turned by two women (al(8874)housai) as in  Ex
11:5 . This verb is a late form for ale(935c). There was a handle
near the edge of the upper stone.

經文:

馬太福音 24:42-24:42

註釋:

 {Watch therefore} (gr(8867)(9372)eite oun). A late present
imperative from the second perfect egr(8867)ora from egeir(935c). Keep
awake, be on the watch "therefore" because of the uncertainty of
the time of the second coming. Jesus gives a half dozen parables
to enforce the point of this exhortation (the Porter, the Master
of the House, the Faithful Servant and the Evil Servants, the Ten
Virgins, the Talents, the Sheep and the Goats). Matthew does not
give the Parable of the Porter ( Mr 13:35-37 ).

經文:

馬太福音 24:43-24:43

註釋:

 {In what watch} (poi(8369) phulak(8869)). As in  14:25  (four
watches of the night). {Broken through} (dioruchth(886e)ai). Digged
through the tile roof or under the floor (dirt in the poorer
houses).

經文:

馬太福音 24:44-24:44

註釋:

 1Th
5:2 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
5' or engs='1Th
5'
經文:

馬太福音 24:48-24:48

註釋:

 {My lord tarrieth} (chronizei mou ho kurios). That is the
temptation and to give way to indulge in fleshly appetites or to
pride of superior intellect. Within a generation scoffers will be
asking where is the promise of the coming of Christ ( 2Pe 3:4 ).
They will forget that God's clock is not like our clock and that
a day with the Lord may be a thousand years or a thousand years
as one day ( 2Pe 3:8 ).

經文:

馬太福音 25:1-25:1

註釋:

 {Ten virgins} (deka parthenois). No special point in the
number ten. The scene is apparently centered round the house of
the bride to which the bridegroom is coming for the wedding
festivities. But Plummer places the scene near the house of the
bridegroom who has gone to bring the bride home. It is not
pertinent to the point of the parable to settle it. {Lamps}
(lampadas). Probably torches with a wooden staff and a dish on
top in which was placed a piece of rope or cloth dipped in oil or
pitch. But sometimes lampas has the meaning of oil lamp
(luchnos) as in  Ac 20:8 . That may be the meaning here
(Rutherford, _New Phrynichus_).

經文:

馬太福音 25:3-25:3

註釋:

 {Took no oil with them} (ouk elabon meth' heaut(936e) elaion).
Probably none at all, not realizing their lack of oil till they
lit the torches on the arrival of the bridegroom and his party.

經文:

馬太福音 25:4-25:4

註釋:

 {In their vessels} (en tois aggeiois). Here alone in the
N.T., through agg(885c) in  13:48 . Extra supply in these
receptacles besides the oil in the dish on top of the staff.

經文:

馬太福音 25:5-25:5

註釋:

 {They all slumbered and slept} (enustaxan p(8373)ai kai
ekatheudon). They dropped off to sleep, nodded (ingressive
aorist) and then went on sleeping (imperfect, linear action), a
vivid picture drawn by the difference in the two tenses. Many a
preacher has seen this happen while he is preaching.

經文:

馬太福音 25:6-25:6

註釋:

 {There is a cry} (kraug(8820)gegonen). A cry has come.
Dramatic use of the present perfect (second perfect active)
indicative, not the perfect for the aorist. It is not estin,
but gegonen which emphasizes the sudden outcry which has rent
the air. The very memory of it is preserved by this tense with
all the bustle and confusion, the rushing to the oil-venders.
{Come ye forth to meet him} (exerchesthe eis apant(8873)in). Or, Go
out for meeting him, dependent on whether the cry comes from
outside the house or inside the house where they were sleeping
because of the delay. It was a ceremonial salutation neatly
expressed by the Greek phrase.

經文:

馬太福音 25:7-25:7

註釋:

 {Trimmed} (ekosm(8873)an). Put in order, made ready. The wicks
were trimmed, the lights being out while they slept, fresh oil
put in the dish, and lit again. A marriage ceremony in India is
described by Ward (_View of the Hindoos_) in Trench's _Parables_:
"After waiting two or three hours, at length near midnight it was
announced, as in the very words of Scripture, 'Behold the
bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him.'"

經文:

馬太福音 25:8-25:8

註釋:

 {Are going out} (sbennuntai). Present middle indicative of
linear action, not punctiliar or aoristic. When the five foolish
virgins lit their lamps, they discovered the lack of oil. The
sputtering, flickering, smoking wicks were a sad revelation. "And
_perhaps_ we are to understand that there is something in the
coincidence of the lamps going out just as the Bridegroom
arrived. Mere outward religion is found to have no illuminating
power" (Plummer).

經文:

馬太福音 25:9-25:9

註釋:

 {Peradventure there will not be enough for us and you}
(m(8870)ote ou m(8820)arkesei h(886d)(8c6e) kai hum(8c6e)). There is an elliptical
construction here that is not easy of explanation. Some MSS.
Aleph A L Z have ouk instead of ou m(885c). But even so m(8820)pote
has to be explained either by supplying an imperative like
ginesth(935c) or by a verb of fearing like phoboumetha (this most
likely). Either ouk or ou m(885c) would be proper with the
futuristic subjunctive arkesei (Moulton, _Prolegomena_, p. 192;
Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1161,1174). "We are afraid that there
is no possibility of there being enough for us both." This is a
denial of oil by the wise virgins because there was not enough
for both. "It was necessary to show that the foolish virgins
could not have the consequences of their folly averted at the
last moment" (Plummer). It is a courteous reply, but it is
decisive. The compound Greek negatives are very expressive,
m(8870)ote--ou m(885c).

經文:

馬太福音 25:10-25:10

註釋:

 {And while they went away} (aperchomen(936e) de aut(936e)).
Present middle participle, genitive absolute, while they were
going away, descriptive linear action. Picture of their
inevitable folly. {Was shut} (ekleisth(885c)). Effective aorist
passive indicative, shut to stay shut.

經文:

馬太福音 25:11-25:11

註釋:

 {Afterward} (husteron). And find the door shut in their
faces. {Lord, Lord, open to us} (Kurie, Kurie, anoixon h(886d)in).
They appeal to the bridegroom who is now master whether he is at
the bride's house or his own.

經文:

馬太福音 25:12-25:12

註釋:

 {I know you not} (ouk oida hum(8373)). Hence there was no
reason for special or unusual favours to be granted them. They
must abide the consequences of their own negligence.

經文:

馬太福音 25:13-25:13

註釋:

 {Watch therefore} (gr(8867)oreite oun). This is the refrain
with all the parables. Lack of foresight is inexcusable.
Ignorance of the time of the second coming is not an excuse for
neglect, but a reason for readiness. Every preacher goes up
against this trait in human nature, putting off till another time
what should be done today.

經文:

馬太福音 25:14-25:14

註釋:

 {Going into another country} (apod(886d)(936e)). About to go away
from one's people (d(886d)os), on the point of going abroad. This
word in ancient use in this sense. There is an ellipse here that
has to be supplied, {It is as when} or {The kingdom of heaven is
as when}. This Parable of the Talents is quite similar to the
Parable of the Pounds in  Lu 19:11-28 , but they are not
variations of the same story. Some scholars credit Jesus with
very little versatility. {His goods} (	a huparchonta autou).
His belongings, neuter participle used as a substantive.

經文:

馬太福音 25:15-25:15

註釋:

 {To one} (h(9369) men, h(9369) de, h(9369) de). Demonstrative hos,
not the relative. Neat Greek idiom. {According to his several
ability} (kata t(886e) idian dunamin). According to his own
ability. Each had all that he was capable of handling. The use
that one makes of his opportunities is the measure of his
capacity for more. One talent represented a considerable amount
of money at that time when a denarius was a day's wage. See on
氣8:24| for the value of a talent.

經文:

馬太福音 25:16-25:16

註釋:

 {Straightway} (euthe(9373)). Beginning of verse 16, not the
end of verse  15 . The business temper of this slave is shown by
his promptness. {With them} (en autois). Instrumental use of
en. He worked ((8872)gasato), did business, traded with them.
"The virgins wait, the servants work" (Vincent). {Made}
(epoi(8873)en). But Westcott and Hort read ekerd(8873)en, gained, as
in verse  17 . Kerdos means interest. This gain was a hundred
per cent.

經文:

馬太福音 25:19-25:19

註釋:

 {Maketh a reckoning} (sunairei logon). As in  18:23 .
Deissmann (_Light from the Ancient East_, p. 117) gives two
papyri quotations with this very business idiom and one Nubian
ostracon with it. The ancient Greek writers do not show it.

經文:

馬太福音 25:21-25:21

註釋:

 {The joy of thy lord} (	(886e) charin tou kuriou sou). The
word chara or joy may refer to the feast on the master's
return. So in verse  23 .

經文:

馬太福音 25:24-25:24

註釋:

 {That had received the one talent} (ho to talenton
eil(8870)h(9373)). Note the perfect active participle to emphasize the
fact that he still had it. In verse  20  we have ho--lab(936e)
(aorist active participle). {I knew thee} (egn(936e) se). Second
aorist active indicative. Experimental knowledge (gin(9373)k(935c)) and
proleptical use of se. {A hard man} (skl(8872)os). Harsh, stern,
rough man, worse than aust(8872)os in  Lu 19:21 , grasping and
ungenerous. {Where thou didst not scatter} (hothen ou
dieskorpisas). But this scattering was the chaff from which
wheat was winnowed, not the scattering of seed.

經文:

馬太福音 25:26-25:26

註釋:

 {Thou wicked and slothful servant} (pon(8872)e doule kai
okn(8872)e). From ponos (work, annoyance, disturbance, evil) and
okne(935c) (to be slow, "poky," slothful). Westcott and Hort make a
question out of this reply to the end of verse  26 . It is
sarcasm.

經文:

馬太福音 25:27-25:27

註釋:

 {Thou oughtest therefore} (edsi se oun). His very words
of excuse convict him. It was a necessity (edei) that he did
not see. {The bankers} (	ois trapezeitais). The benchers,
money-changers, brokers, who exchanged money for a fee and who
paid interest on money. Word common in late Greek. {I should have
received back} (eg(9320)ekomisam(886e) an). Conclusion of a condition
of the second class (determined as unfulfilled). The condition is
not expressed, but it is implied. "If you had done that." {With
interest} (sun tok(9369)). Not with "usury" in the sense of
extortion or oppression. Usury only means "use" in itself. The
word is from 	ikt(935c), to bring forth. Compound interest at six
per cent doubles the principal every twenty years. It is amazing
how rapidly that piles up if one carries it on for centuries and
millenniums. "In the early Roman Empire legal interest was eight
per cent, but in usurious transactions it was lent at twelve,
twenty-four, and even forty-eight" (Vincent). Such practices
exist today in our cities. The Mosaic law did not allow interest
in dealings between Hebrews, but only with strangers ( De
23:19,20  Ps 15:5 ).

經文:

馬太福音 25:30-25:30

註釋:

 {The unprofitable} (	on achreion). Useless (a privative
and chreios, useful) and so unprofitable, injurious. Doing
nothing is doing harm.

經文:

馬太福音 25:32-25:32

註釋:

 {All the nations} (panta ta ethn(8829). Not just Gentiles, but
Jews also. Christians and non-Christians. This program for the
general judgment has been challenged by some scholars who regard
it as a composition by the evangelist to exalt Christ. But why
should not Christ say this if he is the Son of Man and the Son of
God and realized it? A "reduced" Christ has trouble with all the
Gospels, not merely with the Fourth Gospel, and no less with Q
and Mark than with Matthew and Luke. This is a majestic picture
with which to close the series of parables about readiness for
the second coming. Here is the program when he does come. "I am
aware that doubt is thrown on this passage by some critics. But
the doubt is most wanton. Where is the second brain that could
have invented anything so original and so sublime as vv.
 35-40,42-45 ?" (Sanday, _Life of Christ in Recent Research_, p.
128). {As the shepherd separates} (h(9373)per ho poim(886e) aphorizei).
A common figure in Palestine. The sheep are usually white and the
goats black. There are kids (eriph(936e), eriphia) which have
grazed together. The goats devastate a field of all herbage.
"Indeed they have extirpated many species of trees which once
covered the hills" (Tristram, _Natural History of the Bible_, pp.
89f.). The shepherd stands at the gate and taps the sheep to go
to the right and the goats to the left.

經文:

馬太福音 25:34-25:34

註釋:

 {From the foundation of the world} (apo katabol(8873)
kosmou). The eternal purpose of the Father for his elect in all
the nations. The Son of Man in verse  31  is the King here seated
on the throne in judgment.

經文:

馬太福音 25:36-25:36

註釋:

 {Clothed me} (periebalete me). Second aorist middle
indicative, cast something around me. {Visited me}
(epeskepsasthe me). Looked after, came to see. Our "visit" is
from Latin _viso, video_. Cf. our English "go to see."

經文:

馬太福音 25:40-25:40

註釋:

 {Ye did it unto me} (emoi epoi(8873)ate). Dative of personal
interest. Christ identifies himself with the needy and the
suffering. This conduct is proof of possession of love for Christ
and likeness to him.

經文:

馬太福音 25:42-25:42

註釋:

 {No meat} (ouk ed(936b)ate moi phagein). You did not give me
anything to eat. The repetition of the negative ou in  42  and
 43  is like the falling of clods on the coffin or the tomb. It
is curious the surprise here shown both by the sheep and the
goats. Some sheep will think that they are goats and some goats
will think that they are sheep.

經文:

馬太福音 25:46-25:46

註釋:

 {Eternal punishment} (kolasin ai(936e)ion). The word
kolasin comes from kolaz(935c), to mutilate or prune. Hence those
who cling to the larger hope use this phrase to mean age-long
pruning that ultimately leads to salvation of the goats, as
disciplinary rather than penal. There is such a distinction as
Aristotle pointed out between m(9372)ia (vengeance) and kolasis.
But the same adjective ai(936e)ios is used with kolasin and
z(9388)n. If by etymology we limit the scope of kolasin, we may
likewise have only age-long z(9388)n. There is not the slightest
indication in the words of Jesus here that the punishment is not
coeval with the life. We can leave all this to the King himself
who is the Judge. The difficulty to one's mind about conditional
chastisement is to think how a life of sin in hell can be changed
into a life of love and obedience. The word ai(936e)ios (from
ai(936e), age, aevum, aei) means either without beginning or
without end or both. It comes as near to the idea of eternal as
the Greek can put it in one word. It is a difficult idea to put
into language. Sometimes we have "ages of ages" (ai(936e)es t(936e)
ai(936e)(936e)).

經文:

馬太福音 26:2-26:2

註釋:

 {Cometh} (ginetai). Futuristic use of the present middle
indicative. This was probably our Tuesday evening (beginning of
Jewish Wednesday). The passover began on our Thursday evening
(beginning of Jewish Friday). {After two days} (meta duo
h(886d)eras) is just the familiar popular mode of speech. The
passover came technically on the second day from this time. {Is
delivered up} (paradidotai). Another instance of the futuristic
present passive indicative. The same form occurs in verse  24 .
Thus Jesus sets a definite date for the coming crucifixion which
he has been predicting for six months.

經文:

馬太福音 26:3-26:3

註釋:

 {Then were gathered together the chief priests and elders of
the people} (Tote sun(8863)hth(8873)an hoi archiereis kai hoi
presbuteroi tou laou). A meeting of the Sanhedrin as these two
groups indicate (cf.  21:23 ). {Unto the court} (eis t(886e)
aul(886e)). The _atrium_ or court around which the palace buildings
were built. Here in this open court this informal meeting was
held. Caiaphas was high priest A.D. 18 to 36. His father-in-law
Annas had been high priest A.D. 6 to 15 and was still called high
priest by many.

經文:

馬太福音 26:4-26:4

註釋:

 {They took counsel together} (sunebouleusanto). Aorist
middle indicative, indicating their puzzled state of mind. They
have had no trouble in finding Jesus ( Joh 11:57 ). Their problem
now is how to {take Jesus by subtilty and kill him} (hina ton
I(8873)oun dol(9369) krat(8873)osin kai apoktein(9373)in). The Triumphal Entry
and the Tuesday debate in the temple revealed the powerful
following that Jesus had among the crowds from Galilee.

經文:

馬太福音 26:5-26:5

註釋:

 {A tumult} (	horubos). They feared the uprising in behalf
of Jesus and were arguing that the matter must be postponed till
after the feast was over when the crowds had scattered. Then they
could catch him "by craft" (dol(9369)) as they would trap a wild
beast.

經文:

馬太福音 26:6-26:6

註釋:

 {In the house of Simon the leper} (en oiki(8369) Sim(936e)os tou
leprou). Evidently a man who had been healed of his leprosy by
Jesus who gave the feast in honour of Jesus. All sorts of
fantastic theories have arisen about it. Some even identify this
Simon with the one in  Lu 7:36ff. , but Simon was a very common
name and the details are very different. Some hold that it was
Martha's house because she served ( Joh 12:2 ) and that Simon was
either the father or husband of Martha, but Martha loved to serve
and that proves nothing. Some identify Mary of Bethany with the
sinful woman in  Lu 7  and even with Mary Magdalene, both
gratuitous and groundless propositions. For the proof that Mary
of Bethany, Mary Magdalene, and the sinful woman of  Lu 7  are
all distinct see my _Some Minor Characters in the New Testament_.
John ( Joh 12:1 ) apparently locates the feast six days before
the passover, while Mark ( Mr 14:3 ) and Matthew ( 26:6 ) seem to
place it on the Tuesday evening (Jewish Wednesday) just two days
before the passover meal. It is possible that John anticipates
the date and notes the feast at Bethany at this time because he
does not refer to Bethany again. If not, the order of Mark must
be followed. According to the order of Mark and Matthew, this
feast took place at the very time that the Sanhedrin was plotting
about the death of Jesus ( Mr 14:1f. ).

經文:

馬太福音 26:7-26:7

註釋:

 {An alabaster cruse of exceeding precious ointment}
(alabastron murou barutimou). The flask was of alabaster, a
carbonate of lime or sulphate of lime, white or yellow stone,
named alabaster from the town in Egypt where it was chiefly
found. It was used for a phial employed for precious ointments in
ancient writers, inscriptions and papyri just as we speak of a
glass for the vessel made of glass. It had a cylindrical form at
the top, as a rule, like a closed rosebud (Pliny). Matthew does
not say what the ointment (murou) was, only saying that it was
"exceeding precious" (arutimou), of weighty value, selling at
a great price. Here only in the N.T. "An alabaster of nard
(murou) was a present for a king" (Bruce). It was one of five
presents sent by Cambyses to the King of Ethiopia (Herodotus,
iii. 20). {She poured it upon his head} (katecheen epi t(8873)
kephal(8873) autou). So Mark ( Mr 14:3 ), while John ( Joh 12:3 )
says that she "anointed the feet of Jesus." Why not both? The
verb katecheen is literally to pour down. It is the first
aorist active indicative, unusual form.

經文:

馬太福音 26:8-26:8

註釋:

 {This waste} (h(8820)ap(936c)eia haut(885c)). Dead loss (ap(936c)eia)
they considered it, nothing but sentimental aroma. It was a cruel
shock to Mary of Bethany to hear this comment. Matthew does not
tell as John does ( Joh 12:4 ) that it was Judas who made the
point which the rest endorsed. Mark explains that they mentioned
"three hundred pence," while Matthew ( 26:9 ) only says "for
much" (pollou).

經文:

馬太福音 26:10-26:10

註釋:

 {Why trouble ye the woman?} (	i kopous parechete t(8869)
gunaiki?) A phrase not common in Greek writers, though two
examples occur in the papyri for giving trouble. Kopos is from
kopt(935c), to beat, smite, cut. It is a beating, trouble, and often
work, toil. Jesus champions Mary's act with this striking phrase.
It is so hard for some people to allow others liberty for their
own personalities to express themselves. It is easy to raise
small objections to what we do not like and do not understand. {A
good work upon me} (ergon kalon eis eme). A beautiful deed upon
Jesus himself.

經文:

馬太福音 26:12-26:12

註釋:

 {To prepare me for burial} (pros to entaphiasai me). Mary
alone had understood what Jesus had repeatedly said about his
approaching death. The disciples were so wrapped up in their own
notions of a political kingdom that they failed utterly to
sympathize with Jesus as he faced the cross. But Mary with the
woman's fine intuitions did begin to understand and this was her
way of expressing her high emotions and loyalty. The word here is
the same used in  Joh 19:40  about what Joseph of Arimathea and
Nicodemus did for the body of Jesus before burial with the
addition of pros to showing the purpose of Mary (the infinitive
of purpose). Mary was vindicated by Jesus and her noble deed has
become a "memorial of her" (eis mn(886d)osumon aut(8873)) as well as of
Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 26:15-26:15

註釋:

 {What are ye willing to give me?} (	i thelete moi
dounai?) This "brings out the _chaffering_ aspect of the
transaction" (Vincent). "Mary and Judas extreme opposites: she
freely spending in love, he willing to sell his Master for money"
(Bruce). And her act of love provoked Judas to his despicable
deed, this rebuke of Jesus added to all the rest. {And I will
deliver him unto you} (kag(9320)h(966d)in parad(9373)(9320)auton). The use of
kai with a co-ordinate clause is a colloquialism (common in the
_Koin(825f) as in the Hebrew use of _wav_. "A colloquialism or a
Hebraism, the traitor mean in style as in spirit" (Bruce). The
use of eg(935c) seems to mean "I though one of his disciples will
hand him over to you if you give me enough." {They weighed unto
him} (hoi de est(8873)an auto). They placed the money in the
balances or scales. "Coined money was in use, but the shekels may
have been weighed out in antique fashion by men careful to do an
iniquitous thing in the most orthodox way" (Bruce). It is not
known whether the Sanhedrin had offered a reward for the arrest
of Jesus or not. {Thirty pieces of silver} (	riakonta arguria).
A reference to  Zec 11:12 . If a man's ox gored a servant, he had
to pay this amount ( Ex 21:32 ). Some manuscripts have stat(8872)as
(staters). These thirty silver shekels were equal to 120
denarii, less than five English pounds, less than twenty-five
dollars, the current price of a slave. There was no doubt
contempt for Jesus in the minds of both the Sanhedrin and Judas
in this bargain.

經文:

馬太福音 26:16-26:16

註釋:

 {Sought opportunity} (ez(8874)ei eukarian). A good chance.
Note imperfect tense. Judas went at his business and stuck to it.

經文:

馬太福音 26:17-26:17

註釋:

 {To eat the passover} (phagein to pascha). There were two
feasts rolled into one, the passover feast and the feast of
unleavened bread. Either name was employed. Here the passover
meal is meant, though in  Joh 18:28  it is probable that the
passover feast is referred to as the passover meal (the last
supper) had already been observed. There is a famous controversy
on the apparent disagreement between the Synoptic Gospels and the
Fourth Gospel on the date of this last passover meal. My view is
that the five passages in John ( Joh 13:1f.,27  18:28  19:14,31 )
rightly interpreted agree with the Synoptic Gospels ( Mt
26:17,20  Mr 14:12,17  Lu 22:7,14 ) that Jesus ate the passover
meal at the regular time about 6 P.M. beginning of 15 Nisan. The
passover lamb was slain on the afternoon of 14 Nisan and the meal
eaten at sunset the beginning of 15 Nisan. According to this view
Jesus ate the passover meal at the regular time and died on the
cross the afternoon of 15 Nisan. See my _Harmony of the Gospels
for Students of the Life of Christ_, pp.279-284. The question of
the disciples here assumes that they are to observe the regular
passover meal. Note the deliberative subjunctive (hetoimas(936d)en)
after 	heleis with hina. For the asyndeton see Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 935.

經文:

馬太福音 26:18-26:18

註釋:

 {To such a man} (pros ton deina). The only instance in
the N.T. of this old Attic idiom. The papyri show it for "Mr. X"
and the modern Greek keeps it. Jesus may have indicated the man's
name. Mark ( Mr 14:13 ) and Luke ( Lu 22:10 ) describe him as a
man bearing a pitcher of water. It may have been the home of Mary
the mother of John Mark. {I keep the passover at thy house}
(pros se poi(9320)to pascha). Futuristic present indicative. The
use of pros se for "at thy house" is neat Greek of the classic
period. Evidently there was no surprise in this home at the
command of Jesus. It was a gracious privilege to serve him thus.

經文:

馬太福音 26:20-26:20

註釋:

 {He was sitting at meat} (anekeito). He was reclining,
lying back on the left side on the couch with the right hand
free. Jesus and the Twelve all reclined. The paschal lamb had to
be eaten up entirely ( Ex 12:4,43 ).

經文:

馬太福音 26:21-26:21

註釋:

 {One of you} (heis ex hum(936e)). This was a bolt from the
blue for all except Judas and he was startled to know that Jesus
understood his treacherous bargain.

經文:

馬太福音 26:22-26:22

註釋:

 {Is it I, Lord?} (m(8874)i eg(9320)eimi, Kurie;). The negative
expects the answer No and was natural for all save Judas. But he
had to bluff it out by the same form of question (verse  25 ).
The answer of Jesus, {Thou hast said} (su eipas), means Yes.

經文:

馬太福音 26:23-26:23

註釋:

 {He that dipped} (ho embapsas). They all dipped their
hands, having no knives, forks, or spoons. The aorist participle
with the article simply means that the betrayer is the one who
dips his hand in the dish (en t(9369) trubli(9369)) or platter with the
broth of nuts and raisins and figs into which the bread was
dipped before eating. It is plain that Judas was not recognized
by the rest as indicated by what Jesus has said. This language
means that one of those who had eaten bread with him had violated
the rights of hospitality by betraying him. The Arabs today are
punctilious on this point. Eating one's bread ties your hands and
compels friendship. But Judas knew full well as is shown in verse
 25  though the rest apparently did not grasp it.

經文:

馬太福音 26:24-26:24

註釋:

 {Good were it for that man} (kalon (886e) aut(9369)). Conclusion
of second-class condition even though an is not expressed. It
is not needed with verbs of obligation and necessity. There are
some today who seek to palliate the crime of Judas. But Jesus
here pronounces his terrible doom. And Judas heard it and went on
with his hellish bargain with the Sanhedrin. Apparently Judas
went out at this stage ( Joh 13:31 ).

經文:

馬太福音 26:26-26:26

註釋:

 {And blessed and brake it} (eulog(8873)as eklasen). Special
"Grace" in the middle of the passover meal, "as they were
eating," for the institution of the Supper. Jesus broke one of
the passover wafers or cakes that each might have a piece, not as
a symbol of the breaking of his body as the Textus Receptus has
it in  1Co 11:24 . The correct text there has only to huper
hum(936e) without kl(936d)enon. As a matter of fact the body of Jesus
was not "broken" ( Joh 19:33 ) as John expressly states. {This is
my body} (	outo estin to s(936d)a mou). The bread as a symbol
_represents_ the body of Jesus offered for us, "a beautifully
simple, pathetic, and poetic symbol of his death" (Bruce). But
some have made it "run into fetish worship" (Bruce). Jesus, of
course, does not mean that the bread actually becomes his body
and is to be worshipped. The purpose of the memorial is to remind
us of his death for our sins.

經文:

馬太福音 26:28-26:28

註釋:

 {The Covenant} (	(8873) diath(886b)(8873)). The adjective kain(8873) in
Textus Receptus is not genuine. The covenant is an agreement or
contract between two (dia, duo, th(886b)e, from 	ith(886d)i). It is
used also for will (Latin, _testamentum_) which becomes operative
at death ( Heb 9:15-17 ). Hence our _New Testament_. Either
covenant or will makes sense here. Covenant is the idea in  Heb
7:22  8:8  and often. In the Hebrew to make a covenant was to cut
up the sacrifice and so ratify the agreement ( Ge 15:9-18 ).
Lightfoot argues that the word diath(886b)e means covenant in the
N.T. except in  Heb 9:15-17 . Jesus here uses the solemn words of
 Ex 24:8  "the blood of the covenant" at Sinai. "My blood of the
covenant" is in contrast with that. This is the New Covenant of
 Jer 31  Heb 8 . {Which is shed for many} (	o peri poll(936e)
ekchunnomenon). A prophetic present passive participle. The act
is symbolized by the ordinance. Cf. the purpose of Christ
expressed in  20:28 . There anti and here peri. {Unto
remission of sins} (eis aphesin hamarti(936e)). This clause is in
Matthew alone but it is not to be restricted for that reason. It
is the truth. This passage answers all the modern sentimentalism
that finds in the teaching of Jesus only pious ethical remarks or
eschatological dreamings. He had the definite conception of his
death on the cross as the basis of forgiveness of sin. The
purpose of the shedding of his blood of the New Covenant was
precisely to remove (forgive) sins.

經文:

馬太福音 26:29-26:29

註釋:

 {When I drink it new with you} (hotan auto pin(9320)meth'
hum(936e) kaimon). This language rather implies that Jesus himself
partook of the bread and the wine, though it is not distinctly
stated. In the Messianic banquet it is not necessary to suppose
that Jesus means the language literally, "the fruit of the vine."
Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, pp. 109f.) gives an instance of
gen(886d)a used of the vine in a papyrus 230 B.C. The language here
employed does not make it obligatory to employ wine rather than
pure grape juice if one wishes the other.

經文:

馬太福音 26:30-26:30

註釋:

 Ps
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115-' or engs='Ps
115-'
經文:

馬太福音 26:33-26:33

註釋:

 {I will never be offended} (eg(9320)oudepote
skandalisth(8873)omai). "Made to stumble," not "offended." Volitive
future passive indicative. Peter ignored the prophecy of the
resurrection of Jesus and the promised meeting in Galilee ( 32 ).
The quotation from  Zec 13:7  made no impression on him. He was
intent on showing that he was superior to "all" the rest. Judas
had turned traitor and all were weak, Peter in particular, little
as he knew it. So Jesus has to make it plainer by pointing out
"this night" as the time ( 34 ). {Before the cock crows} (prin
alektora ph(936e)(8873)ai). No article in the Greek, "before a cock
crow." Mark ( Mr 14:30 ) says that Peter will deny Jesus thrice
before the cock crows twice. When one cock crows in the morning,
others generally follow. The three denials lasted over an hour.
Some scholars hold that chickens were not allowed in Jerusalem by
the Jews, but the Romans would have them.

經文:

馬太福音 26:35-26:35

註釋:

 {Even if I must die with thee} (k(856e) de(8869) me sun soi
apothanein). Third-class condition. A noble speech and meant
well. His boast of loyalty is made still stronger by ou m(8820)se
aparn(8873)omai. The other disciples were undoubtedly embarrassed by
Peter's boast and lightheartedly joined in the same profession of
fidelity.

經文:

馬太福音 26:36-26:36

註釋:

 {Gethsemane} (Geths(886d)anei). The word means oil-press in
the Hebrew, or olive vat. The place (ch(9372)ion) was an enclosed
plot or estate, "garden," or orchard (k(8870)os). It is called
_villa_ in the Vulgate according to  Joh 18:1 . It was beyond the
torrent Kedron at the foot of the Mount of Olives about
three-fourths of a mile from the eastern walls of Jerusalem.
There are now eight old olive trees still standing in this
enclosure. One cannot say that they are the very trees near which
Jesus had his Agony, but they are very old. "They will remain so
long as their already protracted life is spared, the most
venerable of their race on the surface of the earth. Their
guarded trunks and scanty foliage will always be regarded as the
most affecting of the sacred memorials in or about Jerusalem"
(Stanley, _Sinai and Palestine_). {Here} (autou), {Yonder}
(ekei). Jesus clearly pointed to the place where he would pray.
Literally "there."

經文:

馬太福音 26:37-26:37

註釋:

 {He took with him} (paralab(936e)). Taking along, by his side
(para-), as a mark of special favour and privilege, instead of
leaving this inner circle of three (Peter, James, and John) with
the other eight. The eight would serve as a sort of outer guard
to watch by the gate of the garden for the coming of Judas while
the three would be able to share the agony of soul already upon
Jesus so as at least to give him some human sympathy which he
craved as he sought help from the Father in prayer. These three
had been with Jesus on the Mount of Transfiguration and now they
are with him in this supreme crisis. The grief of Christ was now
severe. The word for {sore troubled} (ad(886d)onein) is of doubtful
etymology. There is an adjective ad(886d)os equal to apod(886d)os
meaning "not at home," "away from home," like the German
_unheimisch, unheimlich_. But whatever the etymology, the notion
of intense discomfort is plain. The word ad(886d)onein occurs in
P.Oxy. II, 298,456 of the first century A.D. where it means
"excessively concerned." See  Php 2:26  where Paul uses it of
Epaphroditus. Moffatt renders it here "agitated." The word occurs
sometimes with apore(935c) to be at a loss as to which way to go.
The _Braid Scots_ has it "sair putten-aboot." Here Matthew has
also "to be sorrowful" (lupeisthai), but Mark ( Mr 14:33 ) has
the startling phrase {greatly amazed and sore troubled}
(ekthambeisthai kai ad(886d)onein), a "feeling of terrified
surprise."

經文:

馬太福音 26:38-26:38

註釋:

 {Watch with me} (gr(8867)oreite met' emou). This late present
from the perfect egr(8867)ora means to keep awake and not go to
sleep. The hour was late and the strain had been severe, but
Jesus pleaded for a bit of human sympathy as he wrestled with his
Father. It did not seem too much to ask. He had put his sorrow in
strong language, "even unto death" (he(9373) thanatou) that ought
to have alarmed them.

經文:

馬太福音 26:39-26:39

註釋:

 {He went forward a little} (proelth(936e) mikron). As if he
could not fight the battle in their immediate presence. He was on
his face, not on his knees (McNeile). {This cup} (	o pot(8872)ion
touto). The figure can mean only the approaching death. Jesus
had used it of his coming death when James and John came to him
with their ambitious request, "the cup which I am about to drink"
( Mt 20:22 ). But now the Master is about to taste the bitter
dregs in the cup of death for the sin of the world. He was not
afraid that he would die before the Cross, though he
instinctively shrank from the cup, but instantly surrendered his
will to the Father's will and drank it to the full. Evidently
Satan tempted Christ now to draw back from the Cross. Here Jesus
won the power to go on to Calvary.

經文:

馬太福音 26:40-26:40

註釋:

 {What} (hout(9373)). The Greek adverb is not interrogation or
exclamatory 	i, but only "so" or "thus." There is a tone of sad
disappointment at the discovery that they were asleep after the
earnest plea that they keep awake (verse  38 ). "Did you not thus
have strength enough to keep awake one hour?" Every word struck
home.

經文:

馬太福音 26:41-26:41

註釋:

 {Watch and pray} (gr(8867)oreite kai proseuchesthe). Jesus
repeats the command of verse  38  with the addition of prayer and
with the warning against the peril of temptation. He himself was
feeling the worst of all temptations of his earthly life just
then. He did not wish then to enter such temptation (peirasmon,
here in this sense, not mere trial). Thus we are to understand
the prayer in  Mt 6:13  about leading (being led) into
temptation. Their failure was due to weakness of the flesh as is
often the case. {Spirit} (pneuma) here is the moral life
(intellect, will, emotions) as opposed to the flesh (cf.  Isa
31:3  Ro 7:25 ). {Except I drink it} (ean m(8820)auto pi(935c)).
Condition of the third class undetermined, but with likelihood of
determination, whereas {if this cannot pass away} (ei ou dunatai
touto parelthein) is first-class condition, determined as
fulfilled, assumed to be true. This delicate distinction
accurately presents the real attitude of Jesus towards this
subtle temptation.

經文:

馬太福音 26:43-26:43

註釋:

 {For their eyes were heavy} ((8873)an gar aut(936e) hoi ophthalmoi
bebar(886d)enoi). Past perfect passive indicative periphrastic.
Their eyes had been weighted down with sleep and still were as
they had been on the Mount of Transfiguration ( Lu 9:32 ).

經文:

馬太福音 26:45-26:45

註釋:

 {Sleep on now and take your rest} (katheudete loipon kai
anapauesthe). This makes it "mournful irony" (Plummer) or
reproachful concession: "Ye may sleep and rest indefinitely so
far as I am concerned; I need no longer your watchful interest"
(Bruce). It may be a sad query as Goodspeed: "Are you still
sleeping and taking your rest?" So Moffatt. This use of loipon
for now or henceforth is common in the papyri. {The hour is at
hand} ((8867)giken h(8820)h(9372)a). Time for action has now come. They
have missed their chance for sympathy with Jesus. He has now won
the victory without their aid. "The Master's time of weakness is
past; He is prepared to face the worst" (Bruce). {Is betrayed}
(paradidotai). Futuristic present or inchoative present, the
first act in the betrayal is at hand. Jesus had foreseen his
"hour" for long and now he faces it bravely.

經文:

馬太福音 26:46-26:46

註釋:

 {He is at hand} ((8867)giken). The same verb and tense used
of the hour above, present perfect active of eggiz(935c), to draw
near, the very form used by John the Baptist of the coming of the
kingdom of heaven ( Mt 3:2 ). Whether Jesus heard the approach of
the betrayer with the crowd around him or saw the lights or just
felt the proximity of the traitor before he was there (J. Weiss),
we do not know and it matters little. The scene is pictured as it
happened with lifelike power.

經文:

馬太福音 26:47-26:47

註釋:

 {While he yet spake} (eti autou lalountos). It was an
electric moment as Jesus faced Judas with his horde of helpers as
if he turned to meet an army. {Let us go} (ag(936d)en), Jesus had
said. And here he is. The eight at the gate seemed to have given
no notice. Judas is described here as "one of the twelve" (heis
t(936e) d(9364)eka) in all three Synoptic Gospels ( Mr 14:43  Mt 26:47  Lu 22:47 ). The very horror of the thing is thus emphasized, that
one of the chosen twelve apostles should do this dastardly deed.
{A great multitude} (ochlos polus). The chief priests and
Pharisees had furnished Judas a band of soldiers from the
garrison in Antonia ( Joh 18:3 ) and the temple police ( Lu
22:52 ) with swords (knives) and staves (clubs) with a hired
rabble who had lanterns also ( Joh 18:3 ) in spite of the full
moon. Judas was taking no chances of failure for he well knew the
strange power of Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 26:48-26:48

註釋:

 {Gave them a sign} (ed(936b)en autois s(886d)eion). Probably just
before he reached the place, though Mark ( Mr 14:44 ) has "had
given" (ded(936b)ei) which certainly means before arrival at
Gethsemane. At any rate Judas had given the leaders to understand
that he would kiss (phil(8873)(935c)) Jesus in order to identify him for
certain. The kiss was a common mode of greeting and Judas chose
that sign and actually "kissed him fervently" (katephil(8873)en,
verse  49 ), though the compound verb sometimes in the papyri has
lost its intensive force. Bruce thinks that Judas was prompted by
the inconsistent motives of smouldering love and cowardice. At
any rate this revolting ostentatious kiss is "the most terrible
instance of the hekousia phil(886d)ata echthrou ( Pr 27:6 )," the
profuse kisses of an enemy (McNeile). This same compound verb
occurs in  Lu 7:38  of the sinful woman, in  Lu 15:20  of the
Father's embrace of the Prodigal Son, and in  Ac 20:37  of the
Ephesian elders and Paul.

經文:

馬太福音 26:50-26:50

註釋:

 {Do that for which thou art come} (eph' ho parei).
Moffatt and Goodspeed take it: "Do your errand." There has been a
deal of trouble over this phrase. Deissmann (_Light from the
Ancient East_, pp. 125 to 131) has proven conclusively that it is
a question, eph' ho in late Greek having the interrogative
sense of epi ti (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 725). The use of
eph' ho for "why here" occurs on a Syrian tablet of the first
century A.D. 50 that it "was current coin in the language of the
people" (Deissmann). Most of the early translations (Old Latin,
Old Syriac) took it as a question. So the Vulgate has _ad quid
venisti_. In this instance the Authorized Version is correct
against the Revised. Jesus exposes the pretence of Judas and
shows that he does not believe in his paraded affection (Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 26:51-26:51

註釋:

 {One of them that were with Jesus} (heis t(936e) meta I(8873)ou).
Like the other Synoptics Matthew conceals the name of Peter,
probably for prudential reasons as he was still living before
A.D. 68. John writing at the end of the century mentions Peter's
name ( Joh 18:10 ). The sword or knife was one of the two that
the disciples had ( Lu 22:38 ). Bruce suggests that it was a
large knife used in connexion with the paschal feast. Evidently
Peter aimed to cut off the man's head, not his ear ((9374)ion is
diminutive in form, but not in sense, as often in the _Koin(825f)).
He may have been the leader of the band. His name, Malchus, is
also given by John ( Joh 18:10 ) because Peter was then dead and
in no danger.

經文:

馬太福音 26:52-26:52

註釋:

 {Put up again thy sword} (apostrepson t(886e) machairan sou).
Turn back thy sword into its place. It was a stern rebuke for
Peter who had misunderstood the teaching of Jesus in  Lu 22:38 
as well as in  Mt 5:39  (cf.  Joh 18:36 ). The reason given by
Jesus has had innumerable illustrations in human history. The
sword calls for the sword. Offensive war is here given flat
condemnation. The Paris Pact of 1928 (the Kellogg Treaty) is
certainly in harmony with the mind of Christ. The will to peace
is the first step towards peace, the outlawing of war. Our
American cities are often ruled by gangsters who kill each other
off.

經文:

馬太福音 26:53-26:53

註釋:

 {Even now} (arti). Just now, at this very moment.
{Legions} (legi(936e)as). A Latin word. Roman soldiers in large
numbers were in Palestine later in A.D. 66, but they were in
Caesarea and in the tower of Antonia in Jerusalem. A full Roman
legion had 6,100 foot and 726 horse in the time of Augustus. But
Jesus sees more than twelve legions at his command (one for each
apostle) and shows his undaunted courage in this crisis. One
should recall the story of Elisha at Dothan ( 2Ki 6:17 ).

經文:

馬太福音 26:54-26:54

註釋:

 {Must be} (dei). Jesus sees clearly his destiny now that
he has won the victory in Gethsemane.

經文:

馬太福音 26:55-26:55

註釋:

 {As against a robber} (h(9373) epi l(8869)st(886e)). As a robber, not
as a thief, but a robber hiding from justice. He will be
crucified between two robbers and on the very cross planned for
their leader, Barabbas. They have come with no warrant for any
crime, but with an armed force to seize Jesus as if a highway
robber. Jesus reminds them that he used to sit (imperfect,
ekathezom(886e)) in the temple and teach. But he sees God's purpose
in it all for the prophets had foretold his "cup." The desertion
of Jesus by the disciples followed this rebuke of the effort of
Peter. Jesus had surrendered. So they fled.

經文:

馬太福音 26:58-26:58

註釋:

 {To see the end} (idein to telos). Peter rallied from the
panic and followed afar off (makrothen), "more courageous than
the rest and yet not courageous enough" (Bruce). John the Beloved
Disciple went on into the room where Jesus was. The rest remained
outside, but Peter "sat with the officers" to see and hear and
hoping to escape notice.

經文:

馬太福音 26:59-26:59

註釋:

 {Sought false witness against Jesus} (ez(8874)oun
pseudomarturian). Imperfect tense, kept on seeking. Judges have
no right to be prosecutors and least of all to seek after false
witness and even to offer bribes to get it.

經文:

馬太福音 26:60-26:60

註釋:

 {They found it not} (kai ouch heuron). They found false
witnesses in plenty, but not the false witness that would stand
any sort of test.

經文:

馬太福音 26:61-26:61

註釋:

 {I am able to destroy the temple of God} (dunamai
katalusai ton naon tou theou). What he had said ( Joh 2:19 )
referred to the temple of his body which they were to destroy
(and did) and which he would raise again in three days as he did.
It was a pitiful perversion of what Jesus had said and even so
the two witnesses disagreed in their misrepresentation ( Mr
14:59 ).

經文:

馬太福音 26:63-26:63

註釋:

 {Held his peace} (esi(9370)a). Kept silent, imperfect tense.
Jesus refused to answer the bluster of Caiaphas. {I adjure thee
by the living God} (exorkiz(9320)se kata tou theou tou z(936e)tos). So
Caiaphas put Jesus on oath in order to make him incriminate
himself, a thing unlawful in Jewish jurisprudence. He had failed
to secure any accusation against Jesus that would stand at all.
But Jesus did not refuse to answer under solemn oath, clearly
showing that he was not thinking of oaths in courts of justice
when he prohibited profanity. The charge that Caiaphas makes is
that Jesus claims to be the Messiah, the Son of God. To refuse to
answer would be tantamount to a denial. So Jesus answered knowing
full well the use that would be made of his confession and claim.

經文:

馬太福音 26:64-26:64

註釋:

 {Thou hast said} (su eipas). This is a Greek affirmative
reply. Mark ( Mr 14:62 ) has it plainly, "I am" (eimi). But
this is not all that Jesus said to Caiaphas. He claims that the
day will come when Jesus will be the Judge and Caiaphas the
culprit using the prophetic language in  Da 7:13  and  Ps 109:1 .
It was all that Caiaphas wanted.

經文:

馬太福音 26:65-26:65

註釋:

 {He hath spoken blasphemy} (eblasph(886d)(8873)en). There was no
need of witnesses now, for Jesus had incriminated himself by
claiming under oath to be the Messiah, the Son of God. Now it
would not be blasphemy for the real Messiah to make such a claim,
but it was intolerable to admit that Jesus could be the Messiah
of Jewish hope. At the beginning of Christ's ministry he
occasionally used the word Messiah of himself, but he soon
ceased, for it was plain that it would create trouble. The people
would take it in the sense of a political revolutionist who would
throw off the Roman yoke. If he declined that role, the Pharisees
would have none of him for that was the kind of a Messiah that
they desired. But the hour has now come. At the Triumphal Entry
Jesus let the Galilean crowds hail him as Messiah, knowing what
the effect would be. Now the hour has struck. He has made his
claim and has defied the High Priest.

經文:

馬太福音 26:66-26:66

註釋:

 {He is worthy of death} (enochos thanatou estin). Held in
the bonds of death (en, ech(935c)) as actually guilty with the
genitive (	hanatou). The dative expresses liability as in  Mt
5:21  (	(8869) krisei) and as eis and the accusative ( Mt 5:22 ).
They took the vote though it was at night and they no longer had
the power of death since the Romans took it away from them. Death
was the penalty of blasphemy ( Le 24:15 ). But they enjoyed
taking it as their answer to his unanswerable speeches in the
temple that dreadful Tuesday a few days before. It was unanimous
save that Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus did not agree. They
were probably absent and not even invited as being under
suspicion for being secret disciples of Christ.

經文:

馬太福音 26:68-26:68

註釋:

 {Thou Christ} (Christe). With definite sneer at his
claims under oath in  26:63 . With uncontrolled glee and abandon
like a lot of hoodlums these doctors of divinity insulted Jesus.
They actually spat in his face, buffeted him on the neck
(ekolaphisan, from kolaphos the fist), and struck him in the
face with the palms of their hands (erapisan, from 
apis, a
rod), all personal indignities after the legal injustice already
done. They thus gave vent to their spite and hatred.

經文:

馬太福音 26:69-26:69

註釋:

 {Thou also} (kai su). Peter had gone within (es(935c)) the
palace ( 26:58 ), but was sitting {without} (ex(935c)) the hall
where the trial was going on in the open central court with the
servants or officers (hup(8872)et(936e), under rowers, literally,
 26:58 ) of the Sanhedrin. But he could possibly see through the
open door above what was going on inside. It is not plain at what
stage of the Jewish trial the denials of Peter took place nor the
precise order in which they came as the Gospels give them
variously. This maid (paidisk(885c), slave girl) stepped up to Peter
as he was sitting in the court and pointedly said: "Thou also
wast with Jesus the Galilean." Peter was warming himself by the
fire and the light shone in his face. She probably had noticed
Peter come in with John the Beloved Disciple who went on up into
the hall of trial. Or she may have seen Peter with Jesus on the
streets of Jerusalem.

經文:

馬太福音 26:70-26:70

註釋:

 {I know not what thou sayest} (ouk oida ti legeis). It
was an affectation of extreme ignorance (Bruce) that deceived no
one. It was an easy and ancient dodge and easy subterfuge. Dalman
(_Words of Jesus_, 80f.) suggests that Peter used the Galilean
Aramaean word for know instead of the Judean Aramaean word which
betrayed at once his Galilean residence.

經文:

馬太福音 26:71-26:71

註釋:

 {Into the porch} (eis ton pul(936e)a). But Peter was not safe
out here, for another maid recognized him and spoke of him as
"this fellow" (houtos) with a gesture to those out there.

經文:

馬太福音 26:72-26:72

註釋:

 {With an oath} (meta horkou). This time Peter added an
oath, probably a former habit so common to the Jews at that time,
and denied acquaintance with Jesus. He even refers to Jesus as
"the man" (	on anthr(9370)on), an expression that could convey
contempt, "the fellow."

經文:

馬太福音 26:73-26:73

註釋:

 {They that stood by} (hoi hest(9374)es). The talk about Peter
continued. Luke ( Lu 22:59 ) states that the little while was
about an hour. The bystanders came up to Peter and bluntly assert
that he was "of a truth" (al(8874)h(9373)) one of the followers of
Jesus for his speech betrayed him. Even the Revised Version
retains "bewrayeth," quaint old English for "betrayeth." The
Greek has it simply "makes thee evident" (d(886c)on se poiei). His
dialect (lalia) clearly revealed that he was a Galilean. The
Galileans had difficulty with the gutterals and Peter's second
denial had exposed him to the tormenting raillery of the loungers
who continued to nag him.

經文:

馬太福音 26:74-26:74

註釋:

 {Then began he to curse and to swear} (	ote (8872)xato
katathematizein kai omnuein). He repeated his denial with the
addition of profanity to prove that he was telling the truth
instead of the lie that they all knew. His repeated denials gave
him away still more, for he could not pronounce the Judean
gutterals. He called down on himself (katathematizein)
imprecations in his desperate irritation and loss of self-control
at his exposure. {The cock crew} (alekt(936e) eph(936e)(8873)en). No
article in the Greek, just "a cock crew" at that juncture,
"straightway" (euthus). But it startled Peter.

經文:

馬太福音 26:75-26:75

註釋:

 {Peter remembered} (emn(8873)th(8820)ho Petros). A small thing,
but _magna circumstantia_ (Bengel). In a flash of lightning
rapidity he recalled the words of Jesus a few hours before ( Mt
26:34 ) which he had then scouted with the proud boast that "even
if I must die with thee, yet will I not deny thee" ( 26:35 ). And
now this triple denial was a fact. There is no extenuation for
the base denials of Peter. He had incurred the dread penalty
involved in the words of Jesus in  Mt 10:33  of denial by Jesus
before the Father in heaven. But Peter's revulsion of feeling was
as sudden as his sin. {He went out and wept bitterly} (exelth(936e)
ex(9320)eklausen pikr(9373)). Luke adds that the Lord turned and looked
upon Peter ( Lu 22:61 ). That look brought Peter back to his
senses. He could not stay where he now was with the revilers of
Jesus. He did not feel worthy or able to go openly into the hall
where Jesus was. So outside he went with a broken heart. The
constative aorist here does not emphasize as Mark's imperfect
does ( Mr 14:72 , eklaien) the continued weeping that was now
Peter's only consolation. The tears were bitter, all the more so
by reason of that look of understanding pity that Jesus gave him.
One of the tragedies of the Cross is the bleeding heart of Peter.
Judas was a total wreck and Peter was a near derelict. Satan had
sifted them all as wheat, but Jesus had prayed specially for
Peter ( Lu 22:31f. ). Will Satan show Peter to be all chaff as
Judas was?

經文:

馬太福音 27:1-27:1

註釋:

 {Now when morning was come} (pr(9369)as de genomen(8873)).
Genitive absolute. After dawn came the Sanhedrin held a formal
meeting to condemn Jesus and so ratify the illegal trial during
the night ( Mr 15:1  Lu 22:66-71 ). Luke gives the details of
this second ratification consultation. The phrase used, {took
counsel} (sumboulion elabon) is a Latin idiom (_consilium
ceperunt_) for sunebouleusanto.

經文:

馬太福音 27:2-27:2

註釋:

 {Delivered him up to Pilate the governor} (pared(936b)an
Peilat(9369) t(9369) h(8867)emoni). What they had done was all a form and a
farce. Pilate had the power of death, but they had greatly
enjoyed the condemnation and the buffeting of Jesus now in their
power bound as a condemned criminal. He was no longer the master
of assemblies in the temple, able to make the Sanhedrin cower
before him. He had been bound in the garden and was bound before
Annas ( Joh 18:12,24 ), but may have been unbound before
Caiaphas.

經文:

馬太福音 27:3-27:3

註釋:

 {Repented himself} (metamel(8874)heis). Probably Judas saw
Jesus led away to Pilate and thus knew that the condemnation had
taken place. This verb (first aorist passive participle of
metamelomai) really means to be sorry afterwards like the
English word _repent_ from the Latin _repoenitet_, to have pain
again or afterwards. See the same verb metamel(8874)heis in  Mt
21:30  of the boy who became sorry and changed to obedience. The
word does not have an evil sense in itself. Paul uses it of his
sorrow for his sharp letter to the Corinthians, a sorrow that
ceased when good came of the letter ( 2Co 7:8 ). But mere sorrow
avails nothing unless it leads to change of mind and life
(metanoia), the sorrow according to God ( 2Co 7:9 ). This
sorrow Peter had when he wept bitterly. It led Peter back to
Christ. But Judas had only remorse that led to suicide.

經文:

馬太福音 27:4-27:4

註釋:

 {See thou to it} (su ops(8869)). Judas made a belated
confession of his sin in betraying innocent blood to the
Sanhedrin, but not to God, nor to Jesus. The Sanhedrin ignore the
innocent or righteous blood (haima ath(9369)on or dikaion) and
tell Judas to look after his own guilt himself. They ignore also
their own guilt in the matter. The use of su ops(8869) as a
volitive future, an equivalent of the imperative, is commoner in
Latin (_tu videris_) than in Greek, though the _Koin(825f) shows it
also. The sentiment is that of Cain (Grotius, Bruce).

經文:

馬太福音 27:5-27:5

註釋:

 {Hanged himself} (ap(8867)xato). Direct middle. His act was
sudden after he hurled the money into the sanctuary (eis ton
naon), the sacred enclosure where the priests were. The motives
of Judas in the betrayal were mixed as is usually the case with
criminals. The money cut a small figure with him save as an
expression of contempt as the current price of a slave.

經文:

馬太福音 27:6-27:6

註釋:

 {Into the treasury} (eis ton korban(836e)). Josephus (_War_
II. 9,4) uses this very word for the sacred treasury. _Korban_ is
Aramaic for _gift_ (d(9372)on) as is plain in  Mr 7:11 . The price
of blood (blood-money) was pollution to the treasury ( De
23:18f. ). So they took the money out and used it for a secular
purpose. The rabbis knew how to split hairs about _Korban_ ( Mr
7:1-23  Mt 15:1-20 ), but they balk at this blood-money.

經文:

馬太福音 27:7-27:7

註釋:

 {The potter's field} (	ou agrou tou kerame(9373)). Grotius
suggests that it was a small field where potter's clay was
obtained, like a brickyard (Broadus). Otherwise we do not know
why the name exists. In  Ac 1:18  we have another account of the
death of Judas by bursting open (possibly falling after hanging
himself) after he obtained the field by the wages of iniquity.
But it is possible that ekt(8873)ato there refers to the rabbinical
use of _Korban_, that the money was still that of Judas though he
was dead and so he really "acquired" the field by his
blood-money.

經文:

馬太福音 27:8-27:8

註釋:

 {The field of blood} (agros haimatos). This name was
attached to it because it was the price of blood and that is not
inconsistent with  Ac 1:18f . Today potter's field carries the
idea here started of burial place for strangers who have no where
else to lie (eis taph(886e) tois xenois), probably at first Jews
from elsewhere dying in Jerusalem. In  Ac 1:19  it is called
{Aceldama} or {place of blood} (ch(9372)ion haimatos) for the
reason that Judas' blood was shed there, here because it was
purchased by blood money. Both reasons could be true.

經文:

馬太福音 27:9-27:9

註釋:

 {By Jeremiah the prophet} (dia Ieremiou). This quotation
comes mainly from  Zec 11:13  though not in exact language. In
 Jer 18:18  the prophet tells of a visit to a potter's house and
in  Jer 32:6ff.  of the purchase of a field. It is in Zechariah
that the thirty pieces of silver are mentioned. Many theories are
offered for the combination of Zechariah and Jeremiah and
attributing it all to Jeremiah as in  Mr 1:2f.  the quotation
from Isaiah and Malachi is referred wholly to Isaiah as the more
prominent of the two. Broadus and McNeile give a full discussion
of the various theories from a mere mechanical slip to the one
just given above. Matthew has here ( 27:10 ) "the field of the
potter" (eis ton agron tou kerame(9373)) for "the potter the house
of the Lord" in  Zec 11:13 . That makes it more parallel with the
language of  Mt 27:7 .

經文:

馬太福音 27:11-27:11

註釋:

 {Now Jesus stood before the governor} (ho de I(8873)ous
estath(8820)emprosthen tou h(8867)emonos). Here is one of the dramatic
episodes of history. Jesus stood face to face with the Roman
governor. The verb estath(885c), not est(885c) (second aorist active),
is first aorist passive and can mean "was placed" there, but he
stood, not sat. The term h(8867)em(936e) (from h(8867)eomai, to lead) was
technically a _legatus Caesaris_, an officer of the Emperor, more
exactly procurator, ruler under the Emperor of a less important
province than propraetor (as over Syria). The senatorial
provinces like Achaia were governed by proconsuls. Pilate
represented Roman law. {Art thou the King of the Jews?} (Su ei
ho basileus t(936e) Ioudai(936e);). This is what really mattered.
Matthew does not give the charges made by the Sanhedrin ( Lu
23:2 ) nor the private interview with Pilate ( Joh 18:28-32 ). He
could not ignore the accusation that Jesus claimed to be King of
the Jews. Else he could be himself accused to Caesar for
disloyalty. Rivals and pretenders were common all over the
empire. So here was one more. By his answer ({thou sayest}) Jesus
confesses that he is. So Pilate has a problem on his hands. What
sort of a king does this one claim to be? {Thou} (su) the King
of the Jews?

經文:

馬太福音 27:14-27:14

註釋:

 {And he gave him no answer, not even to one word} (kai ouk
apekrith(8820)aut(9369) pros oude hen rh(886d)a). Jesus refused to answer
the charges of the Jews (verse  12 ). Now he continued silent
under the direct question of Pilate. The Greek is very precise
besides the double negative. "He did not reply to him up to not
even one word." This silent dignity amazed Pilate and yet he was
strangely impressed.

經文:

馬太福音 27:17-27:17

註釋:

 {Barabbas or Jesus which is called Christ?} (Barabb(836e) (880a)I(8873)oun ton legomenon Christon;). Pilate was catching at straws
or seeking any loophole to escape condemning a harmless lunatic
or exponent of a superstitious cult such as he deemed Jesus to
be, certainly in no political sense a rival of Caesar. The Jews
interpreted "Christ" for Pilate to be a claim to be King of the
Jews in opposition to Caesar, "a most unprincipled proceeding"
(Bruce). So he bethought him of the time-honoured custom at the
passover of releasing to the people "a prisoner whom they wished"
(desmion hon (8874)helon). No parallel case has been found, but
Josephus mentions the custom (_Ant_. xx. 9,3). Barabbas was for
some reason a popular hero, a notable (epis(886d)on), if not
notorious, prisoner, leader of an insurrection or revolution ( Mr
15:7 ) probably against Rome, and so guilty of the very crime
that they tried to fasten on Jesus who only claimed to be king in
the spiritual sense of the spiritual kingdom. So Pilate
unwittingly pitted against each other two prisoners who
represented the antagonistic forces of all time. It is an
elliptical structure in the question, "whom do you wish that I
release?" (	ina thelete apolus(933b)), either two questions in one
(asyndeton) or the ellipse of hina before apolus(935c). See the
same idiom in verse  21 . But Pilate's question tested the Jews
as well as himself. It tests all men today. Some manuscripts add
the name Jesus to Barabbas and that makes it all the sharper.
Jesus Barabbas or Jesus Christ?

經文:

馬太福音 27:18-27:18

註釋:

 {For envy} (dia phthonon). Pilate was dense about many
things, but he knew that the Jewish leaders were jealous of the
power of Jesus with the people. He may have heard of the events
of the Triumphal Entry and the Temple Teaching. The envy, of
course, came primarily from the leaders.

經文:

馬太福音 27:19-27:19

註釋:

 {His wife} (h(8820)gun(8820)autou). Poor Pilate was getting more
entangled every moment as he hesitated to set Jesus free whom he
knew to be free of any crime against Caesar. Just at the moment
when he was trying to enlist the people in behalf of Jesus
against the schemes of the Jewish leaders, his wife sent a
message about her dream concerning Jesus. She calls Jesus "that
righteous man" (	(9369) dikai(9369) ekein(9369)) and her psychical
sufferings increased Pilate's superstitious fears. Tradition
names her Procla and even calls her a Christian which is not
probable. But it was enough to unnerve the weak Pilate as he sat
on the judgment-seat (epi tou b(886d)atos) up over the pavement.

經文:

馬太福音 27:20-27:20

註釋:

 {Persuaded} (epeisan). The chief priests (Sadducees) and
elders (Pharisees) saw the peril of the situation and took no
chances. While Pilate wavered in pressing the question, they used
all their arts to get the people to "ask for themselves"
(ait(8873)(936e)tai, indirect middle ingressive aorist subjunctive) and
to choose Barabbas and not Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 27:22-27:22

註釋:

 {What then shall I do unto Jesus which is called Christ?}
(	i oun poi(8873)(9320)I(8873)oun ton legomenon Christon;). They had asked
for Barabbas under the tutelage of the Sanhedrin, but Pilate
pressed home the problem of Jesus with the dim hope that they
might ask for Jesus also. But they had learned their lesson. Some
of the very people who shouted "Hosannah" on the Sunday morning
of the Triumphal Entry now shout {Let him be crucified}
(staur(9374)h(8874)(935c)). The tide has now turned against Jesus, the hero
of Sunday, now the condemned criminal of Friday. Such is popular
favour. But all the while Pilate is shirking his own fearful
responsibility and trying to hide his own weakness and injustice
behind popular clamour and prejudice.

經文:

馬太福音 27:23-27:23

註釋:

 {Why, what evil hath he done?} (	i gar kakon epoi(8873)en;).
This was a feeble protest by a flickering conscience. Pilate
descended to that level of arguing with the mob now inflamed with
passion for the blood of Jesus, a veritable lynching fiasco. But
this exhibition of weakness made the mob fear refusal by Pilate
to proceed. So they "kept crying exceedingly" (periss(9373)
ekrazon, imperfect tense of repeated action and vehemently)
their demand for the crucifixion of Jesus. It was like a
gladiatorial show with all thumbs turned down.

經文:

馬太福音 27:24-27:24

註釋:

 {Washed his hands} (apenipsato tas cheiras). As a last
resort since the hubbub (	horubos) increased because of his
vacillation. The verb aponipt(935c) means to wash off and the middle
voice means that he washed off his hands for himself as a common
symbol of cleanliness and added his pious claim with a slap at
them. {I am innocent of the blood of this righteous man} (or
{this blood}); {see ye to it}. (Ath(9369)os eimi apo tou haimatos
tou dikaiou toutou or 	ou haimatos toutou as some manuscripts
have it, humeis opsesthe.) The Jews used this symbol ( De 21:6  Ps 26:6  73:13 ). Plummer doubts if Pilate said these words with
a direct reference to his wife's message ( 26:19 ), but I fail to
see the ground for that scepticism. The so-called _Gospel of
Peter_ says that Pilate washed his hands because the Jews refused
to do so.

經文:

馬太福音 27:25-27:25

註釋:

 {His blood be upon us and upon our children} (	o haima
autou kai epi ta tekna h(886d)(936e)). These solemn words do show a
consciousness that the Jewish people recognized their guilt and
were even proud of it. But Pilate could not wash away his own
guilt that easily. The water did not wash away the blood of Jesus
from his hands any more than Lady Macbeth could wash away the
blood-stains from her lily-white hands. One legend tells that in
storms on Mt. Pilatus in Switzerland his ghost comes out and
still washes his hands in the storm-clouds. There was guilt
enough for Judas, for Caiaphas and for all the Sanhedrin both
Sadducees and Pharisees, for the Jewish people as a whole (pas
ho laos), and for Pilate. At bottom the sins of all of us nailed
Jesus to the Cross. This language is no excuse for race hatred
today, but it helps explain the sensitiveness between Jew and
Christians on this subject. And Jews today approach the subject
of the Cross with a certain amount of prejudice.

經文:

馬太福音 27:26-27:26

註釋:

 {Scourged} (phragell(9373)as). The Latin verb _flagellare_.
Pilate apparently lost interest in Jesus when he discovered that
he had no friends in the crowd. The religious leaders had been
eager to get Jesus condemned before many of the Galilean crowd
friendly to Jesus came into the city. They had apparently
succeeded. The scourging before the crucifixion was a brutal
Roman custom. The scourging was part of the capital punishment.
Deissmann (_Light from the Ancient East_, p. 269) quotes a
Florentine papyrus of the year 85 A.D. wherein G. Septimius
Vegetus, governor of Egypt, says of a certain Phibion: "Thou
hadst been worthy of scourging ... but I will give thee to the
people."

經文:

馬太福音 27:27-27:27

註釋:

 {Into the palace} (eis to prait(9372)ion). In Rome the
praetorium was the camp of the praetorian (from praetor) guard of
soldiers ( Php 1:13 ), but in the provinces it was the palace in
which the governor resided as in  Ac 23:35  in Caesarea. So here
in Jerusalem Pilate ordered Jesus and all the band or cohort
(hol(886e) t(886e) speiran) of soldiers to be led into the palace in
front of which the judgment-seat had been placed. The Latin
_spira_ was anything rolled into a circle like a twisted ball of
thread. These Latin words are natural here in the atmosphere of
the court and the military environment. The soldiers were
gathered together for the sport of seeing the scourging. These
heathen soldiers would also enjoy showing their contempt for the
Jews as well as for the condemned man.

經文:

馬太福音 27:28-27:28

註釋:

 {A scarlet robe} (chlamuda kokkin(886e)). A kind of short
cloak worn by soldiers, military officers, magistrates, kings,
emperors (2Macc. 12:35; Josephus, _Ant_. V. 1,10), a soldier's
_sagum_ or scarf. Carr (_Cambridge Gk. Test._) suggests that it
may have been a worn-out scarf of Pilate's. The scarlet colour
(kokkin(886e)) was a dye derived from the female insect (kermes)
which gathered on the ilex coccifera found in Palestine. These
dried clusters of insects look like berries and form the famous
dye. The word occurs in Plutarch, Epictetus, Herodas, and late
papyri besides the Septuagint and New Testament. Mark ( Mr
15:17 ) has "purple" (porphuran). There are various shades of
purple and scarlet and it is not easy to distinguish these
colours or tints. The manuscripts vary here between "stripped"
(ekdusantes) and "clothed" (endusantes). He had been stripped
for the scourging. If "clothed" is correct, the soldiers added
the scarlet (purple) mantle. Herodotus (iii. 139) relates that
Darius richly rewarded a Samian exile for a rare scarlet robe
which he obtained from him. This scarlet mantle on Jesus was mock
imitation of the royal purple.

經文:

馬太福音 27:29-27:29

註釋:

 {A crown of thorns} (stephanon ex akanth(936e)). They wove a
crown out of thorns which would grow even in the palace grounds.
It is immaterial whether they were young and tender thorn bushes,
as probable in the spring, or hard bushes with sharp prongs. The
soldiers would not care, for they were after ridicule and mockery
even if it caused pain. It was more like a victor's garland
(stephanon) than a royal diadem (diad(886d)a), but it served the
purpose. So with the reed (kalamon), a stalk of common cane
grass which served as sceptre. The soldiers were familiar with
the _Ave Caesar_ and copy it in their mockery of Jesus: {Hail,
King of the Jews} (chaire, Basileu t(936e) Ioudai(936e)). The soldiers
added the insults used by the Sanhedrin ( Mt 26:67 ), spitting on
him and smiting him with the reed. Probably Jesus had been
unbound already. At any rate the garments of mockery were removed
before the _via dolorosa_ to the cross (verse  31 ).

經文:

馬太福音 27:32-27:32

註釋:

 {Compelled} ((8867)gareusan). This word of Persian origin was
used in  Mt 5:41 , which see. There are numerous papyri examples
of Ptolemaic date and it survives in modern Greek vernacular. So
the soldiers treat Simon of Cyrene (a town of Libya) as a Persian
courier (aggaros) and impress him into service, probably
because Jesus was showing signs of physical weakness in bearing
his own Cross as the victims had to do, and not as a mere jest on
Simon. "Gethsemane, betrayal, the ordeal of the past sleepless
night, scourging, have made the flesh weak" (Bruce). Yes, and the
burden of sin of the world that was breaking his heart. {His
cross} (	on stauron autou). Jesus had used the term cross about
himself ( 16:24 ). It was a familiar enough picture under Roman
rule. Jesus had long foreseen and foretold this horrible form of
death for himself ( Mt 20:19  23:24  26:2 ). He had heard the cry
of the mob to Pilate that he be crucified ( 27:22 ) and Pilate's
surrender ( 27:26 ) and he was on the way to the Cross ( 27:31 ).
There were various kinds of crosses and we do not know precisely
the shape of the Cross on which Jesus was crucified, though
probably the one usually presented is correct. Usually the victim
was nailed (hands and feet) to the cross before it was raised and
it was not very high. The crucifixion was done by the soldiers
( 27:35 ) in charge and two robbers were crucified on each side
of Jesus, three crosses standing in a row ( 27:38 ).

經文:

馬太福音 27:33-27:33

註釋:

 {Golgotha} (Golgotha). Chaldaic or Aramaic _Gulgatha_,
Hebrew _Gulgoleth_, place of a skull-shaped mount, not place of
skulls. Latin Vulgate _Calvariae locus_, hence our Calvary.
Tyndale misunderstood it as a place of dead men's skulls. Calvary
or Golgotha is not the traditional place of the Holy Sepulchre in
Jerusalem, but a place outside of the city, probably what is now
called Gordon's Calvary, a hill north of the city wall which from
the Mount of Olives looks like a skull, the rock-hewn tombs
resembling eyes in one of which Jesus may have been buried.

經文:

馬太福音 27:34-27:34

註釋:

 {Wine mingled with gall} (oinon meta chol(8873) memigmenon).
Late MSS. read {vinegar} (oxos) instead of wine and Mark ( Mr
15:23 ) has myrrh instead of gall. The myrrh gave the sour wine a
better flavour and like the bitter gall had a narcotic and
stupefying effect. Both elements may have been in the drink which
Jesus tasted and refused to drink. Women provided the drink to
deaden the sense of pain and the soldiers may have added the gall
to make it disagreeable. Jesus desired to drink to the full the
cup from his Father's hand ( Joh 18:11 ).

經文:

馬太福音 27:36-27:36

註釋:

 {Watched him there} (et(8872)oun auton ekei). Imperfect tense
descriptive of the task to prevent the possibility of rescue or
removal of the body. These rough Roman soldiers casting lots over
the garments of Christ give a picture of comedy at the foot of
the Cross, the tragedy of the ages.

經文:

馬太福音 27:37-27:37

註釋:

 {His accusation} (	(886e) aitian autou). The title (	itlos,
 Joh 19:19 ) or placard of the crime (the inscription, he
epigraph(885c)) which was carried before the victim or hung around
his neck as he walked to execution was now placed above (ep'
an(935c)) the head of Jesus on the projecting piece (crux immurus).
This inscription gave the name and home, {Jesus of Nazareth}, and
the charge on which he was convicted, {the King of the Jews} and
the identification, {This is}. The four reports all give the
charge and vary in the others. The inscription in full was: This
is Jesus of Nazareth the King of the Jews. The three languages
are mentioned only by John ( Joh 19:20 ), Latin for law, Hebrew
(Aramaic) for the Jews, Greek for everybody. The accusation
(charge, cause, aitia) correctly told the facts of the
condemnation.

經文:

馬太福音 27:38-27:38

註釋:

 {Robbers} (l(8869)stai). Not thieves (kleptai) as in
Authorized Version. See  Mt 26:55 . These two robbers were
probably members of the band of Barabbas on whose cross Jesus now
hung.

經文:

馬太福音 27:39-27:39

註釋:

 {Wagging their heads} (kinountes tas kephalas aut(936e)).
Probably in mock commiseration. "Jews again appear on the scene,
with a malice like that shewn in the trial before the Sanhedrin"
(McNeile). "To us it may seem incredible that even his worst
enemies could be guilty of anything so brutal as to hurl taunts
at one suffering the agonies of crucifixion" (Bruce). These
passers-by (parat(8872)oumenoi) look on Jesus as one now down and
out. They jeer at the fallen foe.

經文:

馬太福音 27:40-27:40

註釋:

 {If thou art the Son of God} (ei huios ei tou theou).
More exactly, "If thou art a son of God," the very language of
the devil to Jesus ( Mt 4:3 ) in the early temptations, now
hurled at Jesus under the devil's prompting as he hung upon the
Cross. There is allusion, of course, to the claim of Jesus under
oath before the Sanhedrin "the Son of God" (ho huios tou theou)
and a repetition of the misrepresentation of his words about the
temple of his body. It is a pitiful picture of human depravity
and failure in the presence of Christ dying for sinners.

經文:

馬太福音 27:41-27:41

註釋:

 {The chief priests mocking} (hoi archiereis empaizontes).
The Sanhedrin in fact, for "the scribes and elders" are included.
The word for mocking (empaizontes, en, and paiz(935c), from
pais, child) means acting like silly children who love to guy
one another. These grave and reverend seniors had already given
vent to their glee at the condemnation of Jesus by themselves
( Mt 26:67f. ).

經文:

馬太福音 27:42-27:42

註釋:

 {He saved others; himself he cannot save} (allous es(9373)en;
heauton ou dunatai s(9373)ai). The sarcasm is true, though they do
not know its full significance. If he had saved himself now, he
could not have saved any one. The paradox is precisely the
philosophy of life proclaimed by Jesus himself ( Mt 10:39 ). {Let
him now come down} (katabat(9320)nun). Now that he is a condemned
criminal nailed to the Cross with the claim of being "the King of
Israel" (the Jews) over his head. Their spiteful assertion that
they would then believe upon Jesus (ep' auton) is plainly
untrue. They would have shifted their ground and invented some
other excuse. When Jesus wrought his greatest miracles, they
wanted "a sign from heaven." These "pious scoffers" (Bruce) are
like many today who make factitious and arbitrary demands of
Christ whose character and power and deity are plain to all whose
eyes are not blinded by the god of this world. Christ will not
give new proofs to the blind in heart.

經文:

馬太福音 27:43-27:43

註釋:

 {Let him deliver him now} (
husasth(9320)nun). They add the
word "now" to  Ps 21  22:8 . That is the point of the sneer at
Christ's claim to be God's son thrown in his teeth again and at
the willingness and power of God to help his "son." The verb
	hel(935c) here may mean {love} as in the Septuagint ( Ps 18:20  41:12 ) or "cares for" (Moffatt), "gin he cares ocht for him"
(_Braid Scots_).

經文:

馬太福音 27:44-27:44

註釋:

 {The robbers also} (kai hoi l(8869)stai). Probably "even the
robbers" (Weymouth) who felt a momentary superiority to Jesus
thus maligned by all. So the inchoative imperfect (936e)eidizon
means "began to reproach him."

經文:

馬太福音 27:45-27:45

註釋:

 {From the sixth hour} (apo hekt(8873) h(9372)as). Curiously
enough McNeile takes this to mean the trial before Pilate ( Joh
18:14 ). But clearly John uses Roman time, writing at the close
of the century when Jewish time was no longer in vogue. It was
six o'clock in the morning Roman time when the trial occurred
before Pilate. The crucifixion began at the third hour ( Mr
15:25 ) Jewish time or nine A.M. The darkness began at noon, the
sixth hour Jewish time and lasted till 3 P.M. Roman time, the
ninth hour Jewish time ( Mr 15:33  Mt 27:45  Lu 23:44 ). The
dense darkness for three hours could not be an eclipse of the sun
and Luke ( Lu 23:45 ) does not so say, only "the sun's light
failing." Darkness sometimes precedes earthquakes and one came at
this time or dense masses of clouds may have obscured the sun's
light. One need not be disturbed if nature showed its sympathy
with the tragedy of the dying of the Creator on the Cross ( Ro
8:22 ), groaning and travailing until now.

經文:

馬太福音 27:46-27:46

註釋:

 {My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me?} (Thee mou,
thee mou, hina ti me egkatelipes;). Matthew first transliterates
the Aramaic, according to the Vatican manuscript (B), the words
used by Jesus: _El(9369), el(9369), lema sabachthanei_; Some of the MSS.
give the transliteration of these words from  Ps 22:1  in the
Hebrew (_Eli, Eli, lama Zaphthanei_). This is the only one of the
seven sayings of Christ on the Cross given by Mark and Matthew.
The other six occur in Luke and John. This is the only sentence
of any length in Aramaic preserved in Matthew, though he has
Aramaic words like amen, corban, mammon, pascha, raca, Satan,
Golgotha. The so-called Gospel of Peter preserves this saying in
a Docetic (Cerinthian) form: "My power, my power, thou hast
forsaken me!" The Cerinthian Gnostics held that the _aeon_ Christ
came on the man Jesus at his baptism and left him here on the
Cross so that only the man Jesus died. Nothing from Jesus so well
illustrates the depth of his suffering of soul as he felt himself
regarded as sin though sinless ( 2Co 5:21 ).  Joh 3:16  comes to
our relief here as we see the Son of God bearing the sin of the
world. This cry of desolation comes at the close of the three
hours of darkness.

經文:

馬太福音 27:48-27:48

註釋:

 {Gave him to drink} (epotizen). Imperfect of conative
action, {offered him a drink} of vinegar on the sponge on a reed.
Others interrupted this kindly man, but Jesus did taste this mild
stimulant ( Joh 19:30 ) for he thirsted ( Joh 19:28 ).

經文:

馬太福音 27:49-27:49

註釋:

 {Whether Elijah cometh to save him} (ei erchetai Eleias
s(9373)(936e) auton). The excuse had a pious sound as they misunderstood
the words of Jesus in his outcry of soul anguish. We have here
one of the rare instances (s(9373)(936e)) of the future participle to
express purpose in the N.T. though a common Greek idiom. Some
ancient MSS. add here what is genuine in  Joh 19:34 , but what
makes complete wreck of the context for in verse  50  Jesus cried
with a loud voice and was not yet dead in verse  49 . It was a
crass mechanical copying by some scribe from  Joh 19:34 . See
full discussion in my _Introduction to the Textual Criticism of
the N.T._

經文:

馬太福音 27:50-27:50

註釋:

 {Yielded up his spirit} (aph(886b)en to pneuma). The loud cry
may have been  Ps 31:5  as given in  Lu 23:46 : "Father, into thy
hands I commend my spirit." John ( Joh 19:30 ) gives {It is
finished} (	etelestai), though which was actually last is not
clear. Jesus did not die from slow exhaustion, but with a loud
cry. {He breathed out} (exepneusen,  Mr 15:37 ), {sent back his
spirit} ( Mt 27:50 ), {gave up his spirit} (pared(936b)en to
pneuma,  Joh 19:30 ). "He gave up his life because he willed it,
when he willed it, and as he willed it" (Augustine). Stroud
(_Physical Cause of the Death of Christ_) considers the loud cry
one of the proofs that Jesus died of a ruptured heart as a result
of bearing the sin of the world.

經文:

馬太福音 27:51-27:51

註釋:

 {Was rent} (eschisth(885c)). Both Mark ( Mr 15:38 ) and Luke
( Lu 23:45 ) mention also this fact. Matthew connects it with the
earthquake, "the earth did quake" (h(8820)g(8820)eseisth(885c)). Josephus
(_War_ VI. 299) tells of a quaking in the temple before the
destruction and the Talmud tells of a quaking forty years before
the destruction of the temple. Allen suggests that "a cleavage in
the masonry of the porch, which rent the outer veil and left the
Holy Place open to view, would account for the language of the
Gospels, of Josephus, and of the Talmud." This veil was a most
elaborately woven fabric of seventy-two twisted plaits of
twenty-four threads each and the veil was sixty feet long and
thirty wide. The rending of the veil signified the removal of the
separation between God and the people (Gould).

經文:

馬太福音 27:52-27:52

註釋:

 {The tombs were opened} (	a mn(886d)eia ane(9369)chth(8873)an). First
aorist passive indicative (double augment). The splitting of the
rocks by the earthquake and the opening of tombs can be due to
the earthquake. But the raising of the bodies of the dead after
the resurrection of Jesus which appeared to many in the holy city
puzzles many today who admit the actual bodily resurrection of
Jesus. Some would brand all these portents as legends since they
appear in Matthew alone. Others would say that "after his
resurrection" should read "after their resurrection," but that
would make it conflict with Paul's description of Christ as the
first fruits of them that sleep ( 1Co 15:20 ). Some say that
Jesus released these spirits after his descent into Hades. So it
goes. We come back to miracles connected with the birth of Jesus,
God's Son coming into the world. If we grant the possibility of
such manifestations of God's power, there is little to disturb
one here in the story of the death of God's Son.

經文:

馬太福音 27:54-27:54

註釋:

 {Truly this was the Son of God} (al(8874)h(9373) theou huios (886e)
houtos). There is no article with God or Son in the Greek so
that it means "God's Son," either "the Son of God" or "a Son of
God." There is no way to tell. Evidently the centurion
(hekatontarchos here, ruler of a hundred, Latin word
_kenturi(936e)_ in  Mr 15:39 ) was deeply moved by the portents which
he had witnessed. He had heard the several flings at Jesus for
claiming to be the Son of God and may even have heard of his
claim before the Sanhedrin and Pilate. How much he meant by his
words we do not know, but probably he meant more than merely "a
righteous man" ( Lu 23:47 ). Petronius is the name given this
centurion by tradition. If he was won now to trust in Christ, he
came as a pagan and, like the robber who believed, was saved as
Jesus hung upon the Cross. All who are ever saved in truth are
saved because of the death of Jesus on the Cross. So the Cross
began to do its work at once.

經文:

馬太福音 27:55-27:55

註釋:

 {Many women} (gunaikes pollai). We have come to expect
the women from Galilee to be faithful, last at the Cross and
first at the tomb. Luke ( Lu 23:49 ) says that "all his
acquaintance" (pantes hoi gn(9373)toi aut(9369)) stood at a distance
and saw the end. One may hope that the apostles were in that sad
group. But certainly many women were there. The Mother of Jesus
had been taken away from the side of the Cross by the Beloved
Disciple to his own home ( Joh 19:27 ). Matthew names three of
the group by name. Mary Magdalene is mentioned as a well-known
person though not previously named in Matthew's Gospel. Certainly
she is not the sinful woman of  Lu 7  nor Mary of Bethany. There
is another Mary, the mother of James and Joseph (Joses) not
otherwise known to us. And then there is the mother of the sons
of Zebedee (James and John), usually identified with Salome ( Mr
15:40 ). These noble and faithful women were "beholding from
afar" (apo makrothen the(9372)ousai). These three women may have
drawn nearer to the Cross for Mary the Mother of Jesus stood
beside the Cross (para t(9369) staur(9369)) with Mary of Clopas and
Mary Magdalene ( Joh 19:25 ) before she left. They had once
ministered unto Jesus (diakonousai aut(9369)) and now he is dead.
Matthew does not try to picture the anguish of heart of these
noble women nor does he say as Luke ( Lu 23:48 ) does that "they
returned smiting their breasts." He drops the curtain on that
saddest of all tragedies as the loyal band stood and looked at
the dead Christ on Golgotha. What hope did life now hold for
them?

經文:

馬太福音 27:57-27:57

註釋:

 {And when even was come} (opsias de genomen(8873)). It was
the Preparation (paraskeu(885c)), the day before the sabbath ( Mr
15:42  Lu 23:54  Joh 31:42 ). Paraskeu(885c) is the name in modern
Greek today for Friday. The Jews were anxious that these bodies
should be taken down before the sabbath began at 6 P.M. The
request of Joseph of Arimathea for the body of Jesus was a relief
to Pilate and to the Jews also. We know little about this member
of the Sanhedrin save his name Joseph, his town Arimathea, that
he was rich, a secret disciple, and had not agreed to the death
of Jesus. Probably he now wished that he had made an open
profession. But he has courage now when others are cowardly and
asked for the personal privilege ((8869)t(8873)ato, middle voice, asked
for himself) of placing the body of Jesus in his new tomb. Some
today identify this tomb with one of the rock tombs now visible
under Gordon's Calvary. It was a mournful privilege and dignity
that came to Joseph and Nicodemus ( Joh 19:39-41 ) as they
wrapped the body of Jesus in clean linen cloth and with proper
spices placed it in this fresh (kain(9369)) tomb in which no body
had yet been placed. It was cut in the rock (elatom(8873)en) for
his own body, but now it was for Jesus. But now (verse  60 ) he
rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb and departed. That
was for safety. But two women had watched the sad and lonely
ceremony, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary (mother of James and
Joseph). They were sitting opposite and looking in silence.

經文:

馬太福音 27:63-27:63

註釋:

 {Sir, we remember} (kurie, emnesth(886d)en). This was the
next day, on our Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath, the day after the
Preparation ( Mt 27:62 ). Ingressive aorist indicative, we have
just recalled. It is objected that the Jewish rulers would know
nothing of such a prediction, but in  Mt 12:40  he expressly made
it to them. Meyer scouts as unhistorical legend the whole story
that Christ definitely foretold his resurrection on the third
day. But that is to make legendary much of the Gospels and to
limit Jesus to a mere man. The problem remains why the disciples
forgot and the Jewish leaders remembered. But that is probably
due on the one hand to the overwhelming grief of the disciples
coupled with the blighting of all their hopes of a political
Messiah in Jesus, and on the other hand to the keen nervous fear
of the leaders who dreaded the power of Jesus though dead. They
wanted to make sure of their victory and prevent any possible
revival of this pernicious heresy. {That deceiver} (ekeinos ho
planos) they call him, a vagabond wanderer (planos) with a
slur in the use of {that} (ekeinos), a picturesque sidelight on
their intense hatred of and fear of Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 27:64-27:64

註釋:

 {The last error} (h(8820)eschat(8820)plan(885c)). The last delusion,
imposture (Weymouth), fraud (Moffatt). Latin _error_ is used in
both senses, from _errare_, to go astray. The first fraud was
belief in the Messiahship of Jesus, the second belief in his
resurrection.

經文:

馬太福音 27:65-27:65

註釋:

 {Make it as sure as you can} (asphalisasthe h(9373) oidate).
"Make it secure for yourselves (ingressive aorist middle) as you
know how." {Have a guard} (echete koust(9364)ian), present
imperative, a guard of Roman soldiers, not mere temple police.
The Latin term _koust(9364)ia_ occurs in an Oxyrhynchus papyrus of
A.D. 22. "The curt permission to the Jews whom he despised is
suitable in the mouth of the Roman official" (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 27:66-27:66

註釋:

 {Sealing the stone, the guard being with them}
(sphragisant(8873) ton lithon meta t(8873) koust(9364)ias). Probably by a
cord stretched across the stone and sealed at each end as in  Da
6:17 . The sealing was done in the presence of the Roman guard
who were left in charge to protect this stamp of Roman authority
and power. They did their best to prevent theft and the
resurrection (Bruce), but they overreached themselves and
provided additional witness to the fact of the empty tomb and the
resurrection of Jesus (Plummer).

經文:

馬太福音 28:1-28:1

註釋:

 {Now late on the sabbath as it began to dawn toward the
first day of the week} (opse de sabbat(936e), t(8869) epiph(9373)kous(8869) eis
mian sabbat(936e)). This careful chronological statement according
to Jewish days clearly means that before the sabbath was over,
that is before six P.M., this visit by the women was made "to see
the sepulchre" (	heor(8873)ai ton taphon). They had seen the place
of burial on Friday afternoon ( Mr 15:47  Mt 27:61  Lu 23:55 ).
They had rested on the sabbath after preparing spices and
ointments for the body of Jesus ( Lu 23:56 ), a sabbath of
unutterable sorrow and woe. They will buy other spices after
sundown when the new day has dawned and the sabbath is over ( Mr
16:1 ). Both Matthew here and Luke ( Lu 23:54 ) use dawn
(epiph(9373)k(935c)) for the dawning of the twenty-four hour-day at
sunset, not of the dawning of the twelve-hour day at sunrise. The
Aramaic used the verb for dawn in both senses. The so-called
Gospel of Peter has epiph(9373)k(935c) in the same sense as Matthew and
Luke as does a late papyrus. Apparently the Jewish sense of
"dawn" is here expressed by this Greek verb. Allen thinks that
Matthew misunderstands Mark at this point, but clearly Mark is
speaking of sunrise and Matthew of sunset. Why allow only one
visit for the anxious women?

經文:

馬太福音 28:2-28:2

註釋:

 {There was a great earthquake} (seismos egeneto megas).
Clearly not the earthquake of  27:51 . The precise time of this
earthquake is not given. It was before sunrise on the first day
of the week when the women made the next visit. Matthew alone
relates the coming of the angel of the Lord who rolled away the
stone and was sitting upon it (apekulise ton lithon kai ekath(8874)o
epan(9320)autou). If one is querulous about these supernatural
phenomena, he should reflect that the Resurrection of Jesus is
one of the great supernatural events of all time. Cornelius (850a)Lapide dares to say: "The earth, which trembled with sorrow at
the Death of Christ as it were leaped for joy at His
Resurrection." The Angel of the Lord announced the Incarnation of
the Son of God and also His Resurrection from the grave. There
are apparent inconsistencies in the various narratives of the
Resurrection and the appearances of the Risen Christ. We do not
know enough of the details to be able to reconcile them. But the
very variations strengthen the independent witness to the
essential fact that Jesus rose from the grave. Let each writer
give his own account in his own way. The stone was rolled away
not to let the Lord out, but to let the women in to prove the
fact of the empty tomb (McNeile).

經文:

馬太福音 28:3-28:3

註釋:

 {Appearance} (eidea). Here only in the N.T. Compare
morph(885c) and sch(886d)a.

經文:

馬太福音 28:4-28:4

註釋:

 {The watchers did quake} (eseisth(8873)an hoi t(8872)ountes). And
no wonder that they became as dead men and fled before the women
came.

經文:

馬太福音 28:5-28:5

註釋:

 1Co
2:2 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
2' or engs='1Co
2'
經文:

馬太福音 28:6-28:6

註釋:

 2Ti
2:8 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ti
2' or engs='2Ti
2'
經文:

馬太福音 28:7-28:7

註釋:

 {He goeth before you into Galilee} (proagei humas eis t(886e)
Galilaian). Jesus did appear to the disciples in Galilee on two
notable occasions (by the beloved lake,  Joh 21 , and on the
mountain,  Mt 28:16-20 ). Probably before the women were
permitted to tell this story in full to the disciples who scouted
as idle talk ( Joh 24:11 ) their first accounts, Jesus appeared
to various disciples in Jerusalem on this first great Sunday.
Jesus did not say that he would not see any of them in Jerusalem.
He merely made a definite appointment in Galilee which he kept.

經文:

馬太福音 28:8-28:8

註釋:

 {With fear and great joy} (meta phobou kai charas
megal(8873)). A touch of life was this as the excited women ran
quickly (	achu edramon) as they had been told "to bring his
disciples word" (apaggeilai tois math(8874)ais autou). They had the
greatest piece of news that it was possible to have. Mark calls
it fear and ecstasy. Anything seemed possible now. Mark even says
that at first they told no one anything for they were afraid ( Mr
16:9 ), the tragic close of the text of Mark in Aleph and B, our
two oldest manuscripts. But these mingled emotions of ecstasy and
dread need cause no surprise when all things are considered.

經文:

馬太福音 28:9-28:9

註釋:

 {Jesus met them} (I(8873)ous hup(886e)t(8873)en autais). Came suddenly
face to face (anta(932c) hupo) with them as they brooded over the
message of the angel and the fact of the empty tomb (associative
instrumental, autais). Cf.  8:34  24:1-6 . Probably the lost
portion of Mark's Gospel contained the story of this meeting with
Jesus which changed their fears into joy and peace. His greeting
was the ordinary "Hail" (chairete). They fell at his feet and
held them in reverence while they worshipped him. Jesus allowed
this act of worship though he forbade eager handling of his body
by Mary Magdalene ( Joh 20:17 ). It was a great moment of faith
and cheer.

經文:

馬太福音 28:10-28:10

註釋:

 {Fear not} (m(8820)phobeisthe). They were still afraid for
joy and embarrassment. Jesus calms their excitement by the
repetition of the charge from the angel for the disciples to meet
him in Galilee. There is no special mention of Peter ("and
Peter") as in  Mr 16:7 , but we may be sure that the special
message to Peter was delivered.

經文:

馬太福音 28:11-28:11

註釋:

 {Told unto the chief priests} (ap(8867)geilan tois
archiereusin). These Roman soldiers had been placed at the
disposal of the Sanhedrin. They were probably afraid also to
report to Pilate and tell him what had happened. They apparently
told a truthful account as far as they understood it. But were
the Sanhedrin convinced of the resurrection of Jesus?

經文:

馬太福音 28:12-28:12

註釋:

 {They gave large money} (arguria hikana ed(936b)an). The use
of the plural for pieces of silver (arguria) is common. The
papyri have many instances of hikana for considerable (from
hikan(935c), to reach to, attain to). These pious Sanhedrists knew
full well the power of bribes. They make a contract with the
Roman soldiers to tell a lie about the resurrection of Jesus as
they paid Judas money to betray him. They show not the slightest
tendency to be convinced by the facts though one had risen from
the dead.

經文:

馬太福音 28:13-28:13

註釋:

 {Stole him away while we slept} (eklepsan auton h(886d)(936e)
koim(936d)en(936e)). Genitive absolute. An Irish bull on the face of it.
If they were asleep they would not know anything about it.

經文:

馬太福音 28:14-28:14

註釋:

 {We will persuade him, and rid you of care} (h(886d)eis
peisomen kai humas amerimnous poi(8873)omen). They would try money
also on Pilate and assume all responsibility. Hence the soldiers
have no anxiety (amerimnous, alpha privative and merimna(935c), to
be anxious). They lived up to their bargain and this lie lives on
through the ages. Justin (_Dial_. 108) accuses the Jews of
spreading the charge. Bengel: _Quam laboriosum bellum mendacii
contra veritatem_. {It was spread about} (dieph(886d)isth(885c))
diligently by the Jews to excuse their disbelief in the
Messiahship of Jesus.

經文:

馬太福音 28:17-28:17

註釋:

 1Co
15:6 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
15' or engs='1Co
15'
經文:

馬太福音 28:18-28:18

註釋:

 {All authority} (p(8373)a exousia). Jesus came close to them
(proselth(936e)) and made this astounding claim. He spoke as one
already in heaven with a world-wide outlook and with the
resources of heaven at his command. His authority or power in his
earthly life had been great ( 7:29  11:27  21:23f. ). Now it is
boundless and includes earth and heaven. {Hath been given}
(edoth(885c)) is a timeless aorist (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp.
836f.). It is the sublimist of all spectacles to see the Risen
Christ without money or army or state charging this band of five
hundred men and women with world conquest and bringing them to
believe it possible and to undertake it with serious passion and
power. Pentecost is still to come, but dynamic faith rules on
this mountain in Galilee.

經文:

馬太福音 28:19-28:19

註釋:

 {All the nations} (panta ta ethn(885c)). Not just the Jews
scattered among the Gentiles, but the Gentiles themselves in
every land. And not by making Jews of them, though this point is
not made plain here. It will take time for the disciples to grow
into this _Magna Charta_ of the missionary propaganda. But here
is the world program of the Risen Christ and it should not be
forgotten by those who seek to foreshorten it all by saying that
Jesus expected his second coming to be very soon, even within the
lifetime of those who heard. He did promise to come, but he has
never named the date. Meanwhile we are to be ready for his coming
at any time and to look for it joyfully. But we are to leave that
to the Father and push on the campaign for world conquest. This
program includes making disciples or learners (math(8874)eusate)
such as they were themselves. That means evangelism in the
fullest sense and not merely revival meetings. Baptism in (eis,
not _into_) the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit,
in the name of the Trinity. Objection is raised to this language
in the mouth of Jesus as too theological and as not a genuine
part of the Gospel of Matthew for the same reason. See  Mt
11:27 , where Jesus speaks of the Father and the Son as here. But
it is all to no purpose. There is a chapter devoted to this
subject in my _The Christ of the Logia_ in which the genuineness
of these words is proven. The name of Jesus is the essential part
of it as is shown in the Acts. Trine immersion is not taught as
the Greek Church holds and practices, baptism in the name of the
Father, then of the Son, then of the Holy Spirit. The use of name
(onoma) here is a common one in the Septuagint and the papyri
for power or authority. For the use of eis with onoma in the
sense here employed, not meaning _into_, see  Mt 10:41f.  (cf.
also  12:41 ).

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