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                   THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK
                      BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION

        One of the clearest results of modern critical study of
the Gospels is the early date of Mark's Gospel. Precisely how
early is not definitely known, but there are leading scholars who
hold that A.D. 50 is quite probable. My own views are given in
detail in my _Studies in Mark's Gospel_. Zahn still argues that
the Gospel according to Matthew is earlier than that according to
Mark, but the arguments are against him. The framework of Mark's
Gospel lies behind both Matthew and Luke and nearly all of it is
used by one or the other. One may satisfy himself on this point
by careful use of a Harmony of the Gospels in Greek or English.
Whether Mark made use of Q (_Logia of Jesus_) or not is not yet
shown, though it is possible. But Mark and Q constitute the two
oldest known sources of our Matthew and Luke. We have much of Q
preserved in the Non-Markan portions of both Matthew and Luke,
though the document itself has disappeared. But Mark's work has
remained in spite of its exhaustive use by Matthew and Luke, all
except the disputed close. For this preservation we are all
grateful. Streeter (_The Four Gospels_) has emphasized the local
use of texts in preserving portions of the New Testament. If Mark
wrote in Rome, as is quite possible, his book was looked upon as
the Roman Gospel and had a powerful environment in which to take
root. It has distinctive merits of its own that helped to keep it
in use. It is mainly narrative and the style is direct and simple
with many vivid touches, like the historical present of an
eyewitness. The early writers all agree that Mark was the
interpreter for Simon Peter with whom he was at one time,
according to Peter's own statement, either in Babylon or Rome
( 1Pe 5:13 ).

        This Gospel is the briefest of the four, but is fullest
of striking details that apparently came from Peter's discourses
which Mark heard, such as green grass, flower beds ( Mr 6:38 ),
two thousand hogs ( Mr 5:13 ), looking round about ( Mr 3:5,34 ).
Peter usually spoke in Aramaic and Mark has more Aramaic phrases
than the others, like _Boanerges_ ( Mr 3:17 ), _Talitha cumi_
( Mr 5:41 ), _Korban_ ( Mr 7:11 ), _Ephphatha_ ( Mr 7:34 ),
_Abba_ ( Mr 14:36 ). The Greek is distinctly vernacular _Koin(825f)
like one-eyed (monophthalmon,  Mr 9:47 ) as one would expect
from both Peter and Mark. There are also more Latin phrases and
idioms like _centurio_ ( Mr 15:39 ), _quadrans_ ( Mr 12:42 ),
_flagellare_ ( Mr 15:15 ), _speculator_ ( Mr 6:27 ), _census_
( Mr 12:14 ), _sextarius_ ( Mr 7:4 ), _praetorium_ ( Mr 15:6 ),
than in the other Gospels, so much so that C. H. Turner raises
the question whether Mark wrote first in Latin, or at any rate in
Rome. There are some who hold that Mark wrote first in Aramaic,
but the facts are sufficiently accounted for by the fact of
Peter's preaching and the activity in Rome. Some even think that
he wrote the Gospel in Rome while with Peter who suggested and
read the manuscript. B.W. Bacon holds that this Gospel has a
distinct Pauline flavour and may have had several recensions. The
Ur-Marcus theory does not have strong support now. Mark was once
a co-worker with Barnabas and Paul, but deserted them at Perga.
Paul held this against Mark and refused to take him on the second
mission tour. Barnabas took Mark, his cousin, with him and then
he appeared with Simon Peter with whom he did his greatest work.
When Mark had made good with Barnabas and Peter, Paul rejoiced
and commends him heartily to the Colossians ( Col 4:10 ) In the
end Paul will ask Timothy to pick up Mark and bring him along
with him to Paul in Rome, for he has found him useful for
ministry, this very young man who made such a mistake that Paul
would have no more of him. This tribute to Mark by Paul throws
credit upon both of them as is shown in my _Making Good in the
Ministry_. The character of the Gospel of Mark is determined
largely by the scope of Peter's preaching as we see it in  Ac
10:36-42 , covering the period in outline from John the Baptist
to the Resurrection of Jesus. There is nothing about the birth of
the Baptist or of Jesus. This peculiarity of Mark's Gospel cannot
be used against the narratives of the Virgin Birth of Jesus in
Matthew and Luke, since Mark tells nothing whatever about his
birth at all.

        The closing passage in the Textus Receptus,  Mr 16:9-20 ,
is not found in the oldest Greek Manuscripts, Aleph and B, and is
probably not genuine. A discussion of the evidence will appear at
the proper place. Swete points out that Mark deals with two great
themes, the Ministry in Galilee (Chs. 1 to 9) and the Last Week
in Jerusalem (11 to 16) with a brief sketch of the period of
withdrawal from Galilee (ch. 10). The first fourteen verses are
introductory as  Mr 16:9-20  is an appendix. The Gospel of Mark
pictures Christ in action. There is a minimum of discourse and a
maximum of deed. And yet the same essential pictures of Christ
appear here as in the Logia, in Matthew, in Luke, in John, in
Paul, in Peter, in Hebrews as is shown in my _The Christ of the
Logia_. The cry of the critics to get back to the Synoptics and
away from Paul and John has ceased since it is plain that the
Jesus of Mark is the same as the Christ of Paul. There is a
different shading in the pictures, but the same picture, Son of
God and Son of Man, Lord of life and death, worker of miracles
and Saviour from sin. This Gospel is the one for children to read
first and is the one that we should use to lay the foundation for
our picture of Christ. In my _Harmony of the Gospels_ I have
placed Mark first in the framework since Matthew, Luke, and John
all follow in broad outline his plan with additions and
supplemental material. Mark's Gospel throbs with life and
bristles with vivid details. We see with Peter's eyes and catch
almost the very look and gesture of Jesus as he moved among men
in his work of healing men's bodies and saving men's souls.


經文:

馬可福音 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 {The beginning} (arch(885c)). There is no article in the Greek.
It is possible that the phrase served as a heading or title for
the paragraph about the ministry of the Baptist or as the
superscription for the whole Gospel (Bruce) placed either by Mark
or a scribe. And then the Gospel of Jesus Christ means the
Message about Jesus Christ (objective genitive). The word Gospel
here (euaggelion) comes close to meaning the record itself as
told by Mark. Swete notes that each writer has a different
starting point (arch(885c)). Mark, as the earliest form of the
evangelic tradition, begins with the work of the Baptist, Matthew
with the ancestry and birth of the Messiah, Luke with the birth
of the Baptist, John with the Preincarnate Logos, Paul with the
foundation of each of the churches ( Php 4:15 ). {The Son of God}
(Huiou theou). Aleph 28, 255 omit these words, but B, D, L,
have them and the great mass of the manuscripts have huiou tou
theou. If this is a heading added to what Mark wrote, the
heading may have existed early in two forms, one with, one
without "Son of God." If Mark wrote the words, there is no reason
to doubt the genuineness since he uses the phrase elsewhere.

經文:

馬可福音 1:2-1:2

註釋:

 {In Isaiah, the prophet} (en t(9369) Esai(8369) t(9369) proph(8874)(8869)). The
quotation comes from  Mal 3:1  and  Isa 40:3 . The Western and
Neutral classes read Isaiah, the Alexandrian and Syrian, "the
prophets," an evident correction because part of it is from
Malachi. But Isaiah is mentioned as the chief of the prophets. It
was common to combine quotations from the prophets in
_testimonia_ and _catenae_ (chains of quotations). This is Mark's
only prophetic quotation on his own account (Bruce).

經文:

馬可福音 1:3-1:3

註釋:

 {The voice of one crying} (phon(8820)bo(936e)tos). God is coming to
his people to deliver them from their captivity in Babylon. So
the prophet cries like a voice in the wilderness to make ready
for the coming of God. When the committee from the Sanhedrin came
to ask John who he was, he used this very language of Isaiah
( Joh 1:23 ). He was only a voice, but we can still hear the echo
of that voice through the corridor of the centuries. {Paths
straight} (eutheias tas tribous). Automobile highways today
well illustrate the wonderful Persian roads for the couriers of
the king and then for the king himself. The Roman Empire was knit
together by roads, some of which survive today. John had a high
and holy mission as the forerunner of the Messiah.

經文:

馬可福音 1:4-1:4

註釋:

 {John came} (egeneto I(9361)n(8873)). His coming was an epoch
(egeneto), not a mere event ((886e)). His coming was in
accordance with the prophetic picture (kath(9373),  1:2 ). Note the
same verb about John in  Joh 1:6 . The coming of John the
Baptizer was the real beginning of the spoken message about
Christ. He is described as {the baptizing one} (ho haptiz(936e)) in
the wilderness (en t(8869) er(886d)(9369)). The baptizing took place in the
River Jordan ( Mr 1:5,9 ) which was included in the general term
the wilderness or the deserted region of Judea. {Preached the
baptism of repentance} (k(8872)uss(936e) baptisma metanoias). Heralded
a repentance kind of baptism (genitive case, genus case), a
baptism marked by repentance. See on 烘t 3:2| for discussion of
repent, an exceedingly poor rendering of John's great word
metanoias. He called upon the Jews to change their minds and to
turn from their sins, "confessing their sins" (exomologoumenoi
tas hamartias aut(936e)). See  Mt 3:16 . The public confessions
produced a profound impression as they would now. {Unto remission
of sins} (eis aphesin hamarti(936e)). This is a difficult phrase to
translate accurately. Certainly John did not mean that the
baptism was the means of obtaining the forgiveness of their sins
or necessary to the remission of sins. The trouble lies in the
use of eis which sometimes is used when purpose is expressed,
but sometimes when there is no such idea as in  Mt 10:41  and  Mt
12:41 . Probably "with reference to" is as good a translation
here as is possible. The baptism was on the basis of the
repentance and confession of sin and, as Paul later explained
( Ro 6:4 ), was a picture of the death to sin and resurrection to
new life in Christ. This symbol was already in use by the Jews
for proselytes who became Jews. John is treating the Jewish
nation as pagans who need to repent, to confess their sins, and
to come back to the kingdom of God. The baptism in the Jordan was
the objective challenge to the people.

經文:

馬可福音 1:5-1:5

註釋:

 {Then went out unto him} (exeporeueto pros auton).
Imperfect indicative describing the steady stream of people who
kept coming to the baptism (ebaptizonto, imperfect passive
indicative, a wonderful sight). {In the river Jordan} (en t(9369)
Iordan(8869) potam(9369)). In the Jordan river, literally.

經文:

馬可福音 1:6-1:6

註釋:

 {Clothed with camel's hair} (endedumenos trichas kam(886c)ou).
Matthew ( Mt 3:4 ) has it a garment (enduma) of camel's hair.
Mark has it in the accusative plural the object of the perfect
passive participle retained according to a common Greek idiom. It
was, of course, not camel's skin, but rough cloth woven of
camel's hair. For the locusts and wild honey, see on 烘t 3:4|.
Dried locusts are considered palatable and the wild honey, or
"mountain honey" as some versions give it (meli agrion), was
bountiful in the clefts of the rocks. Some Bedouins make their
living yet by gathering this wild honey out of the rocks.

經文:

馬可福音 1:7-1:7

註釋:

 {Mightier than I} (ho ischuroteros mou). In each of the
Synoptics. Gould calls it a skeptical depreciation of himself by
John. But it was sincere on John's part and he gives a reason for
it. {The Latchet} (	on himanta). The thong of the sandal which
held it together. When the guest comes into the house, performed
by a slave before one enters the bath. Mark alone gives this
touch.

經文:

馬可福音 1:8-1:8

註釋:

 {With water} (hudati). So Luke ( Lu 3:16 ) the locative
case, {in water}. Matthew ( Mt 3:11 ) has en (in), both with
(in) water and the Holy Spirit. The water baptism by John was a
symbol of the spiritual baptism by Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 1:9-1:9

註釋:

 {In the Jordan} (eis ton Iordan(886e)). So in verse  10 , ek
tou hudatos, out of the water, after the baptism into the
Jordan. Mark is as fond of "straightway" (euthus) as Matthew is
of "then" (	ote). {Rent asunder} (schizomenous). Split like a
garment, present passive participle. Jesus saw the heavens
parting as he came up out of the water, a more vivid picture than
the "opened" in  Mt 3:16  and  Lu 3:21 . Evidently the Baptist
saw all this and the Holy Spirit coming down upon Jesus as a dove
because he later mentions it ( Joh 1:32 ). The Cerinthian
Gnostics took the dove to mean the heavenly _aeon Christ_ that
here descended upon the man Jesus and remained with him till the
Cross when it left him, a sort of forecast of the modern
distinction between the Jesus of history and the theological
Christ.

經文:

馬可福音 1:11-1:11

註釋:

 {Thou art} (su ei). So  Lu 3:22 .  Mt 3:17  has {this is}
(houtos estin) which see. So both Mark and Luke have "in thee,"
while Matthew has "in whom."

經文:

馬可福音 1:12-1:12

註釋:

 {Driveth him forth} (auton ekballei). Vivid word, bolder
than Matthew's "was led up" (an(8863)hth(885c)) and Luke's "was led"
((8867)eto). It is the same word employed in the driving out of
demons ( Mr 1:34,39 ). Mark has here "straightway" where Matthew
has "then" (see on verse 消|). The forty days in the wilderness
were under the direct guidance of the Holy Spirit. The entire
earthly life of Jesus was bound up with the Holy Spirit from his
birth to his death and resurrection.

經文:

馬可福音 1:13-1:13

註釋:

 {With the wild beasts} (meta t(9375) th(8872)i(936e)). Mark does not
give the narrative of the three temptations in Matthew and Luke
(apparently from the Logia and originally, of course, from Jesus
himself). But Mark adds this little touch about the wild beasts
in the wilderness. It was the haunt at night of the wolf, the
boar, the hyena, the jackal, the leopard. It was lonely and
depressing in its isolation and even dangerous. Swete notes that
in  Ps 90:13  the promise of victory over the wild beasts comes
immediately after that of angelic guardianship cited by Satan in
 Mt 4:6 . The angels did come and minister (di(886b)onoun),
imperfect tense, kept it up till he was cheered and strengthened.
Dr. Tristram observes that some Abyssinian Christians are in the
habit of coming to the Quarantania during Lent and fasting forty
days on the summit amid the ruins of its ancient cells and
chapels where they suppose Jesus was tempted. But we are all
tempted of the devil in the city even worse than in the desert.

經文:

馬可福音 1:14-1:14

註釋:

 {Jesus came into Galilee} ((886c)then ho I(8873)ous eis t(886e)
Galilaian). Here Mark begins the narrative of the active
ministry of Jesus and he is followed by Matthew and Luke. Mark
undoubtedly follows the preaching of Peter. But for the Fourth
Gospel we should not know of the year of work in various parts of
the land (Perea, Galilee, Judea, Samaria) preceding the Galilean
ministry. John supplements the Synoptic Gospels at this point as
often. The arrest of John had much to do with the departure of
Jesus from Judea to Galilee ( Joh 4:1-4 ). {Preaching the gospel
of God} (k(8872)uss(936e) to euaggelion tou theou). It is the
subjective genitive, the gospel that comes from God. Swete
observes that repentance (metanoia) is the keynote in the
message of the Baptist as gospel (euaggelion) is with Jesus.
But Jesus took the same line as John and proclaimed both
repentance and the arrival of the kingdom of God. Mark adds to
Matthew's report the words "the time is fulfilled" (pepl(8872)(9374)ai
ho kairos). It is a significant fact that John looks backward to
the promise of the coming of the Messiah and signalizes the
fulfilment as near at hand (perfect passive indicative). It is
like Paul's fulness of time (pl(8872)(936d)a tou chronou) in  Ga 4:4 
and fulness of the times (pl(8872)(936d)a ton kair(936e)) in  Eph 1:10 
when he employs the word kairos, opportunity or crisis as here
in Mark rather than the more general term chronos. Mark adds
here also: "and believe in the gospel" (kai pisteuete en t(9369)
euaggeli(9369)). Both repent and believe in the gospel. Usually
faith in Jesus (or God) is expected as in  John 14:1 . But this
crisis called for faith in the message of Jesus that the Messiah
had come. He did not use here the term Messiah, for it had come
to have political connotations that made its use at present
unwise. But the kingdom of God had arrived with the presence of
the King. It does make a difference what one believes. Belief or
disbelief in the message of Jesus made a sharp cleavage in those
who heard him. "Faith in the message was the first step; a creed
of some kind lies at the basis of confidence in the Person of
Christ, and the occurrence of the phrase pistuete en t(9369)
euaggeli(9369) in the oldest record of the teaching of our Lord is a
valuable witness to this fact" (Swete).

經文:

馬可福音 1:16-1:16

註釋:

 {And passing along by the Sea of Galilee} (kai parag(936e) para
t(886e) thalassan t(8873) Galilaias). Mark uses para (along, beside)
twice and makes the picture realistic. He catches this glimpse of
Christ in action. Casting a {net} (amphiballontas). Literally
casting on both sides, now on one side, now on the other. Matthew
( Mt 4:18 ) has a different phrase which see. There are two
papyri examples of the verb amphiball(935c), one verb absolutely for
fishing as here, the other with the accusative. It is fishing
with a net, making a cast, a haul. These four disciples were
fishermen (halieis) and were {partners} (metochoi) as Luke
states ( Lu 5:7 ).

經文:

馬可福音 1:17-1:17

註釋:

 {Become} (genesthai). Mark has this word not in Matthew.
It would be a slow and long process, but Jesus could and would do
it. He would undertake to make fishers of men out of fishermen.
Preachers are made out of laymen who are willing to leave their
business for service for Christ.

經文:

馬可福音 1:19-1:19

註釋:

 {A little further} (oligon). A Marcan detail. {Mending
their nets} (katartizontas ta diktua). See on 烘t 4:21|.
Getting ready that they might succeed better at the next haul.

經文:

馬可福音 1:20-1:20

註釋:

 {With the hired servants} (meta t(936e) misth(9374)(936e)). One hired
for wages (misthos), a very old Greek word. Zebedee and his two
sons evidently had an extensive business in co-operation with
Andrew and Simon ( Lu 5:7,10 ). Mark alone has this detail of the
hired servants left with Zebedee. They left the boat and their
father ( Mt 4:22 ) with the hired servants. The business would go
on while they left all ( Lu 5:11 ) and became permanent followers
of Jesus. Many a young man has faced precisely this problem when
he entered the ministry. Could he leave father and mother,
brothers and sisters, while he went forth to college and seminary
to become a fisher of men? Not the least of the sacrifices made
in the education of young preachers is that made by the home
folks who have additional burdens to bear because the young
preacher is no longer a bread-winner at home. Most young
preachers joyfully carry on such burdens after entering the
ministry.

經文:

馬可福音 1:21-1:21

註釋:

 {And taught} (edidasken). Inchoative imperfect, began to
teach as soon as he entered the synagogue in Capernaum on the
sabbath. The synagogue in Capernaum afforded the best opening for
the teaching of Jesus. He had now made Capernaum (Tell Hum) his
headquarters after the rejection in Nazareth as explained in  Lu
4:16-31  and  Mt 4:13-16 . The ruins of this synagogue have been
discovered and there is even talk of restoring the building since
the stones are in a good state of preservation. Jesus both taught
(didask(935c)) and preached (k(8872)uss(935c)) in the Jewish synagogues as
opportunity was offered by the chief or leader of the synagogue
(archisunag(9367)os). The service consisted of prayer, praise,
reading of scripture, and exposition by any rabbi or other
competent person. Often Paul was invited to speak at such
meetings. In  Lu 4:20  Jesus gave back the roll of Isaiah to the
attendant or beadle (	(9369) hup(8872)et(8869)) whose business it was to
bring out the precious manuscript and return it to its place.
Jesus was a preacher of over a year when he began to teach in the
Capernaum synagogue. His reputation had preceded him ( Lu 4:14 ).

經文:

馬可福音 1:22-1:22

註釋:

 {They were astonished} (exepl(8873)sonto). Pictorial imperfect
as in  Lu 4:32  describing the amazement of the audience,
"meaning strictly to strike a person out of his senses by some
strong feeling, such as fear, wonder, or even joy" (Gould). {And
not as their scribes} (kai ouch h(9373) hoi grammateis).  Lu 4:32 
has only "with authority" (en exousi(8369)). Mark has it "as having
authority" (h(9373) ech(936e) exousian). He struck a note not found by
the rabbi. They quoted other rabbis and felt their function to be
expounders of the traditions which they made a millstone around
the necks of the people. By so doing they set aside the word and
will of God by their traditions and petty legalism ( Mr 7:9,13 ).
They were casuists and made false interpretations to prove their
punctilious points of external etiquette to the utter neglect of
the spiritual reality. The people noticed at once that here was a
personality who got his power (authority) direct from God, not
from the current scribes. "Mark omits much, and is in many ways a
meagre Gospel, but it makes a distinctive contribution to the
evangelic history _in showing by a few realistic touches_ (this
one of them) _the remarkable personality of Jesus_" (Bruce). See
on  Mt 7:29  for the like impression made by the Sermon on the
Mount where the same language occurs. The chief controversy in
Christ's life was with these scribes, the professional teachers
of the oral law and mainly Pharisees. At once the people see that
Jesus stands apart from the old group. He made a sensation in the
best sense of that word. There was a buzz of excitement at the
new teacher that was increased by the miracle that followed the
sermon.

經文:

馬可福音 1:23-1:23

註釋:

 {With an unclean spirit} (en pneumati akathart(9369)). This
use of en "with" is common in the Septuagint like the Hebrew
_be_, but it occurs also in the papyri. It is the same idiom as
"in Christ," "in the Lord" so common with Paul. In English we
speak of our being in love, in drink, in his cups, etc. The
unclean spirit was in the man and the man in the unclean spirit,
a man in the power of the unclean spirit. Luke has "having," the
usual construction. See on 烘t 22:43|. Unclean spirit is used as
synonymous with {demon} (daimonion). It is the idea of
estrangement from God ( Zec 13:2 ). The whole subject of
demonology is difficult, but no more so than the problem of the
devil. Jesus distinguishes between the man and the unclean
spirit. Usually physical or mental disease accompanied the
possession by demons. One wonders today if the degenerates and
confirmed criminals so common now are not under the power of
demons. The only cure for confirmed criminals seems to be
conversion (a new heart).

經文:

馬可福音 1:24-1:24

註釋:

 {What have we to do with thee?} (	i h(886d)in kai soi?) The
same idiom in  Mt 8:29 . Ethical dative. Nothing in common
between the demon and Jesus. Note "we." The man speaks for the
demon and himself, double personality. The recognition of Jesus
by the demons may surprise us since the rabbis (the
ecclesiastics) failed to do so. They call Jesus "The Holy One of
God" (ho hagios tou theou). Hence the demon feared that Jesus
was come to destroy him and the man in his power. In  Mt 8:29 
the demon calls Jesus "Son of God." Later the disciples will call
Jesus "The Holy One of God" ( Joh 6:69 ). The demon cried out
aloud (anekraxen, late first aorist form, anekragen, common
second aorist) so that all heard the strange testimony to Jesus.
The man says "I know" (oida), correct text, some manuscripts
"we know" (oidamen), including the demon.

經文:

馬可福音 1:25-1:25

註釋:

 {Hold thy peace} (phim(9374)h(8874)i). First aorist passive
imperative of phimo(935c). "Be quiet," Moffatt translates it. But it
is a more vigorous word, "Be muzzled" like an ox. So literally in
De 25:4, 1Co 9:9 1Ti 5:18 . It is common in Josephus, Lucian,
and the LXX. See  Mt 22:12,34 . Gould renders it "Shut up." "Shut
your mouth" would be too colloquial. Vincent suggests "gagged,"
but that is more the idea of epistomazein in  Tit 1:11 , to
stop the mouth.

經文:

馬可福音 1:26-1:26

註釋:

 {Tearing him} (sparaxan auton). Margin, {convulsing him}
like a spasm. Medical writers use the word for the rotating of
the stomach.  Lu 4:35  adds "when the demon had thrown him down
in the midst." Mark mentions the "loud voice" (phon(8869) megal(8869)),
a screech, in fact. It was a moment of intense excitement.

經文:

馬可福音 1:27-1:27

註釋:

 {They questioned among themselves} (sunz(8874)ein autous). By
look and word. {A new teaching} (didach(8820)kain(885c)). One surprise
had followed another this day. The teaching was fresh (kain(885c)),
original as the dew of the morning on the blossoms just blown.
That was a novelty in that synagogue where only staid and stilted
rabbinical rules had been heretofore droned out. This new
teaching charmed the people, but soon will be rated as heresy by
the rabbis. And it was with authority (kat' exousian). It is
not certain whether the phrase is to be taken with "new
teaching," "It's new teaching with authority behind it," as
Moffatt has it, or with the verb; "with authority commandeth even
the unclean spirits" (kai tois pneumasin tois akathartois
epitassei). The position is equivocal and may be due to the fact
that "Mark gives the incoherent and excited remarks of the crowd
in this natural form" (Swete). But the most astonishing thing of
all is that the demons "obey him" (hupakouousin aut(9369)). The
people were accustomed to the use of magical formulae by the
Jewish exorcists ( Mt 12:27  Ac 19:13 ), but here was something
utterly different. Simon Magus could not understand how Simon
Peter could do his miracles without some secret trick and even
offered to buy it ( Ac 8:19 ).

經文:

馬可福音 1:28-1:28

註釋:

 {The report of him} (h(8820)ako(8820)autou). Vulgate, _rumor_. See
 Mt 14:1  24:6 . They had no telephones, telegraphs, newspapers
or radio, but news has a marvellous way of spreading by word of
mouth. The fame of this new teacher went out "everywhere"
(pantachou) throughout all Galilee.

經文:

馬可福音 1:29-1:29

註釋:

 {The house of Simon and Andrew} (	(886e) oikian Sim(936e)os kai
Andreou). Peter was married and both he and Andrew lived
together in "Peter's house" ( Mt 8:14 ) with Peter's wife and
mother-in-law. Peter was evidently married before he began to
follow Jesus. Later his wife accompanied him on his apostolic
journeys ( 1Co 9:5 ). This incident followed immediately after
the service in the synagogue on the sabbath. All the Synoptics
give it. Mark heard Peter tell it as it occurred in his own house
where Jesus made his home while in Capernaum. Each Gospel gives
touches of its own to the story. Mark has "lay sick of a fever "
(katekeito puressousa), lay prostrate burning with fever.
Matthew puts it "stretched out (ebl(886d)en(886e)) with a fever." Luke
has it "holden with a great fever" ((886e) sunechomen(8820)puret(9369)
megal(9369)), a technical medical phrase. They all mention the
instant recovery and ministry without any convalescence. Mark and
Matthew speak of the touch of Jesus on her hand and Luke speaks
of Jesus standing over her like a doctor. It was a tender scene.

經文:

馬可福音 1:32-1:32

註釋:

 {When the sun did set} (hote edusen ho h(886c)ios). This
picturesque detail Mark has besides "at even" (opsias
genomen(8873), genitive absolute, evening having come). Matthew has
"when even was come," Luke "when the sun was setting." The
sabbath ended at sunset and so the people were now at liberty to
bring their sick to Jesus. The news about the casting out of the
demon and the healing of Peter's mother-in-law had spread all
over Capernaum. They brought them in a steady stream (imperfect
tense, epheron). Luke ( Lu 4:40 ) adds that Jesus laid his hand
on every one of them as they passed by in grateful procession.

經文:

馬可福音 1:33-1:33

註釋:

 {At the door} (pros t(886e) thuran). At the door of Peter's
house. The whole city was gathered together there ((886e)
episun(8867)men(882c) past perfect passive periphrastic indicative,
double compound epi and sun). Mark alone mentions this vivid
detail. He is seeing with Peter's eyes again. Peter no doubt
watched the beautiful scene with pride and gratitude as Jesus
stood in the door and healed the great crowds in the glory of
that sunset. He loved to tell it afterwards. {Divers diseases}
(poikilais nosois). See  Mt 4:24  about poikilos meaning
many-coloured, variegated. All sorts of sick folk came and were
healed.

經文:

馬可福音 1:34-1:34

註釋:

 {Devils} (daimonia). Demons it should be translated
always. {Suffered not} (ouk (8870)hien). Would not allow, imperfect
tense of continued refusal. The reason given is "because they
knew him" (hoti (8869)deisan auton). Whether "to be Christ"
(Christon einai) is genuine or not, that is the meaning and is
a direct reference to  1:24  when in the synagogue the demon
recognized and addressed Jesus as the Holy One of God. Testimony
from such a source was not calculated to help the cause of Christ
with the people. He had told the other demon to be silent. See on
烘t 8:29| for discussion of the word demon.

經文:

馬可福音 1:35-1:35

註釋:

 {In the morning, a great while before day} (pr(9369) ennucha
lian). Luke has only "when it was day" (genomen(8873) h(886d)eras).
The word pr(9369) in Mark means the last watch of the night from
three to six A.M. Ennucha lian means in the early part of the
watch while it was still a bit dark (cf.  Mr 16:2  lian pr(9369)).
{Rose up and went out} (anastas ex(886c)then). Out of the house and
out of the city, off (ap(886c)then, even if not genuine, possibly a
conflate reading from  6:32,46 ). "Flight from the unexpected
reality into which His ideal conception of His calling had
brought Him" (H.J. Holtzmann). Gould notes that Jesus seems to
retreat before his sudden popularity, to prayer with the Father
"that he might not be ensnared by this popularity, or in any way
induced to accept the ways of ease instead of duty." But Jesus
also had a plan for a preaching tour of Galilee and "He felt He
could not begin too soon. He left in the night, fearing
opposition from the people" (Bruce). Surely many a popular
preacher can understand this mood of Jesus when in the night he
slips away to a solitary place for prayer. Jesus knew what it was
to spend a whole night in prayer. He knew the blessing of prayer
and the power of prayer. {And there prayed} (k'akei
pros(8875)cheto). Imperfect tense picturing Jesus as praying through
the early morning hours.

經文:

馬可福音 1:36-1:36

註釋:

 {Followed after him} (katedi(9378)en auton). Hunted him out
(Moffatt). Perfective use of the preposition kata (down to the
finish). The verb di(936b)(935c) is used for the hunt or chase, pursuit.
Vulgate has _persecutus est_. The personal story of Peter comes
in here. "Simon's intention at least was good; the Master seemed
to be losing precious opportunities and must be brought back"
(Swete). Peter and those with him kept up the search till they
found him. The message that they brought would surely bring Jesus
back to Peter's house.

經文:

馬可福音 1:38-1:38

註釋:

 {Into the next towns} (eis tas echomenas k(936d)opoleis). It
was a surprising decision for Jesus to leave the eager, excited
throngs in Capernaum for the country town or village cities
without walls or much importance. Only instance of the word in
the N.T. Late Greek word. The use of echomenas for next is a
classic use meaning clinging to, next to a thing. So in  Lu
13:33  Ac 13:44  20:15  Heb 6:9 . "D" here has eggus (near).

經文:

馬可福音 1:39-1:39

註釋:

 {Throughout all Galilee} (Eis hol(886e) t(886e) Galilaian). The
first tour of Galilee by Jesus. We are told little about this
great preaching tour.

經文:

馬可福音 1:40-1:40

註釋:

 {Kneeling down to him} (kai gonupet(936e)). Picturesque detail
omitted by some MSS.  Lu 5:12  has "fell on his face."

經文:

馬可福音 1:41-1:41

註釋:

 {Being moved with compassion} (splagchnistheis). Only in
Mark. First aorist passive participle.

經文:

馬可福音 1:43-1:43

註釋:

 {Strictly charged} (embrim(8873)amenos). Only in Mark.  Lu
5:14  has par(8867)geilen (commanded). Mark's word occurs also in
 14:5  and in  Mt 9:30  and  Joh 11:38 . See on 烘t 9:30|. It is
a strong word for the snorting of a horse and expresses powerful
emotion as Jesus stood here face to face with leprosy, itself a
symbol of sin and all its train of evils. The command to report
to the priests was in accord with the Mosaic regulations and the
prohibition against talking about it was to allay excitement and
to avoid needless opposition to Christ.

經文:

馬可福音 1:44-1:44

註釋:

 {For a testimony unto them} (eis marturion autois).
Without the formal testimony of the priests the people would not
receive the leper as officially clean.

經文:

馬可福音 1:45-1:45

註釋:

 {Began to publish it much} ((8872)xato k(8872)ussein polla).  Lu
5:15  puts it, "so much the more" (m(836c)lon). One of the best
ways to spread a thing is to tell people not to tell. It was
certainly so in this case. Soon Jesus had to avoid cities and
betake himself to desert places to avoid the crowds and even then
people kept coming to Jesus ((8872)chonto, imperfect tense). Some
preachers are not so disturbed by the onrush of crowds.

經文:

馬可福音 2:1-2:1

註釋:

 {Again into Capernaum after some days} (palin eis
Kapharnaoum di' h(886d)er(936e)). After the first tour of Galilee when
Jesus is back in the city which is now the headquarters for the
work in Galilee. The phrase di' h(886d)er(936e) means days coming in
between (dia, duo, two) the departure and return. {In the
house} (en oik(9369)). More exactly, {at home}, in the home of
Peter, now the home of Jesus. Another picture directly from
Peter's discourse. Some of the manuscripts have here eis oikon,
illustrating the practical identity in meaning of en and eis
(Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 591-6). {It was noised} ((886b)ousth(885c)).
It was heard (first aorist, passive indicative from akou(935c), to
hear). People spread the rumour, "He is at home, he is indoors."

經文:

馬可福音 2:2-2:2

註釋:

 {So that there was no longer room for them, no, not even
about the door} (h(9373)te m(886b)eti ch(9372)ein m(8864)e ta pros t(886e) thuran).
Another graphic Markan detail seen through Peter's eyes. The
double compound negative in the Greek intensifies the negative.
This house door apparently opened into the street, not into a
court as in the larger houses. The house was packed inside and
there was a jam outside. {And he spake the word unto them} (kai
elalei autois ton logon). And he was speaking the word unto
them, Mark's favourite descriptive imperfect tense (elalei).
Note this word lale(935c) about the preaching of Jesus (originally
just sounds like the chatter of birds, the prattling of children,
but here of the most serious kind of speech. As contrasted with
leg(935c) (to say) it is rather an onomatopoetic word with some
emphasis on the sound and manner of speaking. The word is com-
mon in the vernacular papyri examples of social inter-course.

經文:

馬可福音 2:3-2:3

註釋:

 {And they come} (kai erchontai). Fine illustration of
Mark's vivid dramatic historical present preserved by Luke  Lu
5:18 , but not by  Mt 9:2  (imperfect). {Borne by four}
(airomenon hupo tessar(936e)). Another picturesque Markan detail
not in the others.

經文:

馬可福音 2:4-2:4

註釋:

 {Come nigh} (proseggisai). But Westcott and Hort read
prosenegkai, to bring to, after Aleph, B, L, 33, 63 (cf.  Joh
5:18 ). {They uncovered the roof} (apestegasan t(886e) steg(886e)).
They unroofed the roof (note paronomasia in the Greek and cognate
accusative). The only instance of this verb in the N.T. A rare
word in late Greek, no papyrus example given in Moulton and
Milligan _Vocabulary_. They climbed up a stairway on the outside
or ladder to the flat tile roof and dug out or broke up
(exoruxantes) the tiles (the roof). There were thus tiles (dia
t(936e) keram(936e),  Lu 5:19 ) of laths and plaster and even slabs of
stone stuck in for strength that had to be dug out. It is not
clear where Jesus was (hopou (886e)), either downstairs,
(Holtzmann) or upstairs (Lightfoot), or in the quadrangle
(_atrium_ or _compluvium_, if the house had one). "A composition
of mortar, tar, ashes and sand is spread upon the roofs, and
rolled hard, and grass grows in the crevices. On the houses of
the poor in the country the grass grows more freely, and goats
may be seen on the roofs cropping it" (Vincent). {They let down
the bed} (chal(9373)i ton krabatton), historical present again,
aorist tense in  Lu 5:19  (kath(886b)an). The verb means to lower
from a higher place as from a boat. Probably the four men had a
rope fastened to each corner of the pallet or poor man's bed
(krabatton, Latin _grabatus_. So one of Mark's Latin words).
Matthew ( Mt 9:2 ) has klin(885c), general term for bed. Luke has
klinidion (little bed or couch). Mark's word is common in the
papyri and is spelled also krabbatos, sometimes krabatos,
while W, Codex Washingtonius, has it krabbaton.

經文:

馬可福音 2:5-2:5

註釋:

 {Their faith} (	(886e) pistin aut(936e)). The faith of the four men
and of the man himself. There is no reason for excluding his
faith. They all had confidence in the power and willingness of
Jesus to heal this desperate case. {Are forgiven} (aphientai,
aoristic present passive, cf. punctiliar action, Robertson's
_Grammar_, pp. 864ff.). So  Mt 9:3 , but  Lu 5:20  has the Doric
perfect passive aphe(936e)tai. The astonishing thing both to the
paralytic and to the four friends is that Jesus forgave his sins
instead of healing him. The sins had probably caused the
paralysis.

經文:

馬可福音 2:6-2:6

註釋:

 {Sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts} (ekei
kath(886d)enoi kai dialogizomenoi en tais kardiais aut(936e)). Another
of Mark's pictures through Peter's eyes. These scribes (and
Pharisees,  Lu 5:21 ) were there to cause trouble, to pick flaws
in the teaching and conduct of Jesus. His popularity and power
had aroused their jealousy. There is no evidence that they spoke
aloud the murmur in their hearts, "within themselves" ( Mt 9:3 ).
It was not necessary, for their looks gave them away and Jesus
knew their thoughts ( Mt 9:4 ) and perceived their reasoning ( Lu
5:22 ). {Instantly Jesus recognized it in his own spirit}
(euthus epignous ho I(8873)ous t(9369) pneumati autou,  Mr 2:8 ). The
Master at once recognizes the hostile atmosphere in the house.
The debate (dialogizomenoi) in their hearts was written on
their faces. No sound had come, but feeling did.

經文:

馬可福音 2:7-2:7

註釋:

 {He blasphemeth} (lasph(886d)ei). This is the unspoken charge
in their hearts which Jesus read like an open book. The correct
text here has this verb. They justify the charge with the
conviction that God alone has the power (dunatai) to forgive
sins. The word lasph(886d)e(935c) means injurious speech or slander. It
was, they held, blasphemy for Jesus to assume this divine
prerogative. Their logic was correct. The only flaw in it was the
possibility that Jesus held a peculiar relation to God which
justified his claim. So the two forces clash here as now on the
deity of Christ Jesus. Knowing full well that he had exercised
the prerogative of God in forgiving the man's sins he proceeds to
justify his claim by healing the man.

經文:

馬可福音 2:10-2:10

註釋:

 {That ye may know} (hina eid(8874)e). The scribes could have
said either of the alternatives in verse  9  with equal futility.
Jesus could say either with equal effectiveness. In fact Jesus
chose the harder first, the forgiveness which they could not see.
So he now performs the miracle of healing which all could see,
that all could know that (the Son of Man, Christ's favourite
designation of himself, a claim to be the Messiah in terms that
could not be easily attacked) he really had the authority and
power (exousian) to forgive sins. He has the right and power
here on earth to forgive sins, here and now without waiting for
the day of judgment. {He saith to the sick of the palsy}
(legei). This remarkable parenthesis in the middle of the
sentence occurs also in  Mt 9:6  and  Lu 5:24 , proof that both
Matthew and Luke followed Mark's narrative. It is inconceivable
that all three writers should independently have injected the
same parenthesis at the same place.

經文:

馬可福音 2:12-2:12

註釋:

 {Before them all} (emprosthen pant(936e)).  Lu 5:25  follows
Mark in this detail. He picked up (aras) his pallet and walked
and went home as Jesus had commanded him to do ( Mr 2:11 ). It
was an amazing proceeding and made it unnecessary for Jesus to
refute the scribes further on this occasion. The amazement
(existasthai, our _ecstasy_, as  Lu 5:26  has it), was too
general and great for words. The people could only say: "We never
saw it on this fashion" (Hout(9373) oudepote eidamen). Jesus had
acted with the power of God and claimed equality with God and had
made good his claim. They all marvelled at the {paradoxes}
(paradoxa,  Lu 5:26 ) of that day. For it all they glorified
God.

經文:

馬可福音 2:13-2:13

註釋:

 {By the seaside} (para t(886e) thalassan). A pretty picture of
Jesus walking by the sea and a walk that Jesus loved ( Mr 1:16  Mt 4:18 ). Probably Jesus went out from the crowd in Peter's
house as soon as he could. It was a joy to get a whiff of fresh
air by the sea. But it was not long till all the crowd began to
come to Jesus ((8872)cheto, imperfect) and Jesus was teaching them
(edidasken, imperfect). It was the old story over again, but
Jesus did not run away.

經文:

馬可福音 2:14-2:14

註釋:

 {And as he passed by} (kai parag(936e)). Present participle
active, was passing by. Jesus was constantly on the alert for
opportunities to do good. An unlikely specimen was Levi
(Matthew), son of Alpheus, sitting at the toll-gate (	el(936e)ion)
on the Great West Road from Damascus to the Mediterranean. He was
a publican (	el(936e)(8873)) who collected toll for Herod Antipas. The
Jews hated or despised these publicans and classed them with
sinners (hamart(936c)oi). The challenge of Jesus was sudden and
sharp, but Levi (Matthew) was ready to respond at once. He had
heard of Jesus and quickly decided. Great decisions are often
made on a moment's notice. Levi is a fine object lesson for
business men who put off service to Christ to carry on their
business.

經文:

馬可福音 2:16-2:16

註釋:

 {The scribes of the Pharisees} (hoi grammateis t(936e)
Pharisai(936e)). This is the correct text. Cf. "their scribes" in
 Lu 5:30 . Matthew gave a great reception (doch(886e),  Lu 5:29 )
in his house ( Mr 2:15 ). These publicans and sinners not simply
accepted Levi's invitation, but they imitated his example "and
were following Jesus" (kai (886b)olouthoun aut(9369)). It was a motly
crew from the standpoint of these young theologues, scribes of
the Pharisees, who were on hand, being invited to pick flaws if
they could. It was probably in the long hall of the house where
the scribes stood and ridiculed Jesus and the disciples, unless
they stood outside, feeling too pious to go into the house of a
publican. It was an offence for a Jew to eat with Gentiles as
even many of the early Jewish Christians felt ( Ac 11:3 ) and
publicans and sinners were regarded like Gentiles ( 1Co 5:11 ).

經文:

馬可福音 2:17-2:17

註釋:

 {The righteous} (dikaious). Jesus for the sake of argument
accepts the claim of the Pharisees to be righteous, though, as a
matter of fact, they fell very far short of it. Elsewhere ( Mt
23 ) Jesus shows that the Pharisees were extortionate and
devoured widows' houses and wore a cloak of pride and
hypocritical respectability. The words "unto repentance" (eis
metanoian) are not genuine in Mark, but are in  Lu 5:32 . Jesus
called men to new spiritual life and away from sin and so to
repentance. But this claim stopped their mouths against what
Jesus was doing. The well or the strong (ischuontes) are not
those who need the physician in an epidemic.

經文:

馬可福音 2:18-2:18

註釋:

 {John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting} ((8873)an hoi
math(8874)ai I(9361)nou kai hoi Pharisaioi n(8873)teuontes). The
periphrastic imperfect, so common in Mark's vivid description.
Probably Levi's feast happened on one of the weekly fast-days
(second and fifth days of the week for the stricter Jews). So
there was a clash of standpoints. The disciples of John sided
with the Pharisees in the Jewish ceremonial ritualistic
observances. John was still a prisoner in Machaerus. John was
more of an ascetic than Jesus ( Mt 18f.  Lu 7:33-35 ), but
neither one pleased all the popular critics. These learners
(math(8874)ai) or disciples of John had missed the spirit of their
leader when they here lined up with the Pharisees against Jesus.
But there was no real congeniality between the formalism of the
Pharisees and the asceticism of John the Baptist. The Pharisees
hated John who had denounced them as broods of vipers. Here the
disciples of John and the disciples of the Pharisees (hoi
math(8874)ai I(9361)nou kai hoi math(8874)ai t(936e) Pharisai(936e)) join in
criticizing Jesus and his disciples. Later we shall see
Pharisees, Sadducees, and Herodians, who bitterly detested each
other, making com- mon cause against Jesus Christ. So today we
find various hostile groups combining against our Lord and
Saviour. See on 烘t 9:14-17| for comments. Matthew has here
followed Mark closely.

經文:

馬可福音 2:19-2:19

註釋:

 {The sons of the bridechamber} (hoi huioi tou numph(936e)os).
Not merely the groomsmen, but the guests also, the paranymphs
(paranumphoi of the old Greek). Jesus here adopts the Baptist's
own metaphor ( Joh 3:29 ), changing the friend of the bridegroom
(ho philos tou numphiou) to sons of the bridechamber. Jesus
identifies himself with the bridegroom of the O.T. ( Ho 2:21 ),
God in his covenant relation with Israel (Swete). Mourning does
not suit the wedding feast. Mark, Matthew, and Luke all give the
three parables (bridegroom, unfulled cloth, new wineskins)
illustrating and defending the conduct of Jesus in feasting with
Levi on a Jewish fast-day.  Lu 5:36  calls these parables. Jesus
here seems iconoclastic to the ecclesiastics and revolutionary in
emphasis on the spiritual instead of the ritualistic and
ceremonial.

經文:

馬可福音 2:21-2:21

註釋:

 {Seweth on} (epirhaptei). Here only in the N.T. or
elsewhere, though the uncompounded verb 
hapt(935c) (to sew) is
common enough, {sews upon:} in  Mt 9:16  and  Lu 5:37  use
epiballei, put upon or clap upon.

經文:

馬可福音 2:22-2:22

註釋:

 {But new wine into fresh wineskins} (alla oinon neon eis
askous kainous). Westcott and Hort bracket this clause as a
Western non-interpolation though omitted only in D and some old
Latin MSS. It is genuine in  Lu 5:38  and may be so here.

經文:

馬可福音 2:23-2:23

註釋:

 {Through the cornfields} (dia t(936e) sporim(936e)). See on 烘t
12:1|. So Matt. and  Lu 6:1 . But Mark uses paraporeuesthai, to
go along beside, unless diaporeuesthai (BCD) is accepted.
Perhaps now on the edge, now within the grain. Mark uses also
hodon poiein, to {make a way} like the Latin _iter facere_, as
if through the standing grain, {plucking the ears} (	illontes
tous stachuas). Work of preparing food the rabbis called it. The
margin of the Revised Version has it correctly: They began to
make their way plucking the ears of corn (grain, wheat or barley,
we should say). See on 烘t 12:1-8| for discussion of this
passage, parallel also in  Lu 6:15 .

經文:

馬可福音 2:26-2:26

註釋:

 2Sa
8:17 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Sa
8' or engs='2Sa
8'
經文:

馬可福音 2:27-2:27

註釋:

 {For man} (dia ton anthr(9370)on). Mark alone has this
profound saying which subordinates the sabbath to man's real
welfare (mankind, observe, generic article with anthr(9370)os,
class from class). Man was not made for the sabbath as the rabbis
seemed to think with all their petty rules about eating an egg
laid on the sabbath or looking in the glass, _et cetera_. See
2Macc. 5:19 and _Mechilta_ on  Ex 31:13 : "The sabbath is
delivered unto you and ye are not delivered unto the sabbath."
Christianity has had to fight this same battle about
institutionalism. The church itself is for man, not man for the
church.

經文:

馬可福音 2:28-2:28

註釋:

 {Even of the sabbath} (kai tou sabbatou). Mark, Matthew
( Mt 12:8 ), and Luke ( Lu 6:5 ) all give this as a climax in the
five reasons given by Christ on the occasion for the conduct of
the disciples, but Mark has the little word "even" (kai) not in
the others, showing that Jesus knew that he was making a great
claim as the Son of Man, the Representative Man, the Messiah
looked at from his human interest, to lordship (kurios) even of
the sabbath. He was not the slave of the sabbath, but the master
of it. "Even of the sabbath, so invaluable in your eyes. Lord,
not to abolish, but to interpret and keep in its own place, and
give it a new name" (Bruce).

經文:

馬可福音 3:1-3:1

註釋:

 {Had his hand withered} (ex(8872)ammen(886e) ech(936e) t(886e) cheira). He
had his ({the} in the Greek, common idiom with article as
possessive) hand (right hand,  Lu 6:6 ) in a withered state,
perfect passive participle (adjective x(8872)an in Matthew and
Luke), showing that it was not congenital, but the result of
injury by accident or disease. Bengel: _Non ex utero, sed morbo
aut vulnere_.

經文:

馬可福音 3:2-3:2

註釋:

 {They watched} (paret(8872)oun). Imperfect tense, were watching
on the side (or sly). Luke uses the middle voice, paret(8872)ounto,
to accent their personal interest in the proceedings. It was the
sabbath day and in the synagogue and they were there ready to
catch him in the act if he should dare to violate their rules as
he had done in the wheat fields on the previous sabbath. Probably
the same Pharisees are present now as then. {That they might
accuse him} (hina kat(8867)or(8873)(9373)in autou). So  Mt 12:10 . Luke has
it "that they might find how to accuse him" (hina heur(9373)in
kat(8867)orein autou). They were determined to accuse him. The
sabbath controversy offered the best opening. So here they are
ready for business.

經文:

馬可福音 3:3-3:3

註釋:

 {Stand forth} (egeire eis to meson). Step into the middle
of the room where all can see. It was a bold defiance of the
Christ's spying enemies. Wycliff rightly puts it: {They aspieden
him}. They played the spy on Jesus. One can see the commotion
among the long-bearded hypocrites at this daring act of Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 3:4-3:4

註釋:

 {But they held their peace} (hoi de esi(9370)(936e)). Imperfect
tense. In sullen silence and helplessness before the merciless
questions of Jesus as the poor man stood there before them all.
Jesus by his pitiless alternatives between doing good
(agathopoie(935c), late Greek word in LXX and N.T.) and doing evil
(kakopoie(935c), ancient Greek word), to this man, for instance, {to
save a life or to kill} (psuch(886e) s(9373)ai (8820)apokteinai), as in
this case. It was a terrible exposure.

經文:

馬可福音 3:5-3:5

註釋:

 {When he had looked round on them with anger}
(periblepsamenos autous met' org(8873)). Mark has a good deal to
say about the looks of Jesus with this word ( 3:5,34  5:37  9:8  10:23  11:11 ) as here. So Luke only once,  Lu 6:10 . The eyes of
Jesus swept the room all round and each rabbinical hypocrite felt
the cut of that condemnatory glance. This indignant anger was not
inconsistent with the love and pity of Jesus. Murder was in their
hearts and Jesus knew it. Anger against wrong as wrong is a sign
of moral health (Gould). {Being grieved at the hardness of their
hearts} (sunlupoumenos epi t(8869) p(9372)(9373)ei t(8873) kardias aut(936e)). Mark
alone gives this point. The anger was tempered by grief (Swete).
Jesus is the Man of Sorrows and this present participle brings
out the continuous state of grief whereas the momentary angry
look is expressed by the aorist participle above. Their own heart
or attitude was in a state of moral ossification (p(9372)(9373)is) like
hardened hands or feet. P(9372)os was used of a kind of marble and
then of the _callus_ on fractured bones. "They were hardened by
previous conceptions against this new truth" (Gould). See also on
烘t 12:9-14|.

經文:

馬可福音 3:6-3:6

註釋:

 {And straightway with the Herodians took council} (euthus
meta t(936e) H(8872)(9369)dian(936e)). The Pharisees could stand no more. So out
they stalked at once in a rage of madness ( Lu 6:11 ) and outside
of the synagogue took counsel (sumboulion epoi(8873)an) or gave
counsel (sumboulion edidoun, as some MSS. have it, imperfect
tense, offered counsel as their solution of the problem) with
their bitter enemies, the Herodians, on the sabbath day still
"how they might destroy him" (hop(9373) auton apoles(9373)in), a
striking illustration of the alternatives of Jesus a few moments
before, "to save life or to kill." This is the first mention of
the Herodians or adherents of Herod Antipas and the Herod family
rather than the Romans. The Pharisees would welcome the help of
their rivals to destroy Jesus. In the presence of Jesus they
unite their forces as in  Mr 8:15  12:13  Mt 22:16 .

經文:

馬可福音 3:7-3:7

註釋:

 {Withdrew to the sea} (anech(9372)(8873)en eis t(886e) thalassan).
Evidently Jesus knew of the plot to kill him, "perceiving it"
( Mt 12:15 ). "He and His would be safer by the open beach"
(Swete). He has the disciples with him. Vincent notes that on
eleven occasions Mark mentions the withdrawals of Jesus to escape
his enemies, for prayer, for rest, for private conference with
his disciples ( 1:12  3:7  6:31,46  7:24,31  9:2  10:1  14:34 ).
But, as often, a great multitude (polu pl(8874)hos) from Galilee
followed him.

經文:

馬可福音 3:8-3:8

註釋:

 {Hearing what great things he did} (akouontes hosa poiei).
Masculine plural present participle, though pl(8874)hos is neuter
singular (construction according to sense in both number and
gender). This crowd by the sea came from Galilee, Judea,
Jerusalem, Idumea, beyond Jordan (Decapolis and Perea), Tyre and
Sidon, Phoenicia, North, South, East, and Northwest, even from
Idumea (mentioned here alone in the N.T.) won by John Hyrcanus to
Palestine. "In our Lord's time Idumea was practically a part of
Judea with a Jewish circumcised population" (George Adam Smith).
Many of these were probably Gentiles (Phoenicia and Decapolis)
and may have known only the Greek language. The fame of Jesus had
spread through all the regions round about. There was a jam as
the crowds came to Jesus by the Sea of Galilee.

經文:

馬可福音 3:9-3:9

註釋:

 {That a little boat should wait on him} (hina ploiarion
proskarter(8869) aut(9369)). The boat was to keep close (note present
tense subjunctive of proskartere(935c)) to the shore in constant
readiness and move as Jesus did. Whether he needed it or not is
not told, but it was there at hand. {Lest they should throng him}
(hina m(8820)thlib(9373)in auton). Press or crush him. Jesus stayed
with the crowds for they needed him. Present subjunctive again.

經文:

馬可福音 3:10-3:10

註釋:

 {Pressed upon him} (epipiptein aut(9369)). Were falling upon
him to such an extent that it was dangerous. They were not
hostile, but simply intensely eager, each to have his own case
attended to by Jesus. {That they might touch him} (hina autou
haps(936e)tai). If only that much. They hoped for a cure by contact
with Christ. Aorist subjunctive. It was a really pathetic scene
and a tremendous strain on Jesus. {As many as had plagues}
(hosoi eichon mastigas). Strokes or scourges, terms used by us
today as a paralytic stroke, the influenza scourge. Our word
plague is from pl(8867)(885c) (Latin _plaga_), from pl(8867)numi, to
strike a blow. Common in ancient Greek in this sense. See  Mr
5:29,34  Lu 7:21  for the same use of mastiges and also 2Macc.
9:11.

經文:

馬可福音 3:11-3:11

註釋:

 {Whensoever they beheld him} (hotan auton ethe(9372)oun).
Imperfect indicative with hotan of repeated action. They kept
falling down before him (prosepipton) and crying, (ekrazon)
and he kept charging or rebuking (epitim(835c)) them, all
imperfects. The unclean spirits (demons) recognize Jesus as the
Son of God, as before. Jesus charged them not to make him known
as he had also done before. He did not wish this testimony. It
was a most exciting ordeal and is given only by Mark. Note
non-final use of hina.

經文:

馬可福音 3:13-3:13

註釋:

 {He goeth up into the mountain} (anabainei eis to oros).
So Matthew ( Mt 5:1 ) and Luke ( Lu 6:12 ), "to pray" Luke adds.
Historical present so common in Mark's vivid narrative. Neither
Gospel gives the name of the mountain, assuming it as well known,
probably not far from the lake. {Whom he himself would} (hous
(8874)helen autos). Emphatic use of autos (himself) at end of
sentence. Whether by personal imitation or through the disciples
Jesus invites or calls to himself (proskaleitai, historical
middle present indicative) a select number out of the vast crowds
by the sea, those whom he really wished to be with him. {They
went off to him} (ap(886c)thon pros auton). Luke states that Jesus
"continued all night in prayer, to God." It was a crisis in the
ministry of Christ. This select group up in the hills probably
respected the long agony of Jesus though they did not comprehend
his motive. They formed a sort of spiritual body-guard around the
Master during his night vigil in the mountain.

經文:

馬可福音 3:14-3:14

註釋:

 {He appointed twelve} (epoi(8873)en d(9364)eka). This was a second
selection out of those invited to the hills and after the night
of prayer and after day came ( Lu 6:13 ). Why he chose twelve we
are not told, probably because there were twelve tribes in
Israel. It was a good round number at any rate. They were to be
princes in the new Israel (cf.  Mt 19:28  Lu 22:30  Re
21:14,15 ). Luke ( Lu 6:13-16 ) also gives the list of the twelve
at this point while Matthew ( Mt 10:1-4 ) postpones giving the
names till they are sent out in Galilee. There is a fourth list
in  Ac 1:13 . See discussion of the names of the apostles on 烘t
10:1-4| and pp. 271-3 of my _Harmony of the Gospels for Students
of the Life of Christ_. The three groups of four begin alike
(Simon, Philip, James). There are some difficulties. {Whom he
also named apostles} (hous kai apostolous (936e)omasen). Margin of
Revised Version, the text of Westcott and Hort after Aleph, B, C,
etc. Genuine in  Lu 6:13  and probably so here. The meaning is
that Jesus himself gave the name apostle or missionary
(apostell(935c), to send) to this group of twelve. The word is
applied in the New Testament to others besides as delegates or
messengers of churches ( 2Co 8:23  Php 2:25 ), and messenger
( Joh 13:16 ). It is applied also to Paul on a par with the
twelve ( Ga 1:1,11f. , etc.) and also to Barnabas ( Ac 14:14 ),
and perhaps also to Timothy and Silas ( 1Ti 2:6f. ). Two purposes
of Jesus are mentioned by Mark in the choice of these twelve,
{that they might be with him} (hina (9373)in met' autou), {and that
he might send them forth} (kai hina apostell(8869) autous). They
were not ready to be sent forth till they had been with Jesus for
some time. This is one of the chief tasks of Christ to train this
group of men. See Bruce's _The Training of the Twelve_. The very
word apostolos is from apostell(935c). There were two purposes in
sending them forth expressed by two infinitives, one to preach
(k(8872)ussein, from k(8872)ux, herald), the other to have power to
cast out demons (echein exousian ekballein ta daimonia). This
double ministry of preaching and healing was to mark their work.
The two things are, however, different, and one does not
necessarily involve the other.

經文:

馬可福音 3:16-3:16

註釋:

 {Simon he surnamed Peter} (epeth(886b)en onoma t(9369) Sim(936e)i
Petron). The Greek idiom seems awkward, but it is not. Peter is
in apposition with _name_ or onoma (accusative). This surname
Jesus gave in addition (epeth(886b)en) to Simon (dative case). Here
then is a direct reference to what is told in  Joh 1:42  when
Jesus met Simon for the first time. Mark here reflects Peter's
own words. Luke ( Lu 6:14 ) simply says "Whom he also surnamed
Peter." See  Mt 16:18  for the full explanation of the name
Peter, a Rock, Cephas.

經文:

馬可福音 3:17-3:17

註釋:

 {Boanerges, which is Sons of thunder} (Boan(8872)ges ho estin
huioi bront(8873)). This Hebrew nickname is given only by Mark and
the reason for it is not clear. It may refer to the fiery
temperament revealed in  Lu 9:34  when James and John wanted to
call down fire on the Samaritan villages that were unfriendly to
them. The word literally means {sons of tumult, sons of thunder}
in Syriac. No other epithets are given by Mark save descriptions
to distinguish as Simon the Cananaean (or Zealot) and Judas
Iscariot, who also betrayed him (verse  19 ). Andrew, (from
an(8872), a man) and Philip (Philippos, fond of horses) are both
Greek names. Bartholomew, son of Tolmai, is the Nathanael of
John's Gospel ( Joh 21:2 ). He probably had both names. Matthew
is a Hebrew name meaning gift of God (Maththaios). Thomas is
Hebrew and means Twin (Didymus,  Joh 11:16 ). There are two uses
of the name of James (Iac(9362)os, Jacob). Thaddeus is another name
for Lebbaeus.

經文:

馬可福音 3:19-3:19

註釋:

 {He cometh into a house} (erchetai eis oikon). Historical
present again and no article with noun. He comes home from the
mountain, probably the house of Simon as in  1:29 . Mark passes
by the Sermon on the Mount given by Matthew and Luke on the
mountain (plateau on the mountain in Luke). We have to allow a
reasonable interval for Mark's narrative. Mark's Gospel is full
of action and does not undertake to tell all that Jesus did and
said.

經文:

馬可福音 3:20-3:20

註釋:

 {So that they could not so much as eat bread} (h(9373)te m(880a)dunasthai autous m(8864)e arton phagein). Note infinitive with
h(9373)te. Apparently Jesus and the disciples indoors with the
great crowd in the house and at the door as in  1:32  2:2  to
which Mark refers by "again." The jam was so great that they
could not rest, could not eat, and apparently Jesus could not
even teach. The crowd reassembled at once on Christ's return from
the mountain.

經文:

馬可福音 3:21-3:21

註釋:

 {His friends} (hoi par' autou). The phrase means literally
"those from the side of him (Jesus)." It could mean another
circle of disciples who had just arrived and who knew of the
crowds and strain of the Galilean ministry who now come at this
special juncture. But the idiom most likely means the kinspeople
or family of Jesus as is common in the LXX. The fact that in
verse  31  "his mother and his brothers" are expressly mentioned
would indicate that they are "the friends" alluded to in verse
 21 . It is a mournful spectacle to think of the mother and
brothers saying, {He is beside himself} (exest(885c)). Second aorist
active indicative intransitive. The same charge was brought
against Paul ( Ac 26:24  2Co 5:13 ). We say that one is out of
his head. Certainly Mary did not believe that Jesus was in the
power of Beelzebub as the rabbis said already. The scribes from
Jerusalem are trying to discount the power and prestige of Jesus
( 3:22 ). See on 烘t 9:32-34; 10:25; 12:24| for Beelzebub and
Beelzebul. Mary probably felt that Jesus was overwrought and
wished to take him home out of the excitement and strain that he
might get rest and proper food. See my _The Mother of Jesus: Her
Problems and Her Glory_. The brothers did not as yet believe the
pretensions and claims of Jesus ( Joh 7:5 ). Herod Antipas will
later consider Jesus as John the Baptist _redivivus_, the scribes
treat him as under demonic possession, even the family and
friends fear a disordered mind as a result of overstrain. It was
a crucial moment for Jesus. His family or friends came to take
him home, to lay hold of him (krat(8873)ai), forcibly if need be.

經文:

馬可福音 3:23-3:23

註釋:

 {In parables} (en parabolais). In crisp pungent thrusts
that exposed the inconsistencies of the scribes and Pharisees.
See on 烘t 13| for discussion of the word {parable} (parabol(885c),
placing beside for comparison). These short parabolic quips
concern Satan's casting out (ekballei, the very word used of
casting out demons) Satan (rhetorical question), a kingdom
divided (meristh(8869), for a mere portion) against itself, a house
divided (meristh(8869)) against itself, two conditions of the third
class undetermined, but with prospect of determination.

經文:

馬可福音 3:27-3:27

註釋:

 {Spoil} (diarpasai). Plunder, compound verb, thoroughly
ransack. Picture of Satan plundering the demons, the very tools
(skeu(885c)) by which he carried on his business. A _reductio ad
absurdum_. Jesus is the conqueror of Satan, not in league with
him.

經文:

馬可福音 3:29-3:29

註釋:

 {Guilty of an eternal sin} (enochos estin ai(936e)iou
hamart(886d)atos). The genitive of the penalty occurs here with
enochos. In saying that Jesus had an unclean spirit (verse
 30 ) they had attributed to the devil the work of the Holy
Spirit. This is the unpardonable sin and it can be committed
today by men who call the work of Christ the work of the devil,
Nietzsche may be cited as an instance in point. Those who hope
for a second probation hereafter may ponder carefully how a soul
that eternally sins in such an environment can ever repent. That
is eternal punishment. The text here is hamart(886d)atos (sin), not
krise(9373) (judgment), as the Textus Receptus has it.

經文:

馬可福音 3:31-3:31

註釋:

 {Standing without} (ex(9320)st(886b)ontes). A late present from
the perfect hest(886b)a. Pathetic picture of the mother and
brothers standing on the outside of the house thinking that Jesus
inside is beside himself and wanting to take him home. They were
crowded out. {They sent unto him, calling him} (apesteilan pros
auton kalountes auton). They were unwilling to disclose their
errand to take him home (Swete) and so get the crowd to pass word
unto Jesus on the inside, "calling him" through others. Some of
the MSS. add "sisters" to mother and brothers as seeking Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 3:32-3:32

註釋:

 {Was sitting about him} (ekath(8874)o peri auton). They sat in
a circle (kukl(9369)) around Jesus with the disciples forming a
sort of inner circle.

經文:

馬可福音 3:34-3:34

註釋:

 {Looking round on them} (periblepsamenos). Another of
Mark's life-like touches. Jesus calls those who do the will of
God his mother, brothers, and sisters. This does not prove that
the sisters were actually there. The brothers were hostile and
that gives point to the tragic words of Jesus. One's heart goes
out to Mary who has to go back home without even seeing her
wondrous Son. What did it all mean to her at this hour?

經文:

馬可福音 4:1-4:1

註釋:

 {Sat in the sea} (kath(8873)thai en t(8869) thalass(8869)). In the
boat, of course, which was in the sea. He first sat by the beach
( Mt 13:1 ) and then a very great multitude (ochlos pleistos)
made him enter a boat in which he sat and taught. It was a common
experience now to teach the crowds on the beach ( 2:1,13  3:7-9 ). {There is gathered} (sunagetai). Graphic pictorial
present again. See the crowds pressing Jesus into the sea.

經文:

馬可福音 4:2-4:2

註釋:

 {He taught them} (edidasken autous). Imperfect tense
describing it as going on. {In parables} (en parabolais). As in
 3:23 , only here more extended parables. See on 烘t 13| for
discussion concerning Christ's use of parables. Eight are given
there, one (the Lamp both in  Mr 4:21  and  Lu 8:16  (both Sower
and the Lamp in Luke), one alone in  Mr 4:26-29  (seed growing of
itself) not in Matthew or Luke, ten on this occasion. Only four
are mentioned in  Mr 4:1-34  (The Sower, the Lamp, the Seed
Growing of Itself, the Mustard Seed). But Mark adds ( 4:34 )
"without a parable spake he not unto them," clearly meaning that
Jesus spoke many others on this occasion and Matt. after
mentioning eight ( Mt 13:34 ) makes the same statement.
Manifestly, therefore, Jesus spoke many parables on this day and
all theories of exegesis or dispensations on the basis of the
number of these kingdom parables are quite beside the mark. In
beginning Jesus said: {Hearken} (Akouete). It is significant
that even Jesus had to ask people to listen when he spoke. See
also verse  9 .

經文:

馬可福音 4:7-4:7

註釋:

 {Choked} (sunepnixan). Pnig(935c) means to strangle, throttle.
Mark has the compounded form with sun-, squeezed together.  Mt
13:7  has apepnixan, {choked off}. {Yielded no fruit} (karpon
ouk ed(936b)an). In Mark alone. Barren in results.

經文:

馬可福音 4:8-4:8

註釋:

 {Growing up and increasing} (anabainonta kai auxanomena).
In Mark alone. A vivid detail enlarging on the continued growth
implied in the imperfect "yielded fruit" (edidou karpon). It
kept on yielding as it grew. Fruit is what matters.

經文:

馬可福音 4:10-4:10

註釋:

 {When he was alone} (hote egeneto kata monas). Only in
Mark. Vivid recollection of Peter. Mark has also "they that were
about him with the twelve" (hoi peri auton sun tois d(9364)eka),
Matthew and Luke simply "the disciples." They did not want the
multitude to see that they did not understand the teaching of
Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 4:11-4:11

註釋:

 {Unto you is given the mystery of the kingdom of God}
(Humin to must(8872)ion dedotai t(8873) basileias tou theou). See on
烘t 13:11| for word must(8872)ion. Here ( Mr 4:11  Mt 13:11  Lu
8:10 ) alone in the Gospels, but in Paul 21 times and in the
Revelation 4 times. It is frequent in Daniel and O.T. Apocrypha.
Matthew and Luke use it here in the plural. Matthew and Luke add
the word {to know} (gn(936e)ai), but Mark's presentation covers a
wider range than growing knowledge, the permanent possession of
the mystery even before they understand it. The secret is no
longer hidden from the initiated. Discipleship means initiation
into the secret of God's kingdom and it will come gradually to
these men. {But unto them that are without} (ekeinois de tois
ex(935c)). Peculiar to Mark, those outside our circle, the
uninitiated, the hostile group like the scribes and Pharisees,
who were charging Jesus with being in league with Beelzebub.  Lu
8:10  has "to the rest" (	ois loipois),  Mt 13:11  simply "to
them" (ekeinois). Without the key the parables are hard to
understand, for parables veil the truth of the kingdom being
stated in terms of another realm. Without a spiritual truth and
insight they are unintelligible and are often today perverted.
The parables are thus a condemnation on the wilfully blind and
hostile, while a guide and blessing to the enlightened. {That}
(hina). Mark has the construction of the Hebrew "lest" of  Isa
6:9f . with the subjunctive and so  Lu 8:10 , while  Mt 13:13 
uses causal hoti with the indicative following the LXX. See on
烘t 13:13| for the so-called causal use of hina. Gould on  Mr
4:12  has an intelligent discussion of the differences between
Matthew and Mark and Luke. He argues that Mark here probably
"preserves the original form of Jesus' saying." God ironically
commands Isaiah to harden the hearts of the people. If the notion
of purpose is preserved in the use of hina in Mark and Luke,
there is probably some irony also in the sad words of Jesus. If
hina is given the causative use of hoti in Matthew, the
difficulty disappears. What is certain is that the use of
parables on this occasion was a penalty for judicial blindness on
those who will not see.

經文:

馬可福音 4:12-4:12

註釋:

 {Lest haply they should turn again, and it should be
forgiven them} (m(8870)ote epistreps(9373)in kai apheth(8869) autois). Luke
does not have these difficult words that seem in Isaiah to have
an ironical turn, though  Mt 13:15  does retain them even after
using hoti for the first part of the quotation. There is no way
to make m(8870)ote in  Mr 4:12  and  Mt 13:15  have a causal sense.
It is the purpose of condemnation for wilful blindness and
rejection such as suits the Pharisees after their blasphemous
accusation against Jesus. Bengel says: _iam ante non videbant,
nunc accedit iudicium divinum_. Jesus is pronouncing their doom
in the language of Isaiah. It sounds like the dirge of the
damned.

經文:

馬可福音 4:13-4:13

註釋:

 {Know ye not this parable?} (ouk oidate t(886e) parabol(886e)
tauten;). They had asked Jesus his reasons for using parables.
This question implies surprise at their dulness though initiated
into the secret of God's Kingdom. Incapacity to comprehend this
parable of the sower raises doubt about all the others on this
day and at all times.

經文:

馬可福音 4:14-4:14

註釋:

 {The sower soweth the word} (ho speir(936e) ton logon
speirei). Not put thus clearly and simply in  Mt 13:19  or  Lu
8:11 .

經文:

馬可福音 4:15-4:15

註釋:

 {Where the word is sown} (hopou speiretai ho logos).
Explanatory detail only in Mark. {Satan} (Satan(8373)) where  Mt
13:19  has {the evil one} (ho pon(8872)os) and  Lu 8:12  {the
devil} (ho diabolos). {Sown in them} (esparmenon eis autous).
Within them, not just among them, "in his heart" (Matt.).

經文:

馬可福音 4:19-4:19

註釋:

 {The lusts of other things} (hai peri ta loipa
epithumiai). All the passions or longings, sensual, worldly,
"pleasures of this life" (h(8864)on(936e) tou biou) as Luke has it ( Lu
8:14 ), the world of sense drowning the world of spirit. The word
epithumia is not evil in itself. One can yearn (this word) for
what is high and holy ( Lu 22:15  Php 1:23 ).

經文:

馬可福音 4:20-4:20

註釋:

 {Bear fruit} (karpophorousin). Same word in  Mt 13:23  and
 Lu 8:15 . Mark gives the order from thirty, sixty, to a hundred,
while  Mt 13:23  has it reversed.

經文:

馬可福音 4:21-4:21

註釋:

 {Not to be put on the stand?} (ouch hina epi t(886e) luchnian
teth(8869);). First aorist passive subjunctive of 	ith(886d)i with
hina (purpose). The lamp in the one-room house was a familiar
object along with the bushel, the bed, the lampstand. Note
article with each. M(8874)i in the Greek expects the answer no. It
is a curious instance of early textual corruption that both Aleph
and B, the two oldest and best documents, have hupo t(886e)
luchnian (under the lampstand) instead of epi t(886e) luchnian,
making shipwreck of the sense. Westcott and Hort actually put it
in the margin but that is sheer slavery to Aleph and B. Some of
the crisp sayings were repeated by Jesus on other occasions as
shown in Matthew and Luke. To put the lamp under the bushel
(modion) would put it out besides giving no light. So as to the
bed or table-couch (klin(886e)) if it was raised above the floor
and liable to be set on fire.

經文:

馬可福音 4:22-4:22

註釋:

 {Save that it should be manifested} (ean m(8820)hina
phaner(9374)h(8869)). Note ean m(885c) and hina.  Lu 8:17  has it {that
shall not be made manifest} (ho ou phaneron gen(8873)etai). Here in
Mark it is stated that the temporary concealment is for final
manifestation and a means to that end. Those who are charged with
the secret at this time are given the set responsibility of
proclaiming it on the housetops after Ascension (Swete). The
hidden (krupton) and the {secret} (apokruphon) are to be
revealed in due time.

經文:

馬可福音 4:23-4:23

註釋:

 Repeats verse  9  with conditional form instead of a
relative clause. Perhaps some inattention was noted.

經文:

馬可福音 4:24-4:24

註釋:

 {What ye hear} (	i akouete).  Lu 8:18  has it "how ye
hear" (p(9373) akouete) . Both are important. Some things should
not be heard at all for they besmirch the mind and heart. What is
worth hearing should be heard rightly and heeded. {With what
measure} (en h(9369) metr(9369)). See already in the Sermon on the
Mount ( Mt 7:2  Lu 6:38 ).

經文:

馬可福音 4:25-4:25

註釋:

 {Even that which he hath} (kai ho echei).  Lu 8:18  has
{even that which he thinketh that he hath or seemeth to have}
(kai ho dokei echein). It is possible that echei here has the
notion of acquiring. The man who does not acquire soon loses what
he thinks that he has. This is one of the paradoxes of Jesus that
repay thought and practice.

經文:

馬可福音 4:26-4:26

註釋:

 {As if a man should cast} (h(9373) anthr(9370)os bal(8869)). Note
h(9373) with the aorist subjunctive without an. It is a
supposable case and so the subjunctive and the aorist tense
because a single instance. Blass considers this idiom "quite
impossible," but it is the true text here and makes good sense
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 968). The more common idiom would have
been h(9373) ean (or an).

經文:

馬可福音 4:27-4:27

註釋:

 {Should sleep and rise} (katheud(8869) kai egeir(8874)ai). Present
subjunctive for continued action. So also {spring up and grow}
(last(8369) kai m(886b)un(8874)ai) two late verbs. The process of growth
goes on all night and all day (
ukta kai h(886d)eran, accusative of
time). {He knoweth not how} (h(9373) ouk oiden autos). Note
position of h(9373) (beginning) and autos (end) of clause: {How
knows not he}. The mystery of growth still puzzles farmers and
scientists of today with all our modern knowledge. But nature's
secret processes do not fail to operate because we are ignorant.
This secret and mysterious growth of the kingdom in the heart and
life is the point of this beautiful parable given only by Mark.
"When man has done his part, the actual process of growth is
beyond his reach or comprehension" (Swete).

經文:

馬可福音 4:28-4:28

註釋:

 {Of herself} (automat(885c)). Automatically, we say. The secret
of growth is in the seed, not in the soil nor in the weather nor
in the cultivating. These all help, but the seed spontaneously
works according to its own nature. The word automat(885c) is from
autos (self) and memaa desire eagerly from obsolete ma(935c).
Common word in all Greek history. Only one other example in N.T.,
in  Ac 12:10  when the city gate opens to Peter of its own
accord. "The mind is adapted to the truth, as the eye to the
light" (Gould). So we sow the seed, God's kingdom truth, and the
soil (the soul) is ready for the seed. The Holy Spirit works on
the heart and uses the seed sown and makes it germinate and grow,
"first the blade, then the ear, then the full corn in the ear"
(pr(9374)on chorton, eiten stachun, eiten pl(8872)(8820)siton en t(9369)
stachui). This is the law and order of nature and also of grace
in the kingdom of God. Hence it is worth while to preach and
teach. "This single fact creates the confidence shown by Jesus in
the ultimate establishment of his kingdom in spite of the
obstacles which obstruct its progress" (Gould).

經文:

馬可福音 4:29-4:29

註釋:

 {Is ripe} (paradoi, second aorist subjunctive with
hotan). Whenever the fruit yields itself or permits. {Putteth
forth} (apostellei). Sends forth the sickle. The word for
_apostle_ comes from this verb. See  Joh 4:38 : "I sent you forth
to reap" (ego apesteila hum(8373) therizein). Sickle (drepanon)
here by metonymy stands for the reapers who use it when the
harvest stands ready for it (parest(886b)en, stands by the side,
present perfect indicative).

經文:

馬可福音 4:30-4:30

註釋:

 {How shall we liken?} (P(9373) homoi(9373)(936d)en?) Deliberative
first aorist subjunctive. This question alone in Mark. So with
the other question: {In what parable shall we set it forth?} (en
tini aut(886e) parabol(8869) th(936d)en;). Deliberative second aorist
subjunctive. The graphic question draws the interest of the
hearers (_we_) by fine tact.  Lu 13:18f.  retains the double
question which  Mt 13:31f.  does not have, though he has it in a
very different context, probably an illustration of Christ's
favourite sayings often repeated to different audiences as is
true of all teachers and preachers.

經文:

馬可福音 4:31-4:31

註釋:

 {When it is sown} (hotan spar(8869)). Second aorist passive
subjunctive of speir(935c). Alone in Mark and repeated in verse
 32 . {Less than all the seeds} (mikroteron pant(936e) t(936e)
spermat(936e)). Comparative adjective with the ablative case after
it. Hyperbole, of course, but clearly meaning that from a very
small seed a large plant grows, the gradual pervasive expansive
power of the kingdom of God.

經文:

馬可福音 4:32-4:32

註釋:

 {Groweth up} (anabainei).  Mt 13:32  {When it is grown}
(hotan aux(8874)h(8869)). {Under the shadow thereof} (hupo t(886e) skian
autou). A different picture from Matthew's {in the branches
thereof} (en tois kladois autou). But both use katask(886e)oin,
to tent or camp down, make nests in the branches in the shade or
hop on the ground under the shade just like a covey of birds. In
 Mt 8:20  the birds have nests (katask(886e)(9373)eis). The use of the
mustard seed for smallness seems to have been proverbial and
Jesus employs it elsewhere ( Mt 17:20  Lu 17:6 ).

經文:

馬可福音 4:33-4:33

註釋:

 {As they were able to hear it} (kath(9373) (8864)unanto akouein).
Only in Mark. Imperfect indicative. See  Joh 16:12  for ou
dunasthe bastazein, not able to bear. Jesus used parables now
largely, but there was a limit even to the use of them to these
men. He gave them the mystery of the kingdom in this veiled
parabolic form which was the only feasible form at this stage.
But even so they did not understand what they heard.

經文:

馬可福音 4:34-4:34

註釋:

 2Pe
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經文:

馬可福音 4:35-4:35

註釋:

 {When even was come} (opsias genomen(8873)). Genitive
absolute. It had been a busy day. The blasphemous accusation, the
visit of the mother and brothers and possibly sisters, to take
him home, leaving the crowded house for the sea, the first
parables by the sea, then more in the house, and now out of the
house and over the sea. {Let us go over unto the other side}
(dielth(936d)en eis to peran). Hortatory (volitive) subjunctive,
second aorist active tense. They were on the western side and a
row over to the eastern shore in the evening would be a
delightful change and refreshing to the weary Christ. It was the
only way to escape the crowds.

經文:

馬可福音 4:36-4:36

註釋:

 {Even as he was} (h(9373) (886e)). Vulgate, _ita ut erat_. Bengel
says: _sine apparatu_. That is, they take Jesus along
(paralambanousin) without previous preparation. {Other boats}
(alla ploia). This detail also is given only by Mark. Some
people had got into boats to get close to Jesus. There was a
crowd even on the lake.

經文:

馬可福音 4:37-4:37

註釋:

 {There ariseth a great storm of wind} (ginetai lailaps
megal(8820)anemou). Mark's vivid historical present again.  Mt 8:24 
has egeneto (arose) and  Lu 8:23  kateb(885c) (came down). Luke
has also lailaps, but Matthew seismos (tempest), a violent
upheaval like an earthquake. Lailaps is an old word for these
cyclonic gusts or storms. Luke's "came down" shows that the storm
fell suddenly from Mount Hermon down into the Jordan Valley and
smote the Sea of Galilee violently at its depth of 682 feet below
the Mediterranean Sea. The hot air at this depth draws the storm
down with sudden power. These sudden storms continue to this day
on the Sea of Galilee. The word occurs in the LXX of the
whirlwind out of which God answered Job ( Job 38:1 ) and in  Jon
1:4 . {The waves beat into the boat} (	a kumata epeballen eis to
ploion). Imperfect tense (were beating) vividly picturing the
rolling over the sides of the boat "so that the boat was covered
with the waves" ( Mt 8:24 ). Mark has it: "insomuch that the boat
was now filling" (h(9373)te (8864)(8820)gemizesthai to ploion). Graphic
description of the plight of the disciples.

經文:

馬可福音 4:38-4:38

註釋:

 {Asleep on the cushion} (epi to proskephalaion katheud(936e)).
Mark also mentions the cushion or bolster and the stern of the
boat (en t(8869) prumn(8869)).  Mt 8:24  notes that Jesus was sleeping
(ekatheuden), Luke that {he fell asleep} (aphupn(9373)en,
ingressive aorist indicative). He was worn out from the toil of
this day. {They awake him} (egeirousin auton). So Mark's
graphic present. Matthew and Luke both have "awoke him." Mark has
also what the others do not: "Carest thou not?" (ou melei
soi;). It was a rebuke to Jesus for sleeping in such a storm. We
are perishing (apollumetha, linear present middle). Precisely
this same form also in  Mt 8:25  and  Lu 8:24 .

經文:

馬可福音 4:39-4:39

註釋:

 {Rebuked the wind} (epetim(8873)en t(9369) anem(9369)) as in  Mt 8:26 
and  Lu 8:24 . He spoke to the sea also. All three Gospels speak
of the sudden calm (gal(886e)(885c)) and the rebuke to the disciples for
this lack of faith.

經文:

馬可福音 4:40-4:40

註釋:

 {Why are ye fearful?} (Ti deiloi este;). They had the Lord
of the wind and the waves with them in the boat. He was still
Master even if asleep in the storm. {Have ye not yet faith?}
(Oup(9320)echete pistin;). Not yet had they come to feel that Jesus
was really Lord of nature. They had accepted his Messiaship, but
all the conclusions from it they had not yet drawn. How like us
in our troubles they were!

經文:

馬可福音 4:41-4:41

註釋:

 {They feared exceedingly} (ephob(8874)h(8873)an phobon megan).
Cognate accusative with the first aorist passive indicative. They
feared a great fear.  Mt 8:27  and  Lu 8:22  mention that "they
marvelled." But there was fear in it also. {Who then is this?}
(Tis ara houtos estin;). No wonder that they feared if this One
could command the wind and the waves at will as well as demons
and drive out all diseases and speak such mysteries in parables.
They were growing in their apprehension and comprehension of
Jesus Christ. They had much yet to learn. There is much yet for
us today to learn or seek to grow in the knowledge of our Lord
Jesus Christ. This incident opened the eyes and minds of the
disciples to the majesty of Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 5:1-5:1

註釋:

 {The Gerasenes} (	(936e) Geras(886e)(936e)). Like  Lu 8:26  while  Mt
8:28  has "the Gadarenes." The ruins of the village Khersa
(Gerasa) probably point to this site which is in the district of
Gadara some six miles southeastward, not to the city of Gerasa
some thirty miles away.

經文:

馬可福音 5:2-5:2

註釋:

 {Out of the boat} (ek tou ploiou). Straightway (euthus)
Mark says, using the genitive absolute (exelthontos autou) and
then repeating aut(9369) associative instrumental after
ap(886e)t(8873)en. The demoniac greeted Jesus at once. Mark and  Lu
9:27  mention only one man while Matthew notes two demoniacs,
perhaps one more violent than the other. Each of the Gospels has
a different phrase. Mark has "a man with an unclean spirit" (en
pneumati akathart(9369)),  Mt 8:28  "two possessed with demons"
(duo daimonizomenoi),  Lu 8:27  "one having demons" (	is ech(936e)
daimonia). Mark has many touches about this miracle not retained
in Matthew and Luke. See on 烘t 8:28|.

經文:

馬可福音 5:3-5:3

註釋:

 {No man could any more bind him, no, not with a chain} (oude
halusei oudeis edunato auton d(8873)ai). Instrumental case
halusei, a handcuff (a privative and lu(935c), to loosen). But
this demoniac snapped a handcuff as if a string.

經文:

馬可福音 5:4-5:4

註釋:

 {Often bound} (pollakis dedesthai). Perfect passive
infinitive, state of completion. With fetters (pedais, from
peza, foot, instep) and chains, bound hand and foot, but all to
no purpose. The English plural of foot is feet (Anglo-Saxon
_fot_, _fet_) and fetter is _feeter_. {Rent asunder}
(diesp(8373)thai). Drawn (spa(935c)) in two (dia- same root as
duo, two). Perfect passive infinitive. {Broken in pieces}
(suntetriphthai.) Perfect passive infinitive again, from
suntrib(935c), to rub together. Rubbed together, crushed together.
Perhaps the neighbours who told the story could point to broken
fragments of chains and fetters. The fetters may have been cords,
or even wooden stocks and not chains. {No man had strength to
tame him} (oudeis ischuen auton damasai). Imperfect tense. He
roamed at will like a lion in the jungle.

經文:

馬可福音 5:5-5:5

註釋:

 {He was crying out, and cutting himself with stones} ((886e)
kraz(936e) kai katakopt(936e) heauton lithois). Further vivid details by
Mark. Night and day his loud scream or screech could be heard
like other demoniacs (cf.  1:26  3:11  9:26 ). The verb for
cutting himself occurs here only in the N.T., though an old verb.
It means to _cut down_ (perfective use of kata-). We say _cut
up_, gash, hack to pieces. Perhaps he was scarred all over with
such gashes during his moments of wild frenzy night and day in
the tombs and on the mountains. Periphrastic imperfect active
with (886e) and the participles.

經文:

馬可福音 5:6-5:6

註釋:

 {Ran and worshipped} (edramen kai prosekun(8873)en). "At first
perhaps with hostile intentions. The onrush of the naked yelling
maniac must have tried the newly recovered confidence of the
Twelve. We can imagine their surprise when, on approaching, he
threw himself on his knees" (Swete).

經文:

馬可福音 5:7-5:7

註釋:

 {I adjure thee by God} (horkiz(9320)se ton theon). The demoniac
puts Jesus on oath (two accusatives) after the startled outcry
just like the one in  1:24 , which see. He calls Jesus here "son
of the Most High God" (huie tou theou tou hupsistou) as in  Lu
8:28  (cf.  Ge 14:18f. ). {Torment me not} (m(8820)me basanis(8869)s).
Prohibition with m(885c) and the ingressive aorist subjunctive. The
word means to test metals and then to test one by torture (cf.
our "third degree"). Same word in all three Gospels.

經文:

馬可福音 5:8-5:8

註釋:

 {For he said} (elegen gar). For he had been saying
(progressive imperfect). Jesus had already repeatedly ordered the
demon to come out of the man whereat the demon made his outcry to
Jesus and protested.  Mt 8:29  had "before the time" (pro
kairou) and  8:31  shows that the demons did not want to go back
to the abyss (	(886e) abusson) right now. That was their real home,
but they did not wish to return to the place of torment just now.

經文:

馬可福音 5:9-5:9

註釋:

 {My name is Legion} (Legi(936e) onoma moi). So  Lu 8:30 , but
not Matthew. Latin word (_legio_). A full Roman legion had 6,826
men. See on 烘t 26:53|. This may not have been a full legion, for
 Mr 5:13  notes that the number of hogs was "about two thousand."
Of course, a stickler for words might say that each hog had
several demons.

經文:

馬可福音 5:13-5:13

註釋:

 {And he gave them leave} (kai epetrepsen autois). These
words present the crucial difficulty for interpreters as to why
Jesus allowed the demons to enter the hogs and destroy them
instead of sending them back to the abyss. Certainly it was
better for hogs to perish than men, but this loss of property
raises a difficulty of its own akin to the problem of tornadoes
and earthquakes. The question of one man containing so many
demons is difficult also, but not much more so than how one demon
can dwell in a man and make his home there. One is reminded of
the man out of whom a demon was cast, but the demon came back
with seven other demons and took possession. Gould thinks that
this man with a legion of demons merely makes a historical
exaggeration. "I feel as if I were possessed by a thousand
devils." That is too easy an explanation. See on 烘t 8:32| for
"rushed down the steep." {They were choked} (epnigonto).
Imperfect tense picturing graphically the disappearance of pig
after pig in the sea.  Lu 8:33  has apegnig(885c), {choked off},
constative second aorist passive indicative, treated as a whole,
 Mt 8:32  merely has "perished" (apethanon; died).

經文:

馬可福音 5:14-5:14

註釋:

 {And in the country} (kai eis tous agrous). Mark adds this
to "the city." In the fields and in the city as the excited men
ran they told the tale of the destruction of the hogs. They came
to see ((886c)thon idein). All the city came out (Matthew), they
went out to see (Luke).

經文:

馬可福音 5:15-5:15

註釋:

 {They come to Jesus} (erchontai pros ton I(8873)oun). Vivid
present. To Jesus as the cause of it all, "to meet Jesus" (eis
hupant(8873)in I(8873)ou,  Mt 8:34 ). {And behold} (	he(9372)ousin).
Present tense again. {And they were afraid} (kai ephob(8874)h(8873)an).
They became afraid. Mark drops back to the ingressive aorist
tense (passive voice). They had all been afraid of the man, but
there he was "sitting clothed and in his right mind,"
(kath(886d)enon himatismenon kai s(9370)hronounta. Note the
participles). "At the feet of Jesus," Luke adds ( Lu 8:35 ). For
a long time he had worn no clothes ( Lu 8:17 ). Here was the
healing of the wild man and the destruction of the hogs all by
this same Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 5:17-5:17

註釋:

 {To depart from their borders} (apelthein apo t(936e) hori(936e)).
Once before the people of Nazareth had driven Jesus out of the
city ( Lu 4:16-31 ). Soon they will do it again on his return
there ( Mr 6:1-6  Mt 13:54-58 ). Here in Decapolis pagan
influence was strong and the owners of the hogs cared more for
the loss of their property than for the healing of the wild
demoniac. In the clash between business and spiritual welfare
business came first with them as often today. All three Gospels
tell of the request for Jesus to leave. They feared the power of
Jesus and wanted no further interference with their business
affairs.

經文:

馬可福音 5:18-5:18

註釋:

 {As he was entering} (embainontos autou). The man began to
beseech him (parekalei) before it was too late.

經文:

馬可福音 5:19-5:19

註釋:

 {Go to thy house unto thy friends} (Hupage eis ton oikon
sou pros tous sous). "To thy own folks" rather than "thy
friends." Certainly no people needed the message about Christ
more than these people who were begging Jesus to leave. Jesus had
greatly blessed this man and so gave him the hardest task of all,
to go home and witness there for Christ. In Galilee Jesus had
several times forbidden the healed to tell what he had done for
them because of the undue excitement and misunderstanding. But
here it was different. There was no danger of too much enthusiasm
for Christ in this environment.

經文:

馬可福音 5:20-5:20

註釋:

 {He went his way} (ap(886c)then). He went off and did as Jesus
told him. He heralded (k(8872)ussein) or published the story till
all over Decapolis men marvelled (ethaumazon) at what Jesus
did, kept on marvelling (imperfect tense). The man had a greater
opportunity for Christ right in his home land than anywhere else.
They all knew this once wild demoniac who now was a new man in
Christ Jesus. Thousands of like cases of conversion under
Christ's power have happened in rescue missions in our cities.

經文:

馬可福音 5:23-5:23

註釋:

 {My little daughter} (	o thugatrion mou). Diminutive of
	hugat(8872) ( Mt 9:18 ). "This little endearing touch in the use
of the diminutive is peculiar to Mark" (Vincent). "Is at the
point of death" (eschat(9373) echei). Has it in the last stages.
 Mt 9:18  has: "has just died" (arti eteleusen), Luke "she lay
a dying" (apethn(8873)ken, imperfect, she was dying). It was a
tragic moment for Jairus. {I pray thee}, not in the Greek. This
ellipsis before hina not uncommon, a sort of imperative use of
hina and the subjunctive in the _Koin(825f) (Robertson, _Grammar_,
p. 943).

經文:

馬可福音 5:24-5:24

註釋:

 {He went with him} (ap(886c)then). Aorist tense. Went off with
him promptly, but a great multitude followed him ((886b)olouthei),
was following, kept following (imperfect tense). {They thronged
him} (sunethlibon auton). Imperfect tense again. Only example
of (here and in verse  31 ) this compound verb in the N.T.,
common in old Greek. Were pressing Jesus so that he could hardly
move because of the jam, or even to breathe (sunepnigon,  Lu
8:42 ).

經文:

馬可福音 5:26-5:26

註釋:

 {Had suffered many things of many physicians} (polla
pathousa hupo poll(936e) iatr(936e)). A pathetic picture of a woman with
a chronic case who had tried doctor after doctor. {Had spent all
that she had} (dapan(8873)asa ta par' aut(8873) panta). Having spent
the all from herself, all her resources. For the idiom with
para see  Lu 10:7  Php 4:18 . The tragedy of it was that she
"was nothing bettered, but rather grew worse" (m(8864)en
(9370)hel(8874)heisa alla m(836c)lon eis to cheiron elthousa). Her money was
gone, her disease was gaining on her, her one chance came now
with Jesus. Matthew says nothing about her experience with the
doctors and  Lu 8:43  merely says that she "had spent all her
living upon physicians and could not be healed of any," a plain
chronic case. Luke the physician neatly takes care of the
physicians. But they were not to blame. She had a disease that
they did not know how to cure. Vincent quotes a prescription for
an issue of blood as given in the Talmud which gives one a most
grateful feeling that he is not under the care of doctors of that
nature. The only parallel today is Chinese medicine of the old
sort before modern medical schools came.

經文:

馬可福音 5:28-5:28

註釋:

 {If I touch but his garments} (Ean haps(936d)ai k'an t(936e)
himati(936e) autou). She was timid and shy from her disease and did
not wish to attract attention. So she crept up in the crowd and
touched the hem or border of his garment (kraspedon) according
to  Mt 9:20  and  Lu 8:44 .

經文:

馬可福音 5:29-5:29

註釋:

 {She felt in her body} (egn(9320)t(9369) s(936d)ati). She knew, the
verb means. She said to herself, {I am healed} (i(836d)ai). I(8374)ai
retains the perfect passive in the indirect discourse. It was a
vivid moment of joy for her. The plague (mastigos) or scourge
was a whip used in flagellations as on Paul to find out his guilt
( Ac 22:24 , cf.  Heb 11:26 ). It is an old word that was used
for afflictions regarded as a scourge from God. See already on
烘r 3:10|.

經文:

馬可福音 5:30-5:30

註釋:

 {Perceiving in himself} (epignous en heaut(9369)). She
thought, perhaps, that the touch of Christ's garment would cure
her without his knowing it, a foolish fancy, no doubt, but one
due to her excessive timidity. Jesus felt in his own
consciousness. The Greek idiom more exactly means: "Jesus
perceiving in himself the power from him go out" (	(886e) ex autou
dunamin exelthousan). The aorist participle here is punctiliar
simply and timeless and can be illustrated by  Lu 10:18 : "I was
beholding Satan fall" (ethe(9372)oun ton Satan(836e) pesonta), where
pesonta does not mean _fallen_ (pept(936b)ota) as in  Re 9:1  nor
falling (piptonta) but simply the constative aorist {fall}
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 684). So here Jesus means to say: "I
felt in myself the power from me go." Scholars argue whether in
this instance Jesus healed the woman by conscious will or by
unconscious response to her appeal. Some even argue that the
actual healing took place after Jesus became aware of the woman's
reaching for help by touching his garment. What we do know is
that Jesus was conscious of the going out of power from himself.
 Lu 8:46  uses egn(936e) (personal knowledge), but Mark has
epignous (personal and additional, clear knowledge). One may
remark that no real good can be done without the outgoing of
power. That is true of mother, preacher, teacher, doctor. {Who
touched my garments?} (Tis mou h(8870)sato t(936e) himati(936e);). More
exactly, {Who touched me on my clothes}; The Greek verb uses two
genitives, of the person and the thing. It was a dramatic moment
for Jesus and for the timid woman. Later it was a common practice
for the crowds to touch the hem of Christ's garments and be
healed ( Mr 6:56 ). But here Jesus chose to single out this case
for examination. There was no magic in the garments of Jesus.
Perhaps there was superstition in the woman's mind, but Jesus
honoured her darkened faith as in the case of Peter's shadow and
Paul's handkerchief.

經文:

馬可福音 5:31-5:31

註釋:

 {Thronging thee} (sunthlibonta se). See verse  24 . The
disciples were amazed at the sensitiveness of Jesus to the touch
of the crowd. They little understood the drain on Jesus from all
this healing that pulled at his heart-strings and exhausted his
nervous energy even though the Son of God. He had the utmost
human sympathy.

經文:

馬可福音 5:32-5:32

註釋:

 {And he looked round about} (kai perieblepeto). Imperfect
middle indicative. He kept looking around to find out. The answer
of Jesus to the protest of the disciples was this scrutinizing
gaze (see already  3:5,34 ). Jesus knew the difference between
touch and touch (Bruce).

經文:

馬可福音 5:33-5:33

註釋:

 {Fearing and trembling, knowing} (phob(8874)heisa kai tremousa,
eiduia). These participles vividly portray this woman who had
tried to hide in the crowd. She had heard Christ's question and
felt his gaze. She had to come and confess, for something "has
happened" (gegonen, second perfect active indicative, still
true) to her. {Fell down before him} (prosepesen aut(9369)). That
was the only proper attitude now. {All the truth} (p(8373)an t(886e)
al(8874)heian). Secrecy was no longer possible. She told "the
pitiful tale of chronic misery" (Bruce).

經文:

馬可福音 5:34-5:34

註釋:

 {Go in peace} (Hupage eis eir(886e)(886e)). She found sympathy,
healing, and pardon for her sins, apparently. Peace here may have
more the idea of the Hebrew _shal(936d)_, health of body and soul. So
Jesus adds: "Be whole of thy plague" (isthi hugi(8873) apo t(8873)
mastigos sou). Continue whole and well.

經文:

馬可福音 5:35-5:35

註釋:

 {While he yet spake} (Eti autou lalountos). Genitive
absolute. Another vivid touch in Mark and  Lu 8:49 . The phrase
is in  Ge 29:9 . Nowhere does Mark preserve better the lifelike
traits of an eyewitness like Peter than in these incidents in
chapter 5. The arrival of the messengers from Jairus was
opportune for the woman just healed of the issue of blood (en
husei haimatos) for it diverted attention from her. Now the
ruler's daughter has died (apethane). {Why troublest thou the
master any further?} (Ti eti skulleis ton didaskalon;). It was
all over, so they felt. Jesus had raised from the dead the son of
the widow of Nain ( Lu 7:11-17 ), but people in general did not
expect him to raise the dead. The word skull(935c), from skulon
(_skin, pelt, spoils_), means to skin, to flay, in Aeschylus.
Then it comes to mean to vex, annoy, distress as in  Mt 9:36 ,
which see. The middle is common in the papyri for bother, worry,
as in  Lu 7:6 . There was no further use in troubling the Teacher
about the girl.

經文:

馬可福音 5:36-5:36

註釋:

 {Not heeding} (parakousas). This is the sense in  Mt
18:17  and uniformly so in the LXX. But here the other sense of
hearing aside, overhearing what was not spoken directly to him,
probably exists also. "Jesus might overhear what was said and
disregard its import" (Bruce). Certainly he ignored the
conclusion of the messengers. The present participle laloumenon
suits best the idea of overhearing. Both Mark and  Lu 8:50  have
"Fear not, only believe" (m(8820)phobou, monon pisteue). This to
the ruler of the synagogue (	(9369) archisunag(9367)(9369)) who had
remained and to whom the messenger had spoken.

經文:

馬可福音 5:37-5:37

註釋:

 {Save Peter, and James, and John} (ei m(8820)Petron kai lak(9362)on
kai I(9361)n(886e)). Probably the house was too small for the other
disciples to come in with the family. The first instance of this
inner circle of three seen again on the Mount of Transfiguration
and in the Garden of Gethsemane. The one article in the Greek
treats the group as a unit.

經文:

馬可福音 5:38-5:38

註釋:

 {Wailing greatly} (alalazontas polla). An onomatopoetic
word from Pindar down. The soldiers on entering battle cried
Al(836c)a. Used of clanging cymbals ( 1Co 13:1 ). Like ololuz(935c) in
 Jas 5:1 . It is used here of the monotonous wail of the hired
mourners.

經文:

馬可福音 5:39-5:39

註釋:

 {Make a tumult} (	horubeisthe). Middle voice. Jesus had
dismissed one crowd (verse  37 ), but finds the house occupied by
the hired mourners making bedlam (	horubos) as if that showed
grief with their ostentatious noise.  Mt 9:23  spoke of
flute-players (aul(8874)as) and the hubbub of the excited throng
(	horuboumenon. Cf.  Mr 14:2  Ac 20:1,21,34 ). Mark, Matthew,
and Luke all quote Jesus as saying that "the child is not dead,
but sleepeth." Jesus undoubtedly meant that she was not dead to
stay dead, though some hold that the child was not really dead.
It is a beautiful word (she is {sleeping}, katheudei) that
Jesus uses of death.

經文:

馬可福音 5:40-5:40

註釋:

 {And they laughed him to scorn} (kai kategel(936e)). "They
jeered at him" (Weymouth). Note imperfect tense. They kept it up.
And note also kat- (perfective use). Exactly the same words in
 Mt 9:24  and  Lu 8:53 . The loud laughter was ill suited to the
solemn occasion. But Jesus on his part (autos de) took charge
of the situation. {Taketh the father of the child and her mother
and them that were with him} (paralambanei ton patera tou
paidiou kai t(886e) m(8874)era kai tous met' autou). Having put out
(ekbal(936e)) the rest by a stern assertion of authority as if he
were master of the house, Jesus takes along with him these five
and enters the chamber of death "where the child was" (hopou (886e)
to paidion). He had to use pressure to make the hired mourners
leave. The presence of some people will ruin the atmosphere for
spiritual work.

經文:

馬可福音 5:41-5:41

註釋:

 {Talitha cumi}. These precious Aramaic words, spoken by
Jesus to the child, Peter heard and remembered so that Mark gives
them to us. Mark interprets the simple words into Greek for those
who did not know Aramaic (	o korasion, egeire), that is,
{Damsel, arise}. Mark uses the diminutive korasi(936e), a little
girl, from kor(885c), girl. _Braid Scots_ has it: "Lassie, wauken."
 Lu 8:5-9  has it H(8820)pais, egeire, {Maiden, arise}. All three
Gospels mention the fact that Jesus took her by the hand, a touch
of life (krat(8873)as t(8873) cheiros), giving confidence and help.

經文:

馬可福音 5:42-5:42

註釋:

 {Rose up, and walked} (anest(8820)kai periepatei). Aorist
tense (single act) followed by the imperfect ({the walking went
on}). {For she was twelve years old} ((886e) gar et(936e) d(9364)eka). The
age mentioned by Mark alone and here as explanation that she was
old enough to walk. {Amazed} (exest(8873)an). We have had this word
before in  Mt 12:23  and  Mr 2:12 , which see. Here the word is
repeated in the substantive in the associative instrumental case
(ekstasei megal(8869)), with a great ecstasy, especially on the
part of the parents ( Lu 8:56 ), and no wonder.

經文:

馬可福音 5:43-5:43

註釋:

 {That no one should know this} (hina m(8864)eis gnoi touto).
Second aorist active subjunctive, gnoi. But would they keep
still about it? There was the girl besides. Both Mark and Luke
note that Jesus ordered that food be given to the child {given
her to eat}, (doth(886e)ai aut(8869) phagein), a natural care of the
Great Physician. Two infinitives here (first aorist passive and
second aorist active). "She could walk and eat; not only alive,
but well" (Bruce).


經文:

馬可福音 6:1-6:1

註釋:

 {Into his own country} (eis t(886e) patrida autou). So  Mt
13:54 . There is no real reason for identifying this visit to
Nazareth with that recorded in  Lu 4:26-31  at the beginning of
the Galilean Ministry. He was rejected both times, but it is not
incongruous that Jesus should give Nazareth a second chance. It
was only natural for Jesus to visit his mother, brothers, and
sisters again. Neither Mark nor Matthew mention Nazareth here by
name, but it is plain that by patrida the region of Nazareth is
meant. He had not lived in Bethlehem since his birth.

經文:

馬可福音 6:2-6:2

註釋:

 {Began to teach} ((8872)xato didaskein). As was now his custom
in the synagogue on the sabbath. The ruler of the synagogue
(archisunag(9367)os, see  Mt 5:22 ) would ask some one to speak
whensoever he wished. The reputation of Jesus all over Galilee
opened the door for him. Jesus may have gone to Nazareth for
rest, but could not resist this opportunity for service. {Whence
hath this man these things?} (Pothen tout(9369) tauta;). Laconic
and curt, {Whence these things to this fellow?} With a sting and
a fling in their words as the sequel shows. They continued to be
amazed (exepl(8873)sonto, imperfect tense passive). They challenge
both the apparent {wisdom} (sophia) with which he spoke and
{the mighty works} or powers (hai dunameis) {such as those}
(	oiautai) {coming to pass} (ginomenai, present middle
participle, repeatedly wrought) {by his hands} (dia t(936e)
cheir(936e)). They felt that there was some hocus-pocus about it
somehow and somewhere. They do not deny the wisdom of his words,
nor the wonder of his works, but the townsmen knew Jesus and they
had never suspected that he possessed such gifts and graces.

經文:

馬可福音 6:3-6:3

註釋:

 {Is not this the carpenter?} (Ouch houtos estin ho
tekt(936e);).  Mt 13:55  calls him "the carpenter's son" (ho tou
tektonos huios). He was both. Evidently since Joseph's death he
had carried on the business and was "the carpenter" of Nazareth.
The word 	ekt(936e) comes from 	ekein, tikt(935c), to beget, create,
like 	echn(885c) (craft, art). It is a very old word, from Homer
down. It was originally applied to the worker in wood or builder
with wood like our carpenter. Then it was used of any artisan or
craftsman in metal, or in stone as well as in wood and even of
sculpture. It is certain that Jesus worked in wood. Justin Martyr
speaks of ploughs, yokes, et cetera, made by Jesus. He may also
have worked in stone and may even have helped build some of the
stone synagogues in Galilee like that in Capernaum. But in
Nazareth the people knew him, his family (no mention of Joseph),
and his trade and discounted all that they now saw with their own
eyes and heard with their own ears. This word carpenter "throws
the only flash which falls on the continuous tenor of the first
thirty years from infancy to manhood, of the life of Christ"
(Farrar). That is an exaggeration for we have  Lu 2:41-50  and
"as his custom was" ( Lu 4:16 ), to go no further. But we are
grateful for Mark's realistic use of 	ekt(936e) here. {And they
were offended in him} (kai eskandalizonto en aut(9369)). So exactly
 Mt 13:56 , {were made to stumble in him}, trapped like game by
the skandalon because they could not explain him, having been
so recently one of them. "The Nazarenes found their stumbling
block in the person or circumstances of Jesus. He became--petra
skandalou ( 1Pe 2:7,8  Ro 9:33 ) to those who disbelieved"
(Swete). Both Mark and  Mt 13:57 , which see, preserve the retort
of Jesus with the quotation of the current proverb about a
prophet's lack of honour in his own country.  Joh 4:44  quoted it
from Jesus on his return to Galilee long before this. It is to be
noted that Jesus here makes a definite claim to being a prophet
(proph(8874)(8873), forspeaker for God), a seer. He was much more than
this as he had already claimed to be Messiah ( Joh 4:26  Lu
4:21 ), the Son of man with power of God ( Mr 1:10  Mt 9:6  Lu
5:24 ), the Son of God ( Joh 5:22 ). They stumble at Jesus today
as the townspeople of Nazareth did. {In his own house} (en t(8869)
oiki(8369) autou). Also in  Mt 13:57 . This was the saddest part of
it all, that his own brothers in his own home disbelieved his
Messianic claims ( Joh 7:5 ). This puzzle was the greatest of
all.

經文:

馬可福音 6:6-6:6

註釋:

 {And he marvelled because of their unbelief} (kai ethaumasen
dia t(886e) apistian aut(936e)). Aorist tense, but Westcott and Hort put
the imperfect in the margin. Jesus had divine knowledge and
accurate insight into the human heart, but he had human
limitations in certain things that are not clear to us. He
marvelled at the faith of the Roman centurion where one would not
expect faith ( Mt 8:10  Lu 7:9 ). Here he marvels at the lack of
faith where he had a right to expect it, not merely among the
Jews, but in his own home town, among his kinspeople, even in his
own home. One may excuse Mary, the mother of Jesus, from this
unbelief, puzzled, as she probably was, by his recent conduct
( Mr 3:21,31 ). There is no proof that she ever lost faith in her
wonderful Son. {He went round about the villages teaching}
(peri(8867)en t(8373) k(936d)as kukl(9369) didask(936e)). A good illustration of
the frequent poor verse division. An entirely new paragraph
begins with these words, the third tour of Galilee. They should
certainly be placed with verse  7 . The Revised Version would be
justified if it had done nothing else than give us paragraphs
according to the sense and connection. "Jesus resumes the role of
a wandering preacher in Galilee" (Bruce). Imperfect tense,
peri(8867)en.

經文:

馬可福音 6:7-6:7

註釋:

 {By two and two} (duo duo). This repetition of the numeral
instead of the use of ana duo or kata duo is usually called a
Hebraism. The Hebrew does have this idiom, but it appears in
Aeschylus and Sophocles, in the vernacular _Koin(825f) (Oxyrhynchus
Papyri No. 121), in Byzantine Greek, and in modern Greek
(Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, pp. 122f.). Mark
preserves the vernacular _Koin(825f) better than the other Gospels
and this detail suits his vivid style. The six pairs of apostles
could thus cover Galilee in six different directions. Mark notes
that he "began to send them forth" ((8872)xato autous apostellein).
Aorist tense and present infinitive. This may refer simply to
this particular occasion in Mark's picturesque way. But the
imperfect tense edidou means he kept on giving them all through
the tour, a continuous power (authority) over unclean spirits
singled out by Mark as representing "all manner of diseases and
all manner of sickness" ( Mt 10:1 ), "to cure diseases"
(iasthai,  Lu 9:1 ), healing power. They were to preach and to
heal ( Lu 9:1  Mt 10:7 ). Mark does not mention preaching as a
definite part of the commission to the twelve on this their first
preaching tour, but he does state that they did preach ( 6:12 ).
They were to be missioners or missionaries (apostellein) in
harmony with their office (apostoloi).

經文:

馬可福音 6:8-6:8

註釋:

 {Save a staff only} (ei m(8820)rabdon monon). Every traveller
and pilgrim carried his staff. Bruce thinks that Mark has here
preserved the meaning of Jesus more clearly than  Mt 10:10  (nor
staff) and  Lu 9:3  (neither staff). This discrepancy has given
trouble to commentators. Grotius suggests no second staff for
Matthew and Luke. Swete considers that Matthew and Luke report
"an early exaggeration of the sternness of the command." "Without
even a staff is the _ne plus ultra_ of austere simplicity, and
self-denial. Men who carry out the spirit of these precepts will
not labour in vain" (Bruce).

經文:

馬可福音 6:9-6:9

註釋:

 {Shod with sandals} (hupodedemenous sandalia). Perfect
passive participle in the accusative case as if with the
infinitive poreuesthai or poreuth(886e)ai, (to go). Note the
aorist infinitive middle, endusasthai (text of Westcott and
Hort), but endus(8873)the (aorist middle subjunctive) in the
margin. Change from indirect to direct discourse common enough,
not necessarily due to "disjointed notes on which the Evangelist
depended" (Swete).  Mt 10:10  has "nor shoes" (m(8864)e
hupod(886d)ata), possibly preserving the distinction between "shoes"
and "sandals" (worn by women in Greece and by men in the east,
especially in travelling). But here again extra shoes may be the
prohibition. See on 烘t 10:10| for this. {Two coats} (duo
chit(936e)as). Two was a sign of comparative wealth (Swete). The
mention of "two" here in all three Gospels probably helps us to
understand that the same thing applies to shoes and staff. "In
general, these directions are against luxury in equipment, and
also against their providing themselves with what they could
procure from the hospitality of others" (Gould).

經文:

馬可福音 6:10-6:10

註釋:

 {There abide} (ekei menete). So also  Mt 10:11  Lu 9:4 .
Only Matthew has city or village ( 10:11 ), but he mentions house
in verse  12 . They were to avoid a restless and dissatisfied
manner and to take pains in choosing a home. It is not a
prohibition against accepting invitations.

經文:

馬可福音 6:11-6:11

註釋:

 {For a testimony unto them} (eis marturion autois). Not in
Matthew.  Lu 9:5  has "for a testimony against them" (eis
marturion epi autous). The dative autois in Mark is the dative
of disadvantage and really carries the same idea as epi in
Luke. The dramatic figure of {shaking out} (ektinaxate,
effective aorist imperative, Mark and Matthew), {shaking off}
(apotinassete, present imperative, Luke).

經文:

馬可福音 6:12-6:12

註釋:

 {Preached that men should repent} (ek(8872)uxan hina
metano(9373)in). Constative aorist (ek(8872)uxan), summary
description. This was the message of the Baptist ( Mt 3:2 ) and
of Jesus ( Mr 1:15 ).

經文:

馬可福音 6:13-6:13

註釋:

 {They cast out many demons and they anointed with oil}
(exeballon kai (886c)eiphon elai(9369)). Imperfect tenses, continued
repetition. Alone in Mark. This is the only example in the N.T.
of aleiph(9320)elai(9369) used in connection with healing save in  Jas
5:14 . In both cases it is possible that the use of oil (olive
oil) as a medicine is the basis of the practice. See  Lu 10:34 
for pouring oil and wine upon the wounds. It was the best
medicine of the ancients and was used internally and externally.
It was employed often after bathing. The papyri give a number of
examples of it. The only problem is whether aleiph(935c) in Mark and
James is used wholly in a ritualistic and ceremonial sense or
partly as medicine and partly as a symbol of divine healing. The
very word aleiph(935c) can be translated rub or anoint without any
ceremony. "Traces of a ritual use of the unction of the sick
appear first among Gnostic practices of the second century"
(Swete). We have today, as in the first century, God and
medicine. God through nature does the real healing when we use
medicine and the doctor.

經文:

馬可福音 6:14-6:14

註釋:

 {Heard} ((886b)ousen). This tour of Galilee by the disciples
in pairs wakened all Galilee, for the name of Jesus thus became
known (phaneron) or known till even Herod heard of it in the
palace. "A palace is late in hearing spiritual news" (Bengel).
{Therefore do these powers work in him} (dia touto energousin
hai dunameis en aut(9369)). "A snatch of Herod's theology and
philosophy" (Morison). John wrought no miracles ( Joh 10:41 ),
but if he had risen from the dead perhaps he could. So Herod may
have argued. "Herod's superstition and his guilty conscience
raised this ghost to plague him" (Gould). Our word _energy_ is
this same Greek word here used (energousin). It means at work.
Miraculous powers were at work in Jesus whatever the explanation.
This all agreed, but they differed widely as to his personality,
whether Elijah or another of the prophets or John the Baptist.
Herod was at first much perplexed (di(8870)orei,  Lu 9:7  and  Mr
6:20 ).

經文:

馬可福音 6:16-6:16

註釋:

 {John, whom I beheaded} (hon ego apekephalisa I(9361)n(886e)). His
fears got the best of him and so Herod settled down on this
nightmare. He could still see that charger containing John's head
coming towards him in his dreams. The late verb apokephaliz(935c)
means to cut off the head. Herod had ordered it done and
recognizes his guilt.

經文:

馬可福音 6:17-6:17

註釋:

 {For Herod himself} (Autos gar ho H(8872)(9369)d(8873)). Mark now
proceeds to give the narrative of the death of John the Baptist
some while before these nervous fears of Herod. But this _post
eventum_ narrative is very little out of the chronological order.
The news of John's death at Machaerus may even have come at the
close of the Galilean tour. "The tidings of the murder of the
Baptist seem to have brought the recent circuit to an end"
(Swete). The disciples of John "went and told Jesus. Now when
Jesus heard it, he withdrew from thence in a boat" ( Mt
14:12f. ). See on 烘t 14:3-12| for the discussion about Herod
Antipas and John and Herodias.

經文:

馬可福音 6:18-6:18

註釋:

 {Thy brother's wife} (	(886e) gunaika tou adelphou). While the
brother was alive ( Le 18:16  20:21 ). After a brother's death it
was often a duty to marry his widow.

經文:

馬可福音 6:19-6:19

註釋:

 {And Herodias set herself against him} (H(8820)de H(8872)(9369)dias
eneichen aut(9369)). Dative of disadvantage. Literally, {had it in
for him}. This is modern slang, but is in exact accord with this
piece of vernacular _Koin(825f). No object of eichen is expressed,
though org(886e) or cholon may be implied. The tense is imperfect
and aptly described the feelings of Herodias towards this upstart
prophet of the wilderness who had dared to denounce her private
relations with Herod Antipas. Gould suggests that she "kept her
eye on him" or kept up her hostility towards him. She never let
up, but bided her time which, she felt sure, would come. See the
same idiom in  Ge 49:23 . She {desired to kill him} ((8874)helen
auton apokteinai). Imperfect again. {And she could not} (kai
ouk (8864)unato). Kai here has an adversative sense, but she could
not. That is, not yet. "The power was wanting, not the will"
(Swete).

經文:

馬可福音 6:20-6:20

註釋:

 {Feared John} (ephobeito ton I(9361)n(886e)). Imperfect tense,
continual state of fear. He feared John and also Herodias.
Between the two Herod vacillated. He knew him to be righteous and
holy (dikaion kai hagion) and so innocent of any wrong. So he
{kept him safe} (sunet(8872)ei). Imperfect tense again. Late Greek
verb. From the plots and schemes of Herodias. She was another
Jezebel towards John and with Herod. {Much perplexed} (polla
(8870)orei). This the correct text not polla epoiei, did many
things. Imperfect tense again. {He heard him gladly} (h(8864)e(9373)
(886b)ouen). Imperfect tense again. This is the way that Herod
really felt when he could slip away from the meshes of Herodias.
These interviews with the Baptist down in the prison at Machaerus
during his occasional visits there braced "his jaded mind as with
a whiff of fresh air" (Swete). But then he saw Herodias again and
he was at his wits' end ((8870)orei, lose one's way, a privative
and poros, way), for he knew that he had to live with Herodias
with whom he was hopelessly entangled.

經文:

馬可福音 6:21-6:21

註釋:

 {When a convenient day was come} (genomen(8873) h(886d)eras
eukairou). Genitive absolute. A day well appointed eu, well,
kairos, time) for the purpose, the day for which she had long
waited. She had her plans all laid to spring a trap for her
husband Herod Antipas and to make him do her will with the
Baptist. Herod was not to know that he was the mere catspaw of
Herodias till it was all over. See on 烘t 14:6| for discussion of
Herod's birthday (genesiois, locative case or associative
instrumental of time). {Made a supper} (deipnon epoi(8873)en).
Banquet. {To his lords} (	ois megist(8373)in autou). From
megistan (that from megas, great), common in the LXX and
later Greek. Cf.  Re 6:15  18:23 . In the papyri. The grandees,
magnates, nobles, the chief men of civil life. {The high
captains} (	ois chiliarchois). Military tribunes, commanders of
a thousand men. {The chief men of Galilee} (	ois pr(9374)ois t(8873)
Galilaias). The first men of social importance and prominence. A
notable gathering that included these three groups at the banquet
on Herod's birthday.

經文:

馬可福音 6:22-6:22

註釋:

 {The daughter of Herodias herself} (	(8873) thugatros aut(8873)
H(8872)(9369)diados). Genitive absolute again. Some ancient manuscripts
read autou (his, referring to Herod Antipas. So Westcott and
Hort) instead of aut(8873) (herself). In that case the daughter of
Herodias would also have the name Herodias as well as Salome, the
name commonly given her. That is quite possible in itself. It was
toward the close of the banquet, when all had partaken freely of
the wine, that Herodias made her daughter come in and dance
(eiselthous(8873) kai orch(8873)amen(8873)) in the midst (Matthew). "Such
dancing was an almost unprecedented thing for women of rank, or
even respectability. It was mimetic and licentious, and performed
by professionals" (Gould). Herodias stooped thus low to degrade
her own daughter like a common hetaira in order to carry out
her set purpose against John. {She pleased Herod and them that
sat at meat} ((8872)esen H(8872)(9369)d(8869) kai tois sunanakeimenois). The
maudlin group lounging on the divans were thrilled by the
licentious dance of the half-naked princess. {Whatsoever thou
wilt} (ho ean thel(8869)s) The drunken Tetrarch had been caught in
the net of Herodias. It was a public promise.

經文:

馬可福音 6:23-6:23

註釋:

 {And he sware unto her} (kai (936d)osen aut(8869)). The girl was
of marriageable age though called korasion (cf.  Es 2:9 ).
Salome was afterward married to Philip the Tetrarch. The
swaggering oath to the half of the kingdom reminds one of  Es
5:3f. , the same oath made to Esther by Ahasuerus.

經文:

馬可福音 6:24-6:24

註釋:

 {What shall I ask?} (Ti ait(8873)(936d)ai;). The fact that she
went and spoke to her mother proves that she had not been told
beforehand what to ask.  Mt 14:8  does not necessarily mean that,
but he simply condenses the account. The girl's question implies
by the middle voice that she is thinking of something for
herself. She was no doubt unprepared for her mother's ghastly
reply.

經文:

馬可福音 6:25-6:25

註釋:

 {Straightway with haste} (euthus meta spoud(8873)). Before the
king's rash mood passed and while he was still under the spell of
the dancing princess. Herodias knew her game well. See on 烘t
14:8f|.

經文:

馬可福音 6:26-6:26

註釋:

 {He would not reject her} (ouk (8874)hel(8873)en athet(8873)ai aut(886e)).
He was caught once again between his conscience and his
environment. Like many since his day the environment stifled his
conscience.

經文:

馬可福音 6:27-6:27

註釋:

 {A soldier of his guard} (spekoulatora). Latin word
_speculator_. A spy, scout, lookout, and often executioner. It
was used of the bodyguard of the Roman emperor and so for one of
Herod's spies. He was used to do errands of this sort and it was
soon done. It was a gruesome job, but he soon brought John's head
to the damsel, apparently in the presence of all, and she took it
to her mother. This miserable Tetrarch, the slave of Herodias,
was now the slave of his fears. He is haunted by the ghost of
John and shudders at the reports of the work of Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 6:29-6:29

註釋:

 {His corpse} (	o pt(936d)a autou). See on 烘t 24:28|. It was a
mournful time for the disciples of John. "They went and told
Jesus" ( Mt 14:12 ). What else could they do?

經文:

馬可福音 6:30-6:30

註釋:

 {And the apostles gather themselves together unto Jesus}
(kai sunagontai hoi apostoloi pros ton I(8873)oun). Vivid
historical present. {All things whatsoever they had done and
whatsoever they had taught} (panta hosa epoi(8873)an kai hosa
edidaxan). Not past perfect in the Greek, just the aorist
indicative, constative aorist that summed it all up, the story of
this their first tour without Jesus. And Jesus listened to it all
( Lu 9:10 ). He was deeply concerned in the outcome.

經文:

馬可福音 6:31-6:31

註釋:

 {Come ye yourselves apart into a desert place and rest
awhile} (Deute humeis autoi kat' idian eis er(886d)on topon kai
anapauesthe oligon). It was plain that they were over-wrought
and excited and needed refreshment (anapauesthe, middle voice,
refresh yourselves, "rest up" literally). This is one of the
needed lessons for all preachers and teachers, occasional change
and refreshment. Even Jesus felt the need of it. {They had no
leisure so much as to eat} (oude phagein eukairoun). Imperfect
tense again. Crowds were coming and going. Change was a
necessity.

經文:

馬可福音 6:32-6:32

註釋:

 {And they went away in a boat} (kai ap(886c)thon en t(9369)
ploi(9369)). They accepted with alacrity and off they went.

經文:

馬可福音 6:33-6:33

註釋:

 {Outwent them} (pro(886c)thon autous). The crowds were not to
be outdone. They recognized (egn(9373)an) Jesus and the disciples
and ran around the head of the lake on foot (pez(8869)) and got
there ahead of Jesus and were waiting for Him when the boat came.

經文:

馬可福音 6:34-6:34

註釋:

 {They were as sheep not having a shepherd} ((8873)an h(9373)
probata m(8820)echonta poimena). Matthew has these words in another
context ( Mt 9:26 ), but Mark alone has them here. M(885c) is the
usual negative for the participle in the _Koin(825f). These excited
and exciting people (Bruce) greatly needed teaching.  Mt 14:14 
mentions healing as does  Lu 9:11  (both preaching and healing).
But a vigorous crowd of runners would not have many sick. The
people had plenty of official leaders but these rabbis were for
spiritual matters blind leaders of the blind. Jesus had come over
for rest, but his heart was touched by the pathos of this
situation. So "he began to teach them many things" ((8872)xato
didaskein autous polla). Two accusatives with the verb of
teaching and the present tense of the infinitive. He kept it up.

經文:

馬可福音 6:35-6:35

註釋:

 {When the day was now far spent} ((8864)(8820)h(9372)as poll(8873)
genomen(8873)). Genitive absolute. H(9372)a used here for day-time (so
 Mt 14:15 ) as in Polybius and late Greek. {Much day-time already
gone}.  Lu 9:12  has it began to {incline} (klinein) or wear
away. It was after 3 P.M., the first evening. Note second evening
or sunset in  Mr 6:47  Mt 14:23  Joh 6:16 . The turn of the
afternoon had come and sunset was approaching. The idiom is
repeated at the close of the verse. See on 烘t 14:15|.

經文:

馬可福音 6:36-6:36

註釋:

 {Into the country and villages round about} (eis tous
kukl(9369) agrous kai k(936d)as). The fields (agrous) were the
scattered farms (Latin, _villae_). The villages (k(936d)as) may
have included Bethsaida Julias not far away ( Lu 9:10 ). The
other Bethsaida was on the Western side of the lake ( Mr 6:45 ).
{Somewhat to eat} (	i phag(9373)in). Literally, {what to eat},
{what they were to eat}. Deliberative subjunctive retained in the
indirect question.

經文:

馬可福音 6:38-6:38

註釋:

 {Go and see} (hupagete idete). John says that Jesus asked
Philip to find out what food they had ( Joh 6:5f. ) probably
after the disciples had suggested that Jesus send the crowd away
as night was coming on ( Mr 6:35f. ). On this protest to his
command that they feed the crowds ( Mr 6:37  Mt 14:16  Lu 9:13 )
Jesus said "Go see" how many loaves you can get hold of. Then
Andrew reports the fact of the lad with five barley loaves and
two fishes ( Joh 6:8f. ). They had suggested before that two
hundred pennyworth (d(886e)ari(936e) diakosi(936e). See on 烘t 18:28|) was
wholly inadequate and even that (some thirty-five dollars) was
probably all that or even more than they had with them. John's
Gospel alone tells of the lad with his lunch which his mother had
given him.

經文:

馬可福音 6:39-6:39

註釋:

 {By companies} (sumposia sumposia). Distribution expressed
by repetition as in  Mr 6:7  (duo duo) instead of using ana
or kata. Literally our word _symposium_ and originally a
drinking party, Latin _convivium_, then the party of guests of
any kind without the notion of drinking. So in Plutarch and the
LXX (especially I Macca.). {Upon the green grass} (epi t(9369)
chl(9372)(9369) chort(9369)). Another Markan touch. It was passover time
( Joh 6:4 ) and the afternoon sun shone upon the orderly groups
upon the green spring grass. See on 烘t 14:15|. They may have
been seated like companies at tables, open at one end.

經文:

馬可福音 6:40-6:40

註釋:

 {They sat down in ranks} (anepesan prasiai prasiai). They
half-way reclined (anaklith(886e)ai, verse  39 ). Fell up here (we
have to say fell down), the word anepesan means. But they were
arranged in groups by hundreds and by fifties and they looked
like garden beds with their many-coloured clothes which even men
wore in the Orient. Then again Mark repeats the word, prasiai
prasiai, in the nominative absolute as in verse  39  instead of
using ana or kata with the accusative for the idea of
distribution. Garden beds, garden beds. Peter saw and he never
forgot the picture and so Mark caught it. There was colour as
well as order in the grouping. There were orderly walks between
the rows on rows of men reclining on the green grass. The grass
is not green in Palestine much of the year, mainly at the
passover time. So here the Synoptic Gospels have an indication of
more than a one-year ministry of Jesus (Gould). It is still one
year before the last passover when Jesus was crucified.

經文:

馬可福音 6:41-6:41

註釋:

 {Brake the loaves; and he gave to the disciples} (kai apo
t(936e) ichthu(936e)). Apparently the fishes were in excess of the
twelve baskets full of broken pieces of bread. See on 烘t 14:20|
for discussion of kophinos and sphuris, the two kinds of
baskets.

經文:

馬可福音 6:44-6:44

註釋:

 {Men} (andres). Men as different from women as in  Mt
14:21 . This remarkable miracle is recorded by all Four Gospels,
a nature miracle that only God can work. No talk about
accelerating natural processes will explain this miracle. And
three eyewitnesses report it: the Logia of Matthew, the eyes of
Peter in Mark, the witness of John the Beloved Disciple (Gould).
The evidence is overwhelming.

經文:

馬可福音 6:45-6:45

註釋:

 {To Bethsaida} (pros B(8874)hsaidan). This is Bethsaida on the
Western side, not Bethsaida Julias on the Eastern side where they
had just been ( Lu 9:10 ). {While he himself sendeth the
multitude away} (he(9373) autos apoluei ton ochlon).  Mt 14:22  has
it "till he should send away" (he(9373) hou apolus(8869)) with the
aorist subjunctive of purpose. Mark with the present indicative
apoluei pictures Jesus as personally engaged in persuading the
crowds to go away now.  Joh 6:41f.  explains this activity of
Jesus. The crowds had become so excited that they were in the
mood to start a revolution against the Roman government and
proclaim Jesus king. He had already forced in reality the
disciples to leave in a boat {to go before him} (proagein) in
order to get them out of this atmosphere of overwrought
excitement with a political twist to the whole conception of the
Messianic Kingdom. They were in grave danger of being swept off
their feet and falling heedlessly into the Pharisaic conception
and so defeating the whole teaching and training of Jesus with
them. See on 烘t 14:22,23|. To this pass things had come one year
before the Crucifixion. He had done his best to help and bless
the crowds and lost his chance to rest. No one really understood
Jesus, not the crowds, not the disciples. Jesus needed the Father
to stay and steady him. The devil had come again to tempt him
with world dominion in league with the Pharisees, the populace,
and the devil in the background.

經文:

馬可福音 6:47-6:47

註釋:

 {When even was come} (opsias genomen(8873)). The second or
late evening, six P.M. at this season, or sunset on. {He alone on
the land} (kai autos monos (8870)i t(8873) g(8873)). Another Markan touch.
Jesus had come down out of the mountain where he had prayed to
the Father. He is by the sea again in the late twilight.
Apparently Jesus remained quite a while, some hours, on the
beach. "It was now dark and Jesus had not yet come to them" ( Joh
6:17 ).

經文:

馬可福音 6:48-6:48

註釋:

 {Seeing them distressed in rowing} (id(936e) autous
basanizomenous en t(9369) elaunein). See also  Mt 8:29  for the word
asaniz(935c), to torture, torment ( Mt 4:24 ) with a touch-stone,
then to distress as here. Papyri have dia basan(936e) used on
slaves like our third degree for criminals. Elaunein is
literally to drive as of ships or chariots. They drove the boat
with oars. Common in Xenophon for marching. {About the fourth
watch of the night} (peri tetart(886e) phulak(886e) t(8873) nuktos). That
is, between three and six A.M. The wind was {contrary to them}
(enantios autois), that is in their faces and rowing was
difficult, "a great wind" ( Joh 6:18 ), and as a result the
disciples had made little progress. They should have been over
long before this. {And he would have passed by them} (kai
(8874)helen parelthein autous). Only in Mark. He wished to pass by
them, _praeterire eos_ (Vulgate). Imperfect tense (8874)helen.
{They thought} (edoxan). A natural conclusion. {And cried out}
(anekraxan). {Cried up}, literally, a shriek of terror, or
scream.

經文:

馬可福音 6:50-6:50

註釋:

 {It is I} (ego eimi). These were the astounding words of
cheer. They did not recognize Jesus in the darkness. They had
never seen him or any one walk on the water. His voice reassured
them.

經文:

馬可福音 6:51-6:51

註釋:

 {They were sore amazed in themselves} (lian en heautois
existanto). Only in Mark. Imperfect tense picturing vividly the
excited disciples. Mark does not give the incident of Peter's
walking on the water and beginning to sink. Perhaps Peter was not
fond of telling that story.

經文:

馬可福音 6:52-6:52

註釋:

 {For they understood not} (ou gar sun(886b)an). Explanation of
their excessive amazement, viz., their failure to grasp the full
significance of the miracle of the loaves and fishes, a nature
miracle. Here was another, Jesus walking on the water. Their
reasoning process (kardia in the general sense for all the
inner man) {was hardened} ((886e) pep(9372)(936d)en(885c)). See on 氨:5| about
p(9372)(9373)is. Today some men have such intellectual hardness or
denseness that they cannot believe that God can or would work
miracles, least of all nature miracles.

經文:

馬可福音 6:53-6:53

註釋:

 {And moored to the shore} (kai pros(9372)misth(8873)an). Only here
in the New Testament, though an old Greek verb and occurring in
the papyri. Hormos is roadstead or anchorage. They cast anchor
or lashed the boat to a post on shore. It was at the plain of
Gennesaret several miles south of Bethsaida owing to the night
wind.

經文:

馬可福音 6:54-6:54

註釋:

 {Knew him} (epignontes auton). Recognizing Jesus, knowing
fully (epi) as nearly all did by now. Second aorist active
participle.

經文:

馬可福音 6:55-6:55

註釋:

 {Ran about} (periedramon). Vivid constative aorist
picturing the excited pursuit of Jesus as the news spread that he
was in Gennesaret. {On their beds} (epi tois krabattois).
Pallets like that of the man let down through the roof ( Mr
2:4 ). {Where they heard he was} (hopou (886b)ouon hoti estin).
Imperfect tense of akou(935c) (repetition), present indicative
estin retained in indirect discourse.

經文:

馬可福音 6:56-6:56

註釋:

 {Wheresoever he entered} (hopou an eiseporeueto). The
imperfect indicative with an used to make a general indefinite
statement with the relative adverb. See the same construction at
the close of the verse, hosoi an h(8870)santo auton (aorist
indicative and an in a relative clause), {as many as touched
him}. One must enlarge the details here to get an idea of the
richness of the healing ministry of Jesus. We are now near the
close of the Galilean ministry with its many healing mercies and
excitement is at the highest pitch (Bruce).

經文:

馬可福音 7:2-7:2

註釋:

 {With defiled, that is unwashen hands} (koinais chersin,
tout' estin aniptois). Associative instrumental case. Originally
koinos meant what was common to everybody like the _Koin(825f)
Greek. But in later Greek it came also to mean as here what is
vulgar or profane. So Peter in  Ac 10:14  "common and unclean."
The next step was the ceremonially unclean. The emissaries of the
Pharisees and the scribes from Jerusalem had seen "some of the
disciples" eat without washing their hands, how many we are not
told. Swete suggests that in going through the plain the
disciples were seen eating some of the bread preserved in the
twelve baskets the afternoon before across the lake. There was no
particular opportunity to wash the hands, a very proper thing to
do before eating for sanitary reasons. But the objection raised
is on ceremonial, not sanitary, grounds.

經文:

馬可福音 7:3-7:3

註釋:

 {Diligently} (pugm(8869)). Instrumental case, {with the fist},
up to the elbow, rubbing one hand and arm with the other hand
clenched. Aleph had pukna probably because of the difficulty
about pugm(8869) (kin to Latin _pugnus_). Schultess considers it a
dry wash or rubbing of the hands without water as a ritualistic
concession. The middle voice 
ips(936e)tai means their own hands.
This verb is often used for parts of the body while lou(935c) is
used of the whole body ( Joh 13:10 ). On the tradition of the
elders see on 烘t 15:2|.

經文:

馬可福音 7:4-7:4

註釋:

 {From the marketplace} (ap' agoras). Ceremonial defilement
was inevitable in the mixing with men in public. This agora
from ageir(935c) to collect or gather, was a public forum in every
town where the people gathered like the courthouse square in
American towns. The disciples were already ceremonially defiled.
{Wash themselves} (aptis(936e)tai). First aorist middle
subjunctive of aptiz(935c), dip or immerse. Westcott and Hort put

antis(936e)tai in the text translated "sprinkle themselves" in the
margin of the Revised Version, because Aleph, B, and some of the
best cursives have it. Gould terms 
antis(936e)tai "a manifest
emendation," to get rid of the difficulty of dipping or bathing
the whole body. Meyer says: "The statement proceeds by way of
climax: before eating they wash the hands always. When they come
from market they take a bath before eating." This is not the
place to enter into any controversy about the meaning of
aptiz(935c), to dip, 
antiz(935c), to sprinkle, and ecche(935c), to pour,
all used in the New Testament. The words have their distinctive
meanings here as elsewhere. Some scribes felt a difficulty about
the use of aptis(936e)tai here. The Western and Syrian classes of
manuscripts add "and couches" (kai klin(936e)) at the end of the
sentence. Swete considers the immersions of beds (aptismous
klin(936e)) "an incongruous combination." But Gould says: "Edersheim
shows that the Jewish ordinance required immersions,
aptismous, of these vessels." We must let the Jewish
scrupulosity stand for itself, though "and couches" is not
supported by Aleph, B L D Bohairic, probably not genuine.

經文:

馬可福音 7:6-7:6

註釋:

 {Well} (kal(9373)). Appositely here, but ironical sarcasm in
verse  9 . Note here "you hypocrites" (hum(936e) t(936e) hupokrit(936e)).

經文:

馬可福音 7:8-7:8

註釋:

 {Ye leave the commandment of God} (aphentes t(886e) entol(886e) tou
theou). Note the sharp contrast between the command of God and
the traditions of men. Jesus here drives a keen wedge into the
Pharisaic contention. They had covered up the Word of God with
their oral teaching. Jesus here shows that they care more for the
oral teaching of the scribes and elders than for the written law
of God. The Talmud gives abundant and specific confirmation of
the truthfulness of this indictment.

經文:

馬可福音 7:9-7:9

註釋:

 {Full well do ye reject the commandment of God that ye may
keep your traditions} (kal(9373) atheteite t(886e) entol(886e) tou theou
hina t(886e) paradosin hum(936e) t(8872)(8873)(8874)e). One can almost see the
scribes withering under this terrible arraignment. It was biting
sarcasm that cut to the bone. The evident irony should prevent
literal interpretation as commendation of the Pharisaic pervasion
of God's word. See my _The Pharisees and Jesus_ for illustrations
of the way that they placed this oral tradition above the written
law. See on 烘t 15:7|.

經文:

馬可福音 7:11-7:11

註釋:

 {Corban} (korban ho estin d(9372)on). See on 烘t 15:5|. Mark
preserves the Hebrew word for a gift or offering to God ( Ex
21:17  Le 20:9 ), indeclinable here, meaning {gift} (d(9372)on),
but declinable korbanas in  Mt 27:6 , meaning sacred treasury.
The rabbis ({but ye say}, humeis de legete) actually allowed
the mere saying of this word by an unfaithful son to prevent the
use of needed money for the support of father or mother. It was a
home thrust to these pettifogging sticklers for ceremonial
punctilios. They not only justified such a son's trickery, but
held that he was prohibited from using it for father or mother,
but he might use it for himself.

經文:

馬可福音 7:13-7:13

註釋:

 {Making void the word of God by your tradition} (akurountes
ton logon tou theou t(8869) paradosei hum(936e)). See on 烘t 15:6| for
the word akurountes, invalidating, a stronger word than
athetein, to set aside, in verse  9 . See both used in  Ga
3:15,17 . Setting aside does invalidate.

經文:

馬可福音 7:14-7:14

註釋:

 {And he called to him the multitude again} (kai
proskalesamenos palin ton ochlon). Aorist middle participle,
calling to himself. The rabbis had attacked the disciples about
not washing their hands before eating. Jesus now turned the
tables on them completely and laid bare their hollow pretentious
hypocrisy to the people. {Hear me all of you and understand}
(akousate mou pantes kai suniete). A most pointed appeal to the
people to see into and see through the chicanery of these
ecclesiastics. See on 烘t 15:11| for discussion.

經文:

馬可福音 7:17-7:17

註釋:

 {When he was entered into the house from the multitude}
(hote eis(886c)then eis oikon apo tou ochlou). This detail in Mark
alone, probably in Peter's house in Capernaum. To the crowd Jesus
spoke the parable of corban, but the disciples want it
interpreted (cf.  4:10ff.,33ff. ).  Mt 15:15  represents Peter as
the spokesman as was usually the case.

經文:

馬可福音 7:18-7:18

註釋:

 {Are ye so without understanding also?} (Hout(9373) kai humeis
asunetoi este;). See on 烘t 15:16|. You also as well as the
multitude. It was a discouraging moment for the great Teacher if
his own chosen pupils (disciples) were still under the spell of
the Pharisaic theological outlook. It was a riddle to them. "They
had been trained in Judaism, in which the distinction between
clean and unclean is ingrained, and could not understand a
statement abrogating this" (Gould). They had noticed that the
Pharisees stumbled at the parable of Jesus ( Mt 15:12 ). They
were stumbling themselves and did not know how to answer the
Pharisees. Jesus charges the disciples with intellectual dulness
and spiritual stupidity.

經文:

馬可福音 7:19-7:19

註釋:

 {Making all meats clean} (kathariz(936e) panta ta br(936d)ata).
This anacoluthon can be understood by repeating {he says}
(legei) from verse  18 . The masculine participle agrees with
Jesus, the speaker. The words do not come from Jesus, but are
added by Mark. Peter reports this item to Mark, probably with a
vivid recollection of his own experience on the housetop in Joppa
when in the vision Peter declined three times the Lord's
invitation to kill and eat unclean animals ( Ac 10:14-16 ). It
was a riddle to Peter as late as that day. "Christ asserts that
_Levitical_ uncleanness, such as eating with unwashed hands, is
of small importance compared with _moral_ uncleanness" (Vincent).
The two chief words in both incidents, here and in Acts, are
{defile} (koino(935c)) and {cleanse} (kathariz(935c)). "What God
cleansed do not thou treat as defiled" ( Ac 10:15 ). It was a
revolutionary declaration by Jesus and Peter was slow to
understand it even after the coming of the Holy Spirit at
Pentecost. Jesus was amply justified in his astonished question:
{Perceive ye not?} (ou noeite;). They were making little use of
their intelligence in trying to comprehend the efforts of Jesus
to give them a new and true spiritual insight.

經文:

馬可福音 7:21-7:21

註釋:

 {Evil thoughts} (hoi dialogismoi hoi kakoi). These come
out of the heart (ek t(8873) kardias), the inner man, and lead to
the dreadful list here given like the crimes of a modern police
court: {fornications} (porneiai, usually of the unmarried),
{adulteries} (moichaiai, of the married), {thefts} (klopai,
stealings), {covetings} (pleonexiai, craze for more and more),
{murders} (phonoi, growing out of the others often),
{wickednesses} (pon(8872)iai, from ponos, toil, then drudge, bad
like our _knave_, serving boy like German _Knabe_, and then
criminal), {deceit} (dolos, lure or snare with bait),
{lasciviousness} (aselgeia, unrestrained sex instinct), {evil
eye} (ophthalmos pon(8872)os) or eye that works evil and that
haunts one with its gloating stare, {railing} (lasph(886d)ia,
blasphemy, hurtful speech), {pride} (huper(8870)hania, holding
oneself above others, stuck up), {foolishness} (aphrosun(885c), lack
of sense), a fitting close to it all.

經文:

馬可福音 7:24-7:24

註釋:

 {Into the borders of Tyre and Sidon} (eis ta horia Turou
kai Sid(936e)os). The departure from Capernaum was a withdrawal from
Galilee, the second of the four withdrawals from Galilee. The
first had been to the region of Bethsaida Julias in the territory
of Herod Philip. This is into distinctly heathen land. It was not
merely the edge of Phoenicia, but into the parts of Tyre and
Sidon ( Mt 15:21 ). There was too much excitement among the
people, too much bitterness among the Pharisees, too much
suspicion on the part of Herod Antipas, too much dulness on the
part of the disciples for Jesus to remain in Galilee. {And he
could not be hid} (kai ouk (8864)unasth(8820)lathein). Jesus wanted to
be alone in the house after all the strain in Galilee. He craved
a little privacy and rest. This was his purpose in going into
Phoenicia. Note the adversative sense of kai here= "but."

經文:

馬可福音 7:25-7:25

註釋:

 {Whose little daughter} (h(8873) to thugatrion aut(8873)).
Diminutive with tender touch. Note "whose" and "her" like
vernacular today. {Having heard of him} (akousasa peri autou).
Even in this heathen territory the fame of Jesus was known. When
the Sermon on the Mount was preached people were there from "the
sea coast of Tyre and Sidon" ( Lu 6:17 ).

經文:

馬可福音 7:26-7:26

註釋:

 {A Greek, a Syro-Phoenician by race} (Hell(886e)is,
Surophoinikissa t(9369) genei). "A Greek in religion, a Syrian in
tongue, a Phoenician in race" (Bruce), from Euthymius Zigabenus.
She was not a Phoenician of Carthage. {She besought} ((8872)(9374)a).
Imperfect tense. She kept at it. This verb, as in late Greek, is
here used for a request, not a mere question. Abundant examples
in the papyri in this sense.

經文:

馬可福音 7:27-7:27

註釋:

 {Let the children first be filled} (aphes pr(9374)on
chortasth(886e)ai ta paidia). The Jews had the first claim. See the
command of Jesus in the third tour of Galilee to avoid the
Gentiles and the Samaritans ( Mt 10:5 ). Paul was the Apostle to
the Gentiles, but he gave the Jew the first opportunity ( Ro
2:9f. ). See on 烘t 15:24f|.

經文:

馬可福音 7:28-7:28

註釋:

 {Even the dogs under the table} (kai ta kunaria hupokat(930a)t(8873) trapez(8873)). A delightful picture. Even the little dogs
(kunaria) under the table {eat of the children's crumbs}
(esthiousin apo t(936e) psichi(936e) t(936e) paidi(936e)). Little dogs, little
scraps of bread (psichion, diminutive of psichos, _morsel_),
little children (paidia, diminutive of pais). Probably the
little children purposely dropped a few little crumbs for the
little dogs. These household dogs, pets of and loved by the
children. _Braid Scots_ has it: "Yet the wee dowgs aneath the
table eat o' the moole o' the bairns." "A unique combination of
faith and wit" (Gould). Instead of resenting Christ's words about
giving the children's bread to the dogs (Gentiles) in verse  27 ,
she instantly turned it to the advantage of her plea for her
little daughter.

經文:

馬可福音 7:29-7:29

註釋:

 {For this saying} (dia touton ton logon). She had faith,
great faith as  Mt 15:28  shows, but it was her quick and bright
repartee that pleased Jesus. He had missed his rest, but it was
worth it to answer a call like this.

經文:

馬可福音 7:30-7:30

註釋:

 {And the demon gone out} (kai to daimonion exel(886c)uthos).
This was her crumb from the children's table. The perfect active
participle expresses the state of completion. The demon was gone
for good and all.

經文:

馬可福音 7:31-7:31

註釋:

 {Through the midst of the borders of Decapolis} (ana meson
t(936e) hori(936e) Dekapole(9373)). Jesus left Phoenicia, but did not go
back into Galilee. He rather went east and came down east of the
Sea of Galilee into the region of the Greek cities of Decapolis.
He thus kept out of the territory of Herod Antipas. He had been
in this region when he healed the Gadarene demoniac and was asked
to leave.

經文:

馬可福音 7:32-7:32

註釋:

 {And they bring unto him} (kai pherousin aut(9369)). Another
of Mark's dramatic presents. This incident only in Mark.

經文:

馬可福音 7:33-7:33

註釋:

 {Took him aside} (apolabomenos auton). The secrecy here
observed was partly to avoid excitement and partly to get the
attention of the deaf and dumb demoniac. He could not hear what
Jesus said. So Jesus put his fingers into his ears, spat, and
touched his tongue. There was, of course, no virtue in the
spittle and it is not clear why Jesus used it. Saliva was by some
regarded as remedial and was used by exorcists in their
incantations. Whether this was a concession to the man's
denseness one does not know. But it all showed the poor man that
Jesus healed him in his own way.

經文:

馬可福音 7:34-7:34

註釋:

 {Ephphatha} (dianoichth(8874)i, be opened). Another one of
Mark's Aramaic words preserved and transliterated and then
translated into Greek. "Be thou unbarred" (_Braid Scots_). Jesus
sighed (estenaxen) as he looked up into heaven and spoke the
word ephphatha. Somehow he felt a nervous strain in this
complex case (deaf, dumb, demoniac) that we may not quite
comprehend.

經文:

馬可福音 7:35-7:35

註釋:

 {He spake plain} (elalei orth(9373)). He began to speak
correctly. Inchoative imperfect tense.

經文:

馬可福音 7:36-7:36

註釋:

 {So much the more a great deal they published it} (autoi
m(836c)lon perissoteron ek(8872)usson). Imperfect tense, continued
action. Double comparative as occurs elsewhere for emphasis as in
 Php 1:23  "much more better" (poll(9369) m(836c)lon kreisson). See
Robertson's _Grammar_, pp. 663f. Human nature is a peculiar
thing. The command not to tell provoked these people to tell just
as the leper had done ( Mr 1:44f. ). The more Jesus commanded
(hoson autois diestelleto) them not to tell the more they told.
It was a continuous performance. Prohibitions always affect some
people that way, especially superficial and light-headed folks.
But we have to have prohibitions or anarchy.

經文:

馬可福音 7:37-7:37

註釋:

 {He hath done all things well} (Kal(9373) panta pepoi(886b)en).
The present perfect active shows the settled convictions of these
people about Jesus. Their great amazement (huperperiss(9373)
exepl(8873)sonto), imperfect passive and compound adverb, thus found
expression in a vociferous championship of Jesus in this pagan
land.

經文:

馬可福音 8:1-8:1

註釋:

 {Had nothing to eat} (m(8820)echont(936e) ti phag(9373)in). Genitive
absolute and plural because ochlou a collective substantive.
Not having what to eat (deliberative subjunctive retained in
indirect question). The repetition of a nature miracle of feeding
four thousand in Decapolis disturbs some modern critics who
cannot imagine how Jesus could or would perform another miracle
elsewhere so similar to the feeding of the five thousand up near
Bethsaida Julias. But both Mark and Matthew give both miracles,
distinguish the words for baskets (kophinos, sphuris), and both
make Jesus later refer to both incidents and use these two words
with the same distinction ( Mr 8:19f.  Mt 16:9f. ). Surely it is
easier to conceive that Jesus wrought two such miracles than to
hold that Mark and Matthew have made such a jumble of the whole
business.

經文:

馬可福音 8:2-8:2

註釋:

 {Now three days} ((8864)(8820)h(886d)erai treis). This text preserves a
curious parenthetic nominative of time (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
460). See on 烘t 15:32|.

經文:

馬可福音 8:3-8:3

註釋:

 {Are come from far} (apo makrothen eisin). This item alone
in Mark.

經文:

馬可福音 8:4-8:4

註釋:

 {Here} (h(9364)e). Of all places, in this desert region in the
mountains. The disciples feel as helpless as when the five
thousand were fed. They do not rise to faith in the unlimited
power of Jesus after all that they have seen.

經文:

馬可福音 8:6-8:6

註釋:

 {Brake and gave} (eklasen kai edidou). Constative aorist
followed by imperfect. The giving kept on. {To set before them}
(hina paratith(9373)in). Present subjunctive describing the
continuous process.

經文:

馬可福音 8:7-8:7

註釋:

 {A few small fishes} (ichthudia oliga). Mark mentions them
last as if they were served after the food, but not so  Mt
15:34f .

經文:

馬可福音 8:8-8:8

註釋:

 {Broken pieces that remained over} (perisseumata
klasmat(936e)). Overplus, abundance, remains of broken pieces not
used, not just scraps or crumbs.

經文:

馬可福音 8:10-8:10

註釋:

 {Into the parts of Dalmanutha} (eis ta mer(8820)Dalmanoutha).
 Mt 15:39  calls it "the borders of Magadan." Both names are
unknown elsewhere, but apparently the same region of Galilee on
the western side of the lake not far from Tiberias. Mark here
uses "parts" (mer(885c)) in the same sense as "borders" (horia) in
 7:24  just as Matthew reverses it with "parts" in  Mt 15:21  and
"borders" here in  Mt 15:39 . Mark has here "with his disciples"
(meta t(936e) math(8874)(936e) autou) only implied in  Mt 15:39 .

經文:

馬可福音 8:11-8:11

註釋:

 {And the Pharisees came forth} (kai ex(886c)thon hoi
Pharisaioi). At once they met Jesus and opened a controversy.
 Mt 16:1  adds "and Sadducees," the first time these two parties
appear together against Jesus. See discussion on 烘t 16:1|. The
Pharisees and Herodians had already joined hands against Jesus in
the sabbath controversy ( Mr 3:6 ). They {began to question with
him} ((8872)xanto sunz(8874)ein aut(9369)). Dispute, not mere inquiry,
associative instrumental case of autoi. They began at once and
kept it up (present infinitive).

經文:

馬可福音 8:12-8:12

註釋:

 {He sighed deeply in his spirit} (anastenaxas t(9369)
pneumati). The only instance of this compound in the N.T. though
in the LXX. The uncompounded form occurs in  Mr 7:34  and it is
common enough. The preposition ana- intensifies the meaning of
the verb (perfective use). "The sigh seemed to come, as we say,
from the bottom of his heart, the Lord's human spirit was stirred
to its depths" (Swete). Jesus resented the settled prejudice of
the Pharisees (and now Sadducees also) against him and his work.
{There shall no sign be given unto this generation} (ei
doth(8873)etai t(8869) gene(8369) taut(8869) s(886d)eion).  Mt 16:4  has simply ou
doth(8873)etai, plain negative with the future passive indicative.
Mark has ei instead of ou, which is technically a conditional
clause with the conclusion unexpressed (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
1024), really aposiopesis in imitation of the Hebrew use of im.
This is the only instance in the N.T. except in quotations from
the LXX ( Heb 3:11  4:3,5 ). It is very common in the LXX. The
rabbis were splitting hairs over the miracles of Jesus as having
a possible natural explanation (as some critics do today) even if
by the power of Beelzebub, and those not of the sky (from heaven)
which would be manifested from God. So they put up this fantastic
test to Jesus which he deeply resents.  Mt 16:4  adds "but the
sign of Jonah" mentioned already by Jesus on a previous occasion
( Mt 12:39-41 ) at more length and to be mentioned again ( Lu
11:32 ). But the mention of the sign of Jonah was "an absolute
refusal of signs in their sense" (Bruce). And when he did rise
from the dead on the third day, the Sanhedrin refused to be
convinced (see Acts 3 to 5).

經文:

馬可福音 8:14-8:14

註釋:

 {Bread} (artous). {Loaves}, plural. {More than one loaf}
(ei m(8820)hina arton). Except one loaf. Detail only in Mark.
Practically for thirteen men when hungry.

經文:

馬可福音 8:15-8:15

註釋:

 {Take heed, beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, and the
leaven of Herod} (Hor(8374)e, blepete apo t(8873) zum(8873) t(936e) Pharisai(936e)
kai t(8873) zum(8873) H(8872)(9369)dou). Present imperatives. Note apo and the
ablative case. Zum(885c) is from zumo(935c) and occurs already in  Mt
13:33  in a good sense. For the bad sense see  1Co 5:6 . He
repeatedly charged (diestelleto, imperfect indicative), showing
that the warning was needed. The disciples came out of a
Pharisaic atmosphere and they had just met it again at
Dalmanutha. It was insidious. Note the combination of Herod here
with the Pharisees. This is after the agitation of Herod because
of the death of the Baptist and the ministry of Jesus ( Mr
6:14-29  Mt 14:1-12  Lu 9:7-9 ). Jesus definitely warns the
disciples against "the leaven of Herod" (bad politics) and the
leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees (bad theology and also bad
politics).

經文:

馬可福音 8:16-8:16

註釋:

 {They reasoned one with another} (dielogizonto pros
all(886c)ous), implying discussion. Imperfect tense, kept it up.  Mt
16:7  has en heautois, in themselves or among themselves.

經文:

馬可福音 8:17-8:17

註釋:

 Mark here (vv.  17-20 ) gives six keen questions of Jesus
while  Mt 16:8-11  gives as four that really include the six of
Mark running some together. The questions reveal the
disappointment of Jesus at the intellectual dulness of his
pupils. The questions concern the intellect (
oeite, from

ous, suniete, comprehend), the heart in a {hardened state}
(pep(9372)(936d)en(886e), perfect passive predicate participle as in  Mr
6:52 , which see), the eyes, the ears, the memory of both the
feeding of the five thousand and the four thousand here sharply
distinguished even to the two kinds of baskets (kophinous,
sphurid(936e)). The disciples did recall the number of baskets left
over in each instance, twelve and seven. Jesus "administers a
sharp rebuke for their preoccupation with mere temporalities, as
if there were nothing higher to be thought of _than bread_"
(Bruce). "For the time the Twelve are way-side hearers, with
hearts like a beaten path, into which the higher truths cannot
sink so as to germinate" (Bruce).

經文:

馬可福音 8:18-8:18

註釋:

 See on 氣7|.

經文:

馬可福音 8:19-8:19

註釋:

 See on 氣7|.

經文:

馬可福音 8:20-8:20

註釋:

 See on 氣7|.

經文:

馬可福音 8:21-8:21

註釋:

 {Do ye not yet understand?} (oup(9320)suniete;). After all
this rebuke and explanation. The greatest of all teachers had the
greatest of all classes, but he struck a snag here.  Mt 16:12 
gives the result: "Then they understood how that he bade them not
beware of the loaves of bread, but of the teaching of the
Pharisees and Sadducees." They had once said that they understood
the parables of Jesus ( Mt 13:51 ). But that was a long time ago.
The teacher must have patience if his pupils are to understand.

經文:

馬可福音 8:22-8:22

註釋:

 {Unto Bethsaida} (eis B(8874)hsaidan). On the Eastern side not
far from the place of the feeding of the five thousand, Bethsaida
Julias. Note dramatic presents {they come} (erchontai), {they
bring} (pherousin). This incident in Mark alone (verses
 22-26 ).

經文:

馬可福音 8:23-8:23

註釋:

 {Brought him out of the village} (ex(886e)egken auton ex(9320)t(8873)
k(936d)(8873)). It had been a village, but Philip had enlarged it and
made it a town or city (polis), though still called a village
(verses  23,26 ). As in the case of the deaf and dumb demoniac
given also alone by Mark ( Mr 7:31-37 ), so here Jesus observes
the utmost secrecy in performing the miracle for reasons not
given by Mark. It was the season of retirement and Jesus is
making the fourth withdrawal from Galilee. That fact may explain
it. The various touches here are of interest also. Jesus led him
out by the hand, put spittle on his eyes (using the poetical and
_Koin(825f) papyri word ommata instead of the usual opthalmous),
and laid his hands upon him, perhaps all this to help the man's
faith.

經文:

馬可福音 8:24-8:24

註釋:

 {I see men, for I behold them as trees walking} (Blep(9320)tous
anthr(9370)ous hoti h(9373) dendra hor(9320)peripatountas). A vivid
description of dawning sight. His vision was incomplete though he
could tell that they were men because they were walking. This is
the single case of a gradual cure in the healings wrought by
Jesus. The reason for this method in this case is not given.

經文:

馬可福音 8:25-8:25

註釋:

 {He looked steadfastly} (dieblepsen). He saw thoroughly
now, effective aorist (dieblepsen), he was completely restored
(apekatest(885c), second aorist, double compound and double
augment), and kept on seeing (eneblepen, imperfect, continued
action) all things clearly or at a distance (	(886c)aug(9373), common
Greek word from 	(886c)e, afar, and aug(885c), radiance, far-shining).
Some manuscripts (margin in Westcott and Hort) read d(886c)aug(9373),
from d(886c)os, plain, and aug(885c), radiance.

經文:

馬可福音 8:26-8:26

註釋:

 {To his home} (eis oikon autou). A joyful homecoming that.
He was not allowed to enter the village and create excitement
before Jesus moved on to Caesarea Philippi.

經文:

馬可福音 8:27-8:27

註釋:

 {Into the villages of Caesarea Philippi} (eis t(8373) k(936d)as
Kaisari(8373) t(8873) Philippou). Parts (mer(885c))  Mt 16:13  has, the
Caesarea of Philippi in contrast to the one down on the
Mediterranean Sea. Mark means the villages belonging to the
district around Caesarea Philippi. This region is on a spur of
Mount Hermon in Iturea ruled by Herod Philip so that Jesus is
safe from annoyance by Herod Antipas or the Pharisees and
Sadducees. Up here on this mountain slope Jesus will have his
best opportunity to give the disciples special teaching
concerning the crucifixion just a little over six months ahead.
So Jesus asked (ep(8872)(9374)(835c), descriptive imperfect) {Who do men say
that I am?} (Tina me legousin hoi anthr(9370)oi einai;).  Mt 16:13 
has "the Son of Man" in place of "I" here in Mark and in  Lu
9:18 . He often described himself as "the Son of Man." Certainly
here the phrase could not mean merely "a man." They knew the
various popular opinions about Jesus of which Herod Antipas had
heard ( Mr 3:21,31 ). It was time that the disciples reveal how
much they had been influenced by their environment as well as by
the direct instruction of Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 8:28-8:28

註釋:

 {And they told him} (hoi de eipan). They knew only too
well. See on 烘t 16:14,28| for discussion.

經文:

馬可福音 8:29-8:29

註釋:

 {Thou art the Christ} (Su ei ho Christos). Mark does not
give "the Son of the living God" ( Mt 16:16 ) or "of God" ( Lu
9:20 ). The full confession is the form in Matthew. Luke's
language means practically the same, while Mark's is the
briefest. But the form in Mark really means the full idea. Mark
omits all praise of Peter, probably because Peter had done so in
his story of the incident. For criticism of the view that
Matthew's narrative is due to ecclesiastical development and
effort to justify ecclesiastical prerogatives, see discussion on
烘t 16:16,18|. The disciples had confessed him as Messiah before.
Thus  Joh 1:41  4:29  6:69  Mt 14:33 . But Jesus had ceased to
use the word Messiah to avoid political complications and a
revolutionary movement ( Joh 6:14f. ). But did the disciples
still believe in Jesus as Messiah after all the defections and
oppositions seen by them? It was a serious test to which Jesus
now put them.

經文:

馬可福音 8:30-8:30

註釋:

 {Of him} (peri autou). As being the Messiah, that he was
the Christ ( Mt 16:20 ). Not yet, for the time was not yet ripe.
When that comes, the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, the very
stones will cry out, if men will not ( Lu 19:40 ).

經文:

馬可福音 8:31-8:31

註釋:

 {He began to teach them} ((8872)xato didaskein autous). Mark
is fond of this idiom, but it is not a mere rhetorical device.
 Mt 16:21  expressly says "from that time." They had to be told
soon about the approaching death of Jesus. The confession of
faith in Jesus indicated that it was a good time to begin. Death
at the hands of the Sanhedrin (elders, chief priests, and
scribes) in which Pharisees and Sadducees had about equal
strength. The resurrection on the third day is mentioned, but it
made no impression on their minds. This rainbow on the cloud was
not seen. {After three days} (meta treis h(886d)eras).  Mt 16:21 
has "the third day" (	(8869) trit(8869) h(886d)er(8369)) in the locative case
of point of time (so also  Lu 9:22 ). There are some people who
stickle for a strict interpretation of "after three days" which
would be "on the fourth day," not "on the third day." Evidently
Mark's phrase here has the same sense as that in Matthew and Luke
else they are hopelessly contradictory. In popular language
"after three days" can and often does mean "on the third day,"
but the fourth day is impossible.

經文:

馬可福音 8:32-8:32

註釋:

 {Spake the saying openly} (parr(8873)i(8369) ton logon elalei). He
held back nothing, told it all (p(836e), all, 
(8873)ia, from
eipon, say), without reserve, to all of them. Imperfect tense
elalei shows that Jesus did it repeatedly. Mark alone gives
this item. Mark does not give the great eulogy of Peter in  Mt
16:17,19  after his confession ( Mr 8:29  Mt 16:16  Lu 9:20 ),
but he does tell the stinging rebuke given Peter by Jesus on this
occasion. See discussion on 烘t 16:21,26|.

經文:

馬可福音 8:33-8:33

註釋:

 {He turning about and seeing his disciples} (epistrapheis
kai id(936e) tous math(8874)(8373) autou). Peter had called Jesus off to
himself (proskalesamenos), but Jesus quickly wheeled round on
Peter (epistrapheis, only strapheis in Matthew). In doing
that the other disciples were in plain view also (this touch only
in Mark). Hence Jesus rebukes Peter in the full presence of the
whole group. Peter no doubt felt that it was his duty as a leader
of the Twelve to remonstrate with the Master for this pessimistic
utterance (Swete). It is even possible that the others shared
Peter's views and were watching the effect of his daring rebuke
of Jesus. It was more than mere officiousness on the part of
Peter. He had not risen above the level of ordinary men and
deserves the name of Satan whose role he was now acting. It was
withering, but it was needed. The temptation of the devil on the
mountain was here offered by Peter. It was Satan over again. See
on 烘t 16:23|.

經文:

馬可福音 8:34-8:34

註釋:

 {And he called unto him the multitude with his disciples}
(kai proskalesamenos ton ochlon sun tois math(8874)ais autou). Mark
alone notes the unexpected presence of a crowd up here near
Caesarea Philippi in heathen territory. In the presence of this
crowd Jesus explains his philosophy of life and death which is in
direct contrast with that offered by Peter and evidently shared
by the disciples and the people. So Jesus gives this profound
view of life and death to them all. {Deny himself} (aparn(8873)asth(930a)heauton). Say no to himself, a difficult thing to do. Note
reflexive along with the middle voice. Ingressive first aorist
imperative. See on 烘t 16:24| about taking up the Cross. The
shadow of Christ's Cross was already on him ( Mr 8:31 ) and one
faces everyone.

經文:

馬可福音 8:35-8:35

註釋:

 {And the gospel's sake} (kai tou euaggeliou). In Mark
alone. See on 烘t 16:25f.| for this paradox. Two senses of "life"
and "save." For the last "save" (s(9373)ei)  Mt 16:25  has "find"
(heur(8873)ei). See on 烘t 16:26| for "gain," "profit," and
"exchange."

經文:

馬可福音 8:38-8:38

註釋:

 {For whosoever shall be ashamed of me and my words} (hos
gar ean epaischunth(8869) me kai tous emous logous). More exactly,
{whosoever is ashamed} (first aorist passive subjunctive with
indefinite relative and ean = an. See Robertson, _Grammar_, pp.
957-9. It is not a statement about the future conduct of one, but
about his present attitude toward Jesus. The conduct of men
toward Christ now determines Christ's conduct then
(epaischunth(8873)etai, first future passive indicative). This
passive verb is transitive and uses the accusative (me, auton).
{In this adulterous and sinful generation} (en t(8869) gene(8369) taut(8869)
t(8869) moichalidi kai hamart(936c)(9369)). Only in Mark. {When he cometh}
(hotan elth(8869)). Aorist active subjunctive with reference to the
future second coming of Christ with the glory of the Father with
his holy angels (cf.  Mt 16:27 ). This is a clear prediction of
the final eschatological coming of Christ. This verse could not
be separated from  Mr 9:1  as the chapter division does. These
two verses in  Mr 8:38  9:1  form one paragraph and should go
together.

經文:

馬可福音 9:1-9:1

註釋:

 {Till they see the kingdom of God come with power} (he(9373) an
id(9373)in t(886e) basileian tou theou el(886c)uthuian en dunamei). In
 8:38  Jesus clearly is speaking of the second coming. To what is
he referring in  9:1 ? One is reminded of  Mr 13:32  Mt 24:36 
where Jesus expressly denies that anyone save the Father himself
(not even the Son) knows the day or the hour. Does he contradict
that here? It may be observed that Luke has only "see the kingdom
of God," while Matthew has "see the Son of man coming"
(erchomenon, present participle, a process). Mark has "see the
kingdom of God come" (el(886c)uthuian, perfect active participle,
already come) and adds "with power." Certainly the second coming
did not take place while some of those standing there still
lived. Did Jesus mean that? The very next incident in the
Synoptic Gospels is the Transfiguration on Mount Hermon. Does not
Jesus have that in mind here? The language will apply also to the
coming of the Holy Spirit on the great Day of Pentecost. Some see
in it a reference to the destruction of the temple. It is at
least open to question whether the Master is speaking of the same
event in  Mr 8:38  9:1 .

經文:

馬可福音 9:2-9:2

註釋:

 {By themselves} (monous). Alone. This word only in Mark.
See on 烘t 17:1-8| for discussion of the Transfiguration.  Lu
9:28  adds "to pray" as the motive of Jesus in taking Peter,
James, and John into the high mountain.

經文:

馬可福音 9:3-9:3

註釋:

 {Glistering, exceeding white} (stilbonta leuka lian). Old
words, all of them.  Mt 17:2  has {white as the light} (leuka
h(9373) to ph(9373)),  Lu 9:29  "white and dazzling" (leukos
exastrapt(936e)) like lightning. {So as no fuller on earth can
whiten them} (hoia gnapheus epi t(8873) g(8873) ou dunatai hout(9373)
leuk(836e)ai). Gnaph(935c) is an old word to card wool. Note hout(9373),
so, so white. Some manuscripts in Matthew add h(9373) chi(936e), as
snow. Probably the snow-capped summit of Hermon was visible on
this very night. See on 烘t 17:2| for "transfigured."

經文:

馬可福音 9:4-9:4

註釋:

 {Elijah with Moses} (Eleias sun M(9375)sei). Matthew and Luke
have "Moses and Elijah." Both, as a matter of fact were prophets
and both dealt with law. Both had mysterious deaths. The other
order in  Mr 9:5 .

經文:

馬可福音 9:6-9:6

註釋:

 {For he wist not what to answer} (ou gar (8869)dei ti
apokrith(8869)). Deliberative subjunctive retained in indirect
question. But why did Peter say anything? Luke says that he
spoke, "not knowing what he said," as an excuse for the
inappropriateness of his remarks. Perhaps Peter felt embarrassed
at having been asleep ( Lu 9:32 ) and the feast of tabernacles or
booths (sk(886e)ai) was near. See on 烘t 17:4|. Peter and the
others apparently had not heard the talk of Moses and Elijah with
Jesus about his decease (exodon, exodus, departure) and little
knew the special comfort that Jesus had found in this
understanding of the great approaching tragedy concerning which
Peter had shown absolute stupidity ( Mr 8:32f. ) so recently. See
on 烘t 17:5| about the overshadowing and the voice.

經文:

馬可福音 9:8-9:8

註釋:

 {Suddenly looking round about} (exapina periblepsamenoi).
 Mt 17:8  has it "lifting up their eyes." Mark is more graphic.
The sudden glance around on the mountain side when the cloud with
Moses and Elijah was gone. {Jesus only with themselves} (meth'
heaut(936e) ei m(8820)I(8873)oun monon). Mark shows their surprise at the
situation. They were sore afraid ( Mt 17:6 ) before Jesus touched
them.

經文:

馬可福音 9:9-9:9

註釋:

 {Save when} (ei m(8820)hotan). Matthew has "until" (he(9373)
hou). {Should have risen} (anast(8869)). Second aorist active
subjunctive. More exactly, "should rise" (punctiliar aorist and
futuristic, not with any idea of perfect tense).  Lu 9:36  merely
says that they told no man any of these things. It was a high and
holy secret experience that the chosen three had had for their
future good and for the good of all.

經文:

馬可福音 9:10-9:10

註釋:

 {They kept the saying} (	on logon ekrat(8873)an) to themselves
as Jesus had directed, but {questioning among themselves} (pros
heautous sunz(8874)ountes). Now they notice his allusion to rising
from the dead which had escaped them before ( Mr 8:31 ).

經文:

馬可福音 9:12-9:12

註釋:

 {Restoreth all things} (apokatistanei panta). This late
double compound verb, usual form apokathist(886d)i in the papyri,
is Christ's description of the Baptist as the promised Elijah and
Forerunner of the Messiah. See on 烘t 17:10-13|. The disciples
had not till now understood that the Baptist fulfilled the
prophecy in  Mal 3:5f . They had just seen Elijah on the
mountain, but Jesus as Messiah preceded this coming of Elijah.
But Jesus patiently enlightens his dull pupils as they argue
about the exegesis of the scribes.

經文:

馬可福音 9:14-9:14

註釋:

 {And scribes questioning with them} (kai grammateis
sunz(8874)ountes pros autous). Mark alone gives this item. He is
much fuller on this incident ( 9:14-29 ) than either Matthew ( Mt
17:14-20 ) or Luke ( Lu 9:37-43 ). It was just like the
professional scribes to take keen interest in the failure of the
nine disciples to cure this poor boy. They gleefully nagged and
quizzed them. Jesus and the three find them at it when they
arrive in the plain.

經文:

馬可福音 9:15-9:15

註釋:

 {Were greatly amazed} (exethamb(8874)h(8873)an). First aorist
passive ingressive aorist with perfective compound ex-. The
sudden and opportune appearance of Jesus in the midst of the
dispute when no one was looking for him turned all eyes to him.
He would not fail, however the disciples might do so. The people
were awed for the moment and then running began to welcome him
(protrechontes (8873)pazonto). Present participle and imperfect
middle indicative.

經文:

馬可福音 9:16-9:16

註釋:

 {What question ye with them?} (Ti sunz(8874)eite pros
autous;). Jesus had noticed the embarrassment of the nine and at
once takes hold of the situation.

經文:

馬可福音 9:17-9:17

註釋:

 {I brought unto thee my son} ((886e)egka ton huion mou pros
se). The father stepped out and gave the explanation of the
excited dispute in direct and simple pathos.

經文:

馬可福音 9:18-9:18

註釋:

 {Wheresoever it taketh him} (hopou ean auton katalab(8869)).
Seizes him down. Our word catalepsy is this same word. The word
is used by Galen and Hippocrates for fits. The word is very
common in the papyri in various senses as in the older Greek.
Each of the verbs here in Mark is a graphic picture. {Dashes
down} (
(8873)sei). Also 
(8867)numi, mi form. Convulses, rends,
tears asunder. Old and common word. {Foameth} (aphrizei). Here
only in the N.T. Poetic and late word. {Grindeth} (	rizei).
Another _hapax legomenon_ in the N.T. Old word for making a
shrill cry or squeak. {Pineth away} (x(8872)ainetai). Old word for
drying or withering as of grass in  Jas 1:11 . {And they were not
able} (kai ouk ischusan). They did not have the strength
(ischus) to handle this case. See  Mt 17:16  Lu 9:40  (kai ouk
(8864)un(8874)h(8873)an, first aorist passive). It was a tragedy.

經文:

馬可福音 9:19-9:19

註釋:

 {Bring him unto me} (pherete auton pros me). The disciples
had failed and their unbelief had led to this fiasco. Even the
disciples were like and part of the {faithless} (apistos,
unbelieving) generation in which they lived. The word {faithless}
does not here mean treacherous as it does with us. But Jesus is
not afraid to undertake this case. We can always come to Jesus
when others fail us.

經文:

馬可福音 9:20-9:20

註釋:

 {Tare him grievously} (sunesparaxen auton).  Lu 9:42  has
both err(8878)en (dashed down, like  Mr 9:18 , 
(8873)sei) and
sunesparaxen (convulsed). This compound with sun- (together
with), strengthens the force of the verb as in sunpnig(935c) ( Mr
4:7 ) and sunt(8872)e(935c) ( 6:20 ). The only other instance of this
compound verb known is in Maximus Tyrius (second century B.C.).
{Wallowed} (ekulieto). Imperfect passive, was rolled. A pitiful
sight. Late form of the old kulind(935c).

經文:

馬可福音 9:22-9:22

註釋:

 {But if thou canst} (all 'ei ti dun(8869)). Jesus had asked
(verse  21 ) the history of the case like a modern physician. The
father gave it and added further pathetic details about the fire
and the water. The failure of the disciples had not wholly
destroyed his faith in the power of Jesus, though the conditional
form (first class, assuming it to be true) does suggest doubt
whether the boy can be cured at all. It was a chronic and
desperate case of epilepsy with the demon possession added. {Help
us} (oeth(8873)on hemin). Ingressive aorist imperative. Do it now.
With touching tenderness he makes the boy's case his own as the
Syrophoenician woman had said, "Have mercy on me" ( Mt 15:21 ).
The leper had said: "If thou wilt" ( Mr 1:40 ). This father says:
"If thou canst."

經文:

馬可福音 9:23-9:23

註釋:

 {If thou canst} (	o ei dun(8869)). The Greek has a neat idiom
not preserved in the English translation. The article takes up
the very words of the man and puts the clause in the accusative
case of general reference. "As to the 'if thou canst,' all things
can (dunata) to the one who believes." The word for "possible"
is dunata, the same root as dun(8869) (canst). This quick turn
challenges the father's faith. On this use of the Greek article
see Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 766.

經文:

馬可福音 9:24-9:24

註釋:

 {Cried out} (kraxas). Loud outcry and at once (euthus).
The later manuscripts have "with tears" (meta dakru(936e)), not in
the older documents. {I believe; help my unbelief} (Pisteu(933a)
bo(8874)hei t(8869) apisti(8369)). An exact description of his mental and
spiritual state. He still had faith, but craved more. Note
present imperative here (continuous help) o(8874)hei, while aorist
imperative (instant help) o(8874)h(8873)on, verse  22 . The word comes
from o(885c), a cry and 	he(935c), to run, to run at a cry for help, a
vivid picture of this father's plight.

經文:

馬可福音 9:25-9:25

註釋:

 {A multitude came running together} (episuntrechei
ochlos). A double compound here alone in the N.T. and not in the
old Greek writers. Epitrech(935c) occurs in the papyri, but not
episuntrech(935c). The double compound vividly describes the rapid
gathering of the crowd to Jesus and the epileptic boy to see the
outcome. {Come out of him} (exelthe ex autou). Jesus addresses
the demon as a separate being from the boy as he often does. This
makes it difficult to believe that Jesus was merely indulging
popular belief in a superstition. He evidently regards the demon
as the cause in this case of the boy's misfortune.

經文:

馬可福音 9:26-9:26

註釋:

 {Having torn much} (sparaxas). The uncompounded verb used
in verse  20 . {Became as one dead} (egeneto h(9373)ei nekros). As
if dead from the violence of the spasm. The demon did him all
possible harm in leaving him.

經文:

馬可福音 9:28-9:28

註釋:

 {Privately, saying} (kat' idian hoti). Indoors the nine
disciples seek an explanation for their colossal failure. They
had cast out demons and wrought cures before. The Revisers are
here puzzled over Mark's use of hoti as an interrogative
particle meaning {why} where  Mt 17:19  has dia ti. Some of the
manuscripts have dia ti here in  Mr 9:28  as all do in  Mt
17:19 . See also  Mr 2:16  and  9:11 . It is probable that in
these examples hoti really means {why}. See Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 730. The use of hos as interrogative "is by no
means rare in the late Greek" (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient
East_, p. 126).

經文:

馬可福音 9:29-9:29

註釋:

 {Save by prayer} (ei m(8820)en proseuch(8869)). The addition of
"and of fasting" does not appear in the two best Greek
manuscripts (Aleph and B). It is clearly a late addition to help
explain the failure. But it is needless and also untrue. Prayer
is what the nine had failed to use. They were powerless because
they were prayerless. Their self-complacency spelled defeat.  Mt
17:20  has "because of your little faith" (oligopistian). That
is true also. They had too much faith in themselves, too little
in Christ. "They had trusted to the semi-magical power with which
they thought themselves invested" (Swete). "Spirits of such
malignity were quick to discern the lack of moral power and would
yield to no other" (_ibid_.).

經文:

馬可福音 9:30-9:30

註釋:

 {He would not that any man should know it} (ouk (8874)helen
hina tis gnoi). Imperfect tense followed by ingressive aorist
subjunctive (gnoi = gn(9369), the usual form). He was not willing
that any one should learn it. Back in Galilee Jesus was, but he
was avoiding public work there now (cf.  7:24 ). He was no longer
the hero of Galilee. He had left Caesarea Philippi for Galilee.

經文:

馬可福音 9:31-9:31

註釋:

 {For he taught} (edidasken gar). Imperfect tense, and the
reason given for secrecy. He was renewing again definitely the
prediction of his death in Jerusalem some six months ahead as he
had done before ( Mr 8:31  Mt 16:21  Lu 9:22 ). Now as then Jesus
foretells his resurrection "after three days" ("the third day,"
 Mt 17:23 ).

經文:

馬可福音 9:32-9:32

註釋:

 {But they understood not the saying} (hoi de (8867)nooun to
rh(886d)a). An old word. Chiefly in Paul's Epistles in the N.T.
Imperfect tense. They continued not to understand. They were
agnostics on the subject of the death and resurrection even after
the Transfiguration experience. As they came down from the
mountain they were puzzled again over the Master's allusion to
his resurrection ( Mr 9:10 ).  Mt 17:23  notes that "they were
exceeding sorry" to hear Jesus talk this way again, but Mark adds
that they "were afraid to ask him" (ephobounto auton
eper(9374)(8873)ai). Continued to be afraid (imperfect tense), perhaps
with a bitter memory of the term "Satan" hurled at Peter when he
protested the other time when Jesus spoke of his death ( Mr 8:33  Mt 16:23 ).  Lu 9:45  explains that "it was concealed from them,"
probably partly by their own preconceived ideas and prejudices.

經文:

馬可福音 9:33-9:33

註釋:

 {In the house} (en t(8869) oiki(8369)). Probably Peter's house in
Capernaum which was the home of Jesus when in the city. {What
were ye reasoning in the way?} (Ti en t(8869) hod(9369)
dielogiszethe;). Imperfect tense. They had been disputing (verse
 34 ), not about the coming death of the Master, but about the
relative rank of each of them in the political kingdom which they
were expecting him to establish. Jesus had suspected the truth
about them and they had apparently kept it up in the house. See
on 烘t 18:1| where the disciples are represented as bringing the
dispute to Jesus while here Jesus asks them about it. Probably
they asked Jesus first and then he pushed the matter further and
deeper to see if this had not been the occasion of the somewhat
heated discussion on the way in.

經文:

馬可福音 9:34-9:34

註釋:

 {But they held their peace} (Hoi de esi(9370)(936e)). Imperfect
tense. Put thus to them, they felt ashamed that the Master had
discovered their jealous rivalry. It was not a mere abstract
query, as they put it to Jesus, but it was a canker in their
hearts.

經文:

馬可福音 9:35-9:35

註釋:

 {He sat down and called the twelve} (kathisas eph(936e)(8873)en
tous d(9364)eka). Deliberate action of Jesus to handle this delicate
situation. Jesus gives them the rule of greatness: "If any man
would be first (pr(9374)os) he shall be last (eschatos) of all,
and minister (diakonos) of all." This saying of Christ, like
many others, he repeated at other times ( Mr 10:43f.  Mt 23:8ff.  Lu 22:24f. ).  Mt 18:2  says that he called a little child, one
there in the house, perhaps Peter's child.  Lu 9:47  notes that
he "set him by his side." Then Jesus {taking him in his arms}
(enagkalisamenos, aorist middle participle, late Greek word
from agkal(885c) as in  Lu 2:28 ) spoke again to the disciples.

經文:

馬可福音 9:37-9:37

註釋:

 {One of such little children} (hen t(936e) toiout(936e) paidi(936e)).
 Mt 18:5  has "one such little child" and  Lu 9:48  "this little
child." It was an object lesson to the arrogant conceit of the
twelve apostles contending for primacy. They did not learn this
lesson for they will again wrangle over primacy ( Mr 10:33-45  Mt
20:20-28 ) and they will be unable to comprehend easily what the
attitude of Jesus was toward children ( Mr 10:13-16  Mt 19:13-15  Lu 8:15-17 ). The child was used as a rebuke to the apostles.

經文:

馬可福音 9:38-9:38

註釋:

 {Because he followed not us} (hoti ouk (886b)olouthei h(886d)in).
Note vivid imperfect tense again. John evidently thought to
change the subject from the constraint and embarrassment caused
by their dispute. So he told about a case of extra zeal on his
part expecting praise from Jesus. Perhaps what Jesus had just
said in verse  37  raised a doubt in John's mind as to the
propriety of his excessive narrowness. One needs to know the
difference between loyalty to Jesus and stickling over one's own
narrow prejudices.

經文:

馬可福音 9:39-9:39

註釋:

 {Forbid him not} (m(8820)k(936c)uete). Stop hindering him (m(885c)
and the present-imperative) as John had been doing.

經文:

馬可福音 9:40-9:40

註釋:

 {He that is not against us is with us} (hos ouk estin kath'
h(886d)(936e) huper h(886d)(936e) estin). This profound saying throws a flood of
light in every direction. The complement of this logion is that
in  Mt 12:30 : "He that is not with me is against me." Both are
needed. Some people imagine that they are really for Christ who
refuse to take a stand in the open with him and for him.

經文:

馬可福音 9:41-9:41

註釋:

 {Because ye are Christ's} (hoti Christou este). Predicate
genitive, belong to Christ. See  Ro 8:9  1Co 1:12  2Co 10:7 .
That is the bond of universal brotherhood of the redeemed. It
breaks over the lines of nation, race, class, sex, everything. No
service is too small, even a cup of cold water, if done for
Christ's sake. See on 烘t 18:6f.| for discussion on
stumbling-blocks for these little ones that believe on Jesus ( Mr
9:42 ), a loving term of all believers, not just children.

經文:

馬可福音 9:43-9:43

註釋:

 {Into hell, into the unquenchable fire} (eis t(886e) geennan,
eis to p(9672) to asbeston). Not Hades, but Gehenna. Asbeston is
alpha privative and sbestos from sbennumi to quench. It
occurs often in Homer. Our word asbestos is this very word.  Mt
18:8  has "into the eternal fire." The Valley of Hinnom had been
desecrated by the sacrifice of children to Moloch so that as an
accursed place it was used for the city garbage where worms
gnawed and fires burned. It is thus a vivid picture of eternal
punishment.

經文:

馬可福音 9:44-9:44

註釋:

 The oldest and best manuscripts do not give these two
verses. They came in from the Western and Syrian (Byzantine)
classes. They are a mere repetition of verse  48 . Hence we lose
the numbering 44 and 46 in our verses which are not genuine.

經文:

馬可福音 9:46-9:46

註釋:

 See on 氦4|

經文:

馬可福音 9:47-9:47

註釋:

 {With one eye} (monophthalmon). Literally one-eyed. See
also  Mt 18:9 . Vernacular _Koin(825f) and condemned by the
Atticists. See  Mt 18:8f . Mark has here "kingdom of God" where
 Mt 18:9  has "life."

經文:

馬可福音 9:48-9:48

註釋:

 {Their worm} (ho sk(936c)(8878) aut(936e)). "The worm, i.e. that preys
upon the inhabitants of this dread realm" (Gould). Two bold
figures of Gehenna combined (the gnawing worm, the burning
flame). No figures of Gehenna can equal the dread reality which
is here described. See  Isa 66:24 .

經文:

馬可福音 9:50-9:50

註釋:

 {Have salt in yourselves} (echete en heautois hala). Jesus
had once called them the salt of the earth ( Mt 5:13 ) and had
warned them against losing the saltness of the salt. If it is
analon, nothing can {season} (artu(935c)) it and it is of no use
to season anything else. It is like an exploded shell, a
burnt-out crater, a spent force. This is a warning for all
Christians.

經文:

馬可福音 10:1-10:1

註釋:

 {Into the border of Judea and beyond Jordan} (eis ta horia
t(8873) Ioudaias kai peran tou Iordanou). See on 烘t 19:1| for
discussion of this curious expression. Matthew adds "from
Galilee" and  Lu 17:11  says that Jesus "was passing through the
midst of Samaria and Galilee" after leaving Ephraim ( Joh
11:54 ). A great deal has intervened between the events at the
close of Mark 9 and those in the beginning of Mark 10. For these
events see  Mt 18  Joh 7-11  Lu 9:57-18:14  (one-third of Luke's
Gospel comes in here). It was a little over six months to the end
at the close of Mark 9. It is just a few weeks now in Mark 10.
Jesus has begun his last journey to Jerusalem going north through
Samaria, Galilee, across the Jordan into Perea, and back into
Judea near Jericho to go up with the passover pilgrims from
Galilee. {Multitudes} (ochloi). Caravans and caravans
journeying to Jerusalem. Many of them are followers of Jesus from
Galilee or at least kindly disposed towards him. They go together
(sunporeuontai) with Jesus. Note dramatic historical present.
{As he was wont} (h(9373) ei(9374)hei). Second past perfect used like
an imperfect from ei(9374)ha, second perfect active. Jesus {was
teaching} (edidasken, imperfect, no longer present tense) this
moving caravan.

經文:

馬可福音 10:2-10:2

註釋:

 {Tempting him} (peirazontes). As soon as Jesus appears in
Galilee the Pharisees attack him again (cf.  7:5  8:11 ). Gould
thinks that this is a test, not a temptation. The word means
either (see on 烘t 4:1|), but their motive was evil. They had
once involved the Baptist with Herod Antipas and Herodias on this
subject. They may have some such hopes about Jesus, or their
purpose may have been to see if Jesus will be stricter than Moses
taught. They knew that he had already spoken in Galilee on the
subject ( Mt 5:31f. ).

經文:

馬可福音 10:3-10:3

註釋:

 {What did Moses command you?} (Ti humin eneteilato
M(9375)s(8873);). Jesus at once brought up the issue concerning the
teaching of Moses ( De 24:1 ). But Jesus goes back beyond this
concession here allowed by Moses to the ideal state commanded in
 Ge 1:27 .

經文:

馬可福音 10:4-10:4

註釋:

 {To write a bill of divorcement and to put her away}
(iblion apostasiou grapsai kai apolusai). The word for "bill"
(iblion) is a diminutive and means "little book," like the
Latin _libellus_, from which comes our word _libel_ (Vincent).
Wycliff has it here "a libel of forsaking." This same point the
Pharisees raise in  Mt 19:7 , showing probably that they held to
the liberal view of Hillel, easy divorce for almost any cause.
That was the popular view as now. See on 烘t 19:7| for this and
for discussion of "for your hardness of heart" (skl(8872)okardia).
Jesus expounds the purpose of marriage ( Ge 2:24 ) and takes the
stricter view of divorce, that of the school of Shammai. See on
烘t 19:1-12| for discussion.  Mr 10:10  notes that the disciples
asked Jesus about this problem "in the house" after they had gone
away from the crowd.

經文:

馬可福音 10:11-10:11

註釋:

 Mark does not give the exception stated in  Mt 19:9 
"except for fornication" which see for discussion, though the
point is really involved in what Mark does record. Mere formal
divorce does not annul actual marriage consummated by the
physical union. Breaking that bond does annul it.

經文:

馬可福音 10:12-10:12

註釋:

 {If she herself shall put away her husband and marry
another} (ean aut(8820)apolusasa ton andra aut(8873) gam(8873)(8869)).
Condition of the third class (undetermined, but with prospect of
determination). Greek and Roman law allowed the divorce of the
husband by the wife though not provided for in Jewish law. But
the thing was sometimes done as in the case of Herodias and her
husband before she married Herod Antipas. So also Salome, Herod's
sister, divorced her husband. Both Bruce and Gould think that
Mark added this item to the words of Jesus for the benefit of the
Gentile environment of this Roman Gospel. But surely Jesus knew
that the thing was done in the Roman world and hence prohibited
marrying such a "grass widow."

經文:

馬可福音 10:13-10:13

註釋:

 {They brought} (prosepheron). Imperfect active tense,
implying repetition. So also  Lu 18:15 , though  Mt 19:13  has
the constative aorist passive (pros(886e)echth(8873)an). "This incident
follows with singular fitness after the Lord's assertion of the
sanctity of married life" (Swete). These children (paidia, Mark
and Matthew; reph(885c) in Luke) were of various ages. They were
brought to Jesus for his blessing and prayers (Matthew). The
mothers had reverence for Jesus and wanted him to touch
(haps(8874)ai) them. There was, of course, no question of baptism
or salvation involved, but a most natural thing to do.

經文:

馬可福音 10:14-10:14

註釋:

 {He was moved with indignation} ((8867)anakt(8873)en). In Mark
alone. The word is ingressive aorist, became indignant, and is a
strong word of deep emotion (from agan and achthomai, to feel
pain). Already in  Mt 21:15  26:8 . Old and common word. {Suffer
the little children to come unto me} (aphete ta paidia
erchesthai pros me). Mark has the infinitive erchesthai (come)
not in Matthew, but in Luke. Surely it ought to be a joy to
parents to bring their children to Jesus, certainly to allow them
to come, but to hinder their coming is a crime. There are parents
who will have to give answer to God for keeping their children
away from Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 10:15-10:15

註釋:

 {As a little child} (h(9373) paidion). How does a little
child receive the kingdom of God? The little child learns to obey
its parents simply and uncomplainingly. There are some new
psychologists who argue against teaching obedience to children.
The results have not been inspiring. Jesus here presents the
little child with trusting and simple and loving obedience as the
model for adults in coming into the kingdom. Jesus does not here
say that children are in the kingdom of God because they are
children.

經文:

馬可福音 10:16-10:16

註釋:

 {He took them in his arms} (enagkalisamenos). A distinct
rebuke to the protest of the over-particular disciples. This word
already in  Mr 9:36 . In  Lu 2:28  we have the full idiom, to
receive into the arms (eis t(8373) agkalas dechesthai). So with
tender fondling Jesus repeatedly blessed (kateulogei,
imperfect), laying his hands upon each of them (	itheis,
present participle). It was a great moment for each mother and
child.

經文:

馬可福音 10:17-10:17

註釋:

 {Ran} (prosdram(936e)). Jesus had left the house ( 10:10 )
and was proceeding with the caravan on the way (eis hodon) when
this ruler eagerly ran and kneeled (gonupet(8873)as) and was asking
(ep(8872)(9374)(835c), imperfect) Jesus about his problem. Both these
details alone in Mark.

經文:

馬可福音 10:18-10:18

註釋:

 {Why callest thou me good?} (Ti me legeis agathon;). So
 Lu 18:19 .  Mt 19:17  has it: "Why asketh thou concerning that
which is good? "The young ruler was probably sincere and not
using mere fulsome compliment, but Jesus challenges him to define
his attitude towards him as was proper. Did he mean "good"
(agathos) in the absolute sense as applied to God? The language
is not a disclaiming of deity on the part of Jesus. {That I may
inherit} (hina kl(8872)onom(8873)(935c)).  Mt 19:16  has (sch(935c)), that I
may "get."

經文:

馬可福音 10:20-10:20

註釋:

 {All these} (	auta panta). Literally, {these all} (of
them).

經文:

馬可福音 10:21-10:21

註釋:

 {Looking upon him loved him} (emblepsas aut(9369) (8867)ap(8873)en).
Mark alone mentions this glance of affection, ingressive aorist
participle and verb. Jesus fell in love with this charming youth.
{One thing thou lackest} (Hen se husterei).  Lu 18:22  has it:
"One thing thou lackest yet" (Eti hen soi leipei). Possibly two
translations of the same Aramaic phrase.  Mt 19:20  represents
the youth as asking "What lack I yet?" (Ti eti huster(933b)). The
answer of Jesus meets that inquiry after more than mere outward
obedience to laws and regulations. The verb huster(935c) is from the
adjective husteros (behind) and means to be too late, to come
short, to fail of, to lack. It is used either with the
accusative, as here, or with the ablative as in  2Co 11:5 , or
the dative as in Textus Receptus here, soi.

經文:

馬可福音 10:22-10:22

註釋:

 {But his countenance fell} (ho de stugnasas). In the LXX
and Polybius once and in  Mt 16:3  (passage bracketed by Westcott
and Hort). The verb is from stugnos, sombre, gloomy, like a
lowering cloud. See on 烘t 19:22| for discussion of "sorrowful"
(lupoumenos).

經文:

馬可福音 10:23-10:23

註釋:

 {Looked round about} (periblepsamenos). Another picture
of the looks of Jesus and in Mark alone as in  3:5,34 . "To see
what impression the incident had made on the Twelve" (Bruce).
"When the man was gone the Lord's eye swept round the circle of
the Twelve, as he drew for them the lesson of the incident"
(Swete). {How hardly} (P(9373) duskol(9373)). So  Lu 18:24 .  Mt 19:23 
has it: "With difficulty (duskol(9373)) shall a rich man." See on
Matthew for this word.

經文:

馬可福音 10:24-10:24

註釋:

 {Were amazed} (ethambounto). Imperfect passive. A look of
blank astonishment was on their faces at this statement of Jesus.
They in common with other Jews regarded wealth as a token of
God's special favour. {Children} (	ekna). Here alone to the
Twelve and this tender note is due to their growing perplexity.
{For them that trust in riches} (	ous pepoithotas epi tois
chr(886d)asin). These words do not occur in Aleph B Delta Memphitic
and one Old Latin manuscript. Westcott and Hort omit them from
their text as an evident addition to explain the difficult words
of Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 10:25-10:25

註釋:

 {Needle's eye} (	rumali(8373) rhaphidos). See on 烘t 19:24|
for discussion. Luke uses the surgical needle, elon(8873). Matthew
has the word 
haphis like Mark from 
hapt(935c), to sew, and it
appears in the papyri. Both Matthew and Luke employ 	r(886d)atos
for eye, a perforation or hole from 	itra(935c), to bore. Mark's
word 	rumalias is from 	ru(935c), to wear away, to perforate. In
the LXX and Plutarch.

經文:

馬可福音 10:26-10:26

註釋:

 {Then who} (kai tis).  Mt 19:25  has Tis oun. Evidently
kai has here an inferential sense like oun.

經文:

馬可福音 10:27-10:27

註釋:

 {Looking on them} (emblepsas autois). So in  Mt 19:26 .
Their amazement increased ( 26 ). {But not with God} (all' ou
para the(9369)). Locative case with para (beside). The impossible
by the side of men (para anthr(9370)ois) becomes possible by the
side of God. That is the whole point and brushes to one side all
petty theories of a gate called needle's eye, etc.

經文:

馬可福音 10:28-10:28

註釋:

 {Peter began to say} ((8872)xato legein ho Petros). It was
hard for Peter to hold in till now.  Mt 19:27  says that "Peter
answered" as if the remark was addressed to him in particular. At
any rate Peter reminds Jesus of what they had left to follow him,
four of them that day by the sea ( Mr 1:20  Mt 4:22  Lu 5:11 ).
It was to claim obedience to this high ideal on their part in
contrast with the conduct of the rich young ruler.

經文:

馬可福音 10:30-10:30

註釋:

 {With persecutions} (meta di(9367)m(936e)). This extra touch is
in Mark alone. There is a reminiscence of some of "the
apocalyptic of the familiar descriptions of the blessings of the
Messianic kingdom. But Jesus uses such language from the
religious idiom of this time only to idealize it" (Gould). The
apostles were soon to see the realization of this foreshadowing
of persecution. Vincent notes that Jesus omits "a hundred wives"
in this list, showing that Julian the Apostate's sneer on that
score was without foundation.

經文:

馬可福音 10:31-10:31

註釋:

 See on 烘t 19:30| for the use of the paradox about {first}
and {last}, probably a rebuke here to Peter's boast.

經文:

馬可福音 10:32-10:32

註釋:

 {And they were amazed} (kai ethambounto). Imperfect tense
describing the feelings of the disciples as Jesus was walking on
in front of them ((886e) proag(936e) autous, periphrastic imperfect
active), an unusual circumstance in itself that seemed to bode no
good as they went on through Perea towards Jerusalem. In fact,
{they that followed were afraid} (hoi de akolouthountes
ephobounto) as they looked at Jesus walking ahead in solitude.
The idiom (hoi de) may not mean that all the disciples were
afraid, but only some of them. "The Lord walked in advance of the
Twelve with a solemnity and a determination which foreboded
danger" (Swete). Cf.  Lu 9:5 . They began to fear coming disaster
as they neared Jerusalem. They read correctly the face of Jesus.
{And he took again the twelve} (kai paralab(936e) tous d(9364)eka).
Matthew has "apart" from the crowds and that is what Mark also
means. Note paralab(936e), taking to his side. {And began to tell
them the things that were to happen to him} ((8872)xato autois
legein ta mellonta aut(9369) sumbainein). He had done it before
three times already ( Mr 8:31  9:13  9:31 ). So Jesus tries once
more. They had failed utterly heretofore. How is it now? Luke
adds ( 18:34 ): "They understood none of these things." But Mark
and Matthew show how the minds of two of the disciples were
wholly occupied with plans of their own selfish ambition while
Jesus was giving details of his approaching death and
resurrection.

經文:

馬可福音 10:35-10:35

註釋:

 {There come near unto him James and John} (kai
prosporeuontai Iak(9362)os kai I(9361)n(8873)). Dramatic present tense.
Matthew has 	ote, then, showing that the request of the two
brothers with their mother ( Mt 20:20 ) comes immediately after
the talk about Christ's death. {We would} (	helomen). We wish,
we want, bluntly told. {She came worshipping} (proskunousa)
Matthew says. The mother spoke for the sons. But they try to
commit Jesus to their desires before they tell what they are,
just like spoiled children.

經文:

馬可福音 10:37-10:37

註釋:

 {In thy glory} (en t(8869) dox(8869)).  Mt 20:21  has "in thy
kingdom." See on 烘t 20:20| for the literal interpretation of  Mt
19:28 . They are looking for a grand Jewish world empire with
apocalyptic features in the eschatological culmination of the
Messiah's kingdom. That dream brushed aside all the talk of Jesus
about his death and resurrection as mere pessimism.

經文:

馬可福音 10:38-10:38

註釋:

 {Or be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with}
((8820)to baptisma ho eg(9320)baptizomai baptisth(886e)ai). Cognate
accusative with both passive verbs.  Mt 20:22  has only the cup,
but Mark has both the cup and the baptism, both referring to
death. Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane will refer to his death
again as "the cup" ( Mr 14:36  Mt 26:39  Lu 22:42 ). He had
already used baptism as a figure for his death ( Lu 12:50 ). Paul
will use it several times ( 1Co 15:29  Ro 6:3-6  Col 2:12 ).

經文:

馬可福音 10:39-10:39

註釋:

 See on 烘t 20:23-28| for discussion on these memorable
verses ( 39-45 ) identical in both Matthew and Mark. In
particular in verse  45  note the language of Jesus concerning
his death as "a ransom for many" (lutron anti poll(936e)), words of
the Master that were not understood by the apostles when spoken
by Jesus and which have been preserved for us by Peter through
Mark. Some today seek to empty these words of all real meaning as
if Jesus could not have or hold such a conception concerning his
death for sinners.

經文:

馬可福音 10:40-10:40

註釋:

 See on 氨9|

經文:

馬可福音 10:41-10:41

註釋:

 See on 氨9|

經文:

馬可福音 10:42-10:42

註釋:

 See on 氨9|

經文:

馬可福音 10:43-10:43

註釋:

 See on 氨9|

經文:

馬可福音 10:44-10:44

註釋:

 See on 氨9|

經文:

馬可福音 10:45-10:45

註釋:

 See on 氨9|

經文:

馬可福音 10:46-10:46

註釋:

 {From Jericho} (apo Iereich(935c)). See on 烘t 20:29| for
discussion of this phrase and Luke's ( Lu 18:35 ) "nigh unto
Jericho" and the two Jerichos, the old and the new Roman (Luke).
The new Jericho was "about five miles W. of the Jordan and
fifteen E. of Jerusalem, near the mouth of the _Wady Kelt_, and
more than a mile south of the site of the ancient town" (Swete).
{Great multitude} (ochlou hikanou). Considerable, more than
sufficient. Often in Luke and the papyri in this sense. See  Mt
3:11  for the other sense of fit for hikanos. {Bartimaeus}
(Bartimaios). Aramaic name like Bartholomew, ar meaning son
like Hebrew _ben_. So Mark explains the name meaning "the son of
Timaeus" (ho huios Timaiou). Mark alone gives his name while
 Mt 20:30  mentions two which see for discussion. {Blind beggar}
(	uphlos prosait(8873)), "begging" (epait(936e)) Luke has it ( Lu
18:35 ). All three Gospels picture him as {sitting by the
roadside} (ekath(8874)o para t(886e) hodon). It was a common sight.
Bartimaeus had his regular place. Vincent quotes Thomson
concerning Ramleh: "I once walked the streets counting all that
were either blind or had defective eyes, and it amounted to about
one-half the male population. The women I could not count, for
they are rigidly veiled" (_The Land and the Book_). The dust, the
glare of the sun, the unsanitary habits of the people spread
contagious eye-diseases.

經文:

馬可福音 10:48-10:48

註釋:

 {Rebuked him} (epetim(936e) aut(9369)). Imperfect tense. Kept
rebuking repeatedly. So  Lu 18:39 . Aorist tense in  Mt 20:31 .
{Should hold his peace} (si(9370)(8873)(8869)). Ingressive aorist
subjunctive, become silent. {The more a great deal} (poll(9369)
m(836c)lon). So  Lu 18:39 . Only meizon in  Mt 20:31 .

經文:

馬可福音 10:49-10:49

註釋:

 {Stood still} (stas). Second aorist active ingressive
participle. So  Mt 20:32 .  Lu 18:40  has statheis, aorist
passive participle. {He calleth thee} (ph(936e)ei se). That was
joyful news to Bartimaeus. Vivid dramatic presents here in Mark.

經文:

馬可福音 10:50-10:50

註釋:

 {Casting away his garment} (apobal(936e) to himation autou).
Second aorist active participle. Outer robe in his haste. {Sprang
up} (anap(8864)(8873)as). Leaping up, vivid details again in Mark.

經文:

馬可福音 10:51-10:51

註釋:

 {That I should do} (poi(8873)(935c)). Neat Greek idiom with aorist
subjunctive without hina after 	heleis. For this asyndeton
(or parataxis) see Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 430. {Rabboni}
(Rabbounei). The Aramaic word translated Lord (Kurie) in  Mt
20:33  and  Lu 18:41 . This very form occurs again in  Joh
20:16 . {That I may receive my sight} (hina anableps(935c)). To
recover sight (ana-), see again. Apparently he had once been
able to see. Here hina is used though 	hel(935c) is not (cf.
 10:35 ). The Messiah was expected to give sight to the blind
( Isa 61:1  Lu 4:18  7:22 ).

經文:

馬可福音 10:52-10:52

註釋:

 {Followed} ((886b)olouthei). Imperfect tense picturing joyful
Bartimaeus as he followed the caravan of Jesus into the new
Jericho. {Made thee whole} (ses(936b)en). Perfect active
indicative. The word commonly means {save} and that may be the
idea here.




經文:

馬可福音 11:1-11:1

註釋:

 {Unto Bethphage and Bethany} (eis B(8874)hphag(8820)kai
B(8874)hanian). Both together as in  Lu 19:29 , though  Mt 21:1 
mentions only Bethphage. See discussion in Matthew for this and
the Mount of Olives.

經文:

馬可福音 11:2-11:2

註釋:

 {As ye enter} (eisporeuomenoi). So also  Lu 19:30 .
Present middle participle. {Colt} (p(936c)on). So  Lu 19:30 .  Mt
21:2  speaks of the ass (onon) also. {Whereon no one ever yet
sat} (eph' hon oudeis anthr(9370)(936e) ekathisen). So  Lu 19:30 .

經文:

馬可福音 11:3-11:3

註釋:

 {The Lord} (ho Kurios). So Matt. and Luke. See on 烘t
21:3| for discussion of this word applied to Jesus by himself.
{He will send him back} (apostellei). Present indicative in
futuristic sense.  Mt 21:3  has the future apostelei.

經文:

馬可福音 11:4-11:4

註釋:

 {A colt tied at the door without in the open street} (p(936c)on
dedemenon pros thuran ex(9320)epi tou amphodou). A carefully drawn
picture. The colt was outside the house in the street, but
fastened (bound, perfect passive participle) to the door. "The
better class of houses were built about an open court, from which
a passage way under the house led to the street outside. It was
at this outside opening to the street that the colt was tied"
(Gould). The word amphodos (from amph(935c), both, and hodos,
road) is difficult. It apparently means road around a thing, a
crooked street as most of them were (cf. Straight Street in  Ac
9:11 ). It occurs only here in the N.T. besides D in  Ac 19:28 .
It is very common in the papyri for _vicus_ or "quarter." {And
they loose him} (kai luousin auton). Dramatic present tense.
Perhaps Peter was one of those sent this time as he was later
( Lu 22:8 ). If so, that explains Mark's vivid details here.

經文:

馬可福音 11:5-11:5

註釋:

 {Certain of those that stood there} (	ines t(936e) ekei
hest(886b)ot(936e)). Perfect active participle, genitive plural.
Bystanders.  Lu 19:33  terms them "the owners thereof" (hoi
kurioi autou). The lords or masters of the colt. They make a
natural protest.

經文:

馬可福音 11:7-11:7

註釋:

 {They bring the colt unto Jesus} (pherousin ton p(936c)on pros
ton I(8873)oun). Vivid historical present. The owners acquiesced as
Jesus had predicted. Evidently friends of Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 11:8-11:8

註釋:

 {Branches} (stibadas). A litter of leaves and rushes from
the fields. Textus Receptus spells this word stoibadas.  Mt
21:8  has kladous, from kla(935c), to break, branches broken or
cut from trees.  Joh 12:13  uses the branches of the palm trees
(	a baia t(936e) phoinik(936e)), "the feathery fronds forming the
tufted crown of the tree" (Vincent). That is to say, some of the
crowd did one of these things, some another. See on 烘t 21:4-9|
for discussion of other details. The deliberate conduct of Jesus
on this occasion could have but one meaning. It was the public
proclamation of himself as the Messiah, now at last for his
"hour" has come. The excited crowds in front (hoi proagontes)
and behind (hoi akolouthountes) fully realize the significance
of it all. Hence their unrestrained enthusiasm. They expect
Jesus, of course, now to set up his rule in opposition to that of
Caesar, to drive Rome out of Palestine, to conquer the world for
the Jews.

經文:

馬可福音 11:11-11:11

註釋:

 {When he had looked round about upon all things}
(periblepsamenos panta). Another Markan detail in this aorist
middle participle. Mark does not give what  Lu 19:39-55  has nor
what  Mt 21:10-17  does. But it is all implied in this swift
glance at the temple before he went out to Bethany with the
Twelve, {it being now eventide} (opse (8864)(8820)ous(8873) t(8873) h(9372)(8373)).
Genitive absolute, the hour being already late. What a day it had
been! What did the apostles think now?

經文:

馬可福音 11:12-11:12

註釋:

 {On the morrow} (	(8869) epaurion).  Mt 21:18  has "early"
(pr(9369)), often of the fourth watch before six A.M. This was
Monday morning. The Triumphal Entry had taken place on our
Sunday, the first day of the week.

經文:

馬可福音 11:13-11:13

註釋:

 {If haply he might find anything thereon} (ei ara ti
heur(8873)ei en aut(8869)). This use of ei and the future indicative
for purpose (to see if, a sort of indirect question) as in  Ac
8:22  17:27 . Jesus was hungry as if he had had no food on the
night before after the excitement and strain of the Triumphal
Entry. The early figs in Palestine do not get ripe before May or
June, the later crop in August. It was not the season of figs,
Mark notes. But this precocious tree in a sheltered spot had put
out leaves as a sign of fruit. It had promise without
performance.

經文:

馬可福音 11:14-11:14

註釋:

 {No man eat fruit from thee henceforward forever} (M(886b)eti
eis ton ai(936e)a ek sou m(8864)eis karpon phagoi). The verb phagoi is
in the second aorist active optative. It is a wish for the future
that in its negative form constitutes a curse upon the tree.  Mt
21:19  has the aorist subjunctive with double negative ou m(886b)eti
gen(8874)ai, a very strong negative prediction that amounts to a
prohibition. See on Matthew. Jesus probably spoke in the Aramaic
on this occasion. {And his disciples heard it} (kai (886b)ouon hoi
math(8874)ai autou). Imperfect tense, "were listening to it," and
evidently in amazement, for, after all, it was not the fault of
the poor fig tree that it had put out leaves. One often sees
peach blossoms nipped by the frost when they are too precocious
in the changeable weather. But Jesus offered no explanation at
this time.

經文:

馬可福音 11:15-11:15

註釋:

 {Began to cast out} ((8872)xato ekballein). Mark is fond of
"began." See on 烘t 21:12f.| for discussion of this second
cleansing of the temple in its bearing on that in  Joh 2:14f .
{Money-changers} (kollubist(936e)). This same late word in  Mt
21:12  which see for discussion. It occurs in papyri.

經文:

馬可福音 11:16-11:16

註釋:

 {Through the temple} (dia tou hierou). The temple
authorities had prohibited using the outer court of the temple
through the Precinct as a sort of short cut or by-path from the
city to the Mount of Olives. But the rule was neglected and all
sorts of irreverent conduct was going on that stirred the spirit
of Jesus. This item is given only in Mark. Note the use of hina
after (8870)hie (imperfect tense) instead of the infinitive (the
usual construction).

經文:

馬可福音 11:17-11:17

註釋:

 {For all the nations} (p(8373)in tois ethnesin). Mark alone
has this phrase from  Isa 56:7  Jer 7:11 . The people as well as
the temple authorities were guilty of graft, extortion, and
desecration of the house of prayer. Jesus assumes and exercises
Messianic authority and dares to smite this political and
financial abuse. Some people deny the right of the preacher to
denounce such abuses in business and politics even when they
invade the realm of morals and religion. But Jesus did not
hesitate.

經文:

馬可福音 11:18-11:18

註釋:

 {Sought how they might destroy him} (ez(8874)oun p(9373) auton
apoles(9373)in). Imperfect indicative, a continuous attitude and
endeavour. Note deliberative subjunctive with p(9373) retained in
indirect question. Here both Sadducees (chief priests) and
Pharisees (scribes) combine in their resentment against the
claims of Jesus and in the determination to kill him. Long ago
the Pharisees and the Herodians had plotted for his death ( Mr
3:6 ). Now in Jerusalem the climax has come right in the temple.
{For they feared him} (ephobounto gar). Imperfect middle
indicative. Hence in wrath they planned his death and yet they
had to be cautious. The Triumphal Entry had shown his power with
the people. And now right in the temple itself "all the multitude
was astonished at his teaching" (p(8373) ho ochlos exepl(8873)seto epi
t(8869) didach(8869) autou). Imperfect passive. The people looked on
Jesus as a hero, as the Messiah. This verse aptly describes the
crisis that has now come between Christ and the Sanhedrin.

經文:

馬可福音 11:19-11:19

註釋:

 {Every evening} (hotan opse egeneto). Literally,
{whenever evening came on} or more exactly {whenever it became
late}. The use of hotan (hote an) with the aorist indicative
is like hopou an with the imperfect indicative (eiseporeueto)
and hosoi an with the aorist indicative (h(8870)santo) in  Mr
6:56 . The use of an makes the clause more indefinite and
general, as here, unless it renders it more definite, a curious
result, but true.  Lu 21:37  has the accusative of extent of
time, "the days," "the nights." The imperfect tense he (or they)
would go (exeporeueto, exeporeuonto) out of the city suggests
"whenever" as the meaning here.

經文:

馬可福音 11:20-11:20

註釋:

 {As they passed by in the morning} (paraporeuomenoi
pr(9369)). Literally, passing by in the morning. The next morning.
They went back by the lower road up the Mount of Olives and came
down each morning by the steep and more direct way. Hence they
saw it.  Mt 21:20  does not separate the two mornings as Mark
does. {From the roots} (ek riz(936e)). Mark alone gives this detail
with ex(8872)ammen(886e) perfect passive predicate participle from
x(8872)ain(935c).

經文:

馬可福音 11:21-11:21

註釋:

 {Peter calling to remembrance} (anamn(8873)theis ho Petros).
First aorist participle, being reminded. Only in Mark and due to
Peter's story. For his quick memory see also  14:72 . {Which thou
cursedst} (h(886e) kat(8872)as(935c)). First aorist middle indicative second
person singular from kataraomai. It almost sounds as if Peter
blamed Jesus for what he had done to the fig tree.

經文:

馬可福音 11:22-11:22

註釋:

 {Have faith in God} (echete pistin theou). Objective
genitive 	heou as in  Gal 2:26  Ro 3:22,26 . That was the
lesson for the disciples from the curse on the fig tree so
promptly fulfilled. See this point explained by Jesus in  Mt
21:21  which see for "this mountain" also.

經文:

馬可福音 11:23-11:23

註釋:

 {Shall not doubt in his heart} (m(8820)diakrith(8869) en t(8869)
kardi(8369) autou). First aorist passive subjunctive with hos an.
The verb means a divided judgment (dia from duo, two, and
krin(935c), to judge). Wavering doubt. Not a single act of doubt
(diakrith(8869)), but continued faith (pisteu(8869)). {Cometh to
pass} (ginetai). Futuristic present middle indicative.

經文:

馬可福音 11:24-11:24

註釋:

 {Believe that ye have received them} (pisteuete hoti
elabete). That is the test of faith, the kind that sees the
fulfilment before it happens. Elabete is second aorist active
indicative, antecedent in time to pisteuete, unless it be
considered the timeless aorist when it is simultaneous with it.
For this aorist of immediate consequence see  Joh 15:6 .

經文:

馬可福音 11:25-11:25

註釋:

 {Whensoever ye stand} (hotan st(886b)ete). Late form of
present indicative st(886b)(935c), from perfect stem hest(886b)a. In LXX.
Note use of hotan as in  11:19 . Jesus does not mean by the use
of "stand" here to teach that this is the only proper attitude in
prayer. {That your Father also may forgive you} (hina kai ho
pat(8872) aph(8869) humin). Evidently God's willingness to forgive is
limited by our willingness to forgive others. This is a solemn
thought for all who pray. Recall the words of Jesus in  Mt
6:12,14f .

經文:

馬可福音 11:26-11:26

註釋:

 This verse is omitted by Westcott and Hort. The Revised
Version puts it in a footnote.

經文:

馬可福音 11:27-11:27

註釋:

 {The chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders} (hoi
archiereis kai hoi grammateis kai hoi presbuteroi). Note the
article with each separate group as in  Lu 20:1  and  Mt 21:23 .
These three classes were in the Sanhedrin. Clearly a large
committee of the Sanhedrin including both Sadducees and Pharisees
here confront Jesus in a formal attack upon his authority for
cleansing the temple and teaching in it.

經文:

馬可福音 11:28-11:28

註釋:

 {By what authority} (en poi(8369) exousi(8369)). This question in
all three Gospels was a perfectly legitimate one. See on 烘t
21:23-27| for discussion. Note present subjunctive here (hina
tauta poi(8869)s), that you keep on doing these things.

經文:

馬可福音 11:30-11:30

註釋:

 {Answer me} (apokrith(8874)e moi). This sharp demand for a
reply is only in Mark. See also verse  29 . Jesus has a right to
take this turn because of John's direct relation to himself. It
was not a dodge, but a home thrust that cleared the air and
defined their attitude both to John and Jesus. They rejected John
as they now reject Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 11:31-11:31

註釋:

 {If we say} (ean eip(936d)en). Third-class condition with
aorist active subjunctive. The alternatives are sharply presented
in their secret conclave. They see the two horns of the dilemma
clearly and poignantly. They know only too well what Jesus will
say in reply. They wish to break Christ's power with the
multitude, but a false step now will turn the laugh on them. They
see it.

經文:

馬可福音 11:32-11:32

註釋:

 {But should we say} (alla eip(936d)en). Deliberative
subjunctive with aorist active subjunctive again. It is possible
to supply ean from verse  31  and treat it as a condition as
there. So  Mt 21:26  and  Lu 20:6 . But in Mark the structure
continues rugged after "from men" with anacoluthon or even
aposiopesis--"they feared the people" Mark adds. Matthew has it:
"We fear the multitude." Luke puts it: "all the people will stone
us." All three Gospels state the popular view of John as a
prophet. Mark's "verily" is ont(9373) really, actually. They feared
John though dead as much as Herod Antipas did. His martyrdom had
deepened his power over the people and disrespect towards his
memory now might raise a storm (Swete).

經文:

馬可福音 11:33-11:33

註釋:

 {We know not} (ouk oidamen). It was for the purpose of
getting out of the trap into which they had fallen by challenging
the authority of Jesus. Their self-imposed ignorance, refusal to
take a stand about the Baptist who was the Forerunner of Christ,
absolved Jesus from a categorical reply. But he has no notion of
letting them off at this point.

經文:

馬可福音 12:1-12:1

註釋:

 {He began to speak unto them in parables} ((8872)xato autois en
parabolais lalein). Mark's common idiom again. He does not mean
that this was the beginning of Christ's use of parables (see
 4:2 ), but simply that his teaching on this occasion took the
parabolic turn. "The circumstances called forth the parabolic
mood, that of one whose heart is chilled, and whose spirit is
saddened by a sense of loneliness, and who, retiring within
himself, by a process of reflection, frames for his thoughts
forms which half conceal, half reveal them" (Bruce). Mark does
not give the Parable of the Two Sons ( Mt 21:28-32 ) nor that of
the Marriage Feast of the King's Son ( Mt 22:1-14 ). He gives
here the Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen. Also in  Mt 21:33-46 
and  Lu 20:9-19 . See discussion in Matthew.  Mt 21:33  calls the
man "a householder" (oikodespot(8873)). {A pit for the winepress}
(hupol(886e)ion). Only here in the N.T. Common in the LXX and in
late Greek. Matthew had l(886e)on, winepress. This is the vessel or
trough under the winepress on the hillside to catch the juice
when the grapes were trodden. The Romans called it _lacus_ (lake)
and Wycliff _dalf_ (lake), like delved. See on Matthew for
details just alike. {Husbandmen} (ge(9372)gois). Workers in the
ground, tillers of the soil (ergon, g(885c)).

經文:

馬可福音 12:2-12:2

註釋:

 {At the season} (	(9369) kair(9369)). For fruits as in the end of
the sentence. {A servant} (doulon). Bondslave. Matthew has
plural. {That he might receive} (hina lab(8869)). Purpose clause
with second aorist subjunctive. Matthew has infinitive labein,
purpose also. {Wounded in the head} (ekephali(9373)an). An old verb
(kephalai(935c)), to bring under heads (kephal(885c)), to summarize.
Then to hit on the head. Only here in the N.T.

經文:

馬可福音 12:5-12:5

註釋:

 {Beating some and killing some} (hous men derontes, hous de
apoktennuntes). This distributive use of the demonstrative
appears also in  Mt 21:35  in the singular (hon men, hon de, hon
de). Originally der(935c) in Homer meant to skin, flay, then to
smite, to beat. Apoktennuntes is a mi form of the verb
(apoktennumi) and means to kill off.

經文:

馬可福音 12:6-12:6

註釋:

 {A beloved son} (huion agap(8874)on).  Lu 20:13  has 	on
huion ton agap(8874)on. Jesus evidently has in mind the language of
the Father to him at his baptism ( Mr 1:11  Mt 3:17  Lu 3:22 ).
{Last} (eschaton). Only in Mark. See on 烘t 21:37| for
discussion of "reverence."

經文:

馬可福音 12:7-12:7

註釋:

 {Among themselves} (pros heautous). This phrase alone in
Mark.  Lu 20:14  has "with one another" (pros all(886c)ous),
reciprocal instead of reflexive, pronoun.

經文:

馬可福音 12:8-12:8

註釋:

 {Killed him and cast him forth} (apekteinan auton, kai
exebalon auton). Matthew and Luke reverse the order, cast forth
and killed.

經文:

馬可福音 12:10-12:10

註釋:

 {This scripture} (	(886e) graph(886e) taut(886e)). This passage of
scripture ( Lu 4:21  Joh 19:37  Ac 1:16 ). It is a quotation from
 Ps 118:22f . See on 烘t 21:42| for discussion.

經文:

馬可福音 12:11-12:11

註釋:

 {This} (haut(885c)). Feminine in LXX may refer to {kephal(887d)
(head) or may be due to the Hebrew original {z(9374)h} (this thing)
which would be neuter 	outo in a Greek original, a translation
Hebraism.

經文:

馬可福音 12:12-12:12

註釋:

 {Against them} (pros autous). So Luke. It was a straight
shot, this parable of the Rejected Stone ( 12:10f. ) and the
longer one of the Wicked Husbandmen. There was no mistaking the
application, for he had specifically explained the application
( Mt 21:43-45 ). The Sanhedrin were so angry that they actually
started or sought to seize him, but fear of the populace now more
enthusiastic for Jesus than ever held them back. They went off in
disgust, but they had to listen to the Parable of the King's Son
before going ( Mt 22:1-14 ).

經文:

馬可福音 12:13-12:13

註釋:

 {That they might catch him in talk} (hina auton agreus(9373)in
log(9369)). Ingressive aorist subjunctive. The verb is late from
agra (a hunt or catching). It appears in the LXX and papyri.
Here alone in the N.T.  Lu 20:20  has the same idea, "that they
may take hold of his speech" (epilab(936e)tai autou logon) while
 Mt 22:15  uses pagideus(9373)in (to snare or trap). See discussion
in Matthew. We have seen the scribes and Pharisees trying to do
this very thing before ( Lu 11:33f. ). Mark and Matthew note here
the combination of Pharisees and Herodians as Mark did in  3:6 .
Matthew speaks of "disciples" or pupils of the Pharisees while
Luke calls them "spies" (enkathetous).

經文:

馬可福音 12:14-12:14

註釋:

 {Shall we give or shall we not give?} (d(936d)en (8820)m(880a)d(936d)en;). Mark alone repeats the question in this sharp form. The
deliberative subjunctive, aorist tense active voice. For the
discussion of the palaver and flattery of this group of
theological students see on 烘t 22:16-22|.

經文:

馬可福音 12:15-12:15

註釋:

 {Knowing their hypocrisy} (eid(9373) aut(936e) t(886e) hupocrisin).
 Mt 22:18  has "perceived their wickedness" (gnous t(886e) pon(8872)ian
aut(936e)) while  Lu 20:23  says, "perceived their craftiness"
(katano(8873)as aut(936e) t(886e) panourgian). Each of these words throws a
flash-light on the spirit and attitude of these young men. They
were sly, shrewd, slick, but they did not deceive Jesus with
their pious palaver. See on Matthew for further details.

經文:

馬可福音 12:17-12:17

註釋:

 {Marvelled greatly at him} (exethaumazon ep' aut(9369)).
Imperfect tense with perfective use of the preposition ex. Both
Matthew and Luke use the ingressive aorist. Luke adds that they
"held their peace" (esig(8873)an) while Matthew notes that they
"went their way" (ap(886c)than), went off or away.

經文:

馬可福音 12:18-12:18

註釋:

 {There come unto him Sadducees} (erchontai Saddoukaioi
pros auton). Dramatic present. The Pharisees and Herodians had
had their turn after the formal committee of the Sanhedrin had
been so completely routed. It was inevitable that they should
feel called upon to show their intellectual superiority to these
raw Pharisaic and Herodian theologians. See on 烘t 22:23-33| for
discussion of details. It was a good time to air their disbelief
in the resurrection at the expense of the Pharisees and to score
against Jesus where the Sanhedrin and then the Pharisees and
Herodians had failed so ignominiously.

經文:

馬可福音 12:19-12:19

註釋:

 De. 25:5f. 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'De.' or engs='De.'
經文:

馬可福音 12:20-12:20

註釋:

 {Took a wife} (elaben gunaika). So  Lu 20:29 . Matthew
has "married" (g(886d)as).

經文:

馬可福音 12:22-12:22

註釋:

 {Last of all} (eschaton pant(936e)). Adverbial use of
eschaton.

經文:

馬可福音 12:23-12:23

註釋:

 {To wife} (gunaika). Predicate accusative in apposition
with "her" (aut(886e)). So Luke, but Matthew merely has "had her"
(eschon aut(886e)), constative aorist indicative active.

經文:

馬可福音 12:24-12:24

註釋:

 {Is it not for this cause that ye err?} (Ou dia touto
plan(8373)the;). Mark puts it as a question with ou expecting the
affirmative answer. Matthew puts it as a positive assertion: "Ye
are." Planaomai is to wander astray (cf. our word _planet_,
wandering stars, asteres plan(8874)ai,  Jude 1:13 ) like the Latin
_errare_ (our _error_, err). {That ye know not the scriptures}
(m(8820)eidotes tas graphas). The Sadducees posed as men of
superior intelligence and knowledge in opposition to the
traditionalists among the Pharisees with their oral law. And yet
on this very point they were ignorant of the Scriptures. How much
error today is due to this same ignorance among the educated!
{Nor the power of God} (m(8864)e t(886e) dunamin tou theou). The two
kinds of ignorance generally go together (cf.  1Co 15:34 ).

經文:

馬可福音 12:25-12:25

註釋:

 {When they shall rise from the dead} (hotan ek nekr(936e)
anast(9373)in). Second aorist active subjunctive with hotan
(hote plus an).  Mt 22:30  has it "in the resurrection,"  Lu
20:35  "to attain to the resurrection." The Pharisees regarded
the future resurrection body as performing marriage functions, as
Mohammedans do today. The Pharisees were in error on this point.
The Sadducees made this one of their objections to belief in the
resurrection body, revealing thus their own ignorance of the true
resurrection body and the future life where marriage functions do
not exist. {As angels in heaven} (h(9373) aggeloi en t(9369) ouran(9369)).
So  Mt 22:30 .  Lu 20:36  has "equal unto the angels"
(isaggeloi). "Their equality with angels consists in their
deliverance from mortality and its consequences" (Swete). The
angels are directly created, not procreated.

經文:

馬可福音 12:26-12:26

註釋:

 {In the place concerning the Bush} (epi tou batou). This
technical use of epi is good Greek, in the matter of, in the
passage about, the Bush. Batos is masculine here, feminine in
 Lu 20:37 . The reference is to  Ex 3:3-6  (in the book of Moses,
en t(8869) bibl(9369)).

經文:

馬可福音 12:27-12:27

註釋:

 {Ye do greatly err} (polu plan(8373)the). Only in Mark.
Solemn, severe, impressive, but kindly close (Bruce).

經文:

馬可福音 12:28-12:28

註釋:

 {Heard them questioning together} (akousas aut(936e)
sunz(8874)ount(936e)). The victory of Christ over the Sadducees pleased
the Pharisees who now had come back with mixed emotions over the
new turn of things ( Mt 22:34 ).  Lu 20:39  represents one of the
scribes as commending Jesus for his skilful reply to the
Sadducees. Mark here puts this scribe in a favourable light,
"knowing that he had answered them well" (eid(9373) hoti kal(9373)
apekrith(8820)autois). "Them" here means the Sadducees. But  Mt
22:35  says that this lawyer (
omikos) was "tempting"
(peiraz(936e)) by his question. "A few, among whom was the scribe,
were constrained to admire, even if they were willing to
criticize, the Rabbi who though not himself a Pharisee, surpassed
the Pharisees as a champion of the truth." That is a just picture
of this lawyer. {The first of all} (pr(9374)(8820)pant(936e)). First in
rank and importance.  Mt 22:36  has "great" (megal(885c)). See
discussion there. Probably Jesus spoke in Aramaic. "First" and
"great" in Greek do not differ essentially here. Mark quotes  De
6:4f.  as it stands in the LXX and also  Le 19:18 .  Mt 22:40 
adds the summary: "On these two commandments hangeth (krematai)
the whole law and the prophets."

經文:

馬可福音 12:32-12:32

註釋:

 {And the scribe said} (eipen aut(9369) ho grammateus). Mark
alone gives the reply of the scribe to Jesus which is a mere
repetition of what Jesus had said about the first and the second
commandments with the additional allusion to  1Sa 15:22  about
love as superior to whole burnt offerings. {Well} (kal(9373)). Not
to be taken with "saidst" (eipes) as the Revised Version has it
following Wycliff. Probably kal(9373) (well) is exclamatory. "Fine,
Teacher. Of a truth (ep' al(8874)heias) didst thou say."

經文:

馬可福音 12:34-12:34

註釋:

 {Discreetly} (
ounech(9373)). From 
ous (intellect) and
ech(935c), to have. Using the mind to good effect is what the adverb
means. He had his wits about him, as we say. Here only in the
N.T. In Aristotle and Polybius. Nounechont(9373) would be the more
regular form, adverb from a participle. {Not far} (ou makran).
Adverb, not adjective, feminine accusative, a long way (hodon
understood). The critical attitude of the lawyer had melted
before the reply of Jesus into genuine enthusiasm that showed him
to be near the kingdom of God. {No man after that} (oudeis
ouketi). Double negative. The debate was closed (etolma,
imperfect tense, dared). Jesus was complete victor on every side.

經文:

馬可福音 12:35-12:35

註釋:

 {How say the scribes} (P(9373) legousin hoi grammateis). The
opponents of Jesus are silenced, but he answers them and goes on
teaching (didask(936e)) in the temple as before the attacks began
that morning ( 11:27 ). They no longer dare to question Jesus,
but he has one to put to them "while the Pharisees were gathered
together" ( Mt 22:41 ). The question is not a conundrum or
scriptural puzzle (Gould), but "He contents himself with pointing
out a difficulty, in the solution of which lay the key to the
whole problem of His person and work" (Swete). The scribes all
taught that the Messiah was to be the son of David ( Joh 7:41 ).
The people in the Triumphal Entry had acclaimed Jesus as the son
of David ( Mt 21:9 ). But the rabbis had overlooked the fact that
David in  Ps 110:1  called the Messiah his Lord also. The deity
and the humanity of the Messiah are both involved in the problem.
 Mt 22:45  observes that "no one was able to answer him a word."

經文:

馬可福音 12:36-12:36

註釋:

 {The footstool} (hupopodion). Westcott and Hort read
hupokat(935c) (under) after Aleph B D L.

經文:

馬可福音 12:37-12:37

註釋:

 {The common people heard him gladly} (ho polus ochlos
(886b)ouen autou hede(9373)). Literally, the much multitude (the huge
crowd) was listening (imperfect tense) to him gladly. Mark alone
has this item. The Sanhedrin had begun the formal attack that
morning to destroy the influence of Jesus with the crowds whose
hero he now was since the Triumphal Entry. It had been a colossal
failure. The crowds were drawn closer to him than before.

經文:

馬可福音 12:38-12:38

註釋:

 {Beware of the scribes} (lepete apo t(936e) grammate(936e)).
Jesus now turns to the multitudes and to his disciples ( Mt
23:1 ) and warns them against the scribes and the Pharisees while
they are still there to hear his denunciation. The scribes were
the professional teachers of the current Judaism and were nearly
all Pharisees. Mark ( Mr 14:38-40 ) gives a mere summary sketch
of this bold and terrific indictment as preserved in  Mt 23  in
words that fairly blister today.  Lu 20:45-47  follows Mark
closely. See  Mt 8:15  for this same use of lepete apo with
the ablative. It is usually called a translation-Hebraism, a
usage not found with lep(935c) in the older Greek. But the papyri
give it, a vivid vernacular idiom. "Beware of the Jews" (lepe
saton apo t(936e) Ioudai(936e), Berl. G. U. 1079. A.D. 41). See
Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 577. The pride of the pompous scribes is
itemized by Mark: {To walk in long robes} (stolais), {stoles},
the dress of dignitaries like kings and priests. {Salutations in
the marketplaces} (aspasmous en tais agorais), where the people
could see their dignity recognized.

經文:

馬可福音 12:39-12:39

註釋:

 {First seats in the synagogues} (pr(9374)okathedrias). As a
mark of special piety, seats up in front while now the hypocrites
present in church prefer the rear seats. {Chief places at feasts}
(pr(9374)oklisias en tois deipnois). Recognizing proper rank and
station. Even the disciples fall victims to this desire for
precedence at table ( Lu 22:24 ).

經文:

馬可福音 12:40-12:40

註釋:

 {Devour widows' houses} (hoi katesthontes t(8373) oikias t(936e)
ch(8872)(936e)). New sentence in the nominative. Terrible pictures of
civil wrong by graft grabbing the homes of helpless widows. They
inveigled widows into giving their homes to the temple and took
it for themselves. {For a pretence make long prayers} (prophasei
makra proseuchomenoi). Prophasei instrumental case of the same
word (proph(886d)i) from which prophet comes, but here pretext,
pretence of extra piety while robbing the widows and pushing
themselves to the fore. Some derive it from prophain(935c), to show
forth. {Greater} (perissoteron). More abundant condemnation.
Some comfort in that at any rate.

經文:

馬可福音 12:41-12:41

註釋:

 {Sat down over against the treasury} (kathisas katenanti
tou gazophulakiou). The storm is over. The Pharisees, Sadducees,
Herodians, scribes, have all slunk away in terror ere the closing
words. Mark draws this immortal picture of the weary Christ
sitting by the treasury (compound word in the LXX from gaza,
Persian word for treasure, and phulak(885c), guard, so safe for
gifts to be deposited). {Beheld} (ethe(9372)ei). Imperfect tense.
He was watching {how the multitude cast money} (p(9373) ho ochlos
ballei) into the treasury. The rich were casting in (eballon,
imperfect tense) as he watched.

經文:

馬可福音 12:42-12:42

註釋:

 {One poor widow} (mia ch(8872)a pt(9363)h(885c)). Luke has penichra,
a poetical late form of pen(8873). In the N.T. the pt(9363)hos is the
pauper rather than the mere peasant, the extreme opposite of the
rich (plousioi). The money given by most was copper
(chalkon). {Two mites} (duo lepta). Leptos means peeled or
stripped and so very thin. Two lepta were about two-fifths of a
cent. {Farthing} (kodrantes, Latin _quadrans_, a quarter of an
_as_).

經文:

馬可福音 12:43-12:43

註釋:

 {Called unto him} (proskalesamenos). Indirect middle
voice. The disciples themselves had slipped away from him while
the terrific denunciation of the scribes and Pharisees had gone
on, puzzled at this turn of affairs. {More than all} (pleion
pant(936e)). Ablative of comparison (pant(936e)). It may mean, more
than all the rich put together. {All that she had} (panta hosa
eichen). Imperfect tense. {Cast in} (ebalen). Aorist tense, in
sharp contrast. {All her living} (holon ton bion aut(8873)). Her
{livelihood} (ios), not her life (z(9388)). It is a tragedy to
see a stingy saint pose as giving the widow's mite when he could
give thousands instead of pennies.

經文:

馬可福音 13:1-13:1

註釋:

 {Master, behold, what manner of stones and what manner of
buildings} (didaskale, ide potapoi lithoi kai potapai
oikodomai).  Mt 24:1  and  Lu 21:5  tell of the fact of the
comment, but Mark alone gives the precise words. Perhaps Peter
himself (Swete) was the one who sought thus by a pleasant
platitude to divert the Teacher's attention from the serious
topics of recent hours in the temple. It was not a new
observation, but the merest commonplace might serve at this
crisis. Josephus (_Ant_. xv. II, 3) speaks of the great size of
these stones and the beauty of the buildings. Some of these
stones at the southeastern and southwestern angles survive today
and measure from twenty to forty feet long and weigh a hundred
tons. Jesus had, of course, often observed them.

經文:

馬可福音 13:2-13:2

註釋:

 {These great buildings} (	autas tas oikodomas). Jesus
fully recognizes their greatness and beauty. The more remarkable
will be their complete demolition (kataluth(8869)), {loosened
down}. Only the foundation stones remain.

經文:

馬可福音 13:3-13:3

註釋:

 {Over against the temple} (katenanti tou hierou). In full
view of the temple about which they had been speaking.
{Privately} (kat' idian). Peter and James and John and Andrew
(named only in Mark) had evidently been discussing the strange
comment of Jesus as they were coming out of the temple. In their
bewilderment they ask Jesus a bit to one side, though probably
all the rest drew up as Jesus began to speak this great
eschatological discourse.

經文:

馬可福音 13:4-13:4

註釋:

 {Tell us, when shall these things be?} (Eipon h(886d)in pote
tauta estai;). The Revised Version punctuates it as a direct
question, but Westcott and Hort as an indirect inquiry. They
asked about the {when} (pote) and the {what sign} (	i
s(886d)eion).  Mt 24:3  includes "the sign of thy coming and the end
of the world," showing that these tragic events are brought
before Jesus by the disciples. See discussion of the
interpretation of this discourse on 烘t 24:3|. This chapter in
Mark is often called "The Little Apocalypse" with the notion that
a Jewish apocalypse has been here adapted by Mark and attributed
to Jesus. Many of the theories attribute grave error to Jesus or
to the Gospels on this subject. The view adopted in the
discussion in Matthew is the one suggested here, that Jesus
blended in one picture his death, the destruction of Jerusalem
within that generation, the second coming and end of the world
typified by the destruction of the city. The lines between these
topics are not sharply drawn in the report and it is not possible
for us to separate the topics clearly. This great discourse is
the longest preserved in Mark and may be due to Peter. Mark may
have given it in order "to forewarn and forearm" (Bruce) the
readers against the coming catastrophe of the destruction of
Jerusalem. Both Matthew ( Mt 24 ) and Luke ( Lu 21:5-36 ) follow
the general line of Mark 13 though  Mt 24:43-25:46  presents new
material (parables).

經文:

馬可福音 13:5-13:5

註釋:

 {Take need that no man lead you astray} (Blepete m(8820)tis
h(966d)(8373) plan(8873)(8869)). Same words in  Mt 24:4 .  Lu 21:8  has it "that
ye be not led astray" (m(8820)plan(8874)h(8874)e). This word plana(935c) (our
_planet_) is a bold one. This warning runs through the whole
discussion. It is pertinent today after so many centuries. About
the false Christs then and now see on 烘t 24:5|. It is amazing
the success that these charlatans have through the ages in
winning the empty-pated to their hare-brained views. Only this
morning as I am writing a prominent English psychologist has
challenged the world to a radio communication with Mars asserting
that he has made frequent trips to Mars and communicated with its
alleged inhabitants. And the daily papers put his ebullitions on
the front page. For discussion of the details in verses  6-8  see
on 烘t 24:5-8|. All through the ages in spite of the words of
Jesus men have sought to apply the picture here drawn to the
particular calamity in their time.

經文:

馬可福音 13:7-13:7

註釋:

 {Must needs come to pass} (dei genesthai). Already there
were outbreaks against the Jews in Alexandria, at Seleucia with
the slaughter of more than fifty thousand, at Jamnia, and
elsewhere. Caligula, Claudius, Nero will threaten war before it
finally comes with the destruction of the city and temple by
Titus in A.D. 70. Vincent notes that between this prophecy by
Jesus in A.D. 30 (or 29) and the destruction of Jerusalem there
was an earthquake in Crete (A.D. 46 or 47), at Rome (A.D. 51), at
Apamaia in Phrygia (A.D. 60), at Campania (A.D. 63). He notes
also four famines during the reign of Claudius A.D. 41-54. One of
them was in Judea in A.D. 44 and is alluded to in  Ac 11:28 .
Tacitus (_Annals_ xvi. 10-13) describes the hurricanes and storms
in Campania in A.D. 65.

經文:

馬可福音 13:9-13:9

註釋:

 {But take heed to yourselves} (Blepete de humeis
heautous). Only in Mark, but dominant note of warning all
through the discourse. Note humeis here, very emphatic.
{Councils} (sunedria). Same word as the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem.
These local councils (sun, hedra, sitting together) were
modelled after that in Jerusalem. {Shall ye be beaten}
(dar(8873)esthe). Second future passive indicative second person
plural. The word der(935c) means to flay or skin and here has been
softened into {beat} like our tan or skin in the vernacular.
Aristophanes has it in this colloquial sense as have the papyri
in the _Koin(825f). Before governors and kings (epi h(8867)emon(936e) kai
basile(936e)). Gentile rulers as well as before Jewish councils.
{Shall stand} (stath(8873)esthe). First aorist passive indicative
second person plural of hist(886d)i.

經文:

馬可福音 13:10-13:10

註釋:

 {Must first be preached} (pr(9374)on dei k(8872)uchth(886e)ai). This
only in Mark. It is interesting to note that Paul in  Col 1:6,23 
claims that the gospel has spread all over the world. All this
was before the destruction of Jerusalem.

經文:

馬可福音 13:11-13:11

註釋:

 {Be not anxious beforehand what ye shall speak} (m(880a)promerimn(8374)e ti lal(8873)(8874)e). Negative with present imperative to
make a general prohibition or habit. Jesus is not here referring
to preaching, but to defences made before these councils and
governors. A typical example is seen in the courage and skill of
Peter and John before the Sanhedrin in Acts. The verb merimna(935c)
is from meriz(935c) (meris), to be drawn in opposite directions,
to be distracted. See on 烘t 6:25|. They are not to be stricken
with fright beforehand, but to face fearlessly those in high
places who are seeking to overthrow the preaching of the gospel.
There is no excuse here for the lazy preacher who fails to
prepare his sermon out of the mistaken reliance upon the Holy
Spirit. They will need and will receive the special help of the
Holy Spirit (cf.  Joh 14-16 ).

經文:

馬可福音 13:13-13:13

註釋:

 {But he that endureth to the end} (ho de hupomeinas eis
telos). Note this aorist participle with the future verb. The
idea here is true to the etymology of the word, remaining under
(hupomen(935c)) until the end. The divisions in families Jesus had
predicted before ( Lu 12:52f.  14:25f. ). {Be saved}
(s(9374)h(8873)etai). Here Jesus means final salvation (effective
aorist future passive), not initial salvation.

經文:

馬可福音 13:14-13:14

註釋:

 {Standing where he ought not} (hest(886b)ota hopou ou dei).
 Mt 24:15  has "standing in the holy place" (hestos en topoi
hagi(9369)), neuter and agreeing with delugma (abomination), the
very phrase applied in 1Macc. 1:54 to the altar to Zeus erected
by Antiochus Epiphanes where the altar to Jehovah was. Mark
personifies the abomination as personal (masculine), while  Lu
21:20  defines it by reference to the armies (of Rome, as it
turned out). So the words of Daniel find a second fulfilment,
Rome taking the place of Syria (Swete). See on 烘t 24:15| for
this phrase and the parenthesis inserted in the words of Jesus
("Let him that readeth understand"). See also on 烘t 24:16-25|
for discussion of details in  Mr 13:14-22 .

經文:

馬可福音 13:16-13:16

註釋:

 {In the field} (eis ton agron). Here  Mt 24:18  has en
t(9369) agr(9369), showing identical use of eis with accusative and
en with the locative.

經文:

馬可福音 13:19-13:19

註釋:

 {Which God created} (h(886e) ektisen ho theos). Note this
amplification to the quotation from  Da 12:1 .

經文:

馬可福音 13:20-13:20

註釋:

 {Whom he chose} (hous exelexato). Indirect aorist middle
indicative. In Mark alone. Explains the sovereign choice of God
in the end by and for himself.

經文:

馬可福音 13:22-13:22

註釋:

 {That they may lead astray} (pros to apoplan(8369)n). With a
view to leading off (pros and the infinitive).  Mt 24:24  has
h(9373)te apopl(8373)thai, so as to lead off.

經文:

馬可福音 13:23-13:23

註釋:

 {But take ye heed} (Humeis de blepete). Gullibility is no
mark of a saint or of piety. Note emphatic position of you
(humeis). Credulity ranks no higher than scepticism. God gave
us our wits for self-protection. Christ has warned us beforehand.

經文:

馬可福音 13:24-13:24

註釋:

 {The sun shall be darkened} (ho helios skotisth(8873)etai).
Future passive indicative. These figures come from the prophets
( Isa 13:9f.  Eze 32:7f.  Joe 2:1f.,10f.  Am 8:9  Zep 1:14-16  Zec 12:12 ). One should not forget that prophetic imagery was not
always meant to be taken literally, especially apocalyptic
symbols. Peter in  Ac 2:15-21  applies the prophecy of Joel about
the sun and moon to the events on the day of Pentecost. See on
烘t 24:29-31| for details of verses  24-27 .

經文:

馬可福音 13:25-13:25

註釋:

 {The stars shall be falling} (hoi asteres esontai
piptontes). Periphrastic future indicative, esontai, future
middle indicative and piptontes, present active participle.

經文:

馬可福音 13:27-13:27

註釋:

 {Shall gather together his elect} (episunaxei tous
eklektous autou). This is the purpose of God through the ages.
{From the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part of
heaven} (ap' akrou g(8873) he(9373) akrou ouranou). The Greek is very
brief, "from the tip of earth to the tip of heaven." This precise
phrase occurs nowhere else.

經文:

馬可福音 13:28-13:28

註釋:

 {Coming to pass} (ginomena). Present middle participle,
linear action. See on 烘t 24:32-36| for details of verses  28-32 
(the Parable of the Fig Tree).

經文:

馬可福音 13:32-13:32

註釋:

 {Not even the Son} (oude ho huios). There is no doubt as
to the genuineness of these words here such as exists in  Mt
24:36 . This disclaimer of knowledge naturally interpreted
applies to the second coming, not to the destruction of Jerusalem
which had been definitely limited to that generation as it
happened in A.D. 70.

經文:

馬可福音 13:34-13:34

註釋:

 {Commanded also the porter to watch} (kai t(9369) thur(9372)(9369)
eneteilato hina gr(8867)or(8869)) . The porter or door-keeper
(	hur(9372)os), as well as all the rest, to keep a watch (present
subjunctive, gr(8867)or(8869)). This Parable of the Porter is only in
Mark. Our ignorance of the time of the Master's return is an
argument not for indifference nor for fanaticism, but for
alertness and eager readiness for his coming.

經文:

馬可福音 13:35-13:35

註釋:

 The four watches of the night are named here: evening
(opse), midnight (mesonuktion), cock-crowing
(alektoroph(936e)ias), morning (pr(9369)).

經文:

馬可福音 13:37-13:37

註釋:

 {Watch} (gr(8867)oreite). Be on the watch. Present imperative
of a verb made on the second perfect, egr(8867)ora, to be awake.
Stay awake till the Lord comes.

經文:

馬可福音 14:1-14:1

註釋:

 {After two days} (meta duo h(886d)eras). This was Tuesday
evening as we count time (beginning of the Jewish Wednesday). In
 Mt 26:2  Jesus is reported as naming this same date which would
put it our Thursday evening, beginning of the Jewish Friday. The
Gospel of John mentions five items that superficially considered
seem to contradict this definite date in Mark and Matthew, but
which are really in harmony with them. See discussion on  Mt
26:17  and my {Harmony of the Gospels}, pp. 279 to 284. Mark
calls it here the feast of "the passover and the unleavened
bread," both names covering the eight days. Sometimes "passover"
is applied to only the first day, sometimes to the whole period.
No sharp distinction in usage was observed. {Sought} (ez(8874)oun).
Imperfect tense. They were still at it, though prevented so far.

經文:

馬可福音 14:2-14:2

註釋:

 {Not during the feast} (M(8820)en t(8869) heort(8869)). They had first
planned to kill him at the feast ( Joh 11:57 ), but the Triumphal
Entry and great Tuesday debate (this very morning) in the temple
had made them decide to wait till after the feast was over. It
was plain that Jesus had too large and powerful a following. See
on 烘t 26:47|.

經文:

馬可福音 14:3-14:3

註釋:

 {As he sat at meat} (katakeimenou autou).  Mt 26:7  uses
anakeimenou, both words meaning reclining (leaning down or up
or back) and in the genitive absolute. See on 烘t 26:6| in proof
that this is a different incident from that recorded in  Lu
7:36-50 . See on 烘t 26:6-13| for discussion of details.
{Spikenard} (
ardou pistik(8873)). This use of pistikos with

ardos occurs only here and in  Joh 12:3 . The adjective is
common enough in the older Greek and appears in the papyri also
in the sense of genuine, unadulterated, and that is probably the
idea here. The word spikenard is from the Vulgate _nardi
spicati_, probably from the Old Latin _nardi pistici_. {Brake}
(suntripsousa). Only in Mark. She probably broke the narrow
neck of the vase holding the ointment.

經文:

馬可福音 14:5-14:5

註釋:

 {Above three hundred pence} (epan(9320)d(886e)ari(936e) triakosi(936e)).
Matthew has "for much" while  Joh 12:5  has "for three hundred
pence." The use of "far above" may be a detail from Peter's
memory of Judas' objection whose name in this connection is
preserved in  Joh 12:4 . {And they murmured against her} (kai
enebrim(936e)to aut(8869)). Imperfect tense of this striking word used
of the snorting of horses and seen already in  Mr 1:43  11:38 .
It occurs in the LXX in the sense of anger as here ( Da 11:30 ).
Judas made the complaint against Mary of Bethany, but all the
apostles joined in the chorus of criticism of the wasteful
extravagance.

經文:

馬可福音 14:8-14:8

註釋:

 {She hath done what she could} (ho eschen epoi(8873)en). This
alone in Mark. Two aorists. Literally, "what she had she did."
Mary could not comprehend the Lord's death, but she at least
showed her sympathy with him and some understanding of the coming
tragedy, a thing that not one of her critics had done. {She hath
anointed my body aforehand for the burying} (proelaben murisai
to s(936d)a mou eis ton entaphiasmon). Literally, "she took
beforehand to anoint my body for the burial." She anticipated the
event. This is Christ's justification of her noble deed.  Mt
26:12  also speaks of the burial preparation by Mary, using the
verb entaphiasai.

經文:

馬可福音 14:9-14:9

註釋:

 {For a memorial of her} (eis mn(886d)osunon aut(8873)). So in  Mt
26:13 . There are many mausoleums that crumble to decay. But this
monument to Jesus fills the whole world still with its fragrance.
What a hint there is here for those who wish to leave permanent
memorials.

經文:

馬可福音 14:10-14:10

註釋:

 {He that was one of the twelve} (ho heis t(936e) d(9364)eka).
Note the article here, "the one of the twelve," Matthew has only
heis, "one." Some have held that Mark here calls Judas the
primate among the twelve. Rather he means to call attention to
the idea that he was the one of the twelve who did this deed.

經文:

馬可福音 14:11-14:11

註釋:

 {And they, when they heard it, were glad} (hoi de
akousantes echar(8873)an). No doubt the rabbis looked on the
treachery of Judas as a veritable dispensation of Providence
amply justifying their plots against Jesus. {Conveniently}
(eukair(9373)). This was the whole point of the offer of Judas. He
claimed that he knew enough of the habits of Jesus to enable them
to catch him "in the absence of the multitude" ( Lu 22:6 )
without waiting for the passover to be over, when the crowds
would leave. For discussion of the motives of Judas, see on 烘t
26:15|. Mark merely notes the promise of "money" while Matthew
mentions "thirty pieces of silver" ( Zec 11:12 ), the price of a
slave.

經文:

馬可福音 14:12-14:12

註釋:

 {When they sacrificed the passover} (hote to pascha
ethuon). Imperfect indicative, customary practice. The paschal
lamb (note pascha) was slain at 6 P.M., beginning of the
fifteenth of the month ( Ex 12:6 ), but the preparations were
made beforehand on the fourteenth (Thursday). See on 烘t 26:17|
for discussion of "eat the passover."

經文:

馬可福音 14:13-14:13

註釋:

 {Two of his disciples} (duo t(936e) math(8874)(936e) autou).  Lu
22:8  names them, Peter and John. {Bearing a pitcher of water}
(keramion hudatos bastaz(936e)). This item also in Luke, but not in
Matthew.

經文:

馬可福音 14:14-14:14

註釋:

 {The goodman of the house} (	(9369) oikodespot(8869)). A
non-classical word, but in late papyri. It means master
(despot) of the house, householder. The usual Greek has two
separate words, oikou despot(8873) (master of the house). {My
guest-chamber} (	o kataluma mou). In LXX, papyri, and modern
Greek for lodging-place (inn, as in  Lu 2:7  or guest-chamber as
here). It was used for khan or caravanserai. {I shall eat}
(phag(935c)). Futuristic aorist subjunctive with hopou.

經文:

馬可福音 14:15-14:15

註釋:

 {And he} (kai autos). Emphatic, and he himself. {A large
upper room} (anagaion mega). Anything above ground (g(885c)), and
particularly upstairs as here. Here and in  Lu 22:12 . Example in
Xenophon. Jesus wishes to observe this last feast with his
disciples alone, not with others as was often done. Evidently
this friend of Jesus was a man who would understand. {Furnished}
(estr(936d)enon). Perfect passive participle of str(936e)numi, state
of readiness. "Strewed with carpets, and with couches properly
spread" (Vincent).

經文:

馬可福音 14:17-14:17

註釋:

 {He cometh} (erchetai). Dramatic historical present. It
is assumed here that Jesus is observing the passover meal at the
regular time and hour, at 6 P.M. at the beginning of the
fifteenth (evening of our Thursday, beginning of Jewish Friday).
Mark and Matthew note the time as evening and state it as the
regular passover meal.

經文:

馬可福音 14:18-14:18

註釋:

 {As they sat} (anakeimen(936e) aut(936e)). Reclined, of course.
It is a pity that these verbs are not translated properly in
English. Even Leonardo da Vinci in his immortal painting of the
Last Supper has Jesus and his apostles sitting, not reclining.
Probably he took an artist's license for effect. {Even he that
eateth with me} (ho esthi(936e) met' emou). See  Ps 4:9 . To this
day the Arabs will not violate hospitality by mistreating one who
breaks bread with them in the tent.

經文:

馬可福音 14:20-14:20

註釋:

 {One of the twelve} (heis t(936e) d(9364)eka). It is as bad as
that. The sign that Jesus gave, {the one dipping in the dish with
me} (ho embaptomenos met' emou eis to trublion), escaped the
notice of all. Jesus gave the sop to Judas who understood
perfectly that Jesus knew his purpose. See on 烘t 26:21-24| for
further details.

經文:

馬可福音 14:23-14:23

註釋:

 {A cup} (pot(8872)ion). Probably the ordinary wine of the
country mixed with two-thirds water, though the word for wine
(oinos) is not used here in the Gospels, but "the fruit of the
vine" (ek tou gen(886d)atos t(8873) ampelou). See  Mt 26:26-29  for
discussion of important details. Mark and Matthew give
substantially the same account of the institution of the Supper
by Jesus, while  Lu 22:17-20  agrees closely with  1Co 11:23-26 
where Paul claims to have obtained his account by direct
revelation from the Lord Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 14:26-14:26

註釋:

 {Sung a hymn} (humn(8873)antes). See  Mt 26:30  for
discussion.

經文:

馬可福音 14:29-14:29

註釋:

 {Yet will not I} (all' ouk eg(935c)). Mark records here
Peter's boast of loyalty even though all desert him. All the
Gospels tell it. See discussion on 烘t 26:33|.

經文:

馬可福音 14:30-14:30

註釋:

 {Twice} (dis). This detail only in Mark. One crowing is
always the signal for more. The Fayum papyrus agrees with Mark in
having dis. The cock-crowing marks the third watch of the night
( Mr 13:35 ).

經文:

馬可福音 14:31-14:31

註釋:

 {Exceeding vehemently} (ekperiss(9373)). This strong
compounded adverb only in Mark and probably preserves Peter's own
statement of the remark. About the boast of Peter see on 烘t
26:35|.

經文:

馬可福音 14:32-14:32

註釋:

 {Which was named} (hou to onoma). Literally, "whose name
was." On Gethsemane see on 烘t 26:36|. {While I pray} (he(9373)
proseux(936d)ai). Aorist subjunctive with he(9373) really with purpose
involved, a common idiom. Matthew adds "go yonder" (apelth(936e)
ekei).

經文:

馬可福音 14:33-14:33

註釋:

 {Greatly amazed and sore troubled} (ekthambeisthai kai
ad(886d)onein).  Mt 26:37  has "sorrowful and sore troubled." See on
Matt. about ad(886d)onein. Mark alone uses exthambeisthai (here
and in  9:15 ). There is a papyrus example given by Moulton and
Milligan's _Vocabulary_. The verb 	hambe(935c) occurs in  Mr 10:32 
for the amazement of the disciples at the look of Jesus as he
went toward Jerusalem. Now Jesus himself feels amazement as he
directly faces the struggle in the Garden of Gethsemane. He wins
the victory over himself in Gethsemane and then he can endure the
loss, despising the shame. For the moment he is rather amazed and
homesick for heaven. "Long as He had foreseen the Passion, when
it came clearly into view its terror exceeded His anticipations"
(Swete). "He learned from what he suffered," ( Heb 5:8 ) and this
new experience enriched the human soul of Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 14:35-14:35

註釋:

 {Fell on the ground} (epipten epi t(8873) g(8873)). Descriptive
imperfect. See him falling. Matthew has the aorist epesen.
{Prayed} (pros(8875)cheto). Imperfect, prayed repeatedly or
inchoative, began to pray. Either makes good sense. {The hour}
(h(8820)h(9372)a). Jesus had long looked forward to this "hour" and had
often mentioned it ( Joh 7:30  8:20  12:23,27  13:1 ). See again
in  Mr 14:41 . Now he dreads it, surely a human trait that all
can understand.

經文:

馬可福音 14:36-14:36

註釋:

 {Abba, Father} (Abba ho pat(8872)). Both Aramaic and Greek
and the article with each. This is not a case of translation, but
the use of both terms as is  Ga 4:6 , a probable memory of Paul's
childhood prayers. About "the cup" see on 烘t 26:39|. It is not
possible to take the language of Jesus as fear that he might die
before he came to the Cross. He was heard ( Heb 5:7f. ) and
helped to submit to the Father's will as he does instantly. {Not
what I will} (ou ti eg(9320)thel(935c)). Matthew has "as" (h(9373)). We
see the humanity of Jesus in its fulness both in the Temptations
and in Gethsemane, but without sin each time. And this was the
severest of all the temptations, to draw back from the Cross. The
victory over self brought surrender to the Father's will.

經文:

馬可福音 14:37-14:37

註釋:

 {Simon, sleepest thou?} (Sim(936e), katheudeis;). The old
name, not the new name, Peter. Already his boasted loyalty was
failing in the hour of crisis. Jesus fully knows the weakness of
human flesh (see on 烘t 26:41|).

經文:

馬可福音 14:40-14:40

註釋:

 {Very heavy} (katabarunomenoi). Perfective use of kata-
with the participle. Matthew has the simple verb. Mark's word is
only here in the N.T. and is rare in Greek writers. Mark has the
vivid present passive participle, while Matthew has the perfect
passive ebar(886d)enoi. {And they wist not what to answer him}
(kai ouk (8869)deisan ti apokrith(9373)in aut(9369)). Deliberative
subjunctive retained in the indirect question. Alone in Mark and
reminds one of the like embarrassment of these same three
disciples on the Mount of Transfiguration ( Mr 9:6 ). On both
occasions weakness of the flesh prevented their real sympathy
with Jesus in his highest and deepest experiences. "Both their
shame and their drowsiness would make them dumb" (Gould).

經文:

馬可福音 14:41-14:41

註釋:

 {It is enough} (apechei). Alone in Mark. This impersonal
use is rare and has puzzled expositors no little. The papyri
(Deissmann's _Light from the Ancient East_ and Moulton and
Milligan's _Vocabulary_) furnish many examples of it as a receipt
for payment in full. See also  Mt 6:2ff.  Lu 6:24  Php 4:18  for
the notion of paying in full. It is used here by Jesus in an
ironical sense, probably meaning that there was no need of
further reproof of the disciples for their failure to watch with
him. "This is no time for a lengthened exposure of the faults of
friends; the enemy is at the gate" (Swete). See further on 烘t
26:45| for the approach of Judas.

經文:

馬可福音 14:43-14:43

註釋:

 {And the scribes} (kai t(936e) grammate(936e)). Mark adds this
item while  Joh 18:3  mentions "Pharisees." It was evidently a
committee of the Sanhedrin for Judas had made his bargain with
the Sanhedrin ( Mr 14:1  Mt 26:3  Lu 22:2 ). See discussion of
the betrayal and arrest on 烘t 26:47-56| for details.

經文:

馬可福音 14:44-14:44

註釋:

 {Token} (suss(886d)on). A common word in the ancient Greek
for a concerted signal according to agreement. It is here only in
the New Testament.  Mt 26:48  has s(886d)eion, sign. The signal was
the kiss by Judas, a contemptible desecration of a friendly
salutation. {And lead him away safely} (kai apagete asphal(9373)).
Only in Mark. Judas wished no slip to occur. Mark and Matthew do
not tell of the falling back upon the ground when Jesus
challenged the crowd with Judas. It is given by John alone ( Joh
18:4-9 ).

經文:

馬可福音 14:47-14:47

註釋:

 {A certain one} (heis tis). Mark does not tell that it
was Peter. Only  Joh 18:10  does that after Peter's death. He
really tried to kill the man, Malchus by name, as John again
tells ( Joh 18:10 ). Mark does not give the rebuke to Peter by
Jesus in  Mt 26:52ff .

經文:

馬可福音 14:48-14:48

註釋:

 {Against a robber} (epi l(8869)st(886e)). Highway robbers like
Barabbas were common and were often regarded as heroes. Jesus
will be crucified between two robbers in the very place that
Barabbas would have occupied.

經文:

馬可福音 14:51-14:51

註釋:

 {A certain young man} (
eaniskos tis). This incident
alone in Mark. It is usually supposed that Mark himself, son of
Mary ( Ac 12:12 ) in whose house they probably had observed the
passover meal, had followed Jesus and the apostles to the Garden.
It is a lifelike touch quite in keeping with such a situation.
Here after the arrest he was following with Jesus (sun(886b)olouthei
aut(9369), imperfect tense). Note the vivid dramatic present
kratousin (they seize him).

經文:

馬可福音 14:52-14:52

註釋:

 {Linen cloth} (sindona). An old Greek word of unknown
origin. It was fine linen cloth used often for wrapping the dead
( Mt 27:59  Mr 15:46  Lu 23:53 ). In this instance it could have
been a fine sheet or even a shirt.

經文:

馬可福音 14:54-14:54

註釋:

 {Peter had followed him afar off} (Ho Petros apo makrothen
(886b)olouth(8873)en aut(9369)). Here Mark uses the constative aorist
((886b)olouth(8873)en) where  Mt 26:58 , and  Lu 22:54  have the
picturesque imperfect ((886b)olouthei), was following. Possibly
Mark did not care to dwell on the picture of Peter furtively
following at a distance, not bold enough to take an open stand
with Christ as the Beloved Disciple did, and yet unable to remain
away with the other disciples. {Was sitting with} ((886e)
sunkath(886d)enos). Periphrastic imperfect middle, picturing Peter
making himself at home with the officers (hup(8872)et(936e)), under
rowers, literally, then servants of any kind.  Joh 18:25 
describes Peter as standing (hest(9373)). Probably he did now one,
now the other, in his restless weary mood. {Warming himself in
the light} (	hermainomenos pr(9373) to ph(9373)). Direct middle. Fire
has light as well as heat and it shone in Peter's face. He was
not hidden as much as he supposed he was.

經文:

馬可福音 14:56-14:56

註釋:

 {Their witness agreed not together} (isai hai marturiai
ouk (8873)an). Literally, the testimonies were not equal. They did
not correspond with each other on essential points. {Many were
bearing false witness} (epseudomarturoun, imperfect, repeated
action) {against him}. No two witnesses bore joint testimony to
justify a capital sentence according to the law ( De 19:15 ).
Note imperfects in these verses ( 55-57 ) to indicate repeated
failures.

經文:

馬可福音 14:57-14:57

註釋:

 {Bare false witness} (epseudomarturoun). In desperation
some attempted once more (conative imperfect).

經文:

馬可福音 14:58-14:58

註釋:

 {Made with hands} (cheiropoi(8874)on). In Mark alone. An old
Greek word. The negative form acheiropoi(8874)on here occurs
elsewhere only in  2Co 5:1  Col 2:11 . In  Heb 9:11  the negative
ou is used with the positive form. It is possible that a real
logion of Jesus underlies the perversion of it here. Mark and
Matthew do not quote the witnesses precisely alike. Perhaps they
quoted Jesus differently and therein is shown part of the
disagreement, for Mark adds verse  59  (not in Matthew). "And not
even so did their witness agree together," repeating the point of
verse  57 . Swete observes that Jesus, as a matter of fact, did
do what he is quoted as saying in Mark: "He said what the event
has proved to be true; His death destroyed the old order, and His
resurrection created the new." But these witnesses did not mean
that by what they said. The only saying of Jesus at all like this
preserved to us is that in  Joh 2:19 , when he referred not to
the temple in Jerusalem, but to the temple of his body, though no
one understood it at the time.

經文:

馬可福音 14:60-14:60

註釋:

 {Stood up in the midst} (anastas eis meson). Second
aorist active participle. For greater solemnity he arose to make
up by bluster the lack of evidence. The high priest stepped out
into the midst as if to attack Jesus by vehement questions. See
on 烘t 26:59-68| for details here.

經文:

馬可福音 14:61-14:61

註釋:

 {And answered nothing} (kai ouk apekrinato ouden). Mark
adds the negative statement to the positive "kept silent"
(esi(9370)(835c)), imperfect, also in Matthew. Mark does not give the
solemn oath in Matthew under which Jesus had to answer. See on
Matthew.

經文:

馬可福音 14:62-14:62

註釋:

 {I am} (ego eimi). Matthew has it, "Thou hast said,"
which is the equivalent of the affirmative. But Mark's statement
is definite beyond controversy. See on 烘t 26:64-68| for the
claims of Jesus and the conduct of Caiaphas.

經文:

馬可福音 14:64-14:64

註釋:

 {They all} (hoi de pantes). This would mean that Joseph
of Arimathea was not present since he did not consent to the
death of Jesus ( Lu 23:51 ). Nicodemus was apparently absent
also, probably not invited because of previous sympathy with
Jesus ( Joh 7:50 ). But all who were present voted for the death
of Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 14:65-14:65

註釋:

 {Cover his face} (perikaluptein autou to pros(9370)on). Put a
veil around his face. Not in Matthew, but in  Lu 22:64  where
Revised Version translates perikalupsantes by "blind-folded."
All three Gospels give the jeering demand of the Sanhedrin:
"Prophesy" (proph(8874)euson), meaning, as Matthew and Luke add,
thereby telling who struck him while he was blindfolded. Mark
adds "the officers" (same as in verse  54 ) of the Sanhedrin,
Roman lictors or sergeants-at-arms who had arrested Jesus in
Gethsemane and who still held Jesus (hoi sunechontes auton,  Lu
22:63 ).  Mt 26:67  alludes to their treatment of Jesus without
clearly indicating who they were. {With blows of their hands}
(
apismasin). The verb 
apiz(935c) in  Mt 26:67  originally meant
to smite with a rod. In late writers it comes to mean to slap the
face with the palm of the hands. The same thing is true of the
substantive 
apisma used here. A papyrus of the sixth century
A.D. uses it in the sense of a scar on the face as the result of
a blow. It is in the instrumental case here. "They caught him
with blows," Swete suggests for the unusual elabon in this
sense. "With rods" is, of course, possible as the lictors carried
rods. At any rate it was a gross indignity.

經文:

馬可福音 14:66-14:66

註釋:

 {Beneath in the court} (kat(9320)en t(8869) aul(8869)). This implies
that Jesus was upstairs when the Sanhedrin met.  Mt 22:69  has it
{without in the court} (ex(9320)en t(8869) aul(8869)). Both are true. The
open court was outside of the rooms and also below.

經文:

馬可福音 14:67-14:67

註釋:

 {Warming himself} (	hermainomenon). Mark mentions this
fact about Peter twice ( 14:54,67 ) as does John ( Joh
18:18,25 ). He was twice beside the fire. It is quite difficult
to relate clearly the three denials as told in the Four Gospels.
Each time several may have joined in, both maids and men. {The
Nazarene} (	ou Nazar(886e)ou). In  Mt 26:69  it is "the Galilean."
A number were probably speaking, one saying one thing, another
another.

經文:

馬可福音 14:68-14:68

註釋:

 {I neither know nor understand} (oute oida oute
epistamai). This denial is fuller in Mark, briefest in John.
{What thou sayest} (su ti legeis). Can be understood as a
direct question. Note position of {thou} (su), proleptical.
{Into the porch} (eis to proaulion). Only here in the New
Testament. Plato uses it of a prelude on a flute. It occurs also
in the plural for preparations the day before the wedding. Here
it means the vestibule to the court.  Mt 26:71  has pul(936e)a, a
common word for gate or front porch. {And the cock crew} (kai
alekt(9372) eph(936e)(8873)en). Omitted by Aleph B L Sinaitic Syriac. It is
genuine in verse  72  where "the second time" (ek deuterou)
occurs also. It is possible that because of verse  72  it crept
into verse  68 . Mark alone alludes to the cock crowing twice,
originally ( Mr 14:30 ), and twice in verse  72 , besides verse
 68  which is hardly genuine.

經文:

馬可福音 14:69-14:69

註釋:

 {To them that stood by} (	ois parest(9373)in). This talk
about Peter was overheard by him. "This fellow (houtos) is one
of them." So in verse  70  the talk is directly to Peter as in
 Mt 26:73 , but in  Lu 22:59  it is about him. Soon the
bystanders (hoi parest(9374)es) will join in the accusation to
Peter (verse  70  Mt 26:73 ), with the specially pungent question
in  Joh 18:26  which was the climax. See on 烘t 26:69-75| for
discussion of similar details.

經文:

馬可福音 14:71-14:71

註釋:

 {Curse} (anathematizein). Our word _anathema_ (ana,
thema, an offering, then something devoted or a curse). Finally
the two meanings were distinguished by anath(886d)a for offering
and anathema for curse. Deissmann has found examples at Megara
of anathema in the sense of curse. Hence the distinction
observed in the N.T. was already in the _Koin(825f).   Mt 26:74  has
katathematizein, which is a hapax legomenon in the N.T.,
though common in the LXX. This word has the notion of calling
down curses on one's self if the thing is not true.

經文:

馬可福音 14:72-14:72

註釋:

 {Called to mind} (anemn(8873)th(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative.  Mt 26:75  has the uncompounded verb emn(8873)th(885c) while
 Lu 22:61  has another compound hupemn(8873)th(885c), was reminded.
{When he thought thereon} (epibal(936e)). Second aorist active
participle of epiball(935c). It is used absolutely here, though
there is a reference to 	o rh(886d)a above, the word of Jesus, and
the idiom involves 	on noun so that the meaning is to put the
mind upon something. In  Lu 15:12  there is another absolute use
with a different sense. Moulton (_Prolegomena_, p. 131) quotes a
Ptolemaic papyrus Tb P 50 where epibal(936e) probably means "set
to," put his mind on. {Wept} (eklaien). Inchoative imperfect,
began to weep.  Mt 26:75  has the ingressive aorist eklausen,
burst into tears.

經文:

馬可福音 15:1-15:1

註釋:

 {In the morning} (pr(9369)). The ratification meeting after
day. See on 烘t 26:1-5| for details. {Held a consultation}
(sumboulion poi(8873)antes). So text of Westcott and Hort (Vulgate
_consilium facientes_), though they give hetoimasantes in the
margin. The late and rare word sumboulion is like the Latin
_consilium_. If hetoimasantes is the correct text, the idea
would be rather to prepare a concerted plan of action (Gould).
But their action was illegal on the night before and they felt
the need of this ratification after dawn which is described in
 Lu 22:66-71 , who does not give the illegal night trial. {Bound
Jesus} (d(8873)antes ton I(8873)oun). He was bound on his arrest ( Joh
18:12 ) when brought before Annas who sent him on bound to
Caiaphas ( Joh 18:24 ) and now he is bound again as he is sent to
Pilate ( Mr 15:1  Mt 27:2 ). It is implied that he was unbound
while before Annas and then before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin.

經文:

馬可福音 15:2-15:2

註釋:

 {Art thou the King of the Jews?} (Su ei ho basileus t(936e)
Ioudai(936e);). This is the only one of the charges made by the
Sanhedrin to Pilate ( Lu 23:2 ) that he notices. He does not
believe this one to be true, but he has to pay attention to it or
be liable to charges himself of passing over a man accused of
rivalry and revolution against Caesar.  Joh 18:28-32  gives the
interview with Jesus that convinces Pilate that he is a harmless
religious fanatic. See on 烘t 26:11|. {Thou sayest} (su
legeis). An affirmation, though in  Joh 18:34-37  there is a
second and fuller interview between Pilate and Jesus. "Here, as
in the trial before the Sanhedrin, this is the one question that
Jesus answers. It is the only question on which his own testimony
is important and necessary" (Gould). The Jews were out on the
pavement or sidewalk outside the palace while Pilate came out to
them from above on the balcony ( Joh 18:28f. ) and had his
interviews with Jesus on the inside, calling Jesus thither ( Joh
18:33 ).

經文:

馬可福音 15:3-15:3

註釋:

 {Accused him of many things} (kat(8867)oroun autou polla).
Imperfect tense, repeated accusations besides those already made.
They let loose their venom against Jesus. One of the common verbs
for speaking against in court (kata and agoreu(935c)). It is used
with the genitive of the person and the accusative of the thing.

經文:

馬可福音 15:5-15:5

註釋:

 {Marvelled} (	haumazein). Pilate was sure of the innocence
of Jesus and saw through their envy ( Mr 15:10 ), but he was
hoping that Jesus would answer these charges to relieve him of
the burden. He marvelled also at the self-control of Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 15:6-15:6

註釋:

 {Used to release} (apeluen). Imperfect tense of customary
action where  Mt 27:15  has the verb ei(9374)hei (was accustomed
to). {They asked of him} (par(8869)tounto). Imperfect middle,
expressing their habit also.

經文:

馬可福音 15:7-15:7

註釋:

 {Bound with them that had made insurrection} (meta t(936e)
stasiast(936e) dedemenos). A desperate criminal, leader in the
insurrection, sedition (en t(8869) stasei), or revolution against
Rome, the very thing that the Jews up at Bethsaida Julias had
wanted Jesus to lead ( Joh 6:15 ). Barabbas was the leader of
these rioters and was bound with them. {Had committed murder}
(phonon pepoi(886b)eisan). Past perfect indicative without augment.
Murder usually goes with such rioters and the priests and people
actually chose a murderer in preference to Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 15:8-15:8

註釋:

 {As he was wont to do unto them} (kath(9373) epoiei autois).
Imperfect of customary action again and dative case.

經文:

馬可福音 15:9-15:9

註釋:

 {The King of the Jews} (	on basilea t(936e) Ioudai(936e)). That
phrase from this charge sharpened the contrast between Jesus and
Barabbas which is bluntly put in  Mt 27:17  "Barabbas or Jesus
which is called Christ." See discussion there.

經文:

馬可福音 15:10-15:10

註釋:

 {He perceived} (egin(9373)ken). Imperfect tense descriptive
of Pilate's growing apprehension from their conduct which
increased his intuitive impression at the start. It was gradually
dawning on him. Both Mark and Matthew give "envy" (phthonon) as
the primary motive of the Sanhedrin. Pilate probably had heard of
the popularity of Jesus by reason of the triumphal entry and the
temple teaching. {Had delivered} (paraded(936b)eisan). Past perfect
indicative without augment where  Mt 27:18  has the first aorist
(kappa aorist) indicative pared(936b)an, not preserving the
distinction made by Mark. The aorist is never used "as" a past
perfect.

經文:

馬可福音 15:11-15:11

註釋:

 {Stirred up} (aneseisan). {Shook up} like an earthquake
(seismos).  Mt 27:20  has a weaker word, "persuaded"
(epeisan). Effective aorist indicative. The priests and scribes
had amazing success. If one wonders why the crowd was fickle, he
may recall that this was not yet the same people who followed him
in triumphal entry and in the temple. That was the plan of Judas
to get the thing over before those Galilean sympathizers waked
up. "It was a case of regulars against an irregular, of priests
against prophet" (Gould). "But Barabbas, as described by Mark,
represented a popular passion, which was stronger than any
sympathy they might have for so unworldly a character as
Jesus--the passion for _political liberty_" (Bruce). "What
unprincipled characters they were! They accuse Jesus to Pilate of
political ambition, and they recommend Barabbas to the people for
the same reason" (Bruce). The Sanhedrin would say to the people
that Jesus had already abdicated his kingly claims while to
Pilate they went on accusing him of treason to Caesar. {Rather}
(_m(836c)lon_). Rather than Jesus. It was a gambler's choice.

經文:

馬可福音 15:12-15:12

註釋:

 {Whom ye call the King of the Jews} (hon legete ton
basilea t(936e) Ioudai(936e)). Pilate rubs it in on the Jews (cf. verse
 9 ). The "then" (oun) means since you have chosen Barabbas
instead of Jesus.

經文:

馬可福音 15:13-15:13

註釋:

 {Crucify him} (Staur(9373)on auton).  Lu 23:21  repeats the
verb.  Mt 27:22  has it, "Let him be crucified." There was a
chorus and a hubbub of confused voices all demanding crucifixion
for Christ. Some of the voices beyond a doubt had joined in the
hallelujahs to the Son of David in the triumphal entry. See on
烘t 27:23| for discussion of  Mr 15:14 .

經文:

馬可福音 15:15-15:15

註釋:

 {To content the multitude} (	(9369) ochl(9369) to hikanon
poi(8873)ai). A Latin idiom (_satisfacere alicui_), to do what is
sufficient to remove one's ground of complaint. This same phrase
occurs in Polybius, Appian, Diogenes Laertes, and in late papyri.
Pilate was afraid of this crowd now completely under the control
of the Sanhedrin. He knew what they would tell Caesar about him.
See on 烘t 27:26| for discussion of the scourging.

經文:

馬可福音 15:16-15:16

註釋:

 {The Praetorium} (prait(9372)ion). In  Mt 27:27  this same
word is translated "palace." That is its meaning here also, the
palace in which the Roman provincial governor resided. In  Php
1:13  it means the Praetorian Guard in Rome. Mark mentions here
"the court" (	(8873) aul(8873)) inside of the palace into which the
people passed from the street through the vestibule. See further
on Matthew about the "band."

經文:

馬可福音 15:17-15:17

註釋:

 {Purple} (porphuran).  Mt 27:28  has "scarlet robe" which
see for discussion as well as for the crown of thorns.

經文:

馬可福音 15:19-15:19

註釋:

 {Worshipped him} (prosekunoun). In mockery. Imperfect
tense as are etupton (smote) and eneptuon (did spit upon).
Repeated indignities.

經文:

馬可福音 15:20-15:20

註釋:

 {They lead him out} (exagousin auton). Vivid historical
present after imperfects in verse  19 .

經文:

馬可福音 15:21-15:21

註釋:

 {They compel} (aggareuousin). Dramatic present indicative
again where  Mt 27:32  has the aorist. For this Persian word see
on 烘t 5:41; 27:32|. {Coming out of the country} (erchomenon ap'
agrou). Hence Simon met the procession. Mark adds that he was
"the father of Alexander and Rufus." Paul mentions a Rufus in  Ro
16:13 , but it was a common name and proves nothing. See on 烘t
27:32| for discussion of cross-bearing by criminals. Luke adds
"after Jesus" (opisthen tou I(8873)ou). But Jesus bore his own
cross till he was relieved of it, and he walked in front of his
own cross for the rest of the way.

經文:

馬可福音 15:22-15:22

註釋:

 {They bring him} (pherousin auton). Historical present
again. See on 烘t 27:33f.| for discussion of Golgotha.

經文:

馬可福音 15:23-15:23

註釋:

 {They offered him} (edidoun aut(9369)). Imperfect tense where
Matthew has the aorist ed(936b)an. {Mingled with myrrh}
(esmurnismenon). Perfect passive participle. The verb means
flavoured with myrrh, myrrhed wine. It is not inconsistent with
烘t 27:34| "mingled with gall," which see. {But he received it
not} (hos de ouk elaben). Note the demonstrative hos with
de. Matthew has it that Jesus was not willing to take. Mark's
statement is that he refused it.

經文:

馬可福音 15:24-15:24

註釋:

 {What each should take} (	is ti (8372)(8869)). Only in Mark. Note
double interrogative, Who What? The verb ar(8869) is first aorist
active deliberative subjunctive retained in the indirect
question. The details in  Mr 15:24-32  are followed closely by
 Mt 27:35-44 . See there for discussion of details.

經文:

馬可福音 15:25-15:25

註釋:

 {The third hour} (h(9372)a trit(885c)). This is Jewish time and
would be nine A.M. The trial before Pilate was the sixth hour
Roman time ( Joh 19:14 ), six A.M.

經文:

馬可福音 15:26-15:26

註釋:

 {The superscription} (h(8820)epigraph(885c)). The writing upon the
top of the cross (our word epigraph).  Lu 23:38  has this same
word, but  Mt 27:37  has "accusation" (aitian). See Matthew for
discussion.  Joh 19:19  has "title" (	itlon).

經文:

馬可福音 15:32-15:32

註釋:

 {Now come down} (katabat(9320)nun). Now that he is nailed to
the cross. {That we may see and believe} (hina id(936d)en kai
pisteus(936d)en). Aorist subjunctive of purpose with hina. They
use almost the very language of Jesus in their ridicule, words
that they had heard him use in his appeals to men to see and
believe. {Reproached him} ((936e)eidizon auton). Imperfect tense.
They did it several times. Mark and Matthew both fail to give the
story of the robber who turned to Christ on the Cross as told in
 Lu 23:39-43 .

經文:

馬可福音 15:33-15:33

註釋:

 {The sixth hour} (h(9372)as hekt(8873)). That is, noon (Jewish
time), as the third hour was nine A.M. ( Mr 15:25 ). See on 烘t
27:45| for discussion. Given also by  Lu 23:44 . Mark gives the
Aramaic transliteration as does B in  Mt 27:45 , which see for
discussion. {Forsaken} (egkatelipes). Some MSS. give
(936e)eidisas (reproached). We are not able to enter into the
fulness of the desolation felt by Jesus at this moment as the
Father regarded him as sin ( 2Co 5:21 ). This desolation was the
deepest suffering. He did not cease to be the Son of God. That
would be impossible.

經文:

馬可福音 15:35-15:35

註釋:

 {He calleth Elijah} (Eleian ph(936e)ei). They misunderstood
the El(9369) or Elei (my God) for Elijah.

經文:

馬可福音 15:36-15:36

註釋:

 {To take him down} (kathelein auton).  Mt 27:49  has "to
save him" (s(9373)(936e)), which see for discussion.

經文:

馬可福音 15:37-15:37

註釋:

 {Gave up the ghost} (exepneusen). Literally, breathed
out. See "yielded up his spirit" in  Mt 27:50  for discussion for
details. Mark uses this word exepneusen again in verse  39 .

經文:

馬可福音 15:39-15:39

註釋:

 {The centurion} (ho kenturi(936e)). A Latin word (_centurio_)
used also in verse  44  and here only in the N.T. {Which stood by
over against him} (ho parest(886b)(9373) ex enantias autou). This
description alone in Mark, picturing the centurion "watching
Jesus" ( Mt 27:54 ). {So} (hout(9373)). With the darkness and the
earthquake. See on 烘t 27:54| for discussion of "the Son of God,"
more probably "a Son of God."

經文:

馬可福音 15:40-15:40

註釋:

 {And Salome} (kai Sal(936d)(885c)). Apparently the "mother of the
sons of Zebedee" ( Mt 27:56 ). Only in Mark.

經文:

馬可福音 15:41-15:41

註釋:

 {Followed him and ministered unto him} ((886b)olouthoun kai
di(886b)onoun aut(9369)). Two imperfects describing the long Galilean
ministry of these three women and many other women in Galilee
( Lu 8:1-3 ) who came up with him (hai sunanab(8373)ai aut(9369)) to
Jerusalem. This summary description in Mark is paralleled in  Mt
27:55f.  and  Lu 23:49 . These faithful women were last at the
Cross as they stood afar and saw the dreadful end to all their
hopes.

經文:

馬可福音 15:42-15:42

註釋:

 {The preparation} (paraskeu(885c)). Mark explains the term as
meaning "the day before the sabbath" (prosabbaton), that is our
Friday, which began at sunset. See discussion on 烘t 27:57|. The
Jews had already taken steps to get the bodies removed ( Joh
19:31 ).

經文:

馬可福音 15:43-15:43

註釋:

 {A councillor of honourable estate} (eusch(886d)(936e)
bouleut(8873)). A senator or member of the Sanhedrin of high
standing, rich ( Mt 27:57 ). {Looking for the Kingdom of God}
((886e) prosdechomenos t(886e) basileian tou theou). Periphrastic
imperfect. Also  Lu 23:51 . The very verb used by Luke of Simeon
and Anna ( Lu 2:25,38 ).  Mt 27:57  calls him "Jesus' disciple"
while  Joh 19:38  adds "secretly for fear of the Jews." He had
evidently taken no public stand for Jesus before now. {Boldly}
(	olm(8873)as). Aorist (ingressive) active participle, becoming
bold. It is the glory of Joseph and Nicodemus, secret disciples
of Jesus, that they took a bold stand when the rest were in
terror and dismay. That is love psychology, paradoxical as it may
seem.

經文:

馬可福音 15:44-15:44

註釋:

 {If he were already dead} (ei (8864)(8820)tethn(886b)en). Perfect
active indicative with ei after a verb of wondering, a
classical idiom, a kind of indirect question just as we say "I
wonder if." Usually death by crucifixion was lingering. This item
is only in Mark. {Whether he had been any while dead} (ei palai
apethanen). B D read (8864)(885c) (already) again here instead of
palai (a long time). Mark does not tell the request of the Jews
to Pilate that the legs of the three might be broken ( Joh
19:31-37 ). Pilate wanted to make sure that Jesus was actually
dead by official report.

經文:

馬可福音 15:45-15:45

註釋:

 {Granted the corpse} (ed(9372)(8873)ato to pt(936d)a). This official
information was necessary before the burial. As a matter of fact
Pilate was probably glad to turn the body over to Joseph else the
body would go to the potter's field. This is the only instance
when pt(936d)a (_cadaver_, corpse) is applied to the body (s(936d)a)
of Jesus, the term used in  Mt 27:59  Lu 23:53  Joh 19:40 ).

經文:

馬可福音 15:46-15:46

註釋:

 {Wound} (eneil(8873)en). This word is only here in the N.T.
As entuliss(935c) is only in  Mt 27:59  Lu 23:53  Joh 20:7 . Both
verbs occur in the papyri, Plutarch, etc. They both mean to wrap,
wind, roll in. The body of Jesus was wound in the linen cloth
bought by Joseph and the hundred pounds of spices brought by
Nicodemus ( Joh 19:39 ) for burying were placed in the folds of
the linen and the linen was bound around the body by strips of
cloth ( Joh 19:40 ). The time was short before the sabbath began
and these two reverently laid the body of the Master in Joseph's
new tomb, hewn out of a rock. The perfect passive participle
(lelatom(886d)enon) is from latomos, a stonecutter (l(9373), stone,
	emn(935c), to cut). For further details see on 烘t 27:57-60|.  Lu
23:53  and  Joh 19:41  also tell of the new tomb of Joseph. Some
modern scholars think that this very tomb has been identified in
Gordon's Calvary north of the city. {Against the door} (epi t(886e)
thuran). Matthew has the dative 	(8869) thur(8369) without epi and
adds the adjective "great" (megan).

經文:

馬可福音 15:47-15:47

註釋:

 {Beheld} (ethe(9372)oun). Imperfect tense picturing the two
Marys "sitting over against the sepulchre" ( Mt 27:61 ) and
watching in silence as the shadows fell upon all their hopes and
dreams. Apparently these two remained after the other women who
had been beholding from afar the melancholy end ( Mr 15:40 ) had
left and "were watching the actions of Joseph and Nicodemus"
(Swete). Probably also they saw the body of Jesus carried and
hence they knew where it was laid and saw that it remained there
(	etheitai, perfect passive indicative, state of completion).
"It is evident that they constituted themselves a party of
observation" (Gould).




經文:

馬可福音 16:1-16:1

註釋:

 {When the sabbath was past} (diagenomenou tou sabbatou).
Genitive absolute, the sabbath having come in between, and now
over. For this sense of the verb (common from Demosthenes on) see
 Ac 25:13  27:9 . It was therefore after sunset. {Bought spices}
((8867)orasan ar(936d)ata). As Nicodemus did on the day of the burial
( Joh 19:40 ). Gould denies that the Jews were familiar with the
embalming process of Egypt, but at any rate it was to be a
reverential anointing (hina aleips(9373)in) of the body of Jesus
with spices. They could buy them after sundown. Salome in the
group again as in  Mr 15:40 . See on 烘t 28:1| for discussion of
"late on the sabbath day" and the visit of the women to the tomb
before sundown. They had returned from the tomb after the
watching late Friday afternoon and had prepared spices ( Lu
23:56 ). Now they secured a fresh supply.

經文:

馬可福音 16:2-16:2

註釋:

 {When the sun was risen} (anateilantos tou h(886c)iou).
Genitive absolute, aorist participle, though some manuscripts
read anatellontos, present participle.  Lu 24:1  has it "at
early dawn" (orthrou batheos) and  Joh 20:1  "while it was yet
dark." It was some two miles from Bethany to the tomb. Mark
himself gives both notes of time, "very early" (lian pr(9369)),
"when the sun was risen." Probably they started while it was
still dark and the sun was coming up when they arrived at the
tomb. All three mention that it was on the first day of the week,
our Sunday morning when the women arrive. The body of Jesus was
buried late on Friday before the sabbath (our Saturday) which
began at sunset. This is made clear as a bell by  Lu 23:54  "and
the sabbath drew on." The women rested on the sabbath ( Luke
23:56 ). This visit of the women was in the early morning of our
Sunday, the first day of the week. Some people are greatly
disturbed over the fact that Jesus did not remain in the grave
full seventy-two hours. But he repeatedly said that he would rise
on the third day and that is precisely what happened. He was
buried on Friday afternoon. He was risen on Sunday morning. If he
had really remained in the tomb full three days and then had
risen after that, it would have been on the fourth day, not on
the third day. The occasional phrase "after three days" is merely
a vernacular idiom common in all languages and not meant to be
exact and precise like "on the third day." We can readily
understand "after three days" in the sense of "on the third day."
It is impossible to understand "on the third day" to be "on the
fourth day." See my _Harmony of the Gospels_, pp. 289-91.

經文:

馬可福音 16:3-16:3

註釋:

 {Who shall roll us away the stone?} (Tis apokulisei h(886d)in
ton lithon;). Alone in Mark. The opposite of proskuli(935c) in
 15:46 . In verse  4  {rolled back} (anekekulistai, perfect
passive indicative) occurs also. Both verbs occur in _Koin(825f)
writers and in the papyri. Clearly the women have no hope of the
resurrection of Jesus for they were raising the problem
(elegon, imperfect) as they walked along.

經文:

馬可福音 16:4-16:4

註釋:

 {Looking up they see} (anablepsasai the(9372)ousin). With
downcast eyes and heavy hearts (Bruce) they had been walking up
the hill. Mark has his frequent vivid dramatic present "behold."
Their problem is solved for the stone lies rolled back before
their very eyes.  Lu 24:2  has the usual aorist "found." {For}
(gar). Mark explains by the size of the stone this sudden and
surprising sight right before their eyes.

經文:

馬可福音 16:5-16:5

註釋:

 {Entering into the tomb} (eiselthousai eis to mn(886d)eion).
Told also by  Lu 24:3 , though not by Matthew. {A young man}
(
eaniskon). An angel in  Mt 28:5 , two men in  Lu 24 . These
and like variations in details show the independence of the
narrative and strengthen the evidence for the general fact of the
resurrection. The angel sat upon the stone ( Mt 28:2 ), probably
at first. Mark here speaks of the young man {sitting on the right
side} (kath(886d)enon en tois dexiois) inside the tomb. Luke has
the two men standing by them on the inside ( Luke 24:4 ).
Possibly different aspects and stages of the incident. {Arrayed
in a white robe} (peribebl(886d)enon stol(886e) leuk(886e)). Perfect
passive participle with the accusative case of the thing retained
(verb of clothing).  Lu 24:4  has "in dazzling apparel." {They
were amazed} (exethamb(8874)h(8873)an). They were utterly (ex in
composition) amazed.  Lu 24:5  has it "affrighted."  Mt 28:3f. 
tells more of the raiment white as snow which made the watchers
quake and become as dead men. But this was before the arrival of
the women. Mark, like Matthew and Luke, does not mention the
sudden departure of Mary Magdalene to tell Peter and John of the
grave robbery as she supposed ( Joh 20:1-10 ).

經文:

馬可福音 16:6-16:6

註釋:

 {Be not amazed} (m(8820)ekthambeisthe). The angel noted their
amazement (verse  5 ) and urges the cessation of it using this
very word. {The Nazarene} (	on Nazar(886e)on). Only in Mark, to
identify "Jesus" to the women. {The crucified one} (	on
estaur(936d)enon). This also in  Mt 28:5 . This description of his
shame has become his crown of glory, for Paul ( Gal 6:14 ), and
for all who look to the Crucified and Risen Christ as Saviour and
Lord. He is risen ((8867)erth(885c)). First aorist passive indicative,
the simple fact. In  1Co 15:4  Paul uses the perfect passive
indicative eg(8867)ertai to emphasize the permanent state that
Jesus remains risen. {Behold the place} (ide ho topos). Here
ide is used as an interjection with no effect on the case
(nominative). In  Mt 28:6  idete is the verb with the
accusative. See Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 302.

經文:

馬可福音 16:7-16:7

註釋:

 {And Peter} (kai t(9369) Petr(9369)). Only in Mark, showing that
Peter remembered gratefully this special message from the Risen
Christ. Later in the day Jesus will appear also to Peter, an
event that changed doubt to certainty with the apostles ( Lu
24:34  1Co 15:5 ). See on 烘t 28:7| for discussion of promised
meeting in Galilee.

經文:

馬可福音 16:8-16:8

註釋:

 {Had come upon them} (eichen autas). Imperfect tense, more
exactly, {held them, was holding them fast}. {Trembling and
astonishment} (	romos kai ekstasis, trembling and ecstasy),
Mark has it, while  Mt 28:8  has "with fear and great joy" which
see for discussion. Clearly and naturally their emotions were
mixed. {They said nothing to any one} (oudeni ouden eipan).
This excitement was too great for ordinary conversation.  Mt
28:8  notes that they "ran to bring his disciples word." Hushed
to silence their feet had wings as they flew on. {For they were
afraid} (ephobounto gar). Imperfect tense. The continued fear
explains their continued silence. At this point Aleph and B, the
two oldest and best Greek manuscripts of the New Testament, stop
with this verse. Three Armenian MSS. also end here. Some
documents (cursive 274 and Old Latin k) have a shorter ending
than the usual long one. The great mass of the documents have the
long ending seen in the English versions. Some have both the long
and the short endings, like L, Psi, 0112, 099, 579, two Bohairic
MSS; the Harklean Syriac (long one in the text, short one in the
Greek margin). One Armenian MS. (at Edschmiadzin) gives the long
ending and attributes it to Ariston (possibly the Aristion of
Papias). W (the Washington Codex) has an additional verse in the
long ending. So the facts are very complicated, but argue
strongly against the genuineness of verses  9-20  of Mark 16.
There is little in these verses not in  Mt 28 . It is difficult
to believe that Mark ended his Gospel with verse  8  unless he
was interrupted. A leaf or column may have been torn off at the
end of the papyrus roll. The loss of the ending was treated in
various ways. Some documents left it alone. Some added one
ending, some another, some added both. A full discussion of the
facts is found in the last chapter of my _Studies in Mark's
Gospel_ and also in my _Introduction to the Textual Criticism of
the New Testament_, pp. 214-16.

經文:

馬可福音 16:9-16:9

註釋:

 {When he had risen early on the first day of the week}
(anastas pr(9369) pr(9374)(8869) sabbatou). It is probable that this note
of time goes with "risen" (anastas), though it makes good sense
with "appeared" (ephan(885c)). Jesus is not mentioned by name here,
though he is clearly the one meant. Mark uses mia in verse  2 ,
but pr(9374)(885c) in  14:12  and the plural sabbat(936e) in verse  2 ,
though the singular here. {First} (pr(9374)on). Definite statement
that Jesus {appeared} (ephan(885c)) to Mary Magdalene first of all.
The verb ephan(885c) (second aorist passive of phain(935c)) is here
alone of the Risen Christ (cf. Eleias ephan(885c),  Lu 9:8 ), the
usual verb being (9370)hth(885c) ( Lu 24:34  1Co 15:5ff. ). {From whom}
(par' h(8873)). Only instance of para with the casting out of
demons, ek being usual ( 1:25,26  5:8  7:26,29  9:25 ).
Ekbebl(886b)ei is past perfect indicative without augment. This
description of Mary Magdalene is like that in  Lu 8:2  and seems
strange in Mark at this point, described as a new character here,
though mentioned by Mark three times just before ( 15:40,47  16:1 ). The appearance to Mary Magdalene is given in full by  Joh
20:11-18 .

經文:

馬可福音 16:10-16:10

註釋:

 {She} (ekein(885c)). Only instance of this pronoun (=illa)
absolutely in Mark, though a good Greek idiom. (See  Joh 19:35 .)
See also verses  11,20 . {Went} (poreutheisa). First aorist
passive participle. Common word for going, but in Mark so far
only in  9:30  in the uncompounded form. Here also in verses
 12,15 . {Them that had been with him} (	ois met' autou
genomenois). This phrase for the disciples occurs here alone in
Mark and the other Gospels if the disciples (math(8874)ai) are
meant. All these items suggest another hand than Mark for this
closing portion. {As they mourned and wept} (penthousin kai
klaiousin). Present active participles in dative plural agreeing
with 	ois ... genomenois and describing the pathos of the
disciples in their utter bereavement and woe.

經文:

馬可福音 16:11-16:11

註釋:

 {Disbelieved} ((8870)ist(8873)an). This verb is common in the
ancient Greek, but rare in the N.T. and here again verse  16  and
nowhere else in Mark. The usual N.T. word is apeithe(935c).  Lu
24:11  uses this verb ((8870)istoun) of the disbelief of the report
of Mary Magdalene and the other women. The verb etheath(885c) (from
	hea(936d)ai) occurs only here and in verse  14  in Mark.

經文:

馬可福音 16:12-16:12

註釋:

 {After these things} (meta tauta). Only here in Mark.
Luke tells us that it was on the same day ( Lu 24:13 ). {In
another form} (en heter(8369) morph(8869)). It was not a
metamorph(9373)is or transfiguration like that described in  9:2 .
Luke explains that their eyes were holden so that they could not
recognize Jesus ( Lu 24:16 ). This matchless story appears in
full in  Lu 24:13-32 .

經文:

馬可福音 16:13-16:13

註釋:

 {Neither believed they them} (oude ekeinois episteusan).
The men fared no better than the women. But Luke's report of the
two on the way to Emmaus is to the effect that they met a hearty
welcome by them in Jerusalem ( Lu 24:33-35 ). This shows the
independence of the two narratives on this point. There was
probably an element who still discredited all the resurrection
stories as was true on the mountain in Galilee later when "some
doubted" ( Mt 28:17 ).

經文:

馬可福音 16:14-16:14

註釋:

 {To the eleven themselves} (autois tois hendeka). Both
terms, eleven and twelve ( Joh 20:24 ), occur after the death of
Judas. There were others present on this first Sunday evening
according to  Lu 24:33 . {Afterward} (husteron) is here alone
in Mark, though common in Matthew. {Upbraided} ((936e)eidisen).
They were guilty of unbelief (apistian) and hardness of heart
(skl(8872)okardian). Doubt is not necessarily a mark of
intellectual superiority. One must steer between credulity and
doubt. That problem is a vital one today in all educated circles.
Some of the highest men of science today are devout believers in
the Risen Christ. Luke explains how the disciples were upset by
the sudden appearance of Christ and were unable to believe the
evidence of their own senses ( Lu 24:38-43 ).

經文:

馬可福音 16:15-16:15

註釋:

 {To the whole creation} (p(8373)(8869) t(8869) ktisei). This
commission in Mark is probably another report of the missionary
_Magna Charta_ in  Mt 28:16-20  spoken on the mountain in
Galilee. One commission has already been given by Christ ( Joh
20:21-23 ). The third appears in  Lu 24:44-49  Ac 1:3-8 .

經文:

馬可福音 16:16-16:16

註釋:

 {And is baptized} (kai baptistheis). The omission of
{baptized} with "disbelieveth" would seem to show that Jesus does
not make baptism essential to salvation. Condemnation rests on
disbelief, not on baptism. So salvation rests on belief. Baptism
is merely the picture of the new life not the means of securing
it. So serious a sacramental doctrine would need stronger support
anyhow than this disputed portion of Mark.

經文:

馬可福音 16:17-16:17

註釋:

 {They shall speak with new tongues} (gl(9373)sais lal(8873)ousin
[kainais]). Westcott and Hort put kainais (new) in the margin.
Casting out demons we have seen in the ministry of Jesus.
Speaking with tongues comes in the apostolic era ( Ac 2:3f.  10:46  19:6  1Co 12:28  14 ).

經文:

馬可福音 16:18-16:18

註釋:

 {They shall take up serpents} (opheis arousin). Jesus had
said something like this in  Lu 10:19  and Paul was unharmed by
the serpent in Malta ( Ac 28:3f. ). {If they drink any deadly
thing} (k'an thanasimon ti pi(9373)in). This is the only N.T.
instance of the old Greek word 	hanasimos (deadly).  Jas 3:8 
has 	hanat(8870)horos, deathbearing. Bruce considers these verses
in Mark "a great lapse from the high level of Matthew's version
of the farewell words of Jesus" and holds that "taking up
venomous serpents and drinking deadly poison seem to introduce us
into the twilight of apocryphal story." The great doubt
concerning the genuineness of these verses (fairly conclusive
proof against them in my opinion) renders it unwise to take these
verses as the foundation for doctrine or practice unless
supported by other and genuine portions of the N.T.

經文:

馬可福音 16:19-16:19

註釋:

 {Was received up into heaven} (anel(886d)pth(8820)eis ton
ouranon). First aorist passive indicative. Luke gives the fact
of the Ascension twice in Gospel ( Lu 24:50f. ) and  Ac 1:9-11 .
The Ascension in Mark took place after Jesus spoke to the
disciples, not in Galilee ( 16:15-18 ), nor on the first or
second Sunday evening in Jerusalem. We should not know when it
took place nor where but for Luke who locates it on Olivet ( Lu
24:50 ) at the close of the forty days ( Ac 1:3 ) and so after
the return from Galilee ( Mt 28:16 ). {Sat down at the right hand
of God} (ekathisen ek dexi(936e) tou theou). Swete notes that the
author "passes beyond the field of history into that of
theology," an early and most cherished belief ( Ac 7:55f.  Ro
8:34  Eph 1:20  Col 3:1  Heb 1:3  8:1  10:12  12:2  1Pe 3:22  Re
3:21 ).

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