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                        THE GOSPEL OF LUKE
                      BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION

        There is not room here for a full discussion of all the
interesting problems raised by Luke as the author of the Gospel
and Acts. One can find them ably handled in the Introduction to
Plummer's volume on Luke's Gospel in the _International and
Critical Commentary_, in the Introduction to Ragg's volume on
Luke's Gospel in the _Westminster Commentaries_, in the
Introduction to Easton's _Gospel According to St. Luke_, Hayes'
_Synoptic Gospels and the Book of Acts_, Ramsay's _Luke the
Physician_, Harnack's _Date of the Acts and the Synoptic
Gospels_, Foakes-Jackson and Kirsopp Lake's _Beginnings of
Christianity_, Carpenter's _Christianity According to St. Luke_,
Cadbury's _The Making of Luke-Acts_, McLachlan's _St. Luke: The
Man and His Work_, Robertson's _Luke the Historian in the Light
of Research_, to go no further. It is a fascinating subject that
appeals to scholars of all shades of opinion.

               THE SAME AUTHOR FOR GOSPEL AND ACTS

        The author of Acts refers to the Gospel specifically as
"the first treatise," 	on pr(9374)on logon, ( Ac 1:1 ) and both are
addressed to Theophilus ( Lu 1:3  Ac 1:1 ). He speaks of himself
in both books as "me" (kamoi,  Lu 1:3 ) and {I made}
(epoi(8873)am(886e),  Ac 1:1 ). He refers to himself with others as
"we" and "us" as in  Ac 16:10 , the "we" sections of Acts. The
unity of Acts is here assumed until the authorship of Acts is
discussed in Volume III. The same style appears in Gospel and
Acts, so that the presumption is strongly in support of the
author's statement. It is quite possible that the formal
Introduction to the Gospel ( Lu 1:1-4 ) was intended to apply to
the Acts also which has only an introductory clause. Plummer
argues that to suppose that the author of Acts imitated the
Gospel purposely is to suppose a literary miracle. Even Cadbury,
who is not convinced of the Lucan authorship, says: "In my study
of Luke and Acts, their unity is a fundamental and illuminating
axiom." He adds: "They are not merely two independent writings
from the same pen; they are a single continuous work. Acts is
neither an appendix nor an afterthought. It is probably an
integral part of the author's original plan and purpose."

              THE AUTHOR OF ACTS A COMPANION OF PAUL

        The proof of this position belongs to the treatment of
Acts, but a word is needed here. The use of "we" and "us" in  Ac Ac
經文:

路加福音 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 {Forasmuch as} (epeid(8870)er). Here alone in the N.T., though
common in literary Attic. Appears in the papyri. A triple
compound (epei = since, d(885c) = admittedly true, per =
intensive particle to emphasize importance). {Many} (polloi).
How many no one knows, but certainly more than two or three. We
know that Luke used the Logia of Jesus written by Matthew in
Aramaic (Papias) and Mark's Gospel. Undoubtedly he had other
written sources. {Have taken in hand} (epecheir(8873)an). A literal
translation of epicheire(935c) (from cheir, hand and epi, upon).
Both Hippocrates and Galen use this word in their introduction to
their medical works. Here only in the N.T., though a common
literary word. Common in the papyri for undertaking with no idea
of failure or blame. Luke does not mean to cast reflection on
those who preceded him. The apocryphal gospels were all much
later and are not in his mind. Luke had secured fuller
information and planned a book on a larger scale and did surpass
them with the result that they all perished save Mark's Gospel
and what Matthew and Luke possess of the Logia of Jesus. There
was still room for Luke's book. That motive influences every
author and thus progress is made. {To draw up, a narrative}
(anataxasthai di(8867)(8873)in). Ingressive aorist middle infinitive.
This verb anataxasthai has been found only in Plutarch's
_Moral_. 968 CD about an elephant "rehearsing" by moonlight
certain tricks it had been taught (Moulton and Milligan,
_Vocabulary_). That was from memory going regularly through the
thing again. But the idea in the word is plain enough. The word
is composed of 	ass(935c), a common verb for arranging things in
proper order and ana, again. Luke means to say that those
before him had made attempts to rehearse in orderly fashion
various matters about Christ. "The expression points to a
connected series of narratives in some order (	axis), topical
or chronological rather than to isolated narratives" (Bruce).
"They had produced something more than mere notes or anecdotes"
(Plummer). Di(8867)(8873)is means leading or carrying a thing through,
not a mere incident. Galen applies this word some seventy-five
times to the writing of Hippocrates. {Which have been fulfilled}
(	(936e) pepl(8872)(9370)hor(886d)en(936e)). Perfect passive participle from
pl(8872)ophore(935c) and that from pl(8872)(8873) (full) and pher(935c) (to
bring). Hence to bring or make full. The verb is rare outside of
the LXX and the N.T. Papyri examples occur for finishing off a
legal matter or a financial matter in full. Deissmann (_Light
from the Ancient East_, pp. 86f.) gives examples from the papyri
and inscriptions for completing a task or being convinced or
satisfied in mind. The same ambiguity occurs here. When used of
persons in the N.T. the meaning is to be convinced, or fully
persuaded ( Ro 4:21  14:5  Heb 6:11  10:22 ). When used of things
it has the notion of completing or finishing ( 2Ti 4:5,17 ). Luke
is here speaking of "matters" (pragmat(936e)). Luke may refer to
the matters connected with Christ's life which have been brought
to a close among us or accomplished. Bruce argues plausibly that
he means fulness of knowledge "concerning the things which have
become widely known among us Christians." In  Col 2:2  we have
"fulness of understanding" (	(8873) pl(8872)ophorias t(8873) sunese(9373)). In
modern Greek the verb means to inform. The careful language of
Luke here really pays a tribute to those who had preceded him in
their narratives concerning Christ.

經文:

路加福音 1:2-1:2

註釋:

 {Even as} (kath(9373)). This particle was condemned by the
Atticists though occurring occasionally from Aristotle on. It is
in the papyri. Luke asserts that the previous narratives had
their sound basis. {Delivered unto us} (pared(9373)an h(886d)in).
Second aorist active indicative of paradid(936d)i. Luke received
this tradition along with those who are mentioned above (the
many). That is he was not one of the "eyewitnesses." He was a
secondary, not a primary, witness of the events. Tradition has
come to have a meaning of unreliability with us, but that is not
the idea here. Luke means to say that the handing down was
dependable, not mere wives' fables. Those who drew up the
narratives had as sources of knowledge those who handed down the
data. Here we have both written and oral sources. Luke had access
to both kinds. {Which from the beginning were eyewitnesses and
ministers of the word} (hoi ap' arch(8873) autoptai kai hup(8872)etai
genomenoi tou logou). "Who" is better than "which" for the
article here. The word for {eyewitnesses} (autoptai) is an old
Greek word and appears in the papyri also. It means seeing with
one's own eyes. It occurs here only in the N.T. We have the very
word in the medical term _autopsy_. Greek medical writers often
had the word. It is a different word from epoptai (eyewitness)
in  2Pe 1:16 , a word used of those who beheld heavenly
mysteries. The word for "ministers" (hup(8872)etai), under rowers
or servants we have had already in  Mt 5:25  26:58  Mr 14:54,65 ,
which see. We shall see it again in  Lu 4:20  of the attendant in
the synagogue. In the sense of a preacher of the gospel as here,
it occurs also in  Ac 26:16 . Here "the word" means the gospel
message, as in  Ac 6:4  8:4 , etc. {From the beginning}
apparently refers to the beginning of the ministry of Jesus as
was true of the apostles ( Ac 1:22 ) and of the early apostolic
preaching ( Ac 10:37-43 ). The Gospel of Mark follows this plan.
The Gospel of Luke goes behind this in chapters 1 and 2 as does
Matthew in chapters 1 and 2. But Luke is not here referring to
himself. The matters about the childhood of Jesus Christ would
not form part of the traditional preaching for obvious reasons.

經文:

路加福音 1:3-1:3

註釋:

 {It seemed good to me also} (edoxe kamoi). A natural
conclusion and justification of Luke's decision to write his
narrative. They had ample reason to draw up their narratives.
Luke has more reason to do so because of his fuller knowledge and
wider scope. {Having traced the course of all things}
(par(886b)olouth(886b)oti p(8373)in). The perfect active participle of a
common verb of the ancient Greek. Literally it means to follow
along a thing in mind, to trace carefully. Both meanings occur
abundantly in the ancient Greek. Cadbury (Appendix C to
_Beginnings of Christianity_, Vol. II, pp. 489ff.) objects to the
translation "having traced" here as implying research which the
word does not here mean. Milligan (_Vocabulary_) is somewhat
impressed by this argument. See my discussion of the point in
Chapter XVI of _Studies in the Text of the N.T._ (The
Implications in Luke's Preface) where the point is made that Luke
here claims fulness of knowledge before he began to write his
book. He had the traditions of the eyewitnesses and ministers of
the word and the narratives previously drawn up. Whether he was a
personal contemporary with any or all of these events we do not
know and it is not particularly pertinent. He had _mentally_
followed along by the side of these events. Galen used this verb
for the investigation of symptoms. Luke got himself ready to
write before he began by full and accurate knowledge of the
subject. Akrib(9373) (accurately) means going into minute details,
from akron, the topmost point. And he did it {from the first}
(an(9374)hen). He seems to refer to the matters in Chapters
 1:5-2:52 , the Gospel of the Infancy. {In order} (kathex(8873)).
Chronological order in the main following Mark's general outline.
But in  9:51-18:10  the order is often topical. He has made
careful investigation and his work deserves serious
consideration. {Most excellent Theophilus} (kratiste
Theophile). The name means god-lover or god-beloved. He may have
been a believer already. He was probably a Gentile. Ramsay holds
that "most excellent" was a title like "Your Excellency" and
shows that he held office, perhaps a Knight. So of Felix ( Ac
23:26 ) and Festus ( Ac 26:25 ). The adjective does not occur in
the dedication in  Ac 1:1 .

經文:

路加福音 1:4-1:4

註釋:

 {Mightest know} (epign(9369)s). Second aorist active
subjunctive of epigin(9373)k(935c). Full knowledge (epi-), in addition
to what he already has. {The certainty} (	(886e) asphaleian). Make
no slip (sphall(935c), to totter or fall, and a privative). Luke
promises a reliable narrative. "Theophilus shall know that the
faith which he has embraced has an impregnable historical
foundation" (Plummer). {The things} (log(936e)). Literally "words,"
the details of the words in the instruction. {Wast instructed}
(kat(8863)h(8874)h(8873)). First aorist passive indicative. Not in O.T. and
rare in ancient Greek. Occurs in the papyri. The word (8863)he(935c) is
our word echo (cf.  1Th 1:8  for ex(8863)h(8874)ai, has sounded forth).
Kat(8863)he(935c) is to sound down, to din, to instruct, to give oral
instruction. Cf.  1Co 14:9  Ac 21:21,24  18:25  Gal 6:6 . Those
men doing the teaching were called _catechists_ and those
receiving it were called _catechumens_. Whether Theophilus was
still a catechumen is not known. This Preface by Luke is in
splendid literary _Koin(825f) and is not surpassed by those in any
Greek writer (Herodotus, Thucydides, Polybius). It is entirely
possible that Luke was familiar with this habit of Greek
historians to write prefaces since he was a man of culture.

經文:

路加福音 1:5-1:5

註釋:

 1:80, 2:40,
2:52 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1' or engs='1'
經文:

路加福音 1:6-1:6

註釋:

 {Righteous before God} (dikaioi enantion tou theou). Old
Testament conception and idiom. Cf.  2:25  about Simeon. Expanded
in Old Testament language. Picture of "noblest product of Old
Testament education" (Ragg) is Zacharias and Elisabeth, Mary and
Joseph, Simeon and Anna who were "privileged to see with clear
eyes the dawn of the New Testament revelation."

經文:

路加福音 1:7-1:7

註釋:

 {Because that} (kathoti). Good Attic word, according to
what. Only in Luke and Acts in the N.T. In the papyri. {Well
stricken in years} (probeb(886b)otes en tais h(886d)erais aut(936e)).
Wycliff has it right: "Had gone far in their days." Perfect
active participle. See also verse  18 .

經文:

路加福音 1:8-1:8

註釋:

 {While he executed the priest's office} (en t(9369) hierateuein
auton). A favourite idiom in Luke, en with the articular
infinitive and the accusative of general reference where the
genitive absolute could have been used or a temporal conjunction
and finite verb. It is proper Greek, but occurs often in the LXX,
which Luke read, particularly in imitation of the Hebrew
infinitive construct. The word hierateu(935c) does not appear in the
ancient Greek, but in the LXX and this one example in Luke. It is
on the Rosetta Stone and the early inscriptions so that the word
was simply applied by the LXX translators from current usage.

經文:

路加福音 1:9-1:9

註釋:

 {His lot was} (elache). Literally, {he obtained the lot}.
Second aorist active indicative of lagchan(935c), to obtain by lot,
a very old verb from Homer on. It is used either with the
genitive as here, or the accusative as in  Ac 1:17  2Pe 1:1 .
Papyri show examples with the accusative. It was only once in a
lifetime that a priest obtained the lot of going (eiselth(936e),
here nominative aorist active participle agreeing with the
subject of elache) into the sanctuary (	on naon, not 	o
hieron, the outer courts) and burning incense on the golden
altar. "It was the great moment of Zacharias's life, and his
heart was no doubt alert for the supernatural" (Ragg). The
fortunate lot was "a white stone" to which  Re 2:17  may refer.
{Burn incense} (	ou thumiasai). Here only in the N.T. Occurs on
inscriptions. Hobart finds it used by medical writers for
fumigating herbs. "Ascending the steps to the Holy Place, the
priests spread the coals on the golden altar, and arranged the
incense, and the chief operating priest was then left alone
within the Holy Place to await the signal of the president to
burn the incense. It was probably at this time that the angel
appeared to Zacharias" (Vincent).

經文:

路加福音 1:10-1:10

註釋:

 {Were praying without} ((886e) proseuchomenon ex(935c)).
Periphrastic imperfect indicative picturing the posture of the
people while the clouds of incense rose on the inside of the
sanctuary.

經文:

路加福音 1:11-1:11

註釋:

 {Appeared} ((9370)hth(885c)). First aorist passive indicative. It
is the form used by Paul of the resurrection appearances of Jesus
( 1Co 15:5-8 ). There is no use in trying to explain away the
reality of the angel. We must choose between admitting an
objective appearance and a myth (Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 1:13-1:13

註釋:

 {Is heard} (eis(886b)ousth(885c)). First aorist passive indicative.
A sort of timeless aorist, "was heard" when made, and so "is
heard" now. Probably the prayer was for a son in spite of the
great age of Elisabeth, though the Messianic redemption is
possible also. {John} (I(9361)n(886e)). The word means that God is
gracious. The mention of the name should have helped Zacharias to
believe. The message of the angel (verses  13-17 ) takes on a
metrical form when turned into Hebrew (Ragg) and it is a prose
poem in Greek and English like  1:30-33,35-37,42-45,46-55,68-70  2:10-12,14,29-32,34-35 . Certainly Luke has preserved the
earliest Christian hymns in their oldest sources. He is the first
critic of the sources of the Gospels and a scholarly one.

經文:

路加福音 1:14-1:14

註釋:

 {Gladness} (agalliasis). Only in the LXX and N.T. so far
as known. A word for extreme exultation. {Rejoice}
(char(8873)ontai). Second future passive indicative. The coming of
a prophet will indeed be an occasion for rejoicing.

經文:

路加福音 1:15-1:15

註釋:

 {Strong drink} (sikera). A Hebrew word transliterated into
Greek, an intoxicating drink. Here only in the N.T. John was to
be a personal "dry" or Nazarite ( Nu 6:3 ). {Shall not drink}
(ou m(8820)pi(8869)). Strong prohibition, double negative and second
aorist subjunctive. {The Holy Ghost} (pneumatos hagiou). The
Holy Spirit in contrast to the physical excitement of strong
drink (Plummer). Luke uses this phrase 53 times, 12 in the
Gospel, Mark and John 4 each, Matthew 5 times. {Even from his
mother's womb} (eti ek koilias m(8874)ros autou). A manifest
Hebraism. Cf. verse  41 .

經文:

路加福音 1:17-1:17

註釋:

 {Before his face} (en(9370)ion autou). Not in the ancient
Greek, but common in the papyri as in LXX and N.T. It is a
vernacular _Koin(825f) word, adverb used as preposition from
adjective en(9370)ios, and that from ho en (9370)i (936e) (the one who is
in sight). {Autou} here seems to be "the Lord their God" in verse
 16  since the Messiah has not yet been mentioned, though he was
to be actually the Forerunner of the Messiah. {In the spirit and
power of Elijah} (en pneumati kai dunamei Elei(835c)). See  Isa
40:1-11  Mal 3:1-5 . John will deny that he is actually Elijah in
person, as they expected ( Joh 1:21 ), but Jesus will call him
Elijah in spirit ( Mr 9:12  Mt 17:12 ). {Hearts of fathers}
(kardias pater(936e)). Paternal love had died out. This is one of
the first results of conversion, the revival of love in the home.
{Wisdom} (phron(8873)ei). Not sophia, but a word for practical
intelligence. {Prepared} (kateskeuasmenon). Perfect passive
participle, state of readiness for Christ. This John did. This is
a marvellous forecast of the character and career of John the
Baptist, one that should have caught the faith of Zacharias.

經文:

路加福音 1:18-1:18

註釋:

 {Whereby} (kata ti). According to what. It was too good to
be true and Zacharias demanded proof and gives the reason (for,
gar) for his doubt. He had prayed for this blessing and was now
sceptical like the disciples in the house of Mary about the
return of Peter ( Ac 12:14f. ).

經文:

路加福音 1:19-1:19

註釋:

 {Gabriel} (Gabri(886c)). The Man of God ( Da 8:6  9:21 ). The
other angel whose name is given in Scripture is Michael ( Da
10:13,21  Jude 1:9  Re 12:7 ). The description of himself is a
rebuke to the doubt of Zacharias.

經文:

路加福音 1:20-1:20

註釋:

 {Thou shalt be silent} (es(8869) si(9370)(936e)). Volitive future
periphrastic. {Not able to speak} (m(8820)dunamenos lal(8873)ai).
Negative repetition of the same statement. His dumbness will
continue "until" (achri h(8873) h(886d)eras) the events come to pass
"because" (anth' h(936e)). The words were to become reality in due
season (kairon, not chronos, time).

經文:

路加福音 1:21-1:21

註釋:

 {Were waiting} ((886e) prosdok(936e)). Periphrastic imperfect
again. An old Greek verb for expecting. Appears in papyri and
inscriptions. It denotes mental direction whether hope or fear.
{They marvelled} (ethaumazon). Imperfect tense, were wondering.
The Talmud says that the priest remained only a brief time in the
sanctuary. {While he tarried} (en t(9369) chronizein). See verse
 8  for the same idiom.

經文:

路加福音 1:22-1:22

註釋:

 {Perceived} (epegn(9373)an). Second aorist indicative. Clearly
knew because he was not able to pronounce the benediction from
the steps ( Nu 6:24-26 ). {Continued making signs} ((886e)
dianeu(936e)). Periphrastic imperfect again. He nodded and beckoned
back and forth (dia, between). Further proof of a vision that
caused his dumbness.

經文:

路加福音 1:23-1:23

註釋:

 {Ministration} (leitourgias). Our word liturgy. A common
word in ancient Greek for public service, work for the people
(le(9373) ergon). It is common in the papyri for the service of the
Egyptian priesthood as we see it in the LXX of Hebrew priests
(see also  Heb 8:6  9:21  2Co 9:12  Php 2:17,30 ).

經文:

路加福音 1:24-1:24

註釋:

 {Conceived} (sunelaben). Luke uses this word eleven times
and it occurs only five other times in the N.T. It is a very old
and common Greek word. He alone in the N.T. has it for conceiving
offspring ( 1:24,31,36  2:21 ) though  Jas 1:15  uses it of lust
producing sin. Hobart (_Medical Language of Luke_, p. 91)
observes that Luke has almost as many words for pregnancy and
barrenness as Hippocrates (en gastri echein,  21:23 ; egkuos,
 2:5 ; steira,  1:7 ; ateknos,  20:28 ). {Hid}
(periekruben). Only here in the N.T., but in late _Koin(825f)
writers. Usually considered second aorist active indicative from
perikrupt(935c), though it may be the imperfect indicative of a late
form perikrub(935c). If it is aorist it is the constative aorist.
The preposition peri makes it mean completely (on all sides)
hid.

經文:

路加福音 1:25-1:25

註釋:

 {My reproach} (oneidos mou). Keenly felt by a Jewish wife
because the husband wanted an heir and because of the hope of the
Messiah, and because of the mother's longing for a child.

經文:

路加福音 1:26-1:26

註釋:

 {Was sent} (apestal(885c)). Second aorist passive indicative of
apostell(935c) from which _apostle_ comes. The angel Gabriel is
God's messenger to Mary as to Zacharias ( 1:19 ).

經文:

路加福音 1:27-1:27

註釋:

 {Betrothed} (emn(8873)teumen(886e)). Perfect passive participle.
Betrothal usually lasted a year and unfaithfulness on the part of
the bride was punished with death ( De 23:24f. ).

經文:

路加福音 1:28-1:28

註釋:

 {Highly favoured} (kecharit(936d)en(885c)). Perfect passive
participle of charito(935c) and means endowed with grace (charis),
enriched with grace as in  Eph 1:6 , _non ut mater gratiae, sed
ut filia gratiae_ (Bengel). The Vulgate _gratiae plena_ "is
right, if it means 'full of grace _which thou hast received_';
wrong, if it means 'full of grace _which thou hast to bestow_"'
(Plummer). The oldest MSS. do not have "Blessed art thou among
women" here, but in verse  42 .

經文:

路加福音 1:29-1:29

註釋:

 {Cast in her mind} (dielogizeto). Imperfect indicative.
Note aorist dietarachth(885c). Common verb for reckoning up
different reasons. She was both upset and puzzled.

經文:

路加福音 1:30-1:30

註釋:

 {Favour} (charin). Grace. Same root as chair(935c) (rejoice)
and charito(935c) in verse  28 . To find favour is a common O.T.
phrase. Charis is a very ancient and common word with a variety
of applied meanings. They all come from the notion of sweetness,
charm, loveliness, joy, delight, like words of grace,  Lu 4:22 ,
growing grace,  Eph 4:29 , with grace,  Col 4:6 . The notion of
kindness is in it also, especially of God towards men as here. It
is a favourite word for Christianity, the Gospel of the grace of
God ( Ac 20:24 ) in contrast with law or works ( Joh 1:16 ).
Gratitude is expressed also ( Lu 6:32 ), especially to God ( Ro
6:17 ). {With God} (para t(9369) the(9369)). Beside God.

經文:

路加福音 1:31-1:31

註釋:

 {Conceive in thy womb} (sull(886d)ps(8869) en gastri). Adding en
gastri to the verb of  1:24 . Same idiom in  Isa 7:14  of
Immanuel. {Jesus} (I(8873)oun). As to Joseph in  Mt 1:21 , but
without the explanation of the meaning. See on Matthew.

經文:

路加福音 1:32-1:32

註釋:

 {The Son of the Most High} (huios Hupsistou). There is no
article in the Greek, but the use of Most High in verse  35 
clearly of God as here. In  Lu 6:35  we find "sons of the Most
High" (huioi Hupsistou) so that we cannot insist on deity here,
though that is possible. The language of  2Sa 7:14  Isa 9:7  is
combined here.

經文:

路加福音 1:33-1:33

註釋:

 {Shall be no end} (ouk estai telos). Luke reports the
perpetuity of this Davidic kingdom over the house of Jacob with
no Pauline interpretation of the spiritual Israel though that was
the true meaning as Luke knew. Joseph was of the house of David
( Lu 1:27 ) and Mary also apparently ( Lu 2:5 ).

經文:

路加福音 1:35-1:35

註釋:

 {Shall overshadow thee} (episkiasei). A figure of a cloud
coming upon her. Common in ancient Greek in the sense of
obscuring and with accusative as of Peter's shadow in  Ac 5:15 .
But we have seen it used of the shining bright cloud at the
Transfiguration of Jesus ( Mt 17:5  Mr 9:7  Lu 9:34 ). Here it is
like the Shekinah glory which suggests it ( Ex 40:38 ) where the
cloud of glory represents the presence and power of God. {Holy,
the Son of God} (Hagion huios theou). Here again the absence of
the article makes it possible for it to mean "Son of God." See
 Mt 5:9 . But this title, like the Son of Man (Ho huios tou
anthr(9370)ou) was a recognized designation of the Messiah. Jesus
did not often call himself Son of God ( Mt 27:43 ), but it is
assumed in his frequent use of the Father, the Son ( Mt 11:27  Lu
10:21  Joh 5:19ff. ). It is the title used by the Father at the
baptism ( Lu 3:22 ) and on the Mount of Transfiguration ( Lu
9:35 ). The wonder of Mary would increase at these words. The
Miraculous Conception or Virgin Birth of Jesus is thus plainly
set forth in Luke as in Matthew. The fact that Luke was a
physician gives added interest to his report.

經文:

路加福音 1:36-1:36

註釋:

 {Kinswoman} (suggenis). Not necessarily cousin, but simply
relative.

經文:

路加福音 1:37-1:37

註釋:

 {No word} (ouk rh(886d)a). Rh(886d)a brings out the single item
rather than the whole content (logos). So in verse  38 .

經文:

路加福音 1:39-1:39

註釋:

 {Arose} (anast(8373)a). Luke is very fond of this word, sixty
times against twenty-two in the rest of the N.T. {Into the hill
country} (eis t(886e) orin(886e)). Luke uses this adjective twice in
this context (here and  1:65 ) instead of 	o oros, the
mountains. It is an old word and is in the LXX, but nowhere else
in the N.T. The name of the city where Zacharias lived is not
given unless Judah here means Juttah ( Jos 15:55 ). Hebron was
the chief city of this part of Judea.

經文:

路加福音 1:40-1:40

註釋:

 {Saluted} ((8873)pasato). Her first glance at Elisabeth showed
the truth of the angel's message. The two mothers had a bond of
sympathy.

經文:

路加福音 1:41-1:41

註釋:

 {Leaped} (eskirt(8873)en). A common enough incident with
unborn children ( Ge 25:22 ), but Elisabeth was filled with the
Holy Spirit to understand what had happened to Mary.

經文:

路加福音 1:42-1:42

註釋:

 {With a loud cry} (kraug(8869) megal(8869)). A moment of ecstatic
excitement. {Blessed art thou} (eulog(886d)en(885c)). Perfect passive
participle. A Hebraistic equivalent for the superlative.

經文:

路加福音 1:43-1:43

註釋:

 {The mother of my Lord} (h(8820)m(8874)(8872) tou Kuriou mou). See  Ps
110:1 . Only by the help of the Holy Spirit could Elisabeth know
that Mary was to be the mother of the Messiah.

經文:

路加福音 1:45-1:45

註釋:

 {For} (hoti). It is not certain whether hoti here is
"that" or "because." It makes good sense either way. See also
 7:16 . This is the first beatitude in the New Testament and it
is similar to the last one in the Gospels spoken to Thomas to
discourage his doubt ( Joh 20:29 ). Elisabeth wishes Mary to have
full faith in the prophecy of the angel. This song of Elisabeth
is as real poetry as is that of Mary ( 1:47-55 ) and Zacharias
( 1:68-70 ). All three spoke under the power of the Holy Spirit.
These are the first New Testament hymns and they are very
beautiful. Plummer notes four strophes in Mary's Magnificat
( 46-48 , 49,50 , 51-53 , 54,55 ). Every idea here occurs in the
Old Testament, showing that Mary's mind was full of the spiritual
message of God's word.

經文:

路加福音 1:46-1:46

註釋:

 {Doth magnify} (megalunei). Latin, _magnificat_. Harnack
argues that this is also the song of Elisabeth because a few
Latin MSS. have it so, but Mary is correct. She draws her
material from the O.T. and sings in the noblest strain.

經文:

路加福音 1:47-1:47

註釋:

 {Hath rejoiced} ((8867)alliasen). This is aorist active
indicative. Greek tenses do not correspond to those in English.
The verb agallia(935c) is a Hellenistic word from the old Greek
agall(935c). It means to exult. See the substantive agalliasis in
 Lu 1:14,44 . Mary is not excited like Elisabeth, but breathes a
spirit of composed rapture. {My spirit} (	o pneuma mou). One
need not press unduly the difference between "soul" (psuch(885c)) in
verse  46  and "spirit" here. Bruce calls them synonyms in
parallel clauses. Vincent argues that the soul is the principle
of individuality while the spirit is the point of contact between
God and man. It is doubtful, however, if the trichotomous theory
of man (body, soul, and spirit) is to be insisted on. It is
certain that we have an inner spiritual nature for which various
words are used in  Mr 12:30 . Even the distinction between
intellect, emotions, and will is challenged by some
psychologists. {God my Saviour} (	(9369) the(9369) t(9369) sot(8872)i mou).
Article with each substantive. God is called Saviour in the O.T.
(De 32:15, Ps 24:5 95:1 ).

經文:

路加福音 1:48-1:48

註釋:

 {The low estate} (	(886e) tapein(9373)in). The bride of a
carpenter and yet to be the mother of the Messiah. Literal sense
here as in  1:52 . {Shall call me blessed} (makariousin me).
So-called Attic future of an old verb, to felicitate. Elisabeth
had already given her a beatitude (makaria,  1:45 ). Another
occurs in  11:27 . But this is a very different thing from the
worship of Mary (Mariolatry) by Roman Catholics. See my _The
Mother of Jesus: Her Problems and Her Glory_.

經文:

路加福音 1:50-1:50

註釋:

 {Fear} (phoboumenois). Dative of the present middle
participle. Here it is reverential fear as in  Ac 10:2  Col
3:22 . The bad sense of dread appears in  Mt 21:46  Mr 6:20  Lu
12:4 .

經文:

路加福音 1:51-1:51

註釋:

 {Showed strength} (epoi(8873)en kratos). "Made might"
(Wycliff). A Hebrew conception as in  Ps 118:15 . Plummer notes
six aorist indicatives in this sentence ( 51-63 ), neither
corresponding to our English idiom, which translates here by
"hath" each time. {Imagination} (dianoi(8369)). Intellectual
insight, moral understanding.

經文:

路加福音 1:52-1:52

註釋:

 {Princes} (dunastas). Our word dynasty is from this word.
It comes from dunamai, to be able.

經文:

路加福音 1:54-1:54

註釋:

 {Hath holpen} (antelabeto). Second aorist middle
indicative. A very common verb. It means to lay hold of with a
view to help or succour. {Servant} (paidos). Here it means
"servant," not "son" or "child," its usual meaning.

經文:

路加福音 1:58-1:58

註釋:

 {Had magnified} (emegalunen). Aorist active indicative.
Same verb as in verse  46 . {Rejoiced with her} (sunechairon
aut(8869)). Imperfect tense and pictures the continual joy of the
neighbours, accented also by sun- (cf.  Php 2:18 ) in its
mutual aspect.

經文:

路加福音 1:59-1:59

註釋:

 {Would have called} (ekaloun). Conative imperfect, tried
to call.

經文:

路加福音 1:62-1:62

註釋:

 {Made signs} (eneneuon). Imperfect tense, repeated action
as usual when making signs. In  1:22  the verb used of Zacharias
is dianeu(936e). {What he would have him called} (	o ti an theloi
kaleisthai auto). Note article 	o with the indirect question,
accusative of general reference. The optative with an is here
because it was used in the direct question (cf.  Ac 17:18 ), and
is simply retained in the indirect. {What would he wish him to be
called?} ({if he could speak}), a conclusion of the fourth-class
condition.

經文:

路加福音 1:63-1:63

註釋:

 {Tablet} (pinakidion). Diminutive of pinakis. In
Aristotle and the papyri for writing tablet, probably covered
with wax. Sometimes it was a little table, like Shakespeare's
"the table of my memory" (Hamlet, i.5). It was used also of a
physician's note-book. {Wrote, saying} (egrapsen leg(936e)). Hebrew
way of speaking ( 2Ki 10:6 ).

經文:

路加福音 1:64-1:64

註釋:

 {Immediately} (parachr(886d)a). Nineteen times in the N.T.,
seventeen in Luke. {Opened} (ane(9369)chth(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative with double augment. The verb suits "mouth," but not
"tongue" (gl(9373)sa). It is thus a zeugma with tongue. Loosed or
some such verb to be supplied.

經文:

路加福音 1:65-1:65

註釋:

 {Fear} (phobos). Not terror, but religious awe because of
contact with the supernatural as in the case of Zacharias
( 1:12 ). Were noised abroad (dielaleito). Imperfect passive.
Occurs in Polybius. In the N.T. only here and  Lu 6:11 . It was
continuous talk back and forth between (dia) the people.

經文:

路加福音 1:66-1:66

註釋:

 {What then} (	i ara). With all these supernatural
happenings they predicted the marvellous career of this child.
Note Ti, {what}, not Tis, {who}. Cf.  Ac 12:18 . {They laid
them up} (ethento, second aorist middle indicative) as Mary did
( 2:19 ). {The hand of the Lord} (cheir Kuriou). Luke's
explanation in addition to the supernatural events. The
expression occurs only in Luke's writing ( Ac 11:21  13:11 ).

經文:

路加福音 1:67-1:67

註釋:

 {Prophesied} (eproph(8874)eusen). Under the guidance of the
Holy Spirit. This _Benedictus_ (Eulog(8874)os, {Blessed}) of
Zacharias ( 68-79 ) may be what is referred to in verse  64  "he
began to speak blessing God" (eulog(936e)). Nearly every phrase
here is found in the O.T. (Psalms and Prophets). He, like Mary,
was full of the Holy Spirit and had caught the Messianic message
in its highest meaning.

經文:

路加福音 1:68-1:68

註釋:

 {Hath visited} (epeskepsato). An old Greek word with a
Hebraic colouring to look into with a view to help. The papyri
have plenty of examples of the verb in the sense of inspecting,
examining. {Redemption} (lutr(9373)in) here originally referred to
political redemption, but with a moral and spiritual basis
(verses  75,77 ).

經文:

路加福音 1:69-1:69

註釋:

 Ps. 132:17 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Ps.' or engs='Ps.'
經文:

路加福音 1:70-1:70

註釋:

 {Since the world began} (ap' ai(936e)os). Better "from of old"
(Weymouth, American Revision).

經文:

路加福音 1:73-1:73

註釋:

 {The oath which he sware} (horkon hon (936d)osen). Antecedent
attracted to case of the relative. The oath appears in  Ge
22:16-18 . The oppression of the Gentiles seems to be in the mind
of Zacharias. It is not certain how clearly he grasped the idea
of the spiritual Israel as Paul saw it in Galatians and Romans.

經文:

路加福音 1:74-1:74

註釋:

 {Delivered} (
husthentas). First aorist passive participle
of an old verb, 
huomai. The accusative case appears, where the
dative could have been used to agree with h(886d)in, because of the
infinitive latreuein (verse  74 ) {to serve} (from {latros},
for hire). But Plato uses the word of service for God so that the
bad sense does not always exist.

經文:

路加福音 1:75-1:75

註釋:

 1Th
2:10 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
2' or engs='1Th
2'
經文:

路加福音 1:76-1:76

註釋:

 {Yea and thou} (kai su de). Direct address to the child
with forecast of his life (cf.  1:13-17 ). {Prophet}
(proph(8874)(8873)). The word here directly applied to the child. Jesus
will later call John a prophet and more than a prophet. {The
Lord} (Kuriou). Jehovah as in  1:16 .

經文:

路加福音 1:77-1:77

註釋:

 {Knowledge of salvation} (gn(9373)in s(9374)(8872)ias). "This is the
aim and end of the work of the Forerunner" (Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 1:78-1:78

註釋:

 {Tender mercy} (splagchna eleous). Bowels of mercy
literally ( 1Pe 3:8  Jas 3:11 ). Revised margin has it, hearts of
mercy. {The dayspring from on high} (anatol(8820)ex hupsous).
Literally, rising from on high, like the rising sun or stars
( Isa 60:19 ). The word is used also of a sprouting plant or
branch ( Jer 23:5  Zec 6:12 ), but that does not suit here.
{Shall visit} (epeskepsetai), correct text, cf.  1:68 .

經文:

路加福音 1:79-1:79

註釋:

 {To shine upon} (epiph(836e)ai). First aorist active
infinitive of epiphain(935c) (liquid verb). An old verb to give
light, to shine upon, like the sun or stars. See also  Ac 27:20  Tit 2:11  3:4 . {The shadow of death} (ski(8369) thanatou). See  Ps
107:10 , where darkness and shadow of death are combined as here.
Cf. also  Isa 9:1 . See on 烘t 4:16|. To guide (	ou
kateuth(966e)ai). Genitive of the articular infinitive of purpose.
The light will enable them in the dark to see how to walk in a
straight path that leads to "the way of peace." We are still on
that road, but so many stumble for lack of light, men and
nations.

經文:

路加福音 1:80-1:80

註釋:

 {Grew} ((8875)xane). Imperfect active, was growing. {Waxed
strong} (ekrataiouto). Imperfect again. The child kept growing
in strength of body and spirit. {His shewing} (anadeixe(9373)
autou). Here alone in the N.T. It occurs in Plutarch and
Polybius. The verb appears in a sacrificial sense. The boy, as he
grew, may have gone up to the passover and may have seen the boy
Jesus ( Lu 2:42-52 ), but he would not know that he was to be the
Messiah. So these two boys of destiny grew on with the years, the
one in the desert hills near Hebron after Zacharias and Elisabeth
died, the other, the young Carpenter up in Nazareth, each waiting
for "his shewing unto Israel."

經文:

路加福音 2:1-2:1

註釋:

 {Decree from Caesar Augustus} (dogma para Kaisaros
Augoustou). Old and common word from doke(935c), to think, form an
opinion. No such decree was given by Greek or Roman historians
and it was for long assumed by many scholars that Luke was in
error. But papyri and inscriptions have confirmed Luke on every
point in these crucial verses  2:1-7 . See W.M. Ramsay's books
(_Was Christ Born at Bethelehem?_ _Luke the Physician_. _The
Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the N.T._).
{The World} (	(886e) oikoumen(886e)). Literally, {the inhabited}
({land}, g(886e)). Inhabited by the Greeks, then by the Romans,
then the whole world (Roman world, the world ruled by Rome). So
 Ac 11:28  17:6 . {Should be enrolled} (apographesthai). It was
a census, not a taxing, though taxing generally followed and was
based on the census. This word is very old and common. It means
to write or copy off for the public records, to register.

經文:

路加福音 2:2-2:2

註釋:

 {The first enrolment} (apograph(8820)pr(9374)(885c)). A definite
allusion by Luke to a series of censuses instituted by Augustus,
the second of which is mentioned by him in  Ac 5:37 . This second
one is described by Josephus and it was supposed by some that
Luke confused the two. But Ramsay has shown that a periodical
fourteen-year census in Egypt is given in dated papyri back to
A.D. 20. The one in  Ac 5:37  would then be A.D. 6. This is in
the time of Augustus. The first would then be B.C. 8 in Egypt. If
it was delayed a couple of years in Palestine by Herod the Great
for obvious reasons, that would make the birth of Christ about
B.C. 6 which agrees with the other known data {When Quirinius}
(Kur(886e)iou). Genitive absolute. Here again Luke has been
attacked on the ground that Quirinius was only governor of Syria
once and that was A.D. 6 as shown by Josephus (_Ant_. XVIII.
I.I). But Ramsay has proven by inscriptions that Quirinius was
twice in Syria and that Luke is correct here also. See summary of
the facts in my _Luke the Historian in the Light of Research_,
pp. 118-29.

經文:

路加福音 2:3-2:3

註釋:

 {Each to his own city} (hekastos eis t(886e) heautou polin). A
number of papyri in Egypt have the heading enrolment by household
(apograph(8820)kat' oikian). Here again Luke is vindicated. Each
man went to the town where his family register was kept.

經文:

路加福音 2:5-2:5

註釋:

 {To enrol himself with Mary} (apograpsasthai sun Mariam).
Direct middle. "With Mary" is naturally taken with the infinitive
as here. If so, that means that Mary's family register was in
Bethlehem also and that she also belonged to the house of David.
It is possible to connect "with Mary" far back with "went up"
(aneb(885c)) in verse  4 , but it is unnatural to do so. There is no
real reason for doubting that Mary herself was a descendant of
David and that is the obvious way to understand Luke's genealogy
of Jesus in  Lu 3:23-38 ). The Syriac Sinaitic expressly says
that both Joseph and Mary were of the house and city of David.
{Betrothed} (emn(8873)teumen(886e)). Same verb as in  1:27 , but here
it really means "married" or "espoused" as  Mt 1:24f.  shows.
Otherwise she could not have travelled with Joseph. {Great with
child} (enku(9369)). Only here in N.T. Common Greek word.

經文:

路加福音 2:6-2:6

註釋:

 {That she should be delivered} (	ou tekein aut(886e)). {For the
bearing the child as to her}. A neat use of the articular
infinitive, second aorist active, with the accusative of general
reference. From 	ikt(935c), common verb.

經文:

路加福音 2:7-2:7

註釋:

 {Her firstborn} (	on pr(9374)otokon). The expression naturally
means that she afterwards had other children and we read of
brothers and sisters of Jesus. There is not a particle of
evidence for the notion that Mary refused to bear other children
because she was the mother of the Messiah. {Wrapped in swaddling
clothes} (espargan(9373)en). From sparganon, a swathing band.
Only here and verse  12  in the N.T., but in Euripides,
Aristotle, Hippocrates, Plutarch. Frequent in medical works. {In
a manger} (en phatn(8869)). In a crib in a stall whether in a cave
(Justin Martyr) or connected with the inn we do not know. The
cattle may have been out on the hills or the donkeys used in
travelling may have been feeding in this stall or another near.
{In the inn} (en t(9369) katalumati). A lodging-house or khan, poor
enough at best, but there was not even room in this public place
because of the crowds for the census. See the word also in  Lu
22:11  Mr 14:14  with the sense of guest-room (cf.  1Ki 1:13 ).
It is the Hellenistic equivalent for katag(9367)eion and appears
also in one papyrus. See  Ex 4:24 . There would sometimes be an
inner court, a range or arches, an open gallery round the four
sides. On one side of the square, outside the wall, would be
stables for the asses and camels, buffaloes and goats. Each man
had to carry his own food and bedding.

經文:

路加福音 2:8-2:8

註釋:

 {Abiding in the field} (agraulountes). From agros, field
and aul(885c), court. The shepherds were making the field their
court. Plutarch and Strabo use the word. {Keeping watch}
(phulassontes phulakas). Cognate accusative. They were
bivouacking by night and it was plainly mild weather. In these
very pastures David had fought the lion and the bear to protect
the sheep ( 1Sa 17:34f. ). The plural here probably means that
they watched by turns. The flock may have been meant for the
temple sacrifices. There is no way to tell.

經文:

路加福音 2:9-2:9

註釋:

 {Stood by them} (epest(8820)autois). Ingressive aorist active
indicative. Stepped by their side. The same word in  Ac 12:7  of
the angel there. Paul uses it in the sense of standing by in  Ac
22:20 . It is a common old Greek word, ephist(886d)i. {Were sore
afraid} (ephob(8874)h(8873)an phobon megan). First aorist passive
indicative with cognate accusative (the passive sense gone), they
feared a great fear.

經文:

路加福音 2:10-2:10

註釋:

 {I bring you good tidings of great joy} (euaggelizomai
h(966d)in charan megal(886e)). Wycliff, "I evangelize to you a great
joy." The active verb euaggeliz(935c) occurs only in late Greek
writers, LXX, a few papyri examples, and the N.T. The middle
(deponent) appears from Aristophanes on. Luke and Paul employ
both substantive euaggelion and verb euaggeliz(935c) very
frequently. It is to Paul's influence that we owe their frequency
and popularity in the language of Christendom (George Milligan,
_The Epistles to the Thessalonians_, p. 143). The other Gospels
do not have the verb save  Mt 11:5  and that in a quotation ( Isa
61:1 ).

經文:

路加福音 2:11-2:11

註釋:

 Is born (etechth(885c)). First aorist passive indicative from
	ikt(935c). Was born. {Saviour} (s(9374)(8872)). This great word is common
in Luke and Paul and seldom elsewhere in the N.T. (Bruce). The
people under Rome's rule came to call the emperor "Saviour" and
Christians took the word and used it of Christ. See inscriptions
(Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 344). {Christ the
Lord} (Christos Kurios). This combination occurs nowhere else
in the N.T. and it is not clear what it really means. Luke is
very fond of Kurios ({Lord}) where the other Gospels have
Jesus. It may mean "Christ the Lord," "Anointed Lord," "Messiah,
Lord," "The Messiah, the Lord," "An Anointed One, a Lord," or
"Lord Messiah." It occurs once in the LXX ( La 4:20 ) and is in
Ps. of Sol. 17:36. Ragg suggests that our phrase "the Lord Jesus
Christ" is really involved in "A Saviour (Jesus) which is Christ
the Lord." See on 烘t 1:1| for Christ and 烘t 21:3| for Lord.

經文:

路加福音 2:13-2:13

註釋:

 {Host} (stratias). A military term for a band of soldiers
common in the ancient Greek. Bengel says: "Here the army
announces peace." {Praising} (ainount(936e)). Construction
according to sense (plural, though stratias is singular).

經文:

路加福音 2:14-2:14

註釋:

 {Among men in whom he is well pleased} (en anthr(9370)ois
eudokias). The Textus Receptus (Authorized Version also has
eudokia, but the genitive eudokias is undoubtedly correct,
supported by the oldest and best uncials. (Aleph, A B D W). C has
a lacuna here. Plummer justly notes how in this angelic hymn
Glory and Peace correspond, in the highest and on earth, to God
and among men of goodwill. It would be possible to connect "on
earth" with "the highest" and also to have a triple division.
There has been much objection raised to the genitive eudokias,
the correct text. But it makes perfectly good sense and better
sense. As a matter of fact real peace on earth exists only among
those who are the subjects of God's goodwill, who are
characterized by goodwill toward God and man. This word eudokia
we have already had in  Mt 11:26 . It does not occur in the
ancient Greek. The word is confined to Jewish and Christian
writings, though the papyri furnish instances of eudok(8873)is.
Wycliff has it "to men of goodwill."

經文:

路加福音 2:15-2:15

註釋:

 {Said to one another} (elaloun pros all(886c)ous). Imperfect
tense, inchoative, "began to speak," each to the other. It
suggests also repetition, they kept saying, {Now} (d(885c)). A
particle of urgency. {This thing} (	o rh(886d)a touto). A
Hebraistic and vernacular use of 
h(886d)a (something said) as
something done. See on 烊u 1:65|. The ancient Greek used logos
in this same way.

經文:

路加福音 2:16-2:16

註釋:

 {With haste} (speusantes). Aorist active participle of
simultaneous action. {Found} (aneuran). Second aorist active
indicative of a common Greek verb aneurisk(935c), but only in Luke
in the N.T. The compound ana suggests a search before finding.

經文:

路加福音 2:17-2:17

註釋:

 {Made known} (egn(9372)isan). To others (verse  18 ) besides
Joseph and Mary. The verb is common from Aeschylus on, from the
root of gin(9373)k(935c) (to know). It is both transitive and
intransitive in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 2:19-2:19

註釋:

 {Kept} (sunet(8872)ei). Imperfect active. She kept on keeping
together (sun-) all these things. They were meat and drink to
her. She was not astonished, but filled with holy awe. The verb
occurs from Aristotle on. She could not forget. But did not Mary
keep also a Baby Book? And may not Luke have seen it? {Pondering}
(sunballousa). An old Greek word. Placing together for
comparison. Mary would go over each detail in the words of
Gabriel and of the shepherds and compare the sayings with the
facts so far developed and brood over it all with a mother's high
hopes and joy.

經文:

路加福音 2:21-2:21

註釋:

 {His name was called Jesus} (kai ekl(8874)h(8820)to onoma autou
I(8873)ous). The kai is left untranslated or has the sense of
"then" in the apodosis. The naming was a part of the ceremony of
circumcision as is shown also in the case of John the Baptist
( Lu 1:59-66 ).

經文:

路加福音 2:22-2:22

註釋:

 {The days of their purification} (hai h(886d)erai tou
katharismou aut(936e)). The old manuscripts have "their" (aut(936e))
instead of "her" (aut(8873)) of the later documents. But it is not
clear whether "their" refers to Mary and Joseph as is true of
"they brought" or to Mary and the child. The mother was
Levitically unclean for forty days after the birth of a son ( Le
12:1-8 ). {To present him to the Lord} (parast(8873)ai t(9369) Kuri(9369)).
Every first-born son was thus redeemed by the sacrifice ( Ex
13:2-12 ) as a memorial of the sparing of the Israelitish
families ( Nu 18:15f. ). The cost was about two dollars and a
half in our money.

經文:

路加福音 2:23-2:23

註釋:

 {In the law of the Lord} (en nom(9369) Kuriou). No articles,
but definite by preposition and genitive. Vincent notes that
"law" occurs in this chapter five times. Paul ( Gal 4:4 ) will
urge that Jesus "was made under the law" as Luke here explains.
The law did not require that the child be brought to Jerusalem.
The purification concerned the mother, the presentation the son.

經文:

路加福音 2:24-2:24

註釋:

 {A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons} (Zeugos
trugon(936e) (8820)duo nossous perister(936e)). The offspring of the poor,
costing about sixteen cents, while a lamb would cost nearly two
dollars. The "young of pigeons" is the literal meaning.

經文:

路加福音 2:25-2:25

註釋:

 {Devout} (eulab(8873)). Used only by Luke ( Ac 2:5  8:2  22:12 ) in the N.T. Common in ancient Greek from Plato on. It
means taking hold well or carefully (eu and labein) and so
reverently, circumspectly. {Looking for the consolation of
Israel} (prosdechomenos parakl(8873)in tou Israel). Old Greek verb
to admit to one's presence ( Lu 15:2 ) and then to expect as here
and of Anna in verse  38 . {Parakl(8873)in} here means the Messianic
hope ( Isa 11:10  40:1 ), calling to one's side for cheer. {Upon
him} (ep' auton). This is the explanation of his lively
Messianic hope. It was due to the Holy Spirit. Simeon and Anna
are representatives of real piety in this time of spiritual
dearth and deadness.

經文:

路加福音 2:26-2:26

註釋:

 {It had been revealed unto him} ((886e) aut(9369)
kechr(886d)atismenon). Periphrastic past perfect passive indicative.
Common Greek verb. First to transact business from chr(886d)a and
that from chraomai, to use, make use of; then to do business
with public officials, to give advice (judges, rulers, kings),
then to get the advice of the Delphic and other oracles
(Diodorus, Plutarch). The LXX and Josephus use it of God's
commands. A Fayum papyrus of 257 B.C. has the substantive
chr(886d)astismos for a divine response (cf.  Ro 11:4 ). See
Deissmann, _Light From the Ancient East_, p. 153. {Before} (prin
(885c)). Classic Greek idiom after a negative to have subjunctive as
here (only example in the N.T.) or the optative after past tense
as in  Ac 25:16  (subjunctive changed to optative in indirect
discourse). Elsewhere in the N.T. the infinitive follows prin
as in  Mt 1:18 .

經文:

路加福音 2:27-2:27

註釋:

 {When the parents brought in the child Jesus} (en t(9369)
eisagagein tous goneis to paidion I(8873)oun). A neat Greek and
Hebrew idiom difficult to render into English, very common in the
LXX; {In the bringing the Child Jesus as to the parents}. The
articular infinitive and two accusatives (one the object, the
other accusative of general reference). {After the custom of the
law} (kata to eithismenon tou nomou). Here the perfect passive
participle eithismenon, neuter singular from ethiz(935c) (common
Greek verb, to accustom) is used as a virtual substantive like
	o ethos in  1:8 . Luke alone in the N.T. uses either word save
ethos in  Joh 19:40 , though ei(9374)ha from eth(935c), occurs also
in  Mt 27:15  Mr 10:1 .

經文:

路加福音 2:28-2:28

註釋:

 {Then he} (kai autos). Kai as in  2:21 . Autos,
emphatic subject, he after the parents. {Arms} (agkalas). Old
Greek word, here only in the N.T. It means the curve or inner
angle of the arm.

經文:

路加福音 2:29-2:29

註釋:

 {Now lettest thou} (
un apolueis). Present active
indicative, {Thou art letting}. The _Nunc Dimittis_, adoration
and praise. It is full of rapture and vivid intensity (Plummer)
like the best of the Psalms. The verb apolu(935c) was common for the
manumission of slaves and Simeon here calls himself "thy slave
(doulon sou), Lord (Despota, our despot)." See  2Pe 2:1 .

經文:

路加福音 2:31-2:31

註釋:

 {Of all the peoples} (pant(936e) t(936e) la(936e)). Not merely Jews.
Another illustration of the universality of Luke's Gospel seen
already in  1:70  in the hymn of Zacharias. The second strophe of
the song according to Plummer showing what the Messiah will be to
the world after having shown what the Messiah is to Simeon.

經文:

路加福音 2:32-2:32

註釋:

 {Revelation to the Gentiles} (apokalupsin ethn(936e)).
Objective genitive. The Messiah is to be light (ph(9373)) for the
Gentiles in darkness ( 1:70 ) and glory (doxa) for Israel (cf.
 Ro 9:1-5  Isa 49:6 ). The word ethnos originally meant just a
crowd or company, then a race or nation, then the nations other
than Israel (the people, ho laos) or the people of God. The
word Gentile is Latin from _gens_, a tribe or nation. But the
world-wide mission of the Messiah comes out clearly in these
early chapters in Luke.

經文:

路加福音 2:33-2:33

註釋:

 {His father and his mother} (ho pat(8872) autou kai h(8820)m(8874)(8872)).
Luke had already used "parents" in  2:27 . He by no means intends
to deny the Virgin Birth of Jesus so plainly stated in  1:34-38 .
He merely employs here the language of ordinary custom. The late
MSS. wrongly read "and Joseph" instead of "his father." {Were
marvelling} ((886e) thaumazontes). The masculine gender includes
the feminine when both are referred to. But (886e) is singular, not
(8873)an, the normal imperfect plural in this periphrastic
imperfect. This is due to the wide space between copula and
participle. The copula (886e) agrees in number with ho pat(8872)
while the participle coming last agrees with both ho pater kai
h(8820)m(8874)(8872) (cf.  Mt 17:3  22:40 ). If one wonders why they
marvelled at Simeon's words after what they had heard from
Gabriel, Elisabeth, and the Shepherds, he should bear in mind
that every parent is astonished and pleased at the fine things
others see in the child. It is a mark of unusual insight for
others to see so much that is obvious to the parent. Simeon's
prophecy had gone beyond the angel's outline and it was
surprising that he should know anything about the child's
destiny.

經文:

路加福音 2:34-2:34

註釋:

 {Is set for the falling and the rising up of many in Israel}
(Keitai eis pt(9373)in kai anastasin poll(936e) en t(9369) Isra(886c)). Present
indicative of the old defective verb appearing only in present
and imperfect in the N.T. Sometimes it is used as the passive of
	ith(886d)i as here. The falling of some and the rising up of
others is what is meant. He will be a stumbling-block to some
( Isa 8:14  Mt 21:42,44  Ro 9:33  1Pe 2:16f. ) who love darkness
rather than light ( Joh 3:19 ), he will be the cause of rising
for others ( Ro 6:4,9  Eph 2:6 ). "Judas despairs, Peter repents:
one robber blasphemes, the other confesses" (Plummer). Jesus is
the magnet of the ages. He draws some, he repels others. This is
true of all epoch-making men to some extent. {Spoken against}
(antilegomenon). Present passive participle, continuous action.
It is going on today. Nietzsche regarded Jesus Christ as the
curse of the race because he spared the weak.

經文:

路加福音 2:35-2:35

註釋:

 1Sa
17:51 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Sa
17' or engs='1Sa
17'
經文:

路加福音 2:36-2:36

註釋:

 {One Anna a prophetess} (Hanna proph(8874)is). The word
proph(8874)is occurs in the N.T. only here and  Re 2:20 . In old
Greek writers it means a woman who interprets oracles. The long
parenthesis into verse  37  tells of her great age. Montefiore
makes it 106 as she was 15 when married, married 7 years, a widow
84.

經文:

路加福音 2:37-2:37

註釋:

 {Which departed not} (h(8820)ouk aphistato). Imperfect
indicative middle. She kept on not leaving. The Spirit kept her
in the temple as he led Simon to the temple (Plummer). The case
of "the temple" (	ou hierou) is ablative. {Night and day}
(
ukta kai h(886d)eran). Accusative of duration of time, all night
and all day. She never missed a service in the temple.

經文:

路加福音 2:38-2:38

註釋:

 {Coming up} (epist(8373)a). Second aorist active participle.
The word often has the notion of coming suddenly or bursting in
as of Martha in  Lu 10:40 . But here it probably means coming up
and standing by and so hearing Simeon's wonderful words so that
her words form a kind of footnote to his. {Gave thanks}
(anth(936d)ologeito). Imperfect middle of a verb (anthomologe(935c))
in common use in Greek writers and in the LXX though here alone
in the N.T. It had the idea of a mutual agreement or of saying
something before one (anti). Anna was evidently deeply moved
and repeated her thanksgiving and kept speaking (elalei,
imperfect again) "to all them that were looking for
(prosdechomenois, as in  1:35  of Simeon) the redemption of
Jerusalem (lutr(9373)in Ierousal(886d))." There was evidently a group
of such spirits that gathered in the temple either men around her
and Simeon or whom she met from time to time. There was thus a
nucleus of old saints in Jerusalem prepared for the coming of the
Messiah when he at last appears as the Messiah in Jerusalem (John
2 and 3). These probably all passed away. But they had a happy
hour of hope and joy. The late MSS. have "in Jerusalem" but "of
Jerusalem" is correct. What they meant by the "redemption of
Jerusalem" is not clear, whether political or spiritual or both.
Simeon was looking for the consolation of Israel ( 2:25 ) and
Zacharias ( 1:68 ) sang of redemption for Israel ( Isa 40:2 ).

經文:

路加福音 2:39-2:39

註釋:

 {To their own city Nazareth} (eis polin heaut(936e) Nazaret).
See on  Mt 2:23  about Nazareth. Luke tells nothing of the flight
to Egypt and the reason for the return to Nazareth instead of
Bethlehem, the place of the birth of Jesus as told in  Mt
2:13-23 . But then neither Gospel gives all the details of this
period. Luke has also nothing about the visit of the wise men
( Mt 2:1-12 ) as Matthew tells nothing of the shepherds and of
Simeon and Anna ( Lu 2:8-28 ). The two Gospels supplement each
other.

經文:

路加福音 2:40-2:40

註釋:

 {The child grew} ((8875)xane). Imperfect indicative of a very
ancient verb (auxan(935c)). This child grew and waxed strong
(ekrataiouto, imperfect middle), a hearty vigorous little boy
(paidion). Both verbs Luke used in  1:80  of the growth of John
the Baptist as a child. Then he used also pneumati, in spirit.
Here in addition to the bodily development Luke has "filled with
wisdom" (pl(8872)oumenon sophi(8369)). Present passive participle,
showing that the process of filling with wisdom kept pace with
the bodily growth. If it were only always true with others! We
need not be troubled over this growth in wisdom on the part of
Jesus any more than over his bodily growth. "The intellectual,
moral, and spiritual growth of the Child, like the physical, was
real. His was a perfect humanity developing perfectly, unimpeded
by hereditary or acquired defects. It was the first instance of
such a growth in history. For the first time a human infant was
realizing the ideal of humanity" (Plummer). {The grace of God}
(charis theou). In full measure.

經文:

路加福音 2:41-2:41

註釋:

 {Every year} (kat' etos). This idiom only here in the
N.T., a common Greek construction. Every male was originally
expected to appear at the passover, pentecost, and tabernacles
( Ex 23:14-17  34:23  De 16:16 ). But the Dispersion rendered
that impossible. But pious Palestinian Jews made a point of going
at least to the passover. Mary went with Joseph as a pious habit,
though not required by law to go.

經文:

路加福音 2:42-2:42

註釋:

 {Twelve years old} (et(936e) d(9364)eka). Predicate genitive. Luke
does not say that Jesus had not been to Jerusalem before, but at
twelve a Jewish boy became a "son of the law" and began to
observe the ordinances, putting on the phylacteries as a
reminder. {They went up} (anabainont(936e) aut(936e)). Genitive
absolute with present active participle, a loose construction
here, for the incident narrated took place _after_ they had gone
up, not _while_ they were gong up. "On their usual going up"
(Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 2:43-2:43

註釋:

 {When they had fulfilled the days} (	elei(9373)ant(936e) tas
h(886d)eras). Genitive absolute again, but aorist participle
(effective aorist). "The days" may mean the full seven days ( Ex
12:15f.  Le 23:6-8  De 16:3 ), or the two chief days after which
many pilgrims left for home. {As they were returning} (en t(9369)
hupostrephein antous). The articular infinitive with en, a
construction that Luke often uses ( 1:21  2:27 ). {The boy,
Jesus} (I(8873)ous ho pais). More exactly, "Jesus the boy." In
verse  40  it was "the child " (	o paidion), here it is "the
boy" (ho pais, no longer the diminutive form). It was not
disobedience on the part of "the boy" that made him remain
behind, but intense interest in the services of the temple;
"involuntary preoccupation" (Bruce) held him fast.

經文:

路加福音 2:44-2:44

註釋:

 {In the company} (en t(8869) sunodi(8369)). The caravan going
together on the road or way (sun, hodos), a journey in company,
then by metonymy the company itself. A common Greek word
(Plutarch, Strabo, etc.). The women usually went ahead and the
men followed. Joseph may have thought Jesus was with Mary and
Mary that he was with Joseph. "The Nazareth caravan was so long
that it took a whole day to look through it" (Plummer). {They
sought for him} (anez(8874)oun auton). Imperfect active. Common
Greek verb. Note force of ana. They searched up and down, back
and forth, a thorough search and prolonged, but in vain.

經文:

路加福音 2:45-2:45

註釋:

 {Seeking for him} (anaz(8874)ountes auton). Present participle
of the same verb. This was all that was worth while now, finding
the lost boy.

經文:

路加福音 2:46-2:46

註釋:

 {After three days} (meta h(886d)eras treis). One day out, one
day back, and on the third day finding him. {In the temple} (en
t(9369) hier(9369)). Probably on the terrace where members of the
Sanhedrin gave public instruction on sabbaths and feast-days, so
probably while the feast was still going on. The rabbis probably
sat on benches in a circle. The listeners on the ground, among
whom was Jesus the boy in a rapture of interest. {Both hearing
them and asking them questions} (kai akouonta aut(936e) kai
eper(9374)(936e)ta autous). Paul sat at the feet of Gamaliel ( Ac
22:3 ). Picture this eager boy alive with interest. It was his
one opportunity in a theological school outside of the synagogue
to hear the great rabbis expound the problems of life. This was
the most unusual of all children, to be sure, in intellectual
grasp and power. But it is a mistake to think that children of
twelve do not think profoundly concerning the issues of life.
What father or mother has ever been able to answer a child's
questions?

經文:

路加福音 2:47-2:47

註釋:

 {Were amazed} (existanto). Imperfect indicative middle,
descriptive of their continued and repeated astonishment. Common
verb exist(886d)i meaning that they stood out of themselves as if
their eyes were bulging out. The boy had a holy thirst for
knowledge (Plummer), and he used a boy's way of learning. {At his
understanding} (epi t(8869) sunesei). Based on (epi), the grasp
and comprehension from suni(886d)i, comparing and combining things.
Cf.  Mr 12:33 . {His answers} (	ais apokrisesin autou). It is
not difficult to ask hard questions, but this boy had astounding
answers to their questions, revealing his amazing intellectual
and spiritual growth.

經文:

路加福音 2:48-2:48

註釋:

 {They were astonished} (exeplag(8873)an). Second aorist
passive indicative of an old Greek word (ekpl(8873)s(935c)), to strike
out, drive out by a blow. Joseph and Mary "were struck out" by
what they saw and heard. Even they had not fully realized the
power in this wonderful boy. Parents often fail to perceive the
wealth of nature in their children.

經文:

路加福音 2:49-2:49

註釋:

 {Son} (	eknon). Child, literally. It was natural for Mary
to be the first to speak. {Why} (Ti). The mother's reproach of
the boy is followed by a confession of negligence on her part and
of Joseph ({sorrowing}, odun(936d)enoi). {Thy father} (ho pater
sou). No contradiction in this. Alford says: "Up to this time
Joseph had been so called by the holy child himself, but from
this time never." {Sought} (ez(8874)oumen). Imperfect tense
describing the long drawn out search for three days. {How is it
that} (Ti hoti). The first words of Jesus preserved to us. This
crisp Greek idiom without copula expresses the boy's amazement
that his parents should not know that there was only one possible
place in Jerusalem for him. {I must be} (dei einai me).
Messianic consciousness of the necessity laid on him. Jesus often
uses dei (must) about his work. Of all the golden dreams of any
boy of twelve here is the greatest. {In my Father's house} (en
tois tou patros mou). Not "about my Father's business," but "in
my Father's house" (cf.  Ge 41:51 ). Common Greek idiom. And note
"my," not "our." When the boy first became conscious of his
peculiar relation to the Father in heaven we do not know. But he
has it now at twelve and it will grow within him through the
years ahead in Nazareth.

經文:

路加福音 2:50-2:50

註釋:

 {They understood not} (ou sun(886b)an). First aorist active
indicative (one of the k aorists). Even Mary with all her
previous preparation and brooding was not equal to the dawning of
the Messianic consciousness in her boy. "My Father is God," Jesus
had virtually said, "and I must be in His house." Bruce observes
that a new era has come when Jesus calls God "Father," not
Despotes. "Even we do not yet fully understand" (Bruce) what
Jesus the boy here said.

經文:

路加福音 2:51-2:51

註釋:

 {He was subject unto them} ((886e) hupotassomenos autois).
Periphrastic imperfect passive. He continued subject unto them,
this wondrous boy who really knew more than parents and rabbis,
this gentle, obedient, affectionate boy. The next eighteen years
at Nazareth ( Lu 3:23 ) he remained growing into manhood and
becoming the carpenter of Nazareth ( Mr 6:3 ) in succession to
Joseph ( Mt 13:55 ) who is mentioned here for the last time. Who
can tell the wistful days when Jesus waited at Nazareth for the
Father to call him to his Messianic task? {Kept} (diet(8872)ei).
Imperfect active. Ancient Greek word (diat(8872)e(935c)), but only here
and  Ac 15:29  in the N.T. though in  Ge 37:11 . She kept
thoroughly (dia) all these recent sayings (or things,

h(886d)ata). In  2:19  sunet(8872)ei is the word used of Mary after
the shepherds left. These she kept pondering and comparing all
the things. Surely she has a full heart now. Could she foresee
how destiny would take Jesus out beyond her mother's reach?

經文:

路加福音 2:52-2:52

註釋:

 {Advanced in wisdom and stature} (proekopten t(8869) sophi(8369)
kai h(886c)iki(8369)). Imperfect active, he kept cutting his way forward
as through a forest or jungle as pioneers did. He kept growing in
stature (h(886c)ikia may mean age, as in  12:25 , but stature here)
and in wisdom (more than mere knowledge). His physical,
intellectual, moral, spiritual development was perfect. "At each
stage he was perfect for that stage" (Plummer). {In favour}
(chariti). Or grace. This is ideal manhood to have the favour
of God and men.

經文:

路加福音 3:1-3:1

註釋:

 {Now in the fifteenth year} (en etei de pentekaidekat(9369)).
Tiberius Caesar was ruler in the provinces two years before
Augustus Caesar died. Luke makes a six-fold attempt here to
indicate the time when John the Baptist began his ministry. John
revived the function of the prophet (Ecce Homo, p.  2 ) and it
was a momentous event after centuries of prophetic silence. Luke
begins with the Roman Emperor, then mentions Pontius Pilate
Procurator of Judea, Herod Antipas Tetrarch of Galilee (and
Perea), Philip, Tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis, Lysanias,
Tetrarch of Abilene (all with the genitive absolute construction)
and concludes with the high-priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas
(son-in-law and successor of Annas). The ancients did not have
our modern system of chronology, the names of rulers as here
being the common way. Objection has been made to the mention of
Lysanias here because Josephus (_Ant_. XXVII. I) tells of a
Lysanias who was King of Abila up to B.C. 36 as the one referred
to by Luke with the wrong date. But an inscription has been found
on the site of Abilene with mention of "Lysanias the tetrarch"
and at the time to which Luke refers (see my _Luke the Historian
in the Light of Research_, pp. 167f.). So Luke is vindicated
again by the rocks.

經文:

路加福音 3:2-3:2

註釋:

 {The Word of God came unto John} (egeneto rh(886d)a theou epi
I(9361)n(886e)). The great epoch marked by egeneto rather than (886e).
Rh(886d)a theou is some particular utterance of God (Plummer),
common in LXX, here alone in the N.T. Then John is introduced as
the son of Zacharias according to Chapter 1. Matthew describes
him as the Baptist, Mark as the Baptizer. No other Gospel
mentions Zacharias. Mark begins his Gospel here, but Matthew and
Luke have two Infancy Chapters before. Luke alone tells of the
coming of the word to John. All three Synoptics locate him "in
the wilderness" (en t(8869) er(886d)(9369)) as here,  Mr 1:4  Mt 3:1 
(adding "of Judea").

經文:

路加福音 3:3-3:3

註釋:

 2Ch
4:17 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ch
4' or engs='2Ch
4'
經文:

路加福音 3:4-3:4

註釋:

 Isa.
40 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Isa.' or engs='Isa.'
經文:

路加福音 3:5-3:5

註釋:

 {Valley} (pharagx). Here only in the N.T., though in the
LXX and ancient Greek. It is a ravine or valley hedged in by
precipices. {Shall be filled} (pl(8872)(9374)h(8873)etai). Future passive
indicative of pl(8872)o(935c). In 1845 when the Sultan visited Brusa the
inhabitants were called out to clear the roads of rocks and to
fill up the hollows. Oriental monarchs often did this very thing.
A royal courier would go ahead to issue the call. So the Messiah
sends his herald (John) before him to prepare the way for him.
Isaiah described the preparation for the Lord's triumphal march
and John used it with great force. {Hill} (ounos). Called a
Cyrenaic word by Herodotus, but later Greek writers use it as
does the LXX. {Brought low} (	apein(9374)h(8873)etai). Future passive
indicative of 	apeino(935c). Literal meaning here of a verb common
in the metaphorical sense. {Crooked} (skolia). Common word,
curved, opposite of orthos or euthus, straight.

經文:

路加福音 3:6-3:6

註釋:

 {All flesh} (p(8373)a sarx). Used in the N.T. of the human race
alone, though in the LXX brutes are included. {The salvation of
God} (	o sot(8872)ion tou theou). The saving act of God. This
phrase aptly describes Luke's Gospel which has in mind the
message of Christ for all men. It is the universal Gospel.

經文:

路加福音 3:7-3:7

註釋:

 {To the multitude that went out} (	ois exporeuomenois
ochlois). Plural, {Multitudes}. The present participle also
notes the repetition of the crowds as does elegen (imperfect),
he used to say.  Mt 3:7-10  singles out the message of John to
the Pharisees and Sadducees, which see for discussion of details.
Luke gives a summary of his preaching to the crowds with special
replies to these inquiries: the multitudes,  10,11 , the
publicans  12,13 , the soldiers  14 . {To be baptized of him}
(aptisth(886e)ai hup' autou). This is the purpose of their coming.
 Mt 3:7  has simply "to his baptism." John's metaphors are from
the wilderness (vipers, fruits, axe, slave boy loosing sandals,
fire, fan, thrashing-floor, garner, chaff, stones). {Who warned
you?} (	is hepedeixen humin;). The verb is like our "suggest"
by proof to eye, ear, or brain ( Lu 6:47  12:5  Ac 9:16  20:35  Mt 3:7 ). Nowhere else in the N.T. though common ancient word
(hupodeiknumi, show under, point out, give a tip or private
hint).

經文:

路加福音 3:10-3:10

註釋:

 {Asked} (ep(8872)(9374)(936e)). Imperfect tense, repeatedly asked.
{What then must we do?} (	i oun poi(8873)(936d)en;). Deliberative
aorist subjunctive. More exactly, {What then are we to do}, {What
then shall we do?} Same construction in verses  12,14 . The oun
refers to the severe things already said by John ( Lu 3:7-9 ).

經文:

路加福音 3:11-3:11

註釋:

 {Coats} (chit(936e)as). The inner and less necessary
undergarment. The outer indispensable himation is not
mentioned. Note the specific and different message to each class.
John puts his finger on the weaknesses of the people right before
him.

經文:

路加福音 3:12-3:12

註釋:

 {Also publicans} (kai tel(936e)ai). We have had the word
already in Matthew ( Mt 5:46  9:10  11:19  18:17  21:31f. ) and
Mark ( Mr 11:15f. ). It is sometimes coupled with harlots and
other sinners, the outcasts of society. The word is made up from
	elos, tax, and (936e)eomai, to buy, and is an old one. The
renter or collector of taxes was not popular anywhere, but least
of all when a Jew collected taxes for the Romans and did it by
terrible graft and extortions. {Extort} (prassete). The verb
means only to do or practice, but early the tax-collectors
learned how to "do" the public as regular "blood-suckers." Lucian
links them with crows and sycophants.

經文:

路加福音 3:14-3:14

註釋:

 2Ti
2:4 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ti
2' or engs='2Ti
2'
經文:

路加福音 3:15-3:15

註釋:

 {Were in expectation} (prosdok(936e)tos). Genitive absolute of
this striking verb already seen in  1:21 . {Reasoned}
(dialogizomen(936e)). Genitive absolute again. John's preaching
about the Messiah and the kingdom of God stirred the people
deeply and set them to wondering. {Whether haply he were the
Christ} (m(8870)ote autos ei(8820)ho Christos). Optative ei(885c) in
indirect question changed from the indicative in the direct
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1031). John wrought no miracles and was
not in David's line and yet he moved people so mightily that they
began to suspect that he himself (autos) was the Messiah. The
Sanhedrin will one day send a formal committee to ask him this
direct question ( Joh 1:19 ).

經文:

路加福音 3:16-3:16

註釋:

 {He that is mightier than I} (ho ischuroteros mou). Like
 Mr 1:7 , "the one mightier than I." Ablative case (mou) of
comparison. John would not turn aside for the flattery of the
crowd. He was able to take his own measure in comparison with the
Messiah and was loyal to him (see my _John the Loyal_). Compare
 Lu 3:16  with  Mr 1:7f.  and  Mt 3:11f.  for discussion of
details. Luke has "fire" here after "baptize with the Holy Ghost"
as  Mt 3:11 , which see. This bold Messianic picture in the
Synoptic Gospels shows that John saw the Messiah's coming as a
judgment upon the world like fire and the fan of the
thrashing-floor, and with unquenchable fire for the chaff ( Lu
3:17  Mt 3:12 ). But he had the spiritual conception also, the
baptism in the Holy Spirit which will characterize the Messiah's
Mission and so will far transcend the water baptism which marked
the ministry of John.

經文:

路加福音 3:18-3:18

註釋:

 {Many other exhortations} (polla men oun kai hetera).
Literally, many and different things did John evangelize,
euaggelizeto, to the people. Luke has given a bare sample of
the wonderful messages of the Baptist. Few as his words preserved
are they give a definite and powerful conception of his
preaching.

經文:

路加福音 3:19-3:19

註釋:

 {Reproved} (elegchomenos). Present passive participle of
elegch(935c), an old verb meaning in Homer to treat with contempt,
then to convict ( Mt 18:15 ), to expose ( Eph 5:11 ), to reprove
as here. The substantive elegchos means proof ( Heb 11:1 ) and
elegmos, censure ( 2Ti 3:16 ). Josephus (_Ant_. XVIII. V.4)
shows how repulsive this marriage was to Jewish feeling. {Evil
things} (pon(8872)(936e)). Incorporated into the relative sentence. The
word is from ponos, pone(935c), toil, work, and gives the active
side of evil, possibly with the notion of work itself as evil or
at least an annoyance. The "evil eye" (ophthalmos pon(8872)os in
 Mr 7:22 ) was a "mischief working eye" (Vincent). In  Mt 6:23 
it is a diseased eye. So Satan is "the evil one" ( Mt 5:37  6:13 , etc.). It is a very common adjective in the N.T. as in the
older Greek. {Had done} (epoi(8873)en). Aorist active indicative,
not past perfect, merely a summary constative aorist, {he did}.

經文:

路加福音 3:20-3:20

註釋:

 {Added} (proseth(886b)en). First aorist active indicative
(kappa aorist). Common verb (prostith(886d)i) in all Greek. In N.T.
chiefly in Luke and Acts. Hippocrates used it of applying wet
sponges to the head and Galen of applying a decoction of acorns.
There is no evidence that Luke has a medical turn to the word
here. The absence of the conjunction hoti (that) before the
next verb katekleisen (shut up) is asyndeton. This verb
literally means {shut down}, possibly with a reference to closing
down the door of the dungeon, though it makes sense as a
perfective use of the preposition, like our "shut up" without a
strict regard to the idea of "down." It is an old and common
verb, though here and  Ac 26:10  only in the N.T. See  Mt 14:3 
for further statement about the prison.

經文:

路加福音 3:21-3:21

註釋:

 {When all the people were baptised} (en t(9369) baptisth(886e)ai
hapanta ton laon). The use of the articular aorist infinitive
here with en bothers some grammarians and commentators. There
is no element of time in the aorist infinitive. It is simply
punctiliar action, literally "in the being baptized as to all the
people." Luke does not say that all the people were baptized
before Jesus came or were baptized at the same time. It is merely
a general statement that Jesus was baptized in connexion with or
at the time of the baptizing of the people as a whole. {Jesus
also having been baptized} (kai I(8873)ou baptisthentos). Genitive
absolute construction, first aorist passive participle. In Luke's
sentence the baptism of Jesus is merely introductory to the
descent of the Holy Spirit and the voice of the Father. For the
narrative of the baptism see  Mr 1:9  Mt 3:13-16 . {And praying}
(kai proseuchomenou). Alone in Luke who so often mentions the
praying of Jesus. Present participle and so naturally meaning
that the heaven was opened while Jesus was praying though not
necessarily in answer to his prayer. {The heaven was opened}
(ane(9369)chth(886e)ai ton ouranon). First aorist passive infinitive
with double augment, whereas the infinitive is not supposed to
have any augment. The regular form would be anoichth(886e)ai as in
D (Codex Bezae). So the augment appears in the future indicative
kateaxei ( Mt 12:20 ) and the second aorist passive subjunctive
kateag(9373)in ( Joh 19:31 ). Such unusual forms appear in the
_Koin(825f). This infinitive here with the accusative of general
reference is the subject of egeneto (it came to pass).  Mt
3:16  uses the same verb, but  Mr 1:10  has schizomenous, rent
asunder.

經文:

路加福音 3:22-3:22

註釋:

 {Descended} (katab(886e)ai). Same construction as the
preceding infinitive. {The Holy Ghost} (	o pneuma to hagion).
The Holy Spirit.  Mr 1:10  has merely the Spirit (	o pneuma)
while  Mt 3:16  has the Spirit of God (pneuma theou). {In a
bodily form} (s(936d)atik(9369) eidei). Alone in Luke who has also "as
a dove" (h(9373) peristeran) like Matthew and Mark. This probably
means that the Baptist saw the vision that looked like a dove.
Nothing is gained by denying the fact or possibility of the
vision that looked like a dove. God manifests his power as he
will. The symbolism of the dove for the Holy Spirit is
intelligible. We are not to understand that this was the
beginning of the Incarnation of Christ as the Cerinthian Gnostics
held. But this fresh influx of the Holy Spirit may have deepened
the Messianic consciousness of Jesus and certainly revealed him
to the Baptist as God's Son. {And a voice came out of heaven}
(kai ph(936e)(886e) ex ouranou genesthai). Same construction of
infinitive with accusative of general reference. The voice of the
Father to the Son is given here as in  Mr 1:11 , which see, and
 Mt 3:17  for discussion of the variation there. The Trinity here
manifest themselves at the baptism of Jesus which constitutes the
formal entrance of Jesus upon his Messianic ministry. He enters
upon it with the Father's blessing and approval and with the
power of the Holy Spirit upon him. The deity of Christ here
appears in plain form in the Synoptic Gospels. The consciousness
of Christ is as clear on this point here as in the Gospel of John
where the Baptist describes him after his baptism as the Son of
God ( Joh 1:34 ).

經文:

路加福音 3:23-3:23

註釋:

 {Jesus Himself} (autos I(8873)ous). Emphatic intensive pronoun
calling attention to the personality of Jesus at this juncture.
When he entered upon his Messianic work. {When he began to teach}
(archomenos). The words "to teach" are not in the Greek text.
The Authorized Version "began to be about thirty years of age,"
is an impossible translation. The Revised Version rightly
supplies "to teach" (didaskein) after the present participle
archomenos. Either the infinitive or the participle can follow
archomai, usually the infinitive in the _Koin(825f). It is not
necessary to supply anything ( Ac 1:22 ). {Was about thirty years
of age} ((886e) h(9373)ei et(936e) triakonta). Tyndale has it right "Jesus
was about thirty yere of age when he beganne." Luke does not
commit himself definitely to precisely thirty years as the age of
Christ. The Levites entered upon full service at that age, but
that proves nothing about Jesus. God's prophets enter upon their
task when the word of God comes to them. Jesus may have been a
few months under or over thirty or a year or two less or more.
{Being Son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli} ((936e)
huios h(9373) enomizeto I(9373)(8870)h tou Helei). For the discussion of the
genealogy of Jesus see on 烘t 1:1-17|. The two genealogies differ
very widely and many theories have been proposed about them. At
once one notices that Luke begins with Jesus and goes back to
Adam, the Son of God, while Matthew begins with Abraham and comes
to "Joseph the husband of Mary of whom was born Jesus who is
called Christ" ( Mt 1:16 ). Matthew employs the word "begot" each
time, while Luke has the article 	ou repeating huiou (Son)
except before Joseph. They agree in the mention of Joseph, but
Matthew says that "Jacob begat Joseph" while Luke calls "Joseph
the son of Heli." There are other differences, but this one makes
one pause. Joseph, of course, did not have two fathers. If we
understand Luke to be giving the real genealogy of Jesus through
Mary, the matter is simple enough. The two genealogies differ
from Joseph to David except in the cases of Zorobabel and
Salathiel. Luke evidently means to suggest something unusual in
his genealogy by the use of the phrase "as was supposed" (h(9373)
enomizeto). His own narrative in  Lu 1:26-38  has shown that
Joseph was not the actual father of Jesus. Plummer objects that,
if Luke is giving the genealogy of Jesus through Mary, huios
must be used in two senses here (son as was supposed of Joseph,
and grandson through Mary of Heli). But that is not an unheard of
thing. In neither list does Matthew or Luke give a complete
genealogy. Just as Matthew uses "begat" for descent, so does Luke
employ "son" in the same way for descendant. It was natural for
Matthew, writing for Jews, to give the legal genealogy through
Joseph, though he took pains to show in  Mt 1:16,18-25  that
Joseph was not the actual father of Jesus. It was equally natural
for Luke, a Greek himself and writing for the whole world, to
give the actual genealogy of Jesus through Mary. It is in harmony
with Pauline universality (Plummer) that Luke carries the
genealogy back to Adam and does not stop with Abraham. It is not
clear why Luke adds "the Son of God" after Adam ( 3:38 ).
Certainly he does not mean that Jesus is the Son of God only in
the sense that Adam is. Possibly he wishes to dispose of the
heathen myths about the origin of man and to show that God is the
Creator of the whole human race, Father of all men in that sense.
No mere animal origin of man is in harmony with this conception.

經文:

路加福音 4:1-4:1

註釋:

 {Full of the Holy Spirit} (pl(8872)(8873) pneumatos hagiou). An
evident allusion to the descent of the Holy Spirit on Jesus at
his baptism ( Lu 3:21f. ). The distinctness of the Persons in the
Trinity is shown there, but with evident unity. One recalls also
Luke's account of the overshadowing of Mary by the Holy Spirit
( 1:35 ).  Mt 4:1  says that "Jesus was led of the Spirit" while
 Mr 1:12  states that "the Spirit driveth him forth" which see
for discussion. "Jesus had been endowed with supernatural power;
and He was tempted to make use of it in furthering his own
interests without regard to the Father's will" (Plummer). {Was
led by the Spirit} ((8867)eto en toi pneumati). Imperfect passive,
continuously led. En may be the instrumental use as often, for
 Mt 4:1  has here hupo of direct agency. But Matthew has the
aorist passive an(8863)hth(885c) which may be ingressive as he has eis
t(886e) er(886d)on (into the wilderness) while Luke has en t(9369) er(886d)(9369)
(in the wilderness). At any rate Luke affirms that Jesus was now
continuously under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Hence in this
same sentence he mentions the Spirit twice. {During the forty
days} (h(886d)er(8373) tesserakonta). Accusative of duration of time,
to be connected with "led" not with "tempted." He was led in the
Spirit during these forty days (cf.  De 8:2 , forty years). The
words are amphibolous also in  Mr 1:13 .  Mt 4:2  seems to imply
that the three recorded temptations came at the close of the
fasting for forty days. That can be true and yet what Luke states
be true also. These three may be merely specimens and so
"representative of the struggle which continued throughout the
whole period" (Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 4:2-4:2

註釋:

 {Being tempted} (peirazomenos). Present passive participle
and naturally parallel with the imperfect passive (8867)eto (was
led) in verse  1 . This is another instance of poor verse
division which should have come at the end of the sentence. See
on 烘t 4:1; Mr 1:13| for the words "tempt" and "devil." The devil
challenged the Son of man though also the Son of God. It was a
contest between Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, and the slanderer
of men. The devil had won with Adam and Eve. He has hopes of
triumph over Jesus. The story of this conflict is given only in
 Mt 4:1-11  Lu 4:1-13 . There is a mere mention of it in  Mr
1:12f . So then here is a specimen of the Logia of Jesus (Q), a
non-Markan portion of Matthew and Luke, the earliest document
about Christ. The narrative could come ultimately only from
Christ himself. It is noteworthy that it bears all the marks of
the high conception of Jesus as the Son of God found in the
Gospel of John and in Paul and Hebrews, the rest of the New
Testament in fact, for Mark, Matthew, Luke, Acts, Peter, and Jude
follow in this same strain. The point is that modern criticism
has revealed the Messianic consciousness of Jesus as God's Son at
his Baptism and in his Temptations at the very beginning of his
ministry and in the oldest known documents about Christ (The
Logia, Mark's Gospel). {He did eat nothing} (ouk ephagen
ouden). Second aorist (constative) active indicative of the
defective verb esthi(935c). Mark does not give the fast.  Mt 4:2 
has the aorist active participle 
(8873)teusas which usually means
a religious fast for purposes of devotion. That idea is not
excluded by Luke's words. The entrance of Jesus upon his
Messianic ministry was a fit time for this solemn and intense
consecration. This mental and spiritual strain would naturally
take away the appetite and there was probably nothing at hand to
eat. The weakness from the absence of food gave the devil his
special opportunity to tempt Jesus which he promptly seized.
{When they were completed} (suntelestheis(936e) aut(936e)). Genitive
absolute with the first aorist passive participle feminine plural
because hemer(936e) (days) is feminine. According to Luke the
hunger (epeinasen, became hungry, ingressive aorist active
indicative) came at the close of the forty days as in  Mt 4:2 .

經文:

路加福音 4:3-4:3

註釋:

 {The Son of God} (huios tou theou). No article as in  Mt
4:3 . So refers to the relationship as Son of God rather than to
the office of Messiah. Manifest reference to the words of the
Father in  Lu 3:22 . Condition of the first class as in Matthew.
The devil assumes that Jesus is Son of God. {This stone} (	(9369)
lith(9369) tout(9369)). Perhaps pointing to a particular round stone
that looked in shape and size like a loaf of bread. Stanley
(_Sinai and Palestine_, p. 154) on Mt. Carmel found
crystallizations of stones called "Elijah's melons." The hunger
of Jesus opened the way for the diabolic suggestion designed to
inspire doubt in Jesus toward his Father. Matthew has "these
stones." {Bread} (artos). Better "loaf." For discussion of this
first temptation see on 烘t 4:3f|. Jesus felt the force of each
of the temptations without yielding at all to the sin involved.
See discussion on Matthew also for reality of the devil and the
objective and subjective elements in the temptations. Jesus
quotes  De 8:3  in reply to the devil.

經文:

路加福音 4:5-4:5

註釋:

 {The world} (	(8873) oikoumen(8873)). The inhabited world. In  Mt
4:8  it is 	ou kosmou. {In a moment of time} (en stigm(8869)
chronou). Only in Luke and the word stigm(885c) nowhere else in the
N.T. (from stiz(935c), to prick, or puncture), a point or dot. In
Demosthenes, Aristotle, Plutarch. Like our "second" of time or
tick of the clock. This panorama of all the kingdoms of the world
and the glory of them in a moment of time was mental, a great
feat of the imagination (a mental satanic "movie" performance),
but this fact in no way discredits the idea of the actual visible
appearance of Satan also. This second temptation in Luke is the
third in Matthew's order. Luke's order is geographical
(wilderness, mountain, Jerusalem). Matthew's is climacteric
(hunger, nervous dread, ambition). There is a climax in Luke's
order also (sense, man, God). There is no way to tell the actual
order.

經文:

路加福音 4:6-4:6

註釋:

 {All this authority} (	(886e) exousian taut(886e) hapasan).  Mt
4:9  has "all these things." Luke's report is more specific. {And
the glory of them} (kai t(886e) doxan aut(936e)).  Mt 4:8  has this in
the statement of what the devil did, not what he said. {For it
hath been delivered unto me} (hoti emoi paradedotai). Perfect
passive indicative. Satan here claims possession of world power
and Jesus does not deny it. It may be due to man's sin and by
God's permission. Jesus calls Satan the ruler of this world ( Joh
12:31  14:30  16:11 ). {To whomsoever I will} (hoi an thel(935c)).
Present subjunctive with an in an indefinite relative sentence.
This audacious claim, if allowed, makes one wonder whether some
of the world rulers are not, consciously or unconsciously, agents
of the devil. In several American cities there has been proven a
definite compact between the police and the underworld of crime.
But the tone of Satan here is one of superiority to Jesus in
world power. He offers him a share in it on one condition.

經文:

路加福音 4:7-4:7

註釋:

 {Wilt worship before me} (proskun(8873)(8869)s en(9370)ion emou).  Mt
4:9  has it more bluntly "worship me." That is what it really
comes to, though in Luke the matter is more delicately put. It is
a condition of the third class (ean and the subjunctive). Luke
has it "thou therefore if" (su oun ean), in a very emphatic and
subtle way. It is the ingressive aorist (proskun(8873)(8869)s), just
bow the knee once up here in my presence. The temptation was for
Jesus to admit Satan's authority by this act of prostration (fall
down and worship), a recognition of authority rather than of
personal merit. {It shall all be thine} (estai sou p(8373)a). Satan
offers to turn over all the keys of world power to Jesus. It was
a tremendous grand-stand play, but Jesus saw at once that in that
case he would be the agent of Satan in the rule of the world by
bargain and graft instead of the Son of God by nature and world
ruler by conquest over Satan. The heart of Satan's program is
here laid bare. Jesus here rejected the Jewish idea of the
Messiah as an earthly ruler merely. "He rejects Satan as an ally,
and thereby has him as an implacable enemy" (Plummer.)

經文:

路加福音 4:8-4:8

註釋:

 {Thou shalt worship} (proskun(8873)eis). Satan used this verb
to Jesus who turns it against him by the quotation from  De
6:13 . Jesus clearly perceived that one could not worship both
Satan and God. He had to choose whom he would serve. Luke does
not give the words, "Get thee hence, Satan" ( Mt 4:10 ), for he
has another temptation to narrate.

經文:

路加福音 4:9-4:9

註釋:

 {Led him} ((8867)agen). Aorist active indicative of ag(935c).  Mt
4:5  has paralambanei (dramatic present). {The wing of the
temple} (	o pterugion tou hierou). See on 烘t 4:5|. It is not
easy to determine precisely what it was. {From hence}
(enteuthen). This Luke adds to the words in Matthew, which see.
{To guard thee} (	ou diaphulaxai se). Not in  Mt 4:6  quoted by
Satan from  Ps 91:11,12 . Satan does not misquote this Psalm, but
he misapplies it and makes it mean presumptuous reliance on God.
This compound verb is very old, but occurs here alone in the N.T.
and that from the LXX. Luke repeats hoti (recitative hoti
after gegraptai, is written) after this part of the quotation.

經文:

路加福音 4:12-4:12

註釋:

 {It is said} (eir(8874)ai). Perfect passive indicative, stands
said, a favourite way of quoting Scripture in the N.T. In  Mt
4:7  we have the usual "it is written" (gegraptai). Here Jesus
quotes  De 6:16 . Each time he uses Deuteronomy against the
devil. The LXX is quoted. It is the volitive future indicative
with ouk, a common prohibition. Jesus points out to the devil
that testing God is not trusting God (Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 4:13-4:13

註釋:

 {Every temptation} (panta peirasmon). These three kinds
exhaust the avenues of approach (the appetites, the nerves, the
ambitions). Satan tried them all. They formed a cycle (Vincent).
Hence "he was in all points tempted like as we are" ( Heb 4:15 ).
"The enemy tried all his weapons, and was at all points defeated"
(Plummer). Probably all during the forty days the devil tempted
him, but three are representatives of all. {For a season} (achri
kairou). Until a good opportunity should return, the language
means. We are thus to infer that the devil returned to his attack
from time to time. In the Garden of Gethsemane he tempted Jesus
more severely than here. He was here trying to thwart the purpose
of Jesus to go on with his Messianic plans, to trip him at the
start. In Gethsemane the devil tried to make Jesus draw back from
the culmination of the Cross with all its agony and horror. The
devil attacked Jesus by the aid of Peter ( Mr 8:33 ), through the
Pharisees ( Joh 8:40ff. ), besides Gethsemane ( Lu 22:42,53 ).

經文:

路加福音 4:14-4:14

註釋:

 {Returned} (hupestrepsen). Luke does not fill in the gap
between the temptations in the wilderness of Judea and the
Galilean Ministry. He follows the outline of Mark. It is John's
Gospel alone that tells of the year of obscurity (Stalker) in
various parts of the Holy Land. {In the power of the Spirit} (en
t(8869) dunamei tou pneumatos). Luke in these two verses ( 14,15 )
gives a description of the Galilean Ministry with three marked
characteristics (Plummer): the power of the spirit, rapid spread
of Christ's fame, use of the Jewish synagogues. Luke often notes
the power of the Holy Spirit in the work of Christ. Our word
dynamite is this same word dunamis (power). {A fame} (ph(886d)(885c)).
An old Greek word found in the N.T. only here and  Mt 9:26 . It
is from ph(886d)i, to say. Talk ran rapidly in every direction. It
assumes the previous ministry as told by John.

經文:

路加福音 4:15-4:15

註釋:

 {And he taught} (kai autos edidasken). Luke is fond of
this mode of transition so that it is not certain that he means
to emphasize "he himself" as distinct from the rumour about him.
It is the imperfect tense, descriptive of the habit of Jesus. The
synagogues were an open door to Jesus before the hostility of the
Pharisees was aroused. {Being glorified} (doxazomenos). Present
passive participle, durative action like the imperfect
edidasken. General admiration of Jesus everywhere. He was the
wonder teacher of his time. Even the rabbis had not yet learned
how to ridicule and oppose Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 4:16-4:16

註釋:

 {Where he had been brought up} (hou (886e) tethrammenos). Past
perfect passive periphrastic indicative, a state of completion in
past time, from 	reph(935c), a common Greek verb. This visit is
before that recorded in  Mr 6:1-6  Mt 13:54-58  which was just
before the third tour of Galilee. Here Jesus comes back after a
year of public ministry elsewhere and with a wide reputation ( Lu
4:15 ). Luke may have in mind  2:51 , but for some time now
Nazareth had not been his home and that fact may be implied by
the past perfect tense. {As his custom was} (kata to ei(9374)hos
aut(9369)). Second perfect active neuter singular participle of an
old eth(935c) (Homer), to be accustomed. Literally according to what
was customary to him (aut(9369), dative case). This is one of the
flashlights on the early life of Jesus. He had the habit of going
to public worship in the synagogue as a boy, a habit that he kept
up when a grown man. If the child does not form the habit of
going to church, the man is almost certain not to have it. We
have already had in Matthew and Mark frequent instances of the
word synagogue which played such a large part in Jewish life
after the restoration from Babylon. {Stood up} (anest(885c)). Second
aorist active indicative and intransitive. Very common verb. It
was the custom for the reader to stand except when the Book of
Esther was read at the feast of Purim when he might sit. It is
not here stated that Jesus had been in the habit of standing up
to read here or elsewhere. It was his habit to go to the
synagogue for worship. Since he entered upon his Messianic work
his habit was to teach in the synagogues ( Lu 4:15 ). This was
apparently the first time that he had done so in Nazareth. He may
have been asked to read as Paul was in Antioch in Pisidia ( Ac
13:15 ). The ruler of the synagogue for that day may have invited
Jesus to read and speak because of his now great reputation as a
teacher. Jesus could have stood up voluntarily and appropriately
because of his interest in his home town. {To read}
(anagn(936e)ai). Second aorist active infinitive of anagin(9373)k(935c),
to recognize again the written characters and so to read and then
to read aloud. It appears first in Pindar in the sense of read
and always so in the N.T. This public reading aloud with
occasional comments may explain the parenthesis in  Mt 24:15 
(Let him that readeth understand).

經文:

路加福音 4:17-4:17

註釋:

 {Was delivered} (epedoth(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative of epidid(936d)i, to give over to, a common verb. At the
proper stage of the service "the attendant" or "minister"
(hup(8872)et(8873), under rower) or "beadle" took out a roll of the law
from the ark, unwrapped it, and gave it to some one to read. On
sabbath days some seven persons were asked to read small portions
of the law. This was the first lesson or _Parashah_. This was
followed by a reading from the prophets and a discourse, the
second lesson or _Haphtarah_. This last is what Jesus did. {The
book of the prophet Isaiah} (iblion tou proph(8874)ou Esaiou).
Literally, "a roll of the prophet Isaiah." Apparently Isaiah was
handed to Jesus without his asking for it. But certainly Jesus
cared more for the prophets than for the ceremonial law. It was a
congenial service that he was asked to perform. Jesus used
Deuteronomy in his temptations and now Isaiah for this sermon.
The Syriac Sinaitic manuscript has it that Jesus stood up after
the attendant handed him the roll. {Opened} (anoixas). Really
it was {unrolled} (anaptuxas) as Aleph D have it. But the more
general term anoixas (from anoig(935c), common verb) is probably
genuine. Anaptuss(935c) does not occur in the N.T. outside of this
passage if genuine. {Found the place} (heuren ton topon).
Second aorist active indicative. He continued to unroll (rolling
up the other side) till he found the passage desired. It may have
been a fixed lesson for the day or it may have been his own
choosing. At any rate it was a marvellously appropriate passage
( Isa 61:1,2  with one clause omitted and some words from  Isa
58:6 ). It is a free quotation from the Septuagint. {Where it was
written} (hou (886e) gegrammenon). Periphrastic pluperfect passive
again as in  4:16 .

經文:

路加福音 4:18-4:18

註釋:

 {Anointed me} (echrisen me). First aorist active
indicative of the verb chri(935c) from which {Christ} (Christos)
is derived, the Anointed One. Isaiah is picturing the Jubilee
year and the release of captives and the return from the
Babylonian exile with the hope of the Messiah through it all.
Jesus here applies this Messianic language to himself. "The
Spirit of the Lord is upon me" as was shown at the baptism ( Lu
3:21 ) where he was also "anointed" for his mission by the
Father's voice ( 3:22 ). {To the poor} (pt(9363)hois). Jesus
singles this out also as one of the items to tell John the
Baptist in prison ( Lu 7:22 ). Our word _Gospel_ is a translation
of the Greek Euaggelion, and it is for the poor. {He hath sent
me} (apestalken me). Change of tense to perfect active
indicative. He is now on that mission here. Jesus is God's
_Apostle_ to men ( Joh 17:3 , Whom thou didst send). {Proclaim}
(k(8872)uxai). As a herald like Noah ( 2Pe 2:5 ). {To the captives}
(aichmal(9374)ois). Prisoners of war will be released (aichm(885c), a
spear point, and hal(9374)os, from haliskomai, to be captured).
Captured by the spear point. Common word, but here only in the
N.T. {Set at liberty} (aposteilai). First aorist active
infinitive of apostell(935c). Same verb as apestalken, above.
Brought in here from  Isa 58:6 . Plummer suggests that Luke
inserts it here from memory. But Jesus could easily have turned
back the roll and read it so. {Them that are bruised}
(	ethrausmenous). Perfect passive participle of 	hrau(935c), an
old verb, but here only in the N.T. It means to break in pieces
broken in heart and often in body as well. One loves to think
that Jesus felt it to be his mission to mend broken hearts like
pieces of broken earthenware, real rescue-mission work. Jesus
mends them and sets them free from their limitations.

經文:

路加福音 4:19-4:19

註釋:

 {The acceptable year of the Lord} (eniauton Kuriou
dekton). He does not mean that his ministry is to be only one
year in length as Clement of Alexandria and Origen argued. That
is to turn figures into fact. The Messianic age has come, Jesus
means to say. On the first day of the year of Jubilee the priests
with sound of trumpet proclaimed the blessings of that year ( Le
25:8-17 ). This great passage justly pictures Christ's conception
of his mission and message.

經文:

路加福音 4:20-4:20

註釋:

 2Co
3:7,13 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
3' or engs='2Co
3'
經文:

路加福音 4:21-4:21

註釋:

 {And he began to say} ((8872)xato de legein). Aorist
ingressive active indicative and present infinitive. He began
speaking. The moment of hushed expectancy was passed. These may
or may not be the first words uttered here by Jesus. Often the
first sentence is the crucial one in winning an audience.
Certainly this is an arresting opening sentence. {Hath been
fulfilled} (pepl(8872)(9374)ai). Perfect passive indicative, {stands
fulfilled}. "Today this scripture ( Isa 61:1,2 , just read)
stands fulfilled in your ears." It was a most amazing statement
and the people of Nazareth were quick to see the Messianic claim
involved. Jesus could only mean that the real year of Jubilee had
come, that the Messianic prophecy of Isaiah had come true today,
and that in him they saw the Messiah of prophecy. There are
critics today who deny that Jesus claimed to be the Messiah. To
be able to do that, they must reject the Gospel of John and all
such passages as this one. And it is no apocalyptic
eschatological Messiah whom Jesus here sets forth, but the one
who forgives sin and binds up the broken-hearted. The words were
too good to be true and to be spoken here at Nazareth by one of
their own townsmen!

經文:

路加福音 4:22-4:22

註釋:

 {Bare him witness} (emarturoun). Imperfect active, perhaps
inchoative. They all began to bear witness that the rumours were
not exaggerations ( 4:14 ) as they had supposed, but had
foundation in fact if this discourse or its start was a fair
sample of his teaching. The verb marture(935c) is a very old and
common one. It is frequent in Acts, Paul's Epistles, and the
Johannine books. The substantive martur is seen in our English
martyr, one who witnesses even by his death to his faith in
Christ. {And wondered} (kai ethaumazon). Imperfect active also,
perhaps inchoative also. They began to marvel as he proceeded
with his address. This verb is an old one and common in the
Gospels for the attitude of the people towards Jesus. {At the
words of grace} (epi tois logois t(8873) charitos). See on 烊u
1:30; 2:52| for this wonderful word charis so full of meaning
and so often in the N.T. The genitive case (case of genus or
kind) here means that the words that came out of the mouth of
Jesus in a steady stream (present tense, ekporeuomenois) were
marked by fascination and charm. They were "winning words" as the
context makes plain, though they were also "gracious" in the
Pauline sense of "grace." There is no necessary antithesis in the
ideas of graceful and gracious in these words of Jesus. {Is not
this Joseph's son?} (Ouchi huios estin I(9373)(8870)h houtos;). Witness
and wonder gave way to bewilderment as they began to explain to
themselves the situation. The use of ouchi intensive form of
ouk in a question expects the answer "yes." Jesus passed in
Nazareth as the son of Joseph as Luke presents him in  3:23 . He
does not stop here to correct this misconception because the
truth has been already amply presented in  1:28-38  2:49 . This
popular conception of Jesus as the son of Joseph appears also in
 Joh 1:45 . The puzzle of the people was due to their previous
knowledge of Jesus as the carpenter ( Mr 6:3 ; the carpenter's
son,  Mt 13:55 ). For him now to appear as the Messiah in
Nazareth where he had lived and laboured as the carpenter was a
phenomenon impossible to credit on sober reflection. So the mood
of wonder and praise quickly turned with whispers and nods and
even scowls to doubt and hostility, a rapid and radical
transformation of emotion in the audience.

經文:

路加福音 4:23-4:23

註釋:

 {Doubtless} (pant(9373)). Adverb. Literally, at any rate,
certainly, assuredly. Cf.  Ac 21:22  28:4 . {This parable} (	(886e)
parabol(886e) taut(886e)). See discussion on 烘t 13|. Here the word has
a special application to a crisp proverb which involves a
comparison. The word physician is the point of comparison. Luke
the physician alone gives this saying of Jesus. The proverb means
that the physician was expected to take his own medicine and to
heal himself. The word parabol(885c) in the N.T. is confined to the
Synoptic Gospels except  Heb 9:9  11:19 . This use for a proverb
occurs also in  Lu 5:36  6:39 . This proverb in various forms
appears not only among the Jews, but in Euripides and Aeschylus
among the Greeks, and in Cicero's _Letters_. Hobart quotes the
same idea from Galen, and the Chinese used to demand it of their
physicians. The point of the parable seems to be that the people
were expecting him to make good his claim to the Messiahship by
doing here in Nazareth what they had heard of his doing in
Capernaum and elsewhere. "Establish your claims by direct
evidence" (Easton). This same appeal (Vincent) was addressed to
Christ on the Cross ( Mt 27:40,42 ). There is a tone of sarcasm
towards Jesus in both cases. {Heard done} ((886b)ousamen genomena).
The use of this second aorist middle participle genomena after
(886b)ousamen is a neat Greek idiom. It is punctiliar action in
indirect discourse after this verb of sensation or emotion
(Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1040-42, 1122-24). {Do also here}
(poi(8873)on kai h(9364)e). Ingressive aorist active imperative. Do it
here in thy own country and town and do it now. Jesus applies the
proverb to himself as an interpretation of their real attitude
towards himself.

經文:

路加福音 4:24-4:24

註釋:

 {And he said} (eipen de). Also in  1:13 . The interjection
of these words here by Luke may indicate a break in his address,
though there is no other indication of an interval here. Perhaps
they only serve to introduce solemnly the new proverb like the
words {Verily I say unto you} (am(886e) leg(9320)humin). This proverb
about the prophet having no honour in his own country Jesus had
already applied to himself according to  Joh 4:44 . Both  Mr 6:4 
and  Mt 13:57  give it in a slightly altered form on the last
visit of Jesus to Nazareth. The devil had tempted Jesus to make a
display of his power to the people by letting them see him
floating down from the pinnacle of the temple ( Lu 4:9-11 ).

經文:

路加福音 4:25-4:25

註釋:

 {Three years and six months} (et(8820)tria kai m(886e)as hex).
Accusative of duration of time without epi (doubtful). The same
period is given in  Jas 5:17 , the popular Jewish way of
speaking. In  1Ki 18:1  the rain is said to have come in the
third year. But the famine probably lasted still longer.

經文:

路加福音 4:26-4:26

註釋:

 1Ki
17:8,9 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ki
17' or engs='1Ki
17'
經文:

路加福音 4:27-4:27

註釋:

 {In the time of Elisha the prophet} (epi Elisaiou tou
proph(8874)ou). This use of epi with the genitive for "in the time
of" is a good Greek idiom. The second illustration of the proverb
is from the time of Elisha and is another heathen, {Naaman the
Syrian} (Naiman ho Syros). He was the lone leper that was
cleansed by Elisha ( 2Ki 5:1,14 ).

經文:

路加福音 4:28-4:28

註釋:

 {They were all filled with wrath} (epl(8873)th(8873)an pantes
thumou). First aorist passive indicative of the common verb
pimpl(886d)i followed by the genitive case. The people of Nazareth
at once caught on and saw the point of these two Old Testament
illustrations of how God in two cases blessed the heathen instead
of the Jewish people. The implication was evident. Nazareth was
no better than Capernaum if as good. He was under no special
obligation to do unusual things in Nazareth because he had been
reared there. Town pride was insulted and it at once exploded in
a burst of rage.

經文:

路加福音 4:29-4:29

註釋:

 {They rose up and cast him forth} (anastantes exebalon).
Second aorist ingressive active participle and second aorist
effective active indicative. A movement towards lynching Jesus.
{Unto the brow of the hill} (h(886f)s ophruos tou orous). Eyebrow
(ophrus), in Homer, then any jutting prominence. Only here in
the N.T. Hippocrates speaks of the eyebrow hanging over. {Was
built} ((9369)kodom(8874)o). Past perfect indicative, stood built.
{That they might throw him down headlong} (h(9373)te katakr(886d)nisai
auton). Neat Greek idiom with h(9373)te for intended result, "so
as to cast him down the precipice." The infinitive alone can
convey the same meaning ( Mt 2:2  20:28  Lu 2:23 ). Kr(886d)nos is
an overhanging bank or precipice from kremannumi, to hang.
Kata is down. The verb occurs in Xenophon, Demosthenes, LXX,
Josephus. Here only in the N.T. At the southwest corner of the
town of Nazareth such a cliff today exists overhanging the
Maronite convent. Murder was in the hearts of the people. By
pushing him over they hoped to escape technical guilt.

經文:

路加福音 4:30-4:30

註釋:

 {He went his way} (eporeueto). Imperfect tense, he was
going on his way.

經文:

路加福音 4:31-4:31

註釋:

 {Came down} (kat(886c)then).  Mr 1:21  has the historical
present, {they go into} (eisporeuontai). Capernaum (Tell Hum)
is now the headquarters of the Galilean ministry, since Nazareth
has rejected Jesus.  Lu 4:31-37  is parallel with  Mr 1:21-28 
which he manifestly uses. It is the first of Christ's miracles
which they give. {Was teaching them} ((886e) didask(936e) autous).
Periphrastic imperfect. Mark has edidasken first and then en
didask(936e). "Them" here means the people present in the synagogue
on the sabbath, construction according to sense as in  Mr 1:22 .

經文:

路加福音 4:32-4:32

註釋:

 Rest of the sentence as in Mark, which see, except that Luke
omits "and not as their scribes" and uses hoti (886e) instead of
h(9373) ech(936e).

經文:

路加福音 4:33-4:33

註釋:

 {Which had} (ech(936e)). Mark has en. {A spirit of an
unclean demon} (pneuma daimoniou akathartou). Mark has "unclean
spirit." Luke's phrase here is unique in this combination.
Plummer notes that Matthew has daimonion ten times and
akatharton twice as an epithet of pneuma; Mark has
daimonion thirteen times and akatharton eleven times as an
epithet of pneuma. Luke's Gospel uses daimonion twenty-two
times and akatharton as an epithet, once of daimonion as here
and once of pneuma. In Mark the man is in (en) the power of
the unclean spirit, while here the man "has" a spirit of an
unclean demon. {With a loud voice} (ph(936e)(8869) megal(8869)). Not in
Mark. Really a scream caused by the sudden contact of the demon
with Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 4:34-4:34

註釋:

 {Ah!} (Ea). An interjection frequent in the Attic poets,
but rare in prose. Apparently second person singular imperative
of ea(935c), to permit. It is expressive of wonder, fear,
indignation. Here it amounts to a diabolical screech. For the
rest of the verse see discussion on 烘r 1:24| and 烘t 8:29|. The
muzzle (phimos) occurs literally in 1Co 9:9, 1Ti 5:18, and
metaphorically here and  Mr 1:25  4:39  Mt 22:12 .

經文:

路加福音 4:35-4:35

註釋:

 {Had thrown him down in the midst} (
hipsan auton eis to
meson). First aorist (effective) participle of 
hipt(935c), an old
verb with violent meaning, to fling, throw, hurl off or down.
{Having done him no hurt} (m(8864)en blapsan auton). Luke as a
physician carefully notes this important detail not in Mark.
Blapt(935c), to injure, or hurt, occurs in the N.T. only here and in
 Mr 16:18 , though a very common verb in the old Greek.

經文:

路加福音 4:36-4:36

註釋:

 {Amazement came} (egeneto thambos). Mark has
ethamb(8874)h(8873)an. {They spake together one with another}
(sunelaloun pros all(886c)ous). Imperfect indicative active and the
reciprocal pronoun. Mark has simply the infinitive sunz(8874)ein
(question). {For} (hoti). We have here an ambiguous hoti as
in  1:45 , which can be either the relative "that" or the casual
hoti "because" or "for," as the Revised Version has it. Either
makes good sense. Luke adds here dunamei (with power) to Mark's
"authority" (exousian). {And they come out} (exerchontai). So
Luke where Mark has "and they obey him" (kai upakouousin
aut(9369)).

經文:

路加福音 4:37-4:37

註釋:

 {Went forth a rumour} (exeporeueto (8863)hos). Imperfect
middle, kept on going forth. Our very word echo in this word.
Late Greek form for (8863)h(935c) in the old Greek. Used for the roar of
the waves on the shore. So in  Lu 21:25 . Vivid picture of the
resounding influence of this day's work in the synagogue, in
Capernaum.

經文:

路加福音 4:38-4:38

註釋:

 {He rose up} (anastas). Second aorist active participle of
anist(886d)i, a common verb. B. Weiss adds here "from the teacher's
seat." Either from his seat or merely leaving the synagogue. This
incident of the healing of Peter's mother-in-law is given in  Mr
1:29-34  and  Mt 8:14-17 , which see for details. {Into the house
of Simon} (eis t(886e) oikian Sim(936e)os). "Peter's house" ( Mt
8:14 ). "The house of Simon and Andrew" ( Mr 1:29 ). Paul's
reference to Peter's wife ( 1Co 9:5 ) is pertinent. They lived
together in Capernaum. This house came also to be the Capernaum
home of Jesus. {Simon's wife's mother} (penthera tou Sim(936e)os).
The word penthera for mother-in-law is old and well established
in usage. Besides the parallel passages ( Mr 1:30  Mt 8:14  Lu
4:38 ) it occurs in the N.T. only in  Lu 12:53 . The
corresponding word pentheros, father-in-law, occurs in  Joh
18:13  alone in the N.T. {Was holden with a great fever} ((886e)
sunechomen(8820)puret(9369) megal(9369)). Periphrastic imperfect passive,
the analytical tense accenting the continuous fever, perhaps
chronic and certainly severe. Luke employs this verb nine times
and only three others in the N.T. ( Mt 4:24  passive with
diseases here;  2Co 5:14  active;  Php 1:23  passive). In  Ac
28:8  the passive "with dysentery" is like the construction here
and is a common one in Greek medical writers as in Greek
literature generally. Luke uses the passive with "fear,"  Lu
8:37 , the active for holding the hands over the ears ( Ac 7:57 )
and for pressing one or holding together ( Lu 8:45  19:43  22:63 ), the direct middle for holding oneself to preaching ( Ac
18:5 ). It is followed here by the instrumental case. Hobart
(_Medical Language of Luke_, p. 3) quotes Galen as dividing
fevers into "great" (megaloi) and "small" (smikroi).

經文:

路加福音 4:39-4:39

註釋:

 {He stood over her} (epistas epan(9320)aut(8873)). Second aorist
active participle. Only in Luke. Surely we are not to take Luke
to mean that Jesus here took the exorcist's position and was
rebuking a malignant personality. The attitude of Jesus is
precisely that of any kindly sympathetic physician.  Mr 1:31  Mt
8:15  mention the touch of her hand rather than the tender look
over her head. {Rebuked} (epetim(8873)en). Only in Luke. Jesus bade
the fever leave her as he spoke to the wind and the waves and
Luke uses this same verb ( 8:24 ). {Rose up and ministered}
(anast(8373)a di(886b)onei). Second aorist active participle as in
verse  38 , but inchoative imperfect tense di(886b)onei, from
diakone(935c) (note augment of compound verb). She rose up
immediately, though a long high fever usually leaves one very
weak. The cure was instantaneous and complete. She began to
minister at once and kept it up.

經文:

路加福音 4:40-4:40

註釋:

 {When the sun was setting} (dunontos tou h(886c)iou). Genitive
absolute and present participle (dun(935c), late form of du(935c))
picturing the sunset scene. Even  Mr 1:32  has here the aorist
indicative edusen (punctiliar active). It was not only cooler,
but it was the end of the sabbath when it was not regarded as
work (Vincent) to carry a sick person ( Joh 5:10 ). And also by
now the news of the cure of the demoniac of Peter's mother-in-law
had spread all over the town. {Had} (eichon). Imperfect tense
including all the chronic cases. {With divers diseases} (
osois
poikilais). Instrumental case. For "divers" say "many coloured"
or "variegated." See on 烘t 4:24; Mr 1:34|. {Brought} ((8867)agon).
Constative summary second aorist active indicative like  Mt
8:16 , prosenegkan, where  Mr 1:32  has the imperfect
epheron, brought one after another. {He laid his hands on every
one of them and healed them} (ho de heni hekast(9369) aut(936e) tas
cheiras epititheis etherapeuen autous). Note the present active
participle epititheis and the imperfect active etherapeuen,
picturing the healing one by one with the tender touch upon each
one. Luke alone gives this graphic detail which was more than a
mere ceremonial laying on of hands. Clearly the cures of Jesus
reached the physical, mental, and spiritual planes of human
nature. He is Lord of life and acted here as Master of each case
as it came.

經文:

路加福音 4:41-4:41

註釋:

 {Came out} (ex(8872)cheto, singular, or ex(8872)chonto, plural).
Imperfect tense, repetition, from one after another. {Thou art
the Son of God} (Su ei ho huios tou theou). More definite
statement of the deity of Jesus than the witness of the demoniac
in the synagogue ( Lu 4:34  Mr 1:24 ), like the words of the
Father ( Lu 3:22 ) and more so than the condition of the devil
( Lu 4:3,9 ). In the Canterbury Revision "devils" should always
be "demons" (daimonia) as here. {Suffered them not to speak}
(ouk eia auta lalein). Imperfect third singular active of
ea(935c), very old and common verb with syllabic augment ei. The
tense accents the continued refusal of Jesus to receive testimony
to his person and work from demons. Cf.  Mt 8:4  to the lepers.
{Because they knew} (hoti (8869)deisan). Causal, not declarative,
hoti. Past perfect of the second perfect oida. {That he was
the Christ} (	on Christon auton einai). Infinitive in indirect
assertion with the accusative of general reference. Ton
Christon = {the Anointed}, the Messiah.

經文:

路加福音 4:42-4:42

註釋:

 {When it was day} (genomen(8873) h(886d)eras). Genitive absolute
with aorist middle participle.  Mr 1:35  notes it was "a great
while before day" (which see for discussion) when Jesus rose up
to go after a restless night. No doubt, because of the excitement
of the previous sabbath in Capernaum. He went out to pray ( Mr
1:35 ). {Sought after him} (epez(8874)oun auton). Imperfect active
indicative. The multitudes kept at it until "they came unto him"
((886c)thon he(9373) autou, aorist active indicative). They
accomplished their purpose, he(9373) autou, right up to him. {Would
have stayed him} (kateichon auton). Better, {They tried to
hinder him}. The conative imperfect active of katech(935c), an old
and common verb. It means either to hold fast ( Lu 8:15 ), to
take, get possession of ( Lu 14:9 ) or to hold back, to retain,
to restrain ( Phm 1:13  Ro 1:18  7:6  2Th 2:6  Lu 4:42 ). In this
passage it is followed by the ablative case. {That he should not
go from them} (	ou m(8820)poreuesthai ap' aut(936e)). Literally, "from
going away from them." The use of m(885c) (not) after kateichon is
the neat Greek idiom of the redundant negative after a verb of
hindering like the French _ne_ (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1171) .

經文:

路加福音 4:43-4:43

註釋:

 {I must} (me dei). Jesus felt the urge to go with the work
of evangelism "to the other cities also," to all, not to a
favoured few. {For therefore was I sent} (hoti epi touto
apestal(886e)). "A phrase of Johannine ring" (Ragg). Second aorist
passive indicative of apostell(935c). Christ is the great Apostle of
God to men.

經文:

路加福音 4:44-4:44

註釋:

 {Was preaching} ((886e) k(8872)uss(936e)). Periphrastic imperfect
active, describing his first tour of Galilee in accord with the
purpose just stated. One must fill in details, though  Mr 1:39 
and  Mt 8:23-25  tell of the mass of work done on this campaign.

經文:

路加福音 5:1-5:1

註釋:

 {Pressed upon him} (epikeisthai). Luke in this paragraph
( 5:1-11  Mr 1:16-20  Mt 4:18-22 ) does not follow the chronology
of Mark as he usually does. It seems reasonably clear that the
renewed call of the four fishermen came before the first tour of
Galilee in  Lu 4:42-44 . It is here assumed that Luke is
describing in his own way the incident given in Mark and Matthew
above. Luke singles out Simon in a graphic way. This verb
epikeisthai is an old one and means to lie upon, rest upon as
of a stone on the tomb ( Joh 11:38 ) or of fish on the burning
coals ( Joh 21:9 ). So it is used of a tempest ( Ac 27:20 ) and
of the urgent demands for Christ's crucifixion ( Lu 23:23 ). Here
it vividly pictures the eager crowds around Jesus. En t(9369)
epikeisthai is a favourite idiom with Luke as we have already
seen, en with the articular infinitive in the locative case.
{That} (kai). Kai does not technically mean the declarative
conjunction "that," but it is a fair rendering of the somewhat
awkward idiom of Luke to a certain extent imitating the Hebrew
use of _wav_. {Was standing} ((886e) hest(9373)). Periphrastic second
past perfect of hist(886d)i which here is equal to a practical
imperfect. {By the lake} (para t(886e) limn(886e)). The use of the
accusative with para, alongside, after a verb of rest used to
be called the pregnant use, came and was standing. But that is no
longer necessary, for the accusative as the case of extension is
the oldest of the cases and in later Greek regains many of the
earlier uses of the other cases employed for more precise
distinctions. See the same idiom in verse  2 . We need not here
stress the notion of extension. "With characteristic accuracy
Luke never calls it a sea, while the others never call it a lake"
(Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 5:2-5:2

註釋:

 {Two boats} (ploia duo). Some MSS. have ploiaria, little
boats, but ploia was used of boats of various sizes, even of
ships like 
(8865)s. {The fishermen} (hoi haleeis). It is an old
Homeric word that has come back to common use in the _Koin(825f). It
means "sea-folk" from hals, sea. {Were washing} (eplunon).
Imperfect active, though some MSS. have aorist eplunan. Vincent
comments on Luke's use of five verbs for washing: this one for
cleaning, apomass(935c) for wiping the dust from one's feet
( 10:11 ), ekmass(935c) of the sinful woman wiping Christ's feet
with her hair ( 7:38,44 ), apolou(935c) of washing away sins
(symbolically, of course) as in  Ac 22:16 , and lou(935c) of washing
the body of Dorcas ( Ac 9:37 ) and the stripes of the prisoners
( Ac 16:33 ). On "nets" see on 烘t 4:20; Mr 1:18|.

經文:

路加福音 5:3-5:3

註釋:

 {To put out a little} (epanagagein oligon). Second aorist
infinitive of the double compound verb ep-an-ag(935c), found in
Xenophon and late Greek writers generally. Only twice in the N.T.
In  Mt 21:18  in the sense of leading back or returning and here
in the sense of leading a ship up upon the sea, to put out to
sea, a nautical term. {Taught} (edikasken). Imperfect active,
picturing Jesus teaching from the boat in which he was seated and
so safe from the jam of the crowd. "Christ uses Peter's boat as a
pulpit whence to throw the net of the Gospel over His hearers"
(Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 5:4-5:4

註釋:

 {Had left speaking} (epausato lal(936e)). He ceased speaking
(aorist middle indicative and present active participle, regular
Greek idiom). {Put out into the deep} (epanagage eis to
bathos). The same double compound verb as in verse  3 , only
here second aorist active imperative second person singular. {Let
down} (chalasate). Peter was master of the craft and so he was
addressed first. First aorist active imperative second person
plural. Here the whole crew are addressed. The verb is the
regular nautical term for lowering cargo or boats ( Ac
27:17,30 ). But it was used for lowering anything from a higher
place ( Mr 2:4  Ac 9:25  2Co 11:33 ). For a catch (eis agran).
This purpose was the startling thing that stirred up Simon.

經文:

路加福音 5:5-5:5

註釋:

 {Master} (epistata). Used only by Luke in the N.T. and
always in addresses to Christ ( 8:24,45  9:33,49  17:13 ). Common
in the older writers for superintendent or overseer (one standing
over another). This word recognizes Christ's authority. {We
toiled} (kopiasantes). This verb is from kopos (work, toil)
and occurs from Aristophanes on. It used to be said that the
notion of weariness in toil appears only in the LXX and the N.T.
But Deissmann (_Light from the Ancient East_, pp. 312f.) cites
examples from inscriptions on tombstones quite in harmony with
the use in the N.T. Peter's protest calls attention also to the
whole night of fruitless toil. {But at thy word} (epi de t(9369)
rh(886d)ati sou). On the base of epi. Acquiescence to show his
obedience to Christ as "Master," but with no confidence
whatsoever in the wisdom of this particular command. Besides,
fishing in this lake was Peter's business and he really claimed
superior knowledge on this occasion to that of Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 5:6-5:6

註釋:

 {They inclosed} (sunekleisan). Effective aorist active
indicative with perfective compound sun. {They shut together.
Were breaking} (dier(8873)seto). Imperfect passive singular
(diktua being neuter plural). This is the late form of the old
verb diar(8867)numi. The nets were actually tearing in two (dia-)
and so they would lose all the fish.

經文:

路加福音 5:7-5:7

註釋:

 {They beckoned} (kateneusan). Possibly they were too far
away for a call to be understood. Simon alone had been ordered to
put out into the deep. So they used signs. {Unto their partners}
(	ois metechois). This word metochos, from metech(935c), to have
with, means participation with one in common blessings ( Heb
3:1,14  6:4  12:8 ). While koin(936e)os (verse  10  here of James
and John also) has the notion of personal fellowship,
partnership. Both terms are here employed of the two pairs of
brothers who have a business company under Simon's lead. {Help
them} (sullabesthai). Second aorist middle infinitive. Take
hold together with and so to help. Paul uses it in  Php 4:3 . It
is an old word that was sometimes employed for seizing a prisoner
( Lu 22:54 ) and for conception (_con-capio_) by a woman ( Lu
1:24 ). {So that they began to sink} (h(9373)te buthizesthai auta).
Consecutive use of h(9373)te and the infinitive (present tense,
inchoative use, beginning to sink). An old verb from uthos. In
the N.T. only here and  1Ti 6:9 .

經文:

路加福音 5:8-5:8

註釋:

 {Fell down at Jesus' knees} (prosepesen tois gonasin
I(8873)ou). Just like Peter, from extreme self-confidence and pride
(verse  5 ) to abject humilation. But his impulse here was right
and sincere. His confession was true. He was a sinful man.

經文:

路加福音 5:9-5:9

註釋:

 {For he was amazed} (	hambos gar perieschen). Literally,
{For a wonder held him round}. Aorist active indicative. It held
Peter fast and all the rest.

經文:

路加福音 5:10-5:10

註釋:

 {Thou shalt catch men} (es(8869) z(9367)r(936e)). Periphrastic future
indicative, emphasizing the linear idea. The old verb Z(9367)re(935c)
means to catch alive, not to kill. So then Peter is to be a
catcher of men, not of fish, and to catch them alive and for
life, not dead and for death. The great Pentecost will one day
prove that Christ's prophecy will come true. Much must happen
before that great day. But Jesus foresees the possibilities in
Simon and he joyfully undertakes the task of making a fisher of
men out of this poor fisher of fish.

經文:

路加福音 5:11-5:11

註釋:

 {They left all, and followed him} (aphentes panta
(886b)olouth(8873)an). Then and there. They had already become his
disciples. Now they leave their business for active service of
Christ. The conduct of this group of business men should make
other business men to pause and see if Jesus is calling them to
do likewise.

經文:

路加福音 5:12-5:12

註釋:

 {Behold} (kai idou). Quite a Hebraistic idiom, this use of
kai after egeneto (almost like hoti) with idou
(interjection) and no verb. {Full of leprosy} (pl(8872)(8873) lepras).
 Mr 1:40  and  Mt 8:2  have simply "a leper" which see. Evidently
a bad case full of sores and far advanced as Luke the physician
notes. The law ( Le 13:12f. ) curiously treated advanced cases as
less unclean than the earlier stages. {Fell on his face} (pes(936e)
epi pros(9370)on). Second aorist active participle of pipt(935c),
common verb.  Mr 1:40  has "kneeling" (gonupet(936e)) and  Mt 8:40 
"worshipped" (prosekunei). All three attitudes were possible
one after the other. All three Synoptics quote the identical
language of the leper and the identical answer of Jesus. His
condition of the third class turned on the "will" (	hel(8869)s) of
Jesus who at once asserts his will (	h(886c)(935c)) and cleanses him.
All three likewise mention the touch (h(8870)sato, verse  13 ) of
Christ's hand on the unclean leper and the instantaneous cure.

經文:

路加福音 5:14-5:14

註釋:

 {To tell no man} (m(8864)eni eipein). This is an indirect
command after the verb "charged" (par(8867)geilen). But Luke
changes (_constructio variata_) to the direct quotation, a common
idiom in Greek and often in Luke ( Ac 1:4f. ). Here in the direct
form he follows  Mr 1:43  Mt 8:4 . See discussion there about the
direction to go to the priest to receive a certificate showing
his cleansing, like our release from quarantine ( Le 13:39  14:2-32 ). {For a testimony unto them} (eis marturion autois).
The use of autois (them) here is "according to sense," as we
say, for it has no antecedent in the context, just to people in
general. But this identical phrase with absence of direct
reference occurs in Mark and Matthew, pretty good proof of the
use of one by the other. Both  Mt 8:4  Lu 5:14  follow  Mr 1:44 .

經文:

路加福音 5:15-5:15

註釋:

 {So much the more} (m(836c)lon).  Mr 1:45  has only "much"
(polla, many), but Mark tells more about the effect of this
disobedience. {Went abroad} (di(8872)cheto). Imperfect tense. The
fame of Jesus kept going. {Came together} (sun(8872)chonto).
Imperfect tense again. The more the report spread, the more the
crowds came.

經文:

路加福音 5:16-5:16

註釋:

 {But he withdrew himself in the deserts and prayed} (autos
de (886e) hupoch(9372)(936e) en tais er(886d)ois kai proseuchomenos).
Periphrastic imperfects. Literally, "But he himself was with
drawing in the desert places and praying." The more the crowds
came as a result of the leper's story, the more Jesus turned away
from them to the desert regions and prayed with the Father. It is
a picture of Jesus drawn with vivid power. The wild enthusiasm of
the crowds was running ahead of their comprehension of Christ and
his mission and message. Hupoch(9372)e(935c) (perhaps with the notion of
slipping away secretly, hupo-) is a very common Greek verb, but
in the N.T. occurs in Luke alone. Elsewhere in the N.T.
anach(9372)e(935c) (to go back) appears.

經文:

路加福音 5:17-5:17

註釋:

 {That} (kai). Use of kai = hoti (that) like the Hebrew
_wav_, though found in Greek also. {He} (autos). Luke sometimes
has autos in the nominative as unemphatic "he" as here, not "he
himself." {Was teaching} ((886e) didask(936e)). Periphrastic imperfect
again like our English idiom. {Were sitting by} ((8873)an
kath(886d)enoi). Periphrastic imperfect again. There is no "by" in
the Greek. {Doctors of the law} (
omodidaskaloi). A compound
word formed after analogy of hierodidaskalos, but not found
outside of the N.T. and ecclesiastical writers, one of the very
few words apparently N.T. in usage. It appears here and  Ac 5:34  1Ti 1:7 . It is not likely that Luke and Paul made the word, but
they simply used the term already in current use to describe
teachers and interpreters of the law. Our word "doctor" is Latin
for "teacher." These "teachers of the law" are called elsewhere
in the Gospels "scribes" (grammateis) as in Matthew and Mark
(see on 烘t 5:20; 23:34|) and  Lu 5:21  19:47  21:1  22:2 . Luke
also employs 
omikos (one skilled in the law, 
omos) as in
 10:25 . One thinks of our LL.D. (Doctors of Civil and Canon
Law), for both were combined in Jewish law. They were usually
Pharisees (mentioned here for the first time in Luke) for which
see on 烘t 3:7,20|. Luke will often speak of the Pharisees
hereafter. Not all the "Pharisees" were "teachers of the law" so
that both terms often occur together as in verse  21  where Luke
has separate articles (hoi grammateis kai hoi Pharisaioi),
distinguishing between them, though one article may occur as in
 Mt 5:20  or no article as here in verse  17 . Luke alone
mentions the presence here of these Pharisees and doctors of the
law "which were come" (hoi (8873)an el(886c)uthotes, periphrastic past
perfect active, {had come}). {Out of every village of Galilee and
Judea and Jerusalem} (ek pas(8873) k(936d)(8873) t(8873) Galilaias kai Ioudaias
kai Ierousal(886d)). Edersheim (_Jewish Social Life_) observes that
the Jews distinguished Jerusalem as a separate district in Judea.
Plummer considers it hyperbole in Luke to use "every village."
But one must recall that Jesus had already made one tour of
Galilee which stirred the Pharisees and rabbis to active
opposition. Judea had already been aroused and Jerusalem was the
headquarters of the definite campaign now organized against
Jesus. One must bear in mind that  Joh 4:1-4  shows that Jesus
had already left Jerusalem and Judea because of the jealousy of
the Pharisees. They are here on purpose to find fault and to make
charges against Jesus. One must not forget that there were many
kinds of Pharisees and that not all of them were as bad as these
legalistic and punctilious hypocrites who deserved the indictment
and exposure of Christ in  Mt 23 . Paul himself is a specimen of
the finer type of Pharisee which, however, developed into the
persecuting fanatic till Jesus changed his whole life. {The power
of the Lord was with him to heal} (dunamis Kuriou (886e) eis to
i(8373)thai auton). So the best texts. It is neat Greek, but awkward
English: "Then was the power of the Lord for the healing as to
him (Jesus)." Here Kuriou refers to Jehovah. {Dunamis}
(dynamite) is one of the common words for "miracles"
(dunameis). What Luke means is that Jesus had the power of the
Lord God to heal with. He does not mean that this power was
intermittent. He simply calls attention to its presence with
Jesus on this occasion.

經文:

路加福音 5:18-5:18

註釋:

 {That was palsied} (hos (886e) paralelumenos). Periphrastic
past perfect passive where  Mr 2:3  Mt 9:2  have paralutikon
(our paralytic). Luke's phrase is the technical medical term
(Hippocrates, Galen, etc.) rather than Mark's vernacular word
(Ramsay, _Luke the Physician_, pp. 57f.). {They sought}
(ez(8874)oun). Conative imperfect.

經文:

路加福音 5:19-5:19

註釋:

 {By what way they might bring him in} (poias eis enegk(9373)in
auton). Deliberative subjunctive of the direct question retained
in the indirect. {The housetop} (	o d(936d)a). Very old word. The
flat roof of Jewish houses was usually reached by outside
stairway. Cf.  Ac 10:9  where Peter went for meditation. {Through
the tiles} (dia t(936e) keram(936e)). Common and old word for the tile
roof.  Mr 2:4  speaks of digging a hole in this tile roof. {Let
him down} (kath(886b)an auton). First aorist (k aorist) effective
active of kathi(886d)i, common verb.  Mr 2:4  has historical
present chal(9373)i, the verb used by Jesus to Peter and in Peter's
reply ( Lu 5:4f. ). {With his couch} (sun t(9369) klinidi(9369)). Also
in verse  24 . Diminutive of klin(885c) (verse  18 ) occurring in
Plutarch and _Koin(825f) writers.  Mr 2:4  has krabatton (pallet).
It doubtless was a pallet on which the paralytic lay. {Into the
midst before Jesus} (eis to meson emprosthen tou I(8873)ou). The
four friends had succeeded, probably each holding a rope to a
corner of the pallet. It was a moment of triumph over
difficulties and surprise to all in the house (Peter's
apparently,  Mr 2:1 ).

經文:

路加福音 5:20-5:20

註釋:

 {Their faith} (	(886e) pistin aut(936e)). In all three Gospels.
{Man} (anthr(9370)e). Mark and Matthew have "child" or "Son"
(	eknon). Are forgiven (aphe(936e)tai). This Doric form of the
perfect passive indicative is for the Attic apheintai. It
appears also in  Lu 5:23  7:47,48  Joh 20:23  1Jo 2:12 .  Mr 2:6  Mt 9:2  have the present passive aphientai. Possibly this man's
malady was due to his sin as is sometimes true ( Joh 5:14 ). The
man had faith along with that of the four, but he was still a
paralytic when Jesus forgave his sins.

經文:

路加福音 5:21-5:21

註釋:

 {But God alone} (ei m(8820)monos ho theos). Mark has heis
(one) instead of monos (alone).

經文:

路加福音 5:22-5:22

註釋:

 {Perceiving} (epignous). Same form (second aorist active
participle of epigin(9373)k(935c), common verb for knowing fully) in  Mr
2:8 . {Reason ye} (dialogizesthe) as in  Mr 2:8 .  Mt 9:4  has
enthumeisthe.

經文:

路加福音 5:24-5:24

註釋:

 {He saith unto him that was palsied} (eipen t(9369)
paralelumen(9369)). This same parenthesis right in the midst of the
words of Jesus is in  Mr 2:11  Mt 9:6 , conclusive proof of
interrelation between these documents. The words of Jesus are
quoted practically alike in all three Gospels, the same purpose
also hina eid(8874)e (second perfect active subjunctive).

經文:

路加福音 5:25-5:25

註釋:

 {Whereon he lay} (eph' ho katekeito). Imperfect, upon
which he had been lying down. Luke uses this phrase instead of
repeating klinidion (verse  24 ). {Glorifying God} (doxaz(936e)
ton theon). As one can well imagine.

經文:

路加福音 5:26-5:26

註釋:

 {Amazement} (ekstasis). Something out of its place, as the
mind. Here the people were almost beside themselves as we say
with the same idiom. See on 烘r 5:42|. So they kept glorifying
God (imperfect tense, edoxazon) and at the same time "were
filled with fear" (epl(8873)th(8873)an phobou, aorist passive).
{Strange things} (paradoxa). Our very word paradox, contrary to
(para) received opinion (doxa). Plato, Xenophon, and Polybius
use it. Here alone in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 5:27-5:27

註釋:

 {A publican named Levi} (	el(936e)en onomati Leuein).  Mr
2:13  has also "The son of Alphaeus" while  Mt 9:9  calls him
"Matthew." He had, of course, both names. All three use the same
words (epi to tel(936e)ion) for the place of toll. See discussion
of {publican} (	el(936e)(8873)) on  Mt 9:9 . All three Gospels give the
command of Jesus, {Follow me} (akolouthei).

經文:

路加福音 5:28-5:28

註釋:

 {He forsook all} (katalip(936e) panta). This detail in Luke
alone. He left his profitable business for the service of Christ.
{Followed him} ((886b)olouthei aut(9369)). Imperfect active, perhaps
inchoative. He began at once to follow him and he kept it up.
Both  Mr 2:14  Mt 9:9  have the aorist ((886b)olouth(8873)en), perhaps
ingressive.

經文:

路加福音 5:29-5:29

註釋:

 {A great feast} (doch(886e) megal(886e)). Here and in  Lu 14:13 
only in the N.T. The word doch(885c), from dechomai, means
reception. Occurs in Plutarch and LXX. Levi made Jesus a big
reception. {Publicans and others} (	el(936e)(936e) kai all(936e)). Luke
declines here to use "sinners" like  Mr 2:15  and  Mt 9:10 
though he does so in verse  30  and in  15:1 . None but social
outcasts would eat with publicans at such a feast or barbecue,
for it was a very large affair. {Were sitting at meat with them}
((8873)an met' aut(936e) katakeimenoi). Literally, were reclining with
them (Jesus and the disciples). It was a motley crew that Levi
had brought together, but he showed courage as well as loyalty to
Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 5:30-5:30

註釋:

 {The Pharisees and their scribes} (hoi Pharisaioi kai hoi
grammateis aut(936e)). Note article with each substantive and the
order, not "scribes and Pharisees," but "the Pharisees and the
scribes of them" (the Pharisees). Some manuscripts omit "their,"
but  Mr 2:16  (the scribes of the Pharisees) shows that it is
correct here. Some of the scribes were Sadducees. It is only the
Pharisees who find fault here. {Murmured} (egogguzon).
Imperfect active. Picturesque onomatopoetic word that sounds like
its meaning. A late word used of the cooing of doves. It is like
the buzzing of bees, like 	onthorruz(935c) of literary Greek. They
were not invited to this feast and would not have come if they
had been. But, not being invited, they hang on the outside and
criticize the disciples of Jesus for being there. The crowd was
so large that the feast may have been served out in the open
court at Levi's house, a sort of reclining garden party. {The
publicans and sinners} (	(936e) tel(936e)(936e) kai hamart(936c)(936e)). Here Luke
is quoting the criticism of the critics. Note one article making
one group of all of them.

經文:

路加福音 5:31-5:31

註釋:

 {They that are whole} (hoi hugiainontes). Old Greek word
for good health from hugi(8873), sound in body. So also in  Lu
7:10  15:27  3Jo 1:2 . This is the usual word for good health
used by Greek medical writers.  Mr 2:17  Mt 9:12  have hoi
ischuontes (those who have strength).

經文:

路加福音 5:32-5:32

註釋:

 {To repentance} (eis metanoian). Alone in Luke not genuine
in  Mr 2:17  Mt 9:12 . Only sinners would need a call to
repentance, a change of mind and life. For the moment Jesus
accepts the Pharisaic division between "righteous" and "sinners"
to score them and to answer their criticism. At the other times
he will show that they only pretend to be "righteous" and are
"hypocrites" in reality. But Jesus has here blazed the path for
all soul-winners. The self-satisfied are the hard ones to win and
they often resent efforts to win them to Christ.

經文:

路加福音 5:33-5:33

註釋:

 {Often} (pukna). Only in Luke. Common word for thick,
compact, often. {And make supplications} (kai de(8873)eis
poiountai). Only in Luke. {But thine} (hoi de soi). Sharp
contrast between the conduct of the disciples of Jesus and those
of John and the Pharisees who here appear together as critics of
Christ and his disciples ( Mr 2:18  Mt 9:14 ), though Luke does
not bring that out sharply. It is probable that Levi had his
reception for Jesus on one of the Jewish fast days and, if so,
this would give special edge to their criticism.

經文:

路加福音 5:34-5:34

註釋:

 {Can ye} (m(8820)dunasthe). So Luke, adding {make}, poi(8873)ai,
where Mark and Matthew have m(8820)dunantai. All three have m(885c)
and expect the answer no.

經文:

路加福音 5:35-5:35

註釋:

 {Then in those days} (	ote en ekeinais tais h(886d)erais).
Here  Mr 2:20  has "then in that day," and  Mt 9:15  only "then."

經文:

路加福音 5:36-5:36

註釋:

 {Also a parable} (kai parabol(886e)). There are three parables
here in the answer of Jesus (the bridegroom, the patch on the
garment, the wineskin). They are not called parables save here,
but they are parables and Luke's language means that. {Rendeth}
(schisas). This in Luke alone. Common verb. Used of splitting
rocks ( Mt 27:51 ). Our word schism comes from it. {Putteth it}
(epiballei). So  Mt 9:16  when  Mr 2:21  has epiraptei (sews
on). The word for "piece" or "patch" (epibl(886d)a) in all the
three Gospels is from the verb epiball(935c), to clap on, and is in
Plutarch, Arrian, LXX, though the verb is as old as Homer. See on
Matthew and Mark for distinction between kainos (fresh), 
eos
(new), and palaios (old). {He will rend the new} (kai to
kainon schisei). Future active indicative. So the best MSS.
{Will not agree} (ou sumph(936e)(8873)ei). Future active indicative. So
the best manuscripts again. {With the old} (	(9369) palai(9369)).
Associative instrumental case. Instead of this phrase in Luke,
 Mr 2:21  Mt 9:16  have "a worse rent" (cheiron schisma).

經文:

路加福音 5:38-5:38

註釋:

 {Must be put} (l(8874)eon). This verbal adjective in -teos
rather than -tos appears here alone in the N.T. though it is
common enough in Attic Greek. It is a survival of the literary
style. This is the impersonal use and is transitive in sense here
and governs the accusative "new wine" (oinon neon), though the
agent is not expressed (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1097).

經文:

路加福音 5:39-5:39

註釋:

 {The old is good} (Ho palaios chr(8873)tos estin). So the best
MSS. rather that chr(8873)toteros, comparative (better). Westcott
and Hort wrongly bracket the whole verse, though occurring in
Aleph, B C L and most of the old documents. It is absent in D and
some of the old Latin MSS. It is the philosophy of the
obscurantist, that is here pictured by Christ. "The prejudiced
person will not even try the new, or admit that it has any
merits. He knows that the old is pleasant, and suits him; and
that is enough; he is not going to change" (Plummer). This is
Christ's picture of the reactionary Pharisees.


經文:

路加福音 6:1-6:1

註釋:

 {On a sabbath} (en sabbat(9369)). This is the second sabbath on
which Jesus is noted by Luke. The first was  Lu 4:31-41 . There
was another in  Joh 5:1-47 . There is Western and Syrian
(Byzantine) evidence for a very curious reading here which calls
this sabbath "secondfirst" (deuteropr(9374)(9369)). It is undoubtedly
spurious, though Westcott and Hort print it in the margin. A
possible explanation is that a scribe wrote "first" (pr(9374)(9369)) on
the margin because of the sabbath miracle in  Lu 6:6-11 . Then
another scribe recalled  Lu 4:31  where a sabbath is mentioned
and wrote "second" (deuter(9369)) also on the margin. Finally a
third scribe combined the two in the word deuteropr(9374)(9369) that is
not found elsewhere. If it were genuine, we should not know what
it means. {Plucked} (etillon). Imperfect active. They were
plucking as they went on through (diaporeuesthai). Whether
wheat or barley, we do not know, not our "corn" (maize). {Did
eat} ((8873)thion). Imperfect again. See on 烘t 12:1f.; Mr 2:23f.|
for the separate acts in supposed violence of the sabbath laws.
{Rubbing them in their hands} (ps(9363)hontes tais chersin). Only
in Luke and only here in the N.T. This was one of the chief
offences. "According to Rabbinical notions, it was reaping,
threshing, winnowing, and preparing food all at once" (Plummer).
These Pharisees were straining out gnats and swallowing camels!
This verb ps(9363)h(935c) is a late one for psa(935c), to rub.

經文:

路加福音 6:3-6:3

註釋:

 {Not even this} (oude touto). This small point only in
Luke. {What} (ho). Literally, {which}.  Mr 2:25  Mt 12:3  have
	i (what).

經文:

路加福音 6:4-6:4

註釋:

 {Did take} (lab(936e)). Second aorist active participle of
lamban(935c). Not in Mark and Matthew. See  Mt 12:1-8  Mr 2:23-28 
for discussion of details about the shewbread and the five
arguments in defence of his conduct on the sabbath (example of
David, work of the priests on the sabbath, prophecy of  Ho 6:6 ,
purpose of the sabbath for man, the Son of Man lord of the
sabbath). It was an overwhelming and crushing reply to these
pettifogging ceremonialists to which they could not reply, but
which increased their anger. Codex D transfers verse  5  to after
verse  10  and puts here the following: "On the same day
beholding one working on the sabbath he said to him: Man, if you
know what you are doing, happy are you; but if you do not know,
cursed are you and a transgressor of the law."

經文:

路加福音 6:6-6:6

註釋:

 {On another sabbath} (en heter(9369) sabbat(9369)). This was a
second (heteron, as it often means), but not necessarily the
next, sabbath. This incident is given by all three synoptics ( Mr
3:1-6  Mt 12:9-14  Lu 6:6-11 ). See Matt. and Mark for details.
Only Luke notes that it was on a sabbath. Was this because Luke
as a physician had to meet this problem in his own practise?
{Right hand} (h(8820)dexia). This alone in Luke, the physician's
eye for particulars.

經文:

路加福音 6:7-6:7

註釋:

 {The scribes and the Pharisees} (hoi grammateis kai hoi
Pharisaioi). Only Luke here though Pharisees named in  Mt 12:14 
and Pharisees and Herodians in  Mr 3:6 . {Watched him}
(paret(8872)ounto auton). Imperfect middle, were watching for
themselves on the side (para).  Mr 3:2  has the imperfect
active paret(8872)oun. Common verb, but the proposition para gave
an extra touch, watching either assiduously like the physician at
the bedside or insidiously with evil intent as here. {Would heal}
(	herapeusei). But the present active indicative (	herapeuei)
may be the correct text here. So Westcott and Hort. {That they
might find out how to accuse him} (hina heur(9373)in kat(8867)orein
autou). Second aorist active subjunctive of heurisk(935c) and the
infinitive with it means to find out how to do a thing. They were
determined to make a case against Jesus. They felt sure that
their presence would prevent any spurious work on the part of
Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 6:8-6:8

註釋:

 {But he knew their thoughts} (autos de (8869)dei tous
dialogismous aut(936e)). In Luke alone. Imperfect in sense, second
past perfect in form (8869)dei from oida. Jesus, in contrast to
these spies (Plummer), read their intellectual processes like an
open book. {His hand withered} (x(8872)an t(886e) cheira). Predicate
position of the adjective. So in  Mr 3:3 . {Stand forth}
(st(8874)hi). Luke alone has this verb, second aorist active
imperative.  Mr 3:3  has {Arise into the midst} (egeire eis to
meson). Luke has {Arise and step forth into the midst} (egeire
kai st(8874)hi eis to meson). Christ worked right out in the open
where all could see. It was a moment of excitement when the man
stepped forth (est(885c)) there before them all.

經文:

路加福音 6:9-6:9

註釋:

 {I ask you} (eper(9374)(9320)hum(8373)). They had questions in their
hearts about Jesus. He now asks in addition (ep') an open
question that brings the whole issue into the open. {A life}
(psuch(886e)). So the Revised Version. The rabbis had a rule:
_Periculum vitae pellit sabbatum_. But it had to be a Jew whose
life was in peril on the sabbath. The words of Jesus cut to the
quick. {Or to destroy it} ((8820)apolesai). On this very day these
Pharisees were plotting to destroy Jesus (verse  7 ).

經文:

路加福音 6:10-6:10

註釋:

 {He looked round about on them all} (periblepsamenos).
First aorist middle participle as in  Mr 3:5 , the middle voice
giving a personal touch to it all. Mark adds "with anger" which
Luke here does not put in. All three Gospels have the identical
command: {Stretch forth thy hand} (exteinon t(886e) cheira sou).
First aorist active imperative. {Stretch out}, clean out, full
length. All three Gospels also have the first aorist passive
indicative apekatestath(885c) with the double augment of the double
compound verb apokathist(886d)i. As in Greek writers, so here the
double compound means complete restoration to the former state.

經文:

路加福音 6:11-6:11

註釋:

 {They were filled with madness} (epl(8873)th(8873)an anoias) First
aorist passive (effective) with genitive: In  5:26  we saw the
people filled with fear. Here is rage that is kin to insanity,
for anoias is lack of sense (a privative and 
ous, mind).
An old word, but only here and  2Ti 3:9  in the N.T. {Communed}
(dielaloun), imperfect active, picturing their excited
counsellings with one another.  Mr 3:6  notes that they bolted
out of the synagogue and outside plotted even with the Herodians
how to destroy Jesus, strange co-conspirators these against the
common enemy. {What they might do to Jesus} (	i an poi(8873)aien
I(8873)ou). Luke puts it in a less damaging way than  Mr 3:6  Mt
12:14 . This aorist optative with an is the deliberative
question like that in  Ac 17:18  retained in the indirect form
here. Perhaps Luke means, not that they were undecided about
killing Jesus, but only as to the best way of doing it. Already
nearly two years before the end we see the set determination to
destroy Jesus. We see it here in Galilee. We have already seen it
at the feast in Jerusalem ( Joh 5:18 ) where "the Jews sought the
more to kill him." John and the Synoptics are in perfect
agreement as to the Pharisaic attitude toward Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 6:12-6:12

註釋:

 {He went out into the mountains to pray} (exelthein auton
eis to oros proseuxasthai). Note ex- where  Mr 3:13  has
{goeth up} (anabainei). Luke alone has "to pray" as he so often
notes the habit of prayer in Jesus. {He continued all night} ((886e)
dianuktereu(936e)). Periphrastic imperfect active. Here alone in the
N.T., but common in the LXX and in late Greek writers. Medical
writers used it of whole night vigils. {In prayer to God} (en
t(8869) proseuch(8869) tou theou). Objective genitive 	ou theou. This
phrase occurs nowhere else. Proseuch(885c) does not mean "place of
prayer" or synagogue as in  Ac 16:13 , but the actual prayer of
Jesus to the Father all night long. He needed the Father's
guidance now in the choice of the Apostles in the morning.

經文:

路加福音 6:13-6:13

註釋:

 2Co
8:23 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
8' or engs='2Co
8'
經文:

路加福音 6:16-6:16

註釋:

 {Which was the traitor} (hos egeneto prodot(8873)). Who became
traitor, more exactly, egeneto, not (886e). He gave no signs of
treachery when chosen.

經文:

路加福音 6:17-6:17

註釋:

 {He came down with them} (katabas met' aut(936e)). Second
aorist active participle of katabain(935c), common verb. This was
the night of prayer up in the mountain ( Mr 31:3  Lu 6:12 ) and
the choice of the Twelve next morning. The going up into the
mountain of  Mt 5:1  may simply be a summary statement with no
mention of what Luke has explained or may be a reference to the
elevation, where he "sat down" ( Mt 5:1 ), above the plain or
"level place" (epi topou pedinou) on the mountain side where
Jesus "stood" or "stopped" (est(885c)). It may be a level place
towards the foot of the mountain. He stopped his descent at this
level place and then found a slight elevation on the mountain
side and began to speak. There is not the slightest reason for
making Matthew locate this sermon on the mountain and Luke in the
valley as if the places, audiences, and topics were different.
For the unity of the sermon see discussion on 烘t 5:1f|. The
reports in Matthew and Luke begin alike, cover the same general
ground and end alike. The report in Matthew is longer chiefly
because in Chapter 5, he gives the argument showing the contrast
between Christ's conception of righteousness and that of the
Jewish rabbis. Undoubtedly, Jesus repeated many of the crisp
sayings here at other times as in Luke 12, but it is quite
gratuitous to argue that Matthew and Luke have made up this
sermon out of isolated sayings of Christ at various times. Both
Matthew and Luke give too much that is local of place and
audience for that idea.  Mt 5:1  speaks of "the multitudes" and
"his disciples."  Lu 6:17  notes "a great multitude of his
disciples, and a great number of the people from all Judea and
Jerusalem, and the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon." They agree in
the presence of disciples and crowds besides the disciples from
whom the twelve apostles were chosen. It is important to note how
already people were coming from "the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon"
"to hear him and to be healed (iath(886e)ai, first aorist passive
of iaomai) of their diseases."

經文:

路加福音 6:18-6:18

註釋:

 {With unclean spirits} (apo pneumat(936e) akathart(936e)) . In an
amphibolous position for it can be construed with "troubled,"
(present passive participle enochloumenoi) or with "were
healed" (imperfect passive, etherapeuonto). The healings were
repeated as often as they came. Note here both verbs, iaomai
and 	herapeu(935c), used of the miraculous cures of Jesus.
Therapeu(935c) is the verb more commonly employed of regular
professional cures, but no such distinction is made here.

經文:

路加福音 6:19-6:19

註釋:

 {Sought to touch him} (ez(8874)oun haptesthai autou).
Imperfect active. One can see the surging, eager crowd pressing
up to Jesus. Probably some of them felt that there was a sort of
virtue or magic in touching his garments like the poor woman in
 Lu 8:43f . ( Mr 5:23  Mt 9:21 ). {For power came forth from him}
(hoti dunamis par' autou ex(8872)cheto). Imperfect middle, {power
was coming out from him}. This is the reason for the continual
approach to Jesus. {And healed them all} (kai i(8374)o pantas).
Imperfect middle again. Was healing all, kept on healing all. The
preacher today who is not a vehicle of power from Christ to men
may well question why that is true. Undoubtedly the failure to
get a blessing is one reason why many people stop going to
church. One may turn to Paul's tremendous words in  Php 4:13 : "I
have strength for all things in him who keeps on pouring power
into me" (panta ischu(9320)en t(9369) endunamounti me). It was at a
time of surpassing dynamic spiritual energy when Jesus delivered
this greatest of all sermons so far as they are reported to us.
The very air was electric with spiritual power. There are such
times as all preachers know.

經文:

路加福音 6:20-6:20

註釋:

 {And he lifted up his eyes} (kai autos eparas tous
opthalmous autou). First aorist active participle from epair(935c).
Note also Luke's favourite use of kai autos in beginning a
paragraph. Vivid detail alone in Luke. Jesus looked the vast
audience full in the face.  Mt 5:2  mentions that "he opened his
mouth and taught them" (began to teach them, inchoative
imperfect, edidasken). He spoke out so that the great crowd
could hear. Some preachers do not open their mouths and do not
look up at the people, but down at the manuscript and drawl along
while the people lose interest and even go to sleep or slip out.
{Ye poor} (hoi pt(9363)hoi). {The poor}, but "yours" (humetera)
justifies the translation "ye." Luke's report is direct address
in all the four beatitudes and four woes given by him. It is
useless to speculate why Luke gives only four of the eight
beatitudes in Matthew or why Matthew does not give the four woes
in Luke. One can only say that neither professes to give a
complete report of the sermon. There is no evidence to show that
either saw the report of the other. They may have used a common
source like Q (the Logia of Jesus) or they may have had separate
sources. Luke's first beatitude corresponds with Matthew's first,
but he does not have "in spirit" after "poor." Does Luke
represent Jesus as saying that poverty itself is a blessing? It
can be made so. Or does Luke represent Jesus as meaning what is
in Matthew, poverty of spirit? {The kingdom of God} (h(8820)basileia
tou theou).  Mt 5:3  has "the kingdom of heaven" which occurs
alone in Matthew though he also has the one here in Luke with no
practical difference. The rabbis usually said "the kingdom of
heaven." They used it of the political Messianic kingdom when
Judaism of the Pharisaic sort would triumph over the world. The
idea of Jesus is in the sharpest contrast to that conception here
and always. See on 烘t 3:2| for discussion of the meaning of the
word "kingdom." It is the favourite word of Jesus for the rule of
God in the heart here and now. It is both present and future and
will reach a glorious consummation. Some of the sayings of Christ
have apocalyptic and eschatological figures, but the heart of the
matter is here in the spiritual reality of the reign of God in
the hearts of those who serve him. The kingdom parables expand
and enlarge upon various phases of this inward life and growth.

經文:

路加福音 6:21-6:21

註釋:

 {Now} (
un). Luke adds this adverb here and in the next
sentence after "weep." This sharpens the contrast between present
sufferings and the future blessings. {Filled}
(chortasth(8873)esthe). Future passive indicative. The same verb in
 Mt 5:6 . Originally it was used for giving fodder (chortos) to
animals, but here it is spiritual fodder or food except in  Lu
15:16  16:21 . Luke here omits "and thirst after righteousness."
{Weep} (klaiontes). Audible weeping. Where  Mt 5:4  has "mourn"
(penthountes). {Shall laugh} (gelasete). Here  Mt 5:4  has
"shall be comforted." Luke's words are terse.

經文:

路加福音 6:22-6:22

註釋:

 {When they shall separate you} (hotan aphoris(9373)in hum(8373)).
First aorist active subjunctive, from aphoriz(935c), common verb for
marking off a boundary. So either in good sense or bad sense as
here. The reference is to excommunication from the congregation
as well as from social intercourse. {Cast out your name as evil}
(exbal(9373)in to onoma hum(936e) h(9373) pon(8872)on). Second aorist active
subjunctive of ekball(935c), common verb. The verb is used in
Aristophanes, Sophocles, and Plato of hissing an actor off the
stage. The name of Christian or disciple or Nazarene came to be a
byword of contempt as shown in the Acts. It was even unlawful in
the Neronian persecution when Christianity was not a _religio
licita_. {For the Son of man's sake} (heneka tou huiou tou
anthr(9370)ou). Jesus foretold what will befall those who are loyal
to him. The Acts of the Apostles is a commentary on this
prophecy. This is Christ's common designation of himself, never
of others save by Stephen ( Ac 7:56 ) and in the Apocalypse ( Re
1:13  14:14 ). But both Son of God and Son of man apply to him
( Joh 1:50,52  Mt 26:63f. ). Christ was a real man though the Son
of God. He is also the representative man and has authority over
all men.

經文:

路加福音 6:23-6:23

註釋:

 {Leap for joy} (skirt(8873)ate). Old verb and in LXX, but only
in Luke in the N.T. (here and  1:41,44 ). It answers to Matthew's
( Mt 5:12 ) "be exceeding glad." {Did} (epoioun). Imperfect
active, the habit of "their fathers" (peculiar to both here).  Mt
5:12  has "persecuted." Thus they will receive a prophet's reward
( Mt 1:41 ).

經文:

路加福音 6:24-6:24

註釋:

 {But woe unto you that are rich} (Pl(886e) ouai humin tois
plousiois). Sharp contrast (pl(886e)). As a matter of fact the
rich Pharisees and Sadducees were the chief opposers of Christ as
of the early disciples later ( Jas 5:1-6 ). {Ye have received}
(apechete). Receipt in full apech(935c) means as the papyri show.
{Consolation} (parakl(8873)in). From parakale(935c), to call to one's
side, to encourage, to help, to cheer.

經文:

路加福音 6:25-6:25

註釋:

 {Now} (
un). Here twice as in verse  21  in contrast with
future punishment. The joys and sorrows in these two verses are
turned round, measure for measure reversed. The Rich Man and
Lazarus ( Lu 16:19-31 ) illustrate these contrasts in the present
and the future.

經文:

路加福音 6:26-6:26

註釋:

 {In the same manner did their fathers} (	a auta epoioun hoi
pateres aut(936e)). Literally, their fathers did the same things to
the false prophets. That is they spoke well (kal(9373)), finely of
false prophets. Praise is sweet to the preacher but all sorts of
preachers get it. {Of you} (humas). Accusative case after words
of speaking according to regular Greek idiom, to speak one fair,
to speak well of one.

經文:

路加福音 6:27-6:27

註釋:

 {But I say unto you that hear} (Alla humin leg(9320)tois
akouousin). There is a contrast in this use of alla like that
in  Mt 5:44 . This is the only one of the many examples given by
 Mt 5  of the sharp antithesis between what the rabbis taught and
what Jesus said. Perhaps that contrast is referred to by Luke. If
necessary, alla could be coordinating or paratactic conjunction
as in  2Co 7:11  rather than adversative as apparently here. See
 Mt 5:43f.  Love of enemies is in the O.T., but Jesus ennobles
the word, agapa(935c), and uses it of love for one's enemies.

經文:

路加福音 6:28-6:28

註釋:

 {That despitefully use you} (	(936e) ep(8872)eazont(936e) hum(8373)). This
old verb occurs here only in the N.T. and in  1Pe 3:16 , not
being genuine in  Mt 5:44 .

經文:

路加福音 6:29-6:29

註釋:

 {On the cheek} (epi t(886e) siagona).  Mt 5:39  has "right."
Old word meaning jaw or jawbone, but in the N.T. only here and
 Mt 5:39 , which see for discussion. It seems an act of violence
rather than contempt. Sticklers for extreme literalism find
trouble with the conduct of Jesus in  Joh 18:22f.  where Jesus,
on receiving a slap in the face, protested against it. {Thy
cloke} (	o himation), {thy coat} (	on chit(936e)a). Here the
upper and more valuable garment (himation) is first taken, the
under and less valuable chit(936e) last. In  Mt 5:40  the process
(apparently a legal one) is reversed. {Withhold not} (m(880a)k(936c)us(8869)s). Aorist subjunctive in prohibition against committing
an act. Do not hinder him in his robbing. It is usually useless
anyhow with modern armed bandits.

經文:

路加福音 6:30-6:30

註釋:

 {Ask them not again} (m(8820)apaitei). Here the present active
imperative in a prohibition, do not have the habit of asking
back. This common verb only here in the N.T., for aitousin is
the correct text in  Lu 12:20 . The literary flavour of Luke's
_Koin(825f) style is seen in his frequent use of words common in the
literary Greek, but appearing nowhere else in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 6:31-6:31

註釋:

 {As ye would} (kath(9373) thelete). In  Mt 7:12  the Golden
Rule begins: Panta hosa ean thel(8874)e. Luke has "likewise"
(homoi(9373)) where Matthew has hout(9373). See on Matthew for
discussion of the saying.

經文:

路加福音 6:32-6:32

註釋:

 {What thank have ye?} (poia h(966d)in charis estin;). What
grace or gratitude is there to you?  Mt 5:46  has misthon
(reward).

經文:

路加福音 6:33-6:33

註釋:

 {Do good} (agathopoi(8874)e). Third-class condition, ean and
present subjunctive. This verb not in old Greek, but in LXX.
{Even sinners} (kai hoi hamart(936c)oi). Even the sinners, the
article distinguishing the class.  Mt 5:46  has "even the
publicans" and  5:47  "even the Gentiles." That completes the
list of the outcasts for "sinners" includes "harlots" and all the
rest.

經文:

路加福音 6:34-6:34

註釋:

 {If ye lend} (ean danis(8874)e). Third-class condition, first
aorist active subjunctive from daniz(935c) (old form daneiz(935c)) to
lend for interest in a business transaction (here in active to
lend and  Mt 5:42  middle to borrow and nowhere else in N.T.),
whereas kichr(886d)i (only  Lu 11:5  in N.T.) means to loan as a
friendly act. {To receive again as much} (hina apolab(9373)in ta
isa). Second aorist active subjunctive of apolamban(935c), old
verb, to get back in full like apech(935c) in  6:24 . Literally
here, "that they may get back the equal" (principal and interest,
apparently). It could mean "equivalent services." No parallel in
Matthew.

經文:

路加福音 6:35-6:35

註釋:

 {But} (pl(886e)). Plain adversative like pl(886e) in verse  24 .
Never despairing (m(8864)en apelpizontes). M(8864)en is read by A B L
Bohairic and is the reading of Westcott and Hort. The reading
m(8864)ena is translated "despairing of no man." The Authorized
Version has it "hoping for nothing again," a meaning for
apelpiz(935c) with no parallel elsewhere. Field (_Otium Nor._ iii.
40) insists that all the same the context demands this meaning
because of apelpizein in verse  34 , but the correct reading
there is elpizein, not apelpizein. Here Field's argument
falls to the ground. The word occurs in Polybius, Diodorus, LXX
with the sense of despairing and that is the meaning here. D and
Old Latin documents have _nihil desperantes_, but the Vulgate has
_nihil inde sperantes_ (hoping for nothing thence) and this false
rendering has wrought great havoc in Europe. "On the strength of
it Popes and councils have repeatedly condemned the taking of any
interest whatever for loans. As loans could not be had without
interest, and Christians were forbidden to take it, money lending
passed into the hands of the Jews, and added greatly to the
unnatural detestation in which Jews were held" (Plummer). By
"never despairing" or "giving up nothing in despair" Jesus means
that we are not to despair about getting the money back. We are
to help the apparently hopeless cases. Medical writers use the
word for desperate or hopeless cases. {Sons of the Most High}
(huoi Hupsistou). In  1:32  Jesus is called "Son of the
Highest" and here all real children or sons of God ( Lu 20:36 )
are so termed. See also  1:35,76  for the use of "the Highest" of
God. He means the same thing that we see in  Mt 5:45,48  by "your
Father." {Toward the unthankful and evil} (epi tous acharistous
kai pon(8872)ous). God the Father is kind towards the unkind and
wicked. Note the one article with both adjectives.

經文:

路加福音 6:36-6:36

註釋:

 {Even as your Father} (kath(9373) ho pat(8872) hum(936e)). In  Mt
5:48  we have h(9373) ho pat(8872) hum(936e). In both the perfection of the
Father is placed as the goal before his children. In neither case
is it said that they have reached it.

經文:

路加福音 6:37-6:37

註釋:

 {And judge not} (kai m(8820)krinete). M(885c) and the present
active imperative, forbidding the habit of criticism. The common
verb krin(935c), to separate, we have in our English words critic,
criticism, criticize, discriminate. Jesus does not mean that we
are not to form opinions, but not to form them rashly, unfairly,
like our prejudice. {Ye shall not be judged} (ou m(8820)krith(8874)e).
First aorist passive subjunctive with double negative ou m(885c),
strong negative. {Condemn not} (m(8820)katadikazete). To give
judgment (dik(882c) dixaz(935c)) against (kata) one. M(885c) and present
imperative. Either cease doing or do not have the habit of doing
it. Old verb. {Ye shall not be condemned} (ou m(880a)katadikasth(8874)e). First aorist passive indicative again with the
double negative. Censoriousness is a bad habit. {Release}
(apoluete). Positive command the opposite of the censoriousness
condemned.

經文:

路加福音 6:38-6:38

註釋:

 {Pressed down} (pepiesmenon). Perfect passive participle
from piez(935c), old verb, but here alone in the N.T., though the
Doric form piaz(935c), to seize, occurs several times ( Joh
7:30,32,44 ). {Shaken together} (sesaleumenon). Perfect passive
participle again from common verb saleu(935c). {Running over}
(huperekchunnomenon). Present middle participle of this double
compound verb not found elsewhere save in A Q in  Joe 2:24 .
Chun(935c) is a late form of che(935c). There is asyndeton here, no
conjunction connecting these participles. The present here is in
contrast to the two preceding perfects. The participles form an
epexegesis or explanation of the "good measure" (metron kalon).
Into your bosom (eis ton kolpon hum(936e)). The fold of the wide
upper garment bound by the girdle made a pocket in common use
( Ex 4:6  Pr 6:27  Ps 79:12  Isa 65:6f.  Jer 32:18 ). So  Isa
65:7 : {I will measure their former work unto their bosom. Shall
be measured to you again} (antimetr(8874)h(8873)etai). Future passive
indicative of the verb here only in the N.T. save late MSS. in
 Mt 7:2 . Even here some MSS. have metr(8874)h(8873)etai. The anti
has the common meaning of in turn or back, measured back to you
in requital.

經文:

路加福音 6:39-6:39

註釋:

 {Also a parable} (kai parabol(886e)). Plummer thinks that the
second half of the sermon begins here as indicated by Luke's
insertion of "And he spake (eipen de) at this point. Luke has
the word parable some fifteen times both for crisp proverbs and
for the longer narrative comparisons. This is the only use of the
term parable concerning the metaphors in the Sermon on the Mount.
But in both Matthew and Luke's report of the discourse there are
some sixteen possible applications of the word. Two come right
together: The blind leading the blind, the mote and the beam.
Matthew gives the parabolic proverb of the blind leading the
blind later ( Mt 15:14 ). Jesus repeated these sayings on various
occasions as every teacher does his characteristic ideas. So Luke
 6:40  Mt 10:24 ,  Lu 6:45  Mt 12:34f.  {Can} (M(8874)i dunatai).
The use of m(8874)i in the question shows that a negative answer is
expected. {Guide} (hod(8867)ein). Common verb from hod(8867)os
(guide) and this from hodos (way) and h(8867)eomai, to lead or
guide. {Shall they not both fall?} (ouchi amphoteroi
empesountai;). Ouchi, a sharpened negative from ouk, in a
question expecting the answer Yes. Future middle indicative of
the common verb empipt(935c). {Into a pit} (eis bothunon). Late
word for older othros.

經文:

路加福音 6:40-6:40

註釋:

 {The disciple is not above his master} (ouk estin math(8874)(8873)
huper ton didaskalon). Literally, a learner (or pupil) is not
above the teacher. Precisely so in  Mt 10:24  where "slave" is
added with "lord." But here Luke adds: "But everyone when he is
perfected shall be as his master" (kat(8872)tismenos de p(8373) estai
h(9373) ho didaskalos autou). The state of completion, perfect
passive participle, is noted in kat(8872)tismenos. The word is
common for mending broken things or nets ( Mt 4:21 ) or men ( Ga
6:1 ). So it is a long process to get the pupil patched up to the
plane of his teacher.

經文:

路加福音 6:41-6:41

註釋:

 {Mote} (karphos) and {beam} (dokon). See on 烘t 7:3-5|
for discussion of these words in this parabolic proverb kin to
several of ours today.

經文:

路加福音 6:42-6:42

註釋:

 {Canst thou say} (dunasai legein). Here  Mt 7:4  has {wilt
thou say} (ereis). {Beholdest not} (ou blep(936e)).  Mt 7:4  has
"lo" (idou). {Thou hypocrite} (hupokrita). Contrast to the
studied politeness of "brother" (adelphe) above. Powerful
picture of blind self-complacence and incompetence, the keyword
to argument here.

經文:

路加福音 6:44-6:44

註釋:

 {Is known} (gin(9373)ketai). The fruit of each tree reveals
its actual character. It is the final test. This sentence is not
in  Mt 7:17-20 , but the same idea is in the repeated saying ( Mt
7:16,20 ): "By their fruits ye shall know them," where the verb
{epign(9373)esthe} means full knowledge. The question in  Mt 7:16  is
put here in positive declarative form. The verb is in the plural
for "men" or "people," sullegousin. See on 烘t 7:16|. {Bramble
bush} (atou). Old word, quoted from the LXX in  Mr 12:26  Lu
20:37  (from  Ex 3:6 ) about the burning bush that Moses saw, and
by Stephen ( Ac 7:30,35 ) referring to the same incident. Nowhere
else in the N.T. "Galen has a chapter on its medicinal uses, and
the medical writings abound in prescriptions of which it is an
ingredient" (Vincent). {Gather} (	rug(9373)in). A verb common in
Greek writers for gathering ripe fruit. In the N.T. only here and
 Re 14:18f . {Grapes} (staphul(886e)). Cluster of grapes.

經文:

路加福音 6:45-6:45

註釋:

 {Bringeth forth} (propherei). In a similar saying repeated
later.  Mt 12:34f.  has the verb ekballei (throws out, casts
out), a bolder figure. "When men are natural, heart and mouth act
in concert. But otherwise the mouth sometimes professes what the
heart does not feel" (Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 6:46-6:46

註釋:

 {And do not} (kai ou poieite). This is the point about
every sermon that counts. The two parables that follow illustrate
this point.

經文:

路加福音 6:47-6:47

註釋:

 {Hears and does} (akou(936e) kai poi(936e)). Present active
participles. So in  Mt 7:24 . (Present indicative.) {I will show
you} (hupodeix(9320)humin). Only in Luke, not Matthew.

經文:

路加福音 6:48-6:48

註釋:

 {Digged and went deep} (eskapsen kai ebathunen). Two first
aorist indicatives. Not a _hendiadys_ for dug deep. Skapt(935c), to
dig, is as old as Homer, as is athun(935c), to make deep. {And laid
a foundation} (kai eth(886b)en themelion). That is the whole point.
This wise builder struck the rock before he laid the foundation.
{When a flood arose} (pl(886d)mur(8873) genomen(8873)). Genitive absolute.
Late word for flood, pl(886d)mura, only here in the N.T., though in
 Job 40:18 . {Brake against} (proser(8878)en). First aorist active
indicative from prosr(8867)numi and in late writers prosr(8873)s(935c), to
break against. Only here in the N.T.  Mt 7:25  has prosepesan,
from prospipt(935c), to fall against. {Could not shake it} (ouk
ischusen saleusai aut(886e)). Did not have strength enough to shake
it. {Because it had been well builded} (dia to kal(9373)
oikodom(8873)thai aut(886e)). Perfect passive articular infinitive after
dia and with accusative of general reference.

經文:

路加福音 6:49-6:49

註釋:

 {He that heareth and doeth not} (ho de akousas kai m(880a)poi(8873)as). Aorist active participle with article. Particular case
singled out (punctiliar, aorist). {Like a man} (homoios estin
anthr(9370)(9369)). Associative instrumental case after homoios as in
verse  47 . {Upon the earth} (epi t(886e) g(886e)).  Mt 7:26  has "upon
the sand" (epi t(886e) ammon), more precise and worse than mere
earth. But not on the rock. {Without a foundation} (ch(9372)is
themeliou). The foundation on the rock after deep digging as in
verse  48 . {It fell in} (sunepesen). Second aorist active of
sunpipt(935c), to fall together, to collapse. An old verb from Homer
on, but only here in the N.T. {The ruin} (	o r(8867)ma). The crash
like a giant oak in the forest resounded far and wide. An old
word for a rent or fracture as in medicine for laceration of a
wound. Only here in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 7:1-7:1

註釋:

 {After} (epeid(882c) epei and d(885c)). This conjunction was written
epei d(885c) in Homer and is simple epei with the intensive d(885c)
added and even epei d(8820)per once in N.T. ( Lu 1:1 ). This is the
only instance of the temporal use of epeid(885c) in the N.T. The
causal sense occurs only in Luke and Paul, for epei is the
correct text in  Mt 21:46 . {Had ended} (epl(8872)(9373)en). First
aorist active indicative. There is here a reference to the
conclusion of the Sermon on the Mount, but with nothing
concerning the impression produced by the discourse such as is
seen in  Mt 7:28 . This verse really belongs as the conclusion of
Chapter 6, not as the beginning of Chapter 7. {In the ears of the
people} (eis tas akoas tou laou). Ako(885c) from akou(935c), to hear,
is used of the sense of hearing ( 1Co 12:17 ), the ear with which
one hears ( Mr 7:35  Heb 5:11 ), the thing heard or the report
( Rom 10:16 ) or oral instruction ( Ga 3:2,5 ). Both  Mt 8:5-13  Lu 7:1-10  locate the healing of the centurion's servant in
Capernaum where Jesus was after the Sermon on the Mount.

經文:

路加福音 7:2-7:2

註釋:

 {Centurion's servant} (Hekatontarchou tinos doulos). Slave
of a certain centurion (Latin word centurio, commander of a
century or hundred).  Mr 15:39,44  has the Latin word in Greek
letters, kenturi(936e). The centurion commanded a company which
varied from fifty to a hundred. Each cohort had six centuries.
Each legion had ten cohorts or bands ( Ac 10:1 ). The centurions
mentioned in the N.T. all seem to be fine men as Polybius states
that the best men in the army had this position. See also  Lu
23:47 . The Greek has two forms of the word, both from hekaton,
hundred, and arch(935c), to rule, and they appear to be used
interchangeably. So we have hekatontarchos; here, the form is
-archos, and hekatontarch(8873), the form is -arch(8873) in verse
 6 . The manuscripts differ about it in almost every instance.
The -archos form is accepted by Westcott and Hort only in the
nominative save the genitive singular here in  Lu 7:2  and the
accusative singular in  Ac 22:25 . See like variation between
them in  Mt 8:5,8  (-archos) and  Mt 8:13  (arch(8869)). So also
-archon ( Ac 22:25 ) and -arch(8873) ( Ac 22:26 ). {Dear to him}
(aut(9369) entimos). Held in honour, prized, precious, dear ( Lu
14:8  1Pe 2:4  Php 2:29 ), common Greek word. Even though a slave
he was dear to him. {Was sick} (kak(9373) ech(936e)). Having it bad.
Common idiom. See already  Mt 4:24  8:16  Mr 2:17  Lu 5:31 , etc.
 Mt 8:6  notes that the slave was a paralytic. {And at the point
of death} ((886d)ellen teleut(8369)n). Imperfect active of mell(935c)
(note double augment (885c)) which is used either with the present
infinitive as here, the aorist ( Re 3:16 ), or even the future
because of the future idea in mell(935c) ( Ac 11:28  24:15 ). He was
about to die.

經文:

路加福音 7:3-7:3

註釋:

 {Sent unto him elders of the Jews} (apesteilen pros auton
presbouterous t(936e) Ioudai(936e)).  Mt 8:5  says "the centurion came
unto him." For discussion of this famous case of apparent
discrepancy see discussion on Matthew. One possible solution is
that Luke tells the story as it happened with the details,
whereas Matthew simply presents a summary statement without the
details. What one does through another he does himself. {Asking
him} (er(9374)(936e) auton). Present active participle, masculine
singular nominative, of the verb er(9374)a(935c) common for asking a
question as in the old Greek ( Lu 22:68 ). But more frequently in
the N.T. the verb has the idea of making a request as here. This
is not a Hebraism or an Aramaism, but is a common meaning of the
verb in the papyri (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p.
168). It is to be noted here that Luke represents the centurion
himself as "asking" through the elders of the Jews (leading
citizens). In  Mt 8:6  the verb is parakal(936e) (beseeching).
{That he would come and save} (hop(9373) elth(936e) dias(9373)(8869)). Hina
is the more common final or sub-final (as here) conjunction, but
hop(9373) still occurs. Dias(9373)(8869) is effective aorist active
subjunctive, to bring safe through as in a storm ( Ac 28:1,4 ).
Common word.

經文:

路加福音 7:4-7:4

註釋:

 {Besought} (parekaloun). Imperfect active, began and kept
on beseeching. This is the same verb used by Matthew in  Mt 8:5 
of the centurion himself. {Earnestly} (spoudai(9373)). From
spoud(885c) haste. So eagerly, earnestly, zealously, for time was
short. {That thou shouldst do this for him} (h(9369) parex(8869)
touto). Second future middle singular of parech(935c). Old and
common verb, furnish on thy part. H(9369) is relative in dative
case almost with notion of contemplated result (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 961).

經文:

路加福音 7:5-7:5

註釋:

 {For} (gar). This clause gives the reason why the elders of
the Jews consider him "worthy" (axios, drawing down the scale,
axis, ago). He was hardly a proselyte, but was a Roman who
had shown his love for the Jews. {Himself} (autos). All by
himself and at his own expense. {Us} (h(886d)in). Dative case, for
us. It is held by some archaeologists that the black basalt ruins
in Tell Hum are the remains of the very synagogue (	(886e)
sunag(9367)(886e)). Literally, {the synagogue}, the one which we have,
the one for us.

經文:

路加福音 7:6-7:6

註釋:

 {Went with them} (eporeueto sun autois). Imperfect
indicative middle. He started to go along with them. {Now}
((8864)(885c)). Already like Latin _jam_. In  1Co 4:8  
un (8864)(885c) like
_jam nunc_. {Sent friends} (epempsen philous). This second
embassy also, wanting in Matthew's narrative. He "puts the
message of both into the mouth of the centurion himself"
(Plummer). Note saying (leg(936e)), present active singular
participle, followed by direct quotation from the centurion
himself. {Trouble not thyself} (M(8820)skullou). Present middle
(direct use) imperative of skull(935c), old verb originally meaning
to skin, to mangle, and then in later Greek to vex, trouble,
annoy. Frequent in the papyri in this latter sense. {For I am not
worthy that} (ou gar hikanos eimi hina). The same word
hikanos, not axios, as in  Mt 8:8 , which see for discussion,
from hik(932c) hikan(935c), to fit, to reach, be adequate for. Hina in
both places as common in late Greek. See  Mt 8:8  also for "roof"
(steg(886e), covering).

經文:

路加福音 7:7-7:7

註釋:

 {Wherefore neither thought I myself worthy to come unto thee}
(dio oude emauton (8878)i(9373)a pros se elthein). Not in Matthew
because he represents the centurion as coming to Jesus. {Speak
the word} (eipe log(9369)). As in  Mt 8:8 . Second aorist active
imperative with instrumental case, speak with a word. {My servant
shall be healed} (iath(8874)(9320)ho pais mou). Imperative first aorist
passive, let be healed. Pais literally means "boy," an
affectionate term for the "slave," doulos (verse  2 ), who was
"dear" to him.

經文:

路加福音 7:8-7:8

註釋:

 {"Set"} (	assomenos). Genuine here, though doubtful in  Mt
8:9  where see discussion of this vivid and characteristic speech
of the centurion.

經文:

路加福音 7:9-7:9

註釋:

 {Turned} (strapheis). Second aorist passive participle of
streph(935c), to turn. Common verb. A vivid touch not in Matthew's
account. In both Matthew and Luke Jesus marvels at the great
faith of this Roman centurion beyond that among the Jews. As a
military man he had learned how to receive orders and to execute
them and hence to expect obedience to his commands, He recognized
Jesus as Master over disease with power to compel obedience.

經文:

路加福音 7:10-7:10

註釋:

 {Whole} (hugiainonta). Sound, well. See  Lu 5:31 .

經文:

路加福音 7:11-7:11

註釋:

 {Soon afterwards} (en toi hex(8873)). According to this
reading supply chron(9369), time. Other MSS. read 	(8869) hex(8873)
(supply h(886d)er(8369), day). Hex(8873) occurs in Luke and Acts in the
N.T. though old adverb of time. {That} (Hoti). Not in the
Greek, the two verbs egeneto and eporeuth(885c) having no
connective (asyndeton). {Went with him} (suneporeuonto aut(9369)).
Imperfect middle picturing the procession of disciples and the
crowd with Jesus. Nain is not mentioned elsewhere in the N.T.
There is today a hamlet about two miles west of Endor on the
north slope of Little Hermon. There is a burying-place still in
use. Robinson and Stanley think that the very road on which the
crowd with Jesus met the funeral procession can be identified.

經文:

路加福音 7:12-7:12

註釋:

 {Behold} (kai idou). The kai introduces the apodosis of
the temporal sentence and has to be left out in translations. It
is a common idiom in Luke, kai idou. {There was carried out}
(exekomizeto). Imperfect passive indicative. Common verb in
late Greek for carrying out a body for burial, though here only
in the N.T. (ekkomiz(935c)). Rock tombs outside of the village exist
there today. {One that was dead} (	ethn(886b)(9373)). Perfect active
participle of 	hn(8873)k(935c), to die. {The only son of his mother}
(monogen(8873) huios t(8869) m(8874)ri auto(965c)). Only begotten son to his
mother (dative case). The compound adjective monogen(8873) (monos
and genos) is common in the old Greek and occurs in the N.T.
about Jesus ( Joh 3:16,18 ). The "death of a widow's only son was
the greatest misfortune conceivable" (Easton). {And she was a
widow} (kai aut(8820)(886e) ch(8872)a). This word ch(8872)a gives the
finishing touch to the pathos of the situation. The word is from
ch(8872)os, bereft. The mourning of a widow for an only son is the
extremity of grief (Plummer). {Much people} (ochlos hikanos).
Considerable crowd as often with this adjective hikanos. Some
were hired mourners, but the size of the crowd showed the real
sympathy of the town for her.

經文:

路加福音 7:13-7:13

註釋:

 {The Lord saw her} (id(936e) aut(886e) ho kurios). The Lord of
Life confronts death (Plummer) and Luke may use Kurios here
purposely. {Had compassion} (esplagchth(885c)). First aorist
(ingressive) passive indicative of splagchnizomai. Often love
and pity are mentioned as the motives for Christ's miracles ( Mt
14:14  15:32 , etc.). It is confined to the Synoptics in the N.T.
and about Christ save in the parables by Christ. {Weep not} (m(880a)klaie). Present imperative in a prohibition. Cease weeping.

經文:

路加福音 7:14-7:14

註釋:

 {Touched the bier} (h(8870)sato tou sorou). An urn for the
bones or ashes of the dead in Homer, then the coffin ( Ge 5:26 ),
then the funeral couch or bier as here. Only here in the N.T.
Jesus touched the bier to make the bearers stop, which they did
({stood still}, est(8873)an), second aorist active indicative of
hist(886d)i.

經文:

路加福音 7:15-7:15

註釋:

 {Sat up} (anekathisen). First aorist active indicative.
The verb in the N.T. only here and  Ac 9:40 . Medical writers
often used it of the sick sitting up in bed (Hobart, _Med. Lang.
of St. Luke_, p. 11). It is objected that the symmetry of these
cases (daughter of Jairus raised from the death-bed, this widow's
son raised from the bier, Lazarus raised from the tomb) is
suspicious, but no one Gospel gives all three (Plummer). {Gave
him to his mother} (ed(936b)en auton t(8869) m(8874)ri autou). Tender way
of putting it. "For he had already ceased to belong to his
mother" (Bengel). So in  Lu 9:42 .

經文:

路加福音 7:16-7:16

註釋:

 {Fear seized all} (elaben de phobos pantas). Aorist active
indicative. At once. {They glorified God} (edoxazon ton theon).
Imperfect active, inchoative, began and increased.

經文:

路加福音 7:17-7:17

註釋:

 {This report} (ho logos houtos). That God had raised up a
great prophet who had shown his call by raising the dead.

經文:

路加福音 7:18-7:18

註釋:

 {And the disciples of John told him} (kai ap(8867)geilan I(9361)n(8869)
hoi math(8874)ai autou). Literally, and his disciples announced to
John. Such news (verse  17 ) was bound to come to the ears of the
Baptist languishing in the dungeon of Machaerus ( Lu 3:20 ).  Lu
7:18-35  runs parallel with  Mt 11:2-19 , a specimen of Q, the
non-Marcan portion of Matthew and Luke.

經文:

路加福音 7:19-7:19

註釋:

 {Calling unto him} (proskalesamenos). First aorist middle
(indirect) participle. {Two} (duo tinas). Certain two. Not in
 Mt 11:2 . {Saying} (leg(936e)). John saying by the two messengers.
The message is given precisely alike in  Mt 11:3 , which see. In
both we have heteron for "another," either a second or a
different kind. In verse  20  Westcott and Hort read allon in
the text, heteron in the margin. Prosdok(936d)en, may be present
indicative or present subjunctive (deliberative), the same
contract form (ao= (932c) a(9320)(935c)).

經文:

路加福音 7:21-7:21

註釋:

 {In that hour he cured} (en ekein(8869) t(8869) hor(8369)
etherapeusen). This item is not in Matthew. Jesus gave the two
disciples of John an example of the direct method. They had
heard. Then they saw for themselves. {Diseases} (
os(936e)),
{plagues} (mastig(936e)), {evil spirits} (pneumat(936e) pon(8872)(936e)), all
kinds of bodily ills, and he singles out the {blind} (	uphlois)
to whom in particular he bestowed sight (echarizato blepein),
gave as a free gift (from charis, grace) seeing (lepein).

經文:

路加福音 7:22-7:22

註釋:

 {What things ye have seen and heard} (ha eidete kai
(886b)ousate). In  Mt 11:4 , present tense "which ye do hear and
see." Rest of verse  22,23  as in  Mt 11:4-6 , which see for
details. Luke mentions no raisings from the dead in verse  21 ,
but the language is mainly general, while here it is specific.
Skandalizomai used here has the double notion of to trip up and
to entrap and in the N.T. always means causing to sin.

經文:

路加福音 7:24-7:24

註釋:

 {When the messengers of John were departed} (apelthont(936e)
t(936e) aggel(936e) I(9361)nou). Genitive absolute of aorist active
participle.  Mt 11:7  has the present middle participle
poreuomen(936e), suggesting that Jesus began his eulogy of John as
soon as the messengers (angels, Luke calls them) were on their
way. The vivid questions about the people's interest in John are
precisely alike in both Matthew and Luke.

經文:

路加福音 7:25-7:25

註釋:

 {Gorgeously apparelled} (en himatism(9369) endox(9369)). In
splendid clothing. Here alone in this sense in the N.T. {And live
delicately} (	ruph(8869)). From 	hrupt(935c) to break down, to
enervate, an old word for luxurious living. See the verb
	rupha(935c) in  Jas 5:5 . {In kings' courts} (en tois
basileiois). Only here in the N.T.  Mt 11:8  has it "in kings'
houses." Verses  26,27  are precisely alike in  Mt 11:9,10 ,
which see for discussion.

經文:

路加福音 7:26-7:26

註釋:

 {A prophet?} (proph(8874)(886e);). A real prophet will always get
a hearing if he has a message from God. He is a for-speaker,
forth-teller (pro-ph(8874)(8873)). He may or may not be a fore-teller.
The main thing is for the prophet to have a message from God
which he is willing to tell at whatever cost to himself. The word
of God came to John in the wilderness of Judea ( Lu 3:2 ). That
made him a prophet. There is a prophetic element in every real
preacher of the Gospel. Real prophets become leaders and moulders
of men.

經文:

路加福音 7:28-7:28

註釋:

 {There is none} (oudeis estin). No one exists, this means.
 Mt 11:11  has ouk eg(8867)ertai (hath not arisen). See Matthew for
discussion of "but little" and "greater."

經文:

路加福音 7:29-7:29

註釋:

 {Justified God} (edikai(9373)an ton theon). They considered
God just or righteous in making these demands of them. Even the
publicans did. They submitted to the baptism of John
(aptisthentes to baptisma tou I(9361)nou. First aorist passive
participle with the cognate accusative retained in the passive.
Some writers consider verses  29,30  a comment of Luke in the
midst of the eulogy of John by Jesus. This would be a remarkable
thing for so long a comment to be interjected. It is perfectly
proper as the saying of Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 7:30-7:30

註釋:

 {Rejected for themselves} ((8874)het(8873)an eis heautous). The
first aorist active of athete(935c) first seen in LXX and Polybius.
Occurs in the papyri. These legalistic interpreters of the law
refused to admit the need of confession of sin on their part and
so set aside the baptism of John. They annulled God's purposes of
grace so far as they applied to them. {Being not baptized by him}
(m(8820)baptisthentes hup' autou). First aorist passive participle.
M(885c) is the usual negative of the participle in the _Koin(825f).

經文:

路加福音 7:31-7:31

註釋:

 {And to what are they like?} (kai tini eisin homoioi;).
This second question is not in  Mt 11:16 . It sharpens the point.
The case of 	ini is associative instrumental after homoioi.
See discussion of details in Matthew.

經文:

路加福音 7:32-7:32

註釋:

 {And ye did not weep} (kai ouk eklausate). Here  Mt 1:17 
has "and ye did not mourn (or beat your breast, ouk
ekopsasthe). They all did it at funerals. These children would
not play wedding or funeral.

經文:

路加福音 7:33-7:33

註釋:

 {John the Baptist is come} (el(886c)uthen). Second perfect
active indicative where  Mt 11:18  has (886c)then second aorist
active indicative. So as to verse  34 . Luke alone has "bread"
and "wine." Otherwise these verses like  Mt 11:18,19 , which see
for discussion of details. There are actually critics today who
say that Jesus was called the friend of sinners and even of
harlots because he loved them and their ways and so deserved the
slur cast upon him by his enemies. If men can say that today we
need not wonder that the Pharisees and lawyers said it then to
justify their own rejection of Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 7:35-7:35

註釋:

 {Of all her children} (apo pant(936e) t(936e) tekn(936e) aut(8873)). Here
 Mt 11:19  has "by her works" (apo t(936e) erg(936e) aut(8873)). Aleph has
erg(936e) here. The use of "children" personifies wisdom as in  Pr
8  9 .

經文:

路加福音 7:36-7:36

註釋:

 {That he would eat with him} (hina phag(8869) met' autou).
Second aorist active subjunctive. The use of hina after
er(9374)a(935c) (see also  Lu 16:27 ) is on the border between the pure
object clause and the indirect question (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
1046) and the pure final clause. Luke has two other instances of
Pharisees who invited Jesus to meals ( 11:37  14:1 ) and he alone
gives them. This is the Gospel of Hospitality (Ragg). Jesus would
dine with a Pharisee or with a publican ( Lu 5:29  Mr 2:15  Mt
9:10 ) and even invited himself to be the guest of Zaccheus ( Lu
9:5 ). This Pharisee was not as hostile as the leaders in
Jerusalem. It is not necessary to think this Pharisee had any
sinister motive in his invitation though he was not overly
friendly (Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 7:37-7:37

註釋:

 {A woman which was in the city, a sinner} (gun(8820)h(8874)is en
t(8869) polei hamart(936c)os). Probably in Capernaum. The use of h(8874)is
means "Who was of such a character as to be" (cf.  8:3 ) and so
more than merely the relative h(885c), who, that is, "who was a
sinner in the city," a woman of the town, in other words, and
known to be such. Hamart(936c)os, from hamartan(935c), to sin, means
devoted to sin and uses the same form for feminine and masculine.
It is false and unjust to Mary Magdalene, introduced as a new
character in  Lu 8:2 , to identify this woman with her. Luke
would have no motive in concealing her name here and the life of
a courtesan would be incompatible with the sevenfold possession
of demons. Still worse is it to identify this courtesan not only
with Mary Magdalene, but also with Mary of Bethany simply because
it is a Simon who gives there a feast to Jesus when Mary of
Bethany does a beautiful deed somewhat like this one here ( Mr
14:3-9  Mt 26:6-13  Joh 12:2-8 ). Certainly Luke knew full well
the real character of Mary of Bethany ( 10:38-42 ) so beautifully
pictured by him. But a falsehood, once started, seems to have
more lives than the cat's proverbial nine. The very name
Magdalene has come to mean a repentant courtesan. But we can at
least refuse to countenance such a slander on Mary Magdalene and
on Mary of Bethany. This sinful woman had undoubtedly repented
and changed her life and wished to show her gratitude to Jesus
who had rescued her. Her bad reputation as a harlot clung to her
and made her an unwelcome visitor in the Pharisee's house. {When
she knew} (epignousa). Second aorist active participle from
epigin(9373)k(935c), to know fully, to recognize. She came in by a
curious custom of the time that allowed strangers to enter a
house uninvited at a feast, especially beggars seeking a gift.
This woman was an intruder whereas Mary of Bethany was an invited
guest. "Many came in and took their places on the side seats,
uninvited and yet unchallenged. They spoke to those at table on
business or the news of the day, and our host spoke freely to
them" (Trench in his _Parables_, describing a dinner at a
Consul's house at Damietta). {He was sitting at meat}
(katakeitai). Literally, he is reclining (present tense
retained in indirect discourse in Greek). {An alabaster cruse of
ointment} (alabastron murou). See on 烘t 26:7| for discussion
of alabastron and murou.

經文:

路加福音 7:38-7:38

註釋:

 {Standing behind at his feet} (st(8373)a opis(9320)para tous podas
autou). Second aorist active participle from hist(886d)i and
intransitive, first aorist est(8873)a being transitive. The guest
removed his sandals before the meal and he reclined on the left
side with the feet outward. She was standing beside (para) his
feet {weeping} (klaiousa). She was drawn irresistibly by
gratitude to Jesus and is overcome with emotion before she can
use the ointment; her tears (	ois dakrusin, instrumental case
of dakru) take the place of the ointment. {Wiped them with the
hair of her head} (	ais thrixin t(8873) kephal(8873) aut(8873) exemassen).
Inchoative imperfect of an old verb ekmass(935c), to rub out or off,
began to wipe off, an act of impulse evidently and of
embarrassment. "Among the Jews it was a shameful thing for a
woman to let down her hair in public; but she makes this
sacrifice" (Plummer). So Mary of Bethany wiped the feet of Jesus
with her hair ( Joh 12:3 ) with a similar sacrifice out of her
great love for Jesus. This fact is relied on by some to prove
that Mary of Bethany had been a woman of bad character, surely an
utter failure to recognize Mary's motive and act. {Kissed}
(katephilei). Imperfect active of kataphile(935c), to kiss
repeatedly (force of kata), and accented by the tense of
continued action here. The word in the N.T. occurs here, of the
prodigal's father ( 15:20 ), of the kiss of Judas ( Mr 14:45  Mt
26:49 ), of the Ephesian elders ( Ac 20:37 ). " Kissing the feet
was a common mark of deep reverence, especially to leading
rabbis" (Plummer). {Anointed them with the ointment} ((886c)eiphen
t(9369) mur(9369)). Imperfect active again of aleiph(935c), a very common
verb. Chri(935c) has a more religious sense. The anointing came
after the burst of emotional excitement.

經文:

路加福音 7:39-7:39

註釋:

 {This man} (houtos). Contemptuous, this fellow. {If he
were a (the) prophet} (ei (886e) [ho] proph(8874)(8873)). Condition of the
second class, determined as unfulfilled. The Pharisee assumes
that Jesus is not a prophet (or the prophet, reading of B, that
he claims to be). A Greek condition puts the thing from the
standpoint of the speaker or writer. It does not deal with the
actual facts, but only with the statement about the facts. {Would
have perceived} (egin(9373)ken an). Wrong translation, would now
perceive or know (which he assumes that Jesus does not do). The
protasis is false and the conclusion also. He is wrong in both.
The conclusion (apodosis), like the condition, deals here with
the present situation and so both use the imperfect indicative
(an in the conclusion, a mere device for making it plain that
it is not a condition of the first class). {Who and what manner
of woman} (	is kai potap(8820)h(8820)gun(885c)). She was notorious in person
and character.

經文:

路加福音 7:40-7:40

註釋:

 {Answering} (apokritheis). First aorist passive
participle, redundant use with eipen. Jesus answers the
thoughts and doubts of Simon and so shows that he knows all about
the woman also. Godet notes a tone of Socratic irony here.

經文:

路加福音 7:41-7:41

註釋:

 {A certain lender} (danist(8869) tini). A lender of money with
interest. Here alone in the N.T. though a common word. {Debtors}
(chreophiletai). From chre(935c) (debt, obligation) and opheil(935c),
to owe. Only here and  16:5  in the N.T., though common in late
Greek writers. {Owed} ((9370)heilen). Imperfect active and so
unpaid. Five hundred d(886e)aria and fifty like two hundred and
fifty dollars and twenty-five dollars.

經文:

路加福音 7:42-7:42

註釋:

 {Will love him most} (pleion agap(8873)ei auton). Strictly,
comparative {more}, pleion, not superlative pleista, but most
suits the English idiom best, even between two. Superlative forms
are vanishing before the comparative in the _Koin(825f). This is the
point of the parable, the attitude of the two debtors toward the
lender who forgave both of them (Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 7:43-7:43

註釋:

 {I suppose} (hupolamban(935c)). Old verb, originally to take up
from under, to bear away as on high, to take up in speech ( Lu
10:30 ), to take up in mind or to assume as here and  Ac 2:15 .
Here with an air of supercilious indifference (Plummer). {The
most} (	o pleion). The more. {Rightly} (orth(9373)). Correctly.
Socrates was fond of panu orth(9373). The end of the argument.

經文:

路加福音 7:44-7:44

註釋:

 {Turning} (strapheis). Second aorist passive participle.
{Seest thou} (lepeis). For the first time Jesus looks at the
woman and he asks the Pharisee to look at her. She was behind
Jesus. Jesus was an invited guest. The Pharisee had neglected
some points of customary hospitality. The contrasts here made
have the rhythm of Hebrew poetry. In each contrast the first word
is the point of defect in Simon: {water} (44), {kiss} (45), {oil}
(46).

經文:

路加福音 7:45-7:45

註釋:

 {Hath not ceased to kiss} (ou dielipen kataphilousa).
Supplementary participle.

經文:

路加福音 7:46-7:46

註釋:

 {With ointment} (mur(9369)). Instrumental case. She used the
costly ointment even for the feet of Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 7:47-7:47

註釋:

 {Are forgiven} (aphe(936e)tai). Doric perfect passive form.
See  Lu 5:21,23 . {For she loved much} (hoti (8867)ap(8873)en polu).
Illustration or proof, not reason for the forgiveness. Her sins
had been already forgiven and remained forgiven. {But to whom
little is forgiven, the same loveth little} (H(9369) de oligon
aphietai oligon agap(8369)). This explanation proves that the
meaning of hoti preceding is proof, not cause.

經文:

路加福音 7:48-7:48

註釋:

 {Are forgiven} (aphe(936e)tai). As in verse  47 . Remain
forgiven, Jesus means, in spite of the slur of the Pharisee.

經文:

路加福音 7:49-7:49

註釋:

 {Who even forgiveth sins} (hos kai hamartias aphi(8873)in).
Present indicative active of same verb, aphi(886d)i. Once before
the Pharisees considered Jesus guilty of blasphemy in claiming
the power to forgive sins ( Lu 5:21 ). Jesus read their inmost
thoughts as he always does.

經文:

路加福音 8:1-8:1

註釋:

 {Soon afterwards} (en t(9369) kathex(8873)). In  7:11  we have en
t(9369) hex(8873). This word means one after the other, successively,
but that gives no definite data as to the time, only that this
incident in  8:1-3  follows that in  7:36-50 . Both in Luke
alone. {That} (kai). One of Luke's idioms with kai egeneto
like Hebrew _wav_. Went about (di(9364)euen). Imperfect active of
diodeu(935c), to make one's way through (dia, hodos), common in
late Greek writers. In the N.T. here only and  Ac 17:1 . {Through
cities and villages} (kata polin kai k(936d)(886e)). Distributive use
of kata (up and down). The clause is amphibolous and goes
equally well with di(9364)euen or with k(8872)uss(936e) (heralding) kai
euaggelizomenos (evangelizing, gospelizing). This is the second
tour of Galilee, this time the Twelve with him.

經文:

路加福音 8:2-8:2

註釋:

 {Which had been healed} (hai (8873)an tetherapeumenai).
Periphrastic past perfect passive, suggesting that the healing
had taken place some time before this tour. These women all had
personal grounds of gratitude to Jesus. {From whom seven devils
(demons) had gone out} (aph' h(8873) daimonia hepta exel(886c)uthei).
Past perfect active third singular for the daimonia are neuter
plural. This first mention of Mary Magdalene describes her
special cause of gratitude. This fact is stated also in  Mr 16:9 
in the disputed close of the Gospel. The presence of seven demons
in one person indicates special malignity ( Mr 5:9 ). See  Mt
17:45  for the parable of the demon who came back with seven
other demons worse than the first. It is not known where Magdala
was, whence Mary came.

經文:

路加福音 8:3-8:3

註釋:

 {Joanna} (I(9361)na). Her husband Chuz(835c), steward
(epitropou) of Herod, is held by some to be the nobleman
(asilikos) of  Joh 4:46-53  who believed and all his house. At
any rate Christ had a follower from the household of Herod
Antipas who had such curiosity to see and hear him. One may
recall also Manaen ( Ac 13:1 ), Herod's foster brother. Joanna is
mentioned again with Mary Magdalene in  Lu 24:10 . {Who
ministered unto them} (haitines di(886b)onoun autois). Imperfect
active of diakone(935c), common verb, but note augment as if from
dia and akone(935c), but from diakonos and that from dia and
konis (dust). The very fact that Jesus now had twelve men going
with him called for help from others and the women of means
responded to the demand. {Of their substance} (ek t(936e)
huparchont(936e) autais). From the things belonging to them. This is
the first woman's missionary society for the support of
missionaries of the Gospel. They had difficulties in their way,
but they overcame these, so great was their gratitude and zeal.

經文:

路加福音 8:4-8:4

註釋:

 {By a parable} (dia parabol(8873)).  Mr 4:2  says "in parables"
as does  Mt 13:3 . This is the beginning of the first great group
of parables as given in  Mr 4:1-34  and  Mt 13:1-53 . There are
ten of these parables in Mark and Matthew and only two in  Lu
8:4-18  (The Sower and the Lamp,  8:16 ) though Luke also has the
expression "in parables" ( 8:10 ). See  Mt 13  and  Mr 4  for
discussion of the word parable and the details of the Parable of
the Sower. Luke does not locate the place, but he mentions the
great crowds on hand, while both Mark and Matthew name the
seaside as the place where Jesus was at the start of the series
of parables.

經文:

路加福音 8:5-8:5

註釋:

 {His seed} (	on sporon autou). Peculiar to Luke. {Was
trodden under foot} (katepat(8874)h(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative of katapate(935c). Peculiar to Luke here. {Of the
heavens} (	ou ouranou). Added in Luke.

經文:

路加福音 8:6-8:6

註釋:

 {Upon the rock} (epi t(886e) petran).  Mr 4:5  "the rocky
ground" (epi to petr(9364)es),  Mt 13:5  "the rocky places. {As
soon as it grew} (phuen). Second aorist passive participle of
phu(935c), an old verb to spring up like a sprout. {Withered away}
(ex(8872)anth(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of z(8872)ain(935c), old
verb, to dry up. {Moisture} (ikmada). Here only in the N.T.,
though common word.

經文:

路加福音 8:7-8:7

註釋:

 {Amidst the thorns} (en mes(9369) t(936e) akanth(936e)).  Mr 4:7  has
eis (among) and  Mt 13:7  has epi "upon." {Grew with it}
(sunphueisai). Same participle as phuen above with sun-
(together). {Choked} (apepnixan). From apopnig(935c), to choke off
as in  Mt 13:7 . In  Mr 4:7  the verb is sunepnixan (choked
together).

經文:

路加福音 8:8-8:8

註釋:

 {A hundredfold} (hekatonplasiona). Luke omits the thirty
and sixty of  Mr 4:8  Mt 13:8 . {He cried} (eph(936e)ei). Imperfect
active, and in a loud voice, the verb means. The warning about
hearing with the ears occurs also in  Mr 4:9  Mt 13:9 .

經文:

路加福音 8:9-8:9

註釋:

 {Asked} (ep(8872)(9374)(936e)). Imperfect of eper(9374)a(935c) (epi and
er(9374)a(935c)) where  Mr 4:10  has (8872)(9374)(936e) (uncompounded imperfect),
both the tense and the use of epi indicate eager and repeated
questions on the part of the disciples, perhaps dimly perceiving
a possible reflection on their own growth. {What this parable
might be} (	is haut(8820)ei(8820)h(8820)parabol(885c)). A mistranslation, What
this parable was (or meant). The optative ei(885c) is merely due to
indirect discourse, changing the indicative estin (is) of the
direct question to the optative ei(885c) of the indirect, a change
entirely with the writer or speaker and without any change of
meaning (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1043f.).

經文:

路加福音 8:10-8:10

註釋:

 {The mysteries} (	a must(8872)ia). See for this word on 烘t
13:11; Mr 4:11|. Part of the mystery here explained is how so
many people who have the opportunity to enter the kingdom fail to
do so because of manifest unfitness. {That} (hina). Here  Mr
4:11  also has hina while  Mt 13:13  has hoti (because). On
the so-called causal use of hina as here equal to hoti see
discussion on 烘t 13:13; Mr 4:11|. Plummer sensibly argues that
there is truth both in the causal hoti of Matthew and the final
hina of Mark and Matthew. "But the principle that he who hath
shall receive more, while he who hath not shall be deprived of
what he seemeth to have, explains both the hina and the hoti.
Jesus speaks in parables because the multitudes see without
seeing and hear without hearing. But He also speaks in parable
{in order that} they may see without seeing and hear without
hearing." Only for "hearing" Luke has "understand" suni(9373)in,
present subjunctive from a late omega form suni(935c) instead of the
-mi verb suni(886d)i.

經文:

路加福音 8:11-8:11

註釋:

 {Is this} (estin de haut(885c)). Means this. Jesus now proceeds
to interpret his own parable. {The seed is the word of God} (ho
sporos estin ho logos tou theou). The article with both subject
and predicate as here means that they are interchangeable and can
be turned round: The word of God is the seed. The phrase "the
word of God" does not appear in Matthew and only once in Mark
( Mr 7:13 ) and John ( Joh 10:35 ), but four times in Luke ( 5:1  8:11,21  11:28 ) and twelve times in Acts. In  Mr 4:14  we have
only "the word." In  Mr 3:31  we have "the will of God," and in
 Mt 12:46  "the will of my Father" where  Lu 8:21  has "the word
of God." This seems to show that Luke has the subjective genitive
here and means the word that comes from God.

經文:

路加福音 8:12-8:12

註釋:

 {Those by the wayside} (hoi para t(886e) hodon). As in  Mr
4:15  Mt 13:19  so here the people who hear the word = the seed
are discussed by metonymy. {The devil} (ho diabolos). The
slanderer. Here  Mr 4:15  has Satan. {From their heart} (apo t(8873)
kardias aut(936e)). Here Mark has "in them." It is the devil's
business to snatch up the seed from the heart before it sprouts
and takes root. Every preacher knows how successful the devil is
with his auditors.  Mt 13:19  has it "sown in the heart." {That
they may not believe and be saved} (hina m(8820)pisteusantes
s(9374)h(9373)in). Peculiar to Luke. Negative purpose with aorist active
participle and first aorist (ingressive) passive subjunctive.
Many reasons are offered today for the failure of preachers to
win souls. Here is the main one, the activity of the devil during
and after the preaching of the sermon. No wonder then that the
sower must have good seed and sow wisely, for even then he can
only win partial success.

經文:

路加福音 8:13-8:13

註釋:

 {Which for a while believe} (hoi pros kairon pisteuousin).
Ostensibly they are sincere and have made a real start in the
life of faith. {They fall away} (aphistantai). Present middle
indicative. They stand off, lose interest, stop coming to church,
drop out of sight. It is positively amazing the number of new
church members who "stumble" as  Mr 4:17  has it
(skandalizontai), do not like the pastor, take offence at
something said or done by somebody, object to the appeals for
money, feel slighted. The "season of trial" becomes a "season of
temptation" (en kair(9369) peirasmou) for these superficial,
emotional people who have to be periodically rounded up if kept
within the fold.

經文:

路加福音 8:14-8:14

註釋:

 {They are choked} (sunpnigontai). Present passive
indicative of this powerfully vivid compound verb sunpnig(935c) used
in  Mr 4:19  Mt 13:22 , only there these worldly weeds choke the
word while here the victims themselves are choked. Both are true.
Diphtheria will choke and strangle the victim. Who has not seen
the promise of fair flower and fruit choked into yellow withered
stalk without fruit "as they go on their way" (poreuomenoi).
{Bring no fruit to perfection} (ou telesphorousin). Compound
verb common in the late writers (	elos, phore(935c)). To bring to
completion. Used of fruits, animals, pregnant women. Only here in
the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 8:15-8:15

註釋:

 {In an honest and good heart} (en kardi(8369) kal(8869) kai
agath(8869)). Peculiar to Luke. In verse  8  the land (g(886e)) is
called agath(886e) (really good, generous) and in verse  15  we
have en t(8869) kal(8869) g(8869) ({in the beautiful or noble land}). So
Luke uses both adjectives of the heart. The Greeks used kalos k'
agathos of the high-minded gentleman. It is probable that Luke
knew this idiom. It occurs here alone in the N.T. It is not easy
to translate. We have such phrases as "good and true," "sound and
good," "right and good," no one of which quite suits the Greek.
Certainly Luke adds new moral qualities not in the Hellenic
phrase. The English word "honest" here is like the Latin
_honestus_ (fair, noble). The words are to be connected with
"hold fast" (katechousin), "hold it down" so that the devil
does not snatch it away, having depth of soil so that it does not
shrivel up under the sun, and is not choked by weeds and thorns.
It bears fruit (karpophorousin, an old expressive verb,
karpos and phore(935c)). That is the proof of spiritual life. {In
patience} (en hupomon(8869)). There is no other way for real fruit
to come. Mushrooms spring up overnight, but they are usually
poisonous. The best fruits require time, cultivation, patience.

經文:

路加福音 8:16-8:16

註釋:

 {When he hath lighted a lamp} (luchnon hapsas). It is a
portable lamp (luchnon) that one lights (hapsas aorist active
participle of hapt(935c), to kindle, fasten to, light). {With a
vessel} (skeuei, instrumental case of skeuos). Here  Mr 4:21 
has the more definite figure "under the bushel" as has  Mt 5:15 .
{Under the bed} (hupokat(9320)klin(8873)). Here  Mr 4:21  has the
regular hupo t(886e) klin(886e) instead of the late compound
hupokat(935c). Ragg notes that Matthew distributes the sayings of
Jesus given here by  Lu 8:16-18  Mr 4:21-25  concerning the
parable of the lamp and gives them in three separate places ( Mt
5:15  10:26  13:12 ). That is true, but it does not follow that
Mark and Luke have bunched together separate sayings or that
Matthew has scattered sayings delivered only on one occasion. One
of the slowest lessons for some critics to learn is that Jesus
repeated favourite sayings on different occasions and in
different groupings just as every popular preacher and teacher
does today. See on 烘r 4:21| for further discussion of the lamp
and stand. {May see the light} (Blep(9373)in to ph(9373)). In  Mt 5:16 
Jesus has it "may see your good works." The purpose of light is
to let one see something else, not the light. Note present
subjunctive (lep(9373)in), linear action "Jesus had kindled a
light within them. They must not hide it, but must see that it
spreads to others" (Plummer). The parable of the lamp throws
light on the parable of the sower.

經文:

路加福音 8:17-8:17

註釋:

 {That shall not be known} (ho ou m(8820)gn(9373)th(8869)). Peculiar to
Luke. First aorist passive subjunctive of gin(9373)k(935c) with the
strong double negative ou m(885c). See on 烘r 4:22| for discussion
of krupton and apokruphon.

經文:

路加福音 8:18-8:18

註釋:

 {How ye hear} (p(9373) akouete). The manner of hearing.  Mr
4:24  has "what ye hear" (	i akouete), the matter that is
heard. Both are supremely important. Some things should not be
heard at all. Some that are heard should be forgotten. Others
should be treasured and practised. {For whosoever hath} (Hos an
gar ech(8869)). Present active subjunctive of the common verb ech(935c)
which may mean "keep on having" or "acquiring." See on 烘r 4:25|
for discussion. {Thinketh he hath} (dokei echein), or {seems to
acquire or to hold}. Losses in business illustrate this saying as
when we see their riches take wings and fly away. So it is with
hearing and heeding. Self-deception is a common complaint.

經文:

路加福音 8:19-8:19

註釋:

 {His mother and brethren} (h(8820)m(8874)(8872) kai hoi adelphoi
autou).  Mr 3:31-35  Mt 12:46-50  place the visit of the mother
and brothers of Jesus before the parable of the sower. Usually
Luke follows Mark's order, but he does not do so here. At first
the brothers of Jesus (younger sons of Joseph and Mary, I take
the words to mean, there being sisters also) were not unfriendly
to the work of Jesus as seen in  Joh 2:12  when they with the
mother of Jesus are with him and the small group (half dozen)
disciples in Capernaum after the wedding in Cana. But as Jesus
went on with his work and was rejected at Nazareth ( Lu
4:16-31 ), there developed an evident disbelief in his claims on
the part of the brothers who ridiculed him six months before the
end ( Joh 7:5 ). At this stage they have apparently come with
Mary to take Jesus home out of the excitement of the crowds,
perhaps thinking that he is beside himself ( Mr 3:21 ). They
hardly believed the charge of the rabbis that Jesus was in league
with Beelzebub. Certainly the mother of Jesus could give no
credence to that slander. But she herself was deeply concerned
and wanted to help him if possible. See discussion of the problem
in my little book _The Mother of Jesus_ and also on 烘r 3:31| and
烘t 12:46|. {Come to him} (suntuchein). Second aorist active
infinitive of suntugchan(935c), an old verb, though here alone in
the N.T., meaning to meet with, to fall in with as if
accidentally, here with associative instrumental case aut(9369).

經文:

路加福音 8:20-8:20

註釋:

 {Was told} (ap(8867)gel(885c)). Second aorist passive indicative of
apaggell(935c), to bring word or tidings. Common verb. See on 烘r
3:32| and 烘t 12:47| for details.

經文:

路加福音 8:21-8:21

註釋:

 {These which hear the word of God and do it} (hoi ton logon
tou theou akouontes kai poiountes). The absence of the article
with "mother" and "brothers" probably means, as Plummer argues,
"Mother to me and brothers to me are those who &c." No one is a
child of God because of human parentage ( Joh 1:13 ). "Family
ties are at best temporal; spiritual ties are eternal" (Plummer)
. Note the use of "hear and do" together here as in  Mt 7:24  Lu
6:47  at the close of the Sermon on the Mount. The parable of the
sower is almost like a footnote to that sermon. Later Jesus will
make "doing" a test of friendship for him ( Joh 15:14 ).

經文:

路加福音 8:22-8:22

註釋:

 {And they launched forth} (kai an(8863)hth(8873)an). First aorist
passive indicative of anag(935c), an old verb, to lead up, to put
out to sea (looked at as going up from the land). This nautical
sense of the verb occurs only in Luke in the N.T. and especially
in the Acts ( Ac 13:13  16:11  18:21  20:3,13  21:I,2  27:2,4,12,21  28:10f. ).

經文:

路加福音 8:23-8:23

註釋:

 1Co
15:30 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
15' or engs='1Co
15'
經文:

路加福音 8:24-8:24

註釋:

 {Master, Master} (Epistata, epistata). See on 烊u 5:5| for
discussion.  Mr 4:38  has {Teacher} (Didaskale),  Mt 8:25  has
{Lord} (Kurie). The repetition here shows the uneasiness of the
disciples. {We perish} (apollumetha). So in  Mr 4:38  Mt 8:25 .
Linear present middle indicative, we are perishing. {The raging
of the water} (	(9369) kludoni tou hudatos). Klud(936e), common Greek
word, is a boisterous surge, a violent agitation. Here only in
the N.T. save  Jas 1:6 . Kuma ( Mr 4:37 ) is the regular swell
or wave. A {calm} (gal(886e)(885c)). Only in the parallels in the N.T.,
though common word. Here  Mr 4:39  Mt 8:26  add {great}
(megal(885c)). {That} (hoti). This use of hoti as explanatory of
the demonstrative pronoun houtos occurs in the parallels  Mr
4:36  Mt 8:27  and also in  Lu 4:36 . It is almost result. {He
commandeth} (epitassei). Peculiar to Luke.

經文:

路加福音 8:26-8:26

註釋:

 {They arrived} (katepleusan). First aorist active
indicative of kataple(935c), common verb, but here only in the N.T.
Literally, {they sailed down} from the sea to the land, the
opposite of {launched forth} (an(8863)hth(8873)an) of verse  22 . So we
today use like nautical terms, to bear up, to bear down. {The
Gerasenes} (	on Geras(886e)(936e)). This is the correct text here as in
 Mr 5:1  while Gadarenes is correct in  Mt 8:28 . See there for
explanation of this famous discrepancy, now cleared up by
Thomson's discovery of Khersa (Gersa) on the steep eastern bank
and in the vicinity of Gadara. {Over against Galilee} (antipera
t(8873) Galilaias). Only here in the N.T. The later Greek form is
antiperan (Polybius, etc.). Some MSS. here have peran like
 Mr 5:1  Mt 8:28 .

經文:

路加福音 8:27-8:27

註釋:

 {And for a long time} (kai chron(9369) hikan(9369)). The use of
the associative instrumental case in expressions of time is a
very old Greek idiom that still appears in the papyri (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 527). {He had worn no clothes} (ouk enedusato
himation). First aorist middle indicative, constative aorist,
viewing the "long time" as a point. Not pluperfect as English has
it and not for the pluperfect, simply "and for a long time he did
not put on himself (indirect middle) any clothing." The physician
would naturally note this item. Common verb endu(935c) or endun(935c).
This item in Luke alone, though implied by  Mr 5:15  "clothed"
(himatismenon). {And abode not in any house} (kai en oiki(8369)
ouk emenen). Imperfect active. Peculiar to Luke, though implied
by the mention of tombs in all three ( Mr 5:3  Mt 8:28  Lu
8:27 ).

經文:

路加福音 8:28-8:28

註釋:

 {Fell down} (prosepesen). Second aorist active of
prospipt(935c), to fall forward, towards, prostrate before one as
here. Common verb.  Mr 5:6  has prosekun(8873)en (worshipped). {The
Most High God} (	ou theou tou hupsistou). Uncertain whether
	ou theou genuine or not. But "the Most High" clearly means God
as already seen ( Lu 1:32,35,36  6:35 ). The phrase is common
among heathen ( Nu 24:16  Mic 6:6  Isa 14:14 ). The demoniac may
have been a Gentile, but it is the demon here speaking. See on
烘r 2:7; Mt 8:29| for the Greek idiom (	i emoi kai soi). "What
have I to do with thee?" See there also for "Torment me not."

經文:

路加福音 8:29-8:29

註釋:

 {For he commanded} (par(8867)gellen gar). Imperfect active,
correct text, for he was commanding. {Often times} (pollois
chronois). Or "for a long time" like chron(9369) poll(9369) of verse
 27  (see Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 537, for the plural here). {It
had seized} (sun(8872)pakei). Past perfect active of sunarpaz(935c),
to lay hold by force. An old verb, but only in Luke in the N.T.
( Lu 8:29  Ac 6:12  19:29  27:15 ). {Was kept under guard}
(edesmeueto). Imperfect passive of desmeu(935c) to put in chains,
from desmos, bond, and that from de(935c) to bind. Old, but rather
rare verb. Only here and  Ac 22:4  in this sense. In  Mt 23:4  it
means to bind together. Some MSS. read desme(935c) in  Lu 8:29 .
{Breaking the bands asunder} (diar(8873)s(936e) ta desma). Old verb,
the preposition dia (in two) intensifying the meaning of the
simple verb 
(8873)s(935c) or 
(8867)numi, to rend. {Was driven}
((886c)auneto). Imperfect passive of elaun(935c), to drive, to row, to
march (Xenophon). Only five times in the N.T. Here alone in Luke
and peculiar to Luke in this incident.

經文:

路加福音 8:30-8:30

註釋:

 {Legion} (Legi(936e)). See on 烘r 5:9|.

經文:

路加福音 8:31-8:31

註釋:

 {Into the abyss} (eis t(886e) abusson). Rare old word common
in LXX from a privative and ath(9673) (deep). So bottomless
place (supply ch(9372)a). The deep sea in  Ge 1:2  7:11 . The
common receptacle of the dead in  Ro 10:7  and especially the
abode of demons as here and  Re 9:1-11  11:7  17:8  20:1,3 .

經文:

路加福音 8:32-8:32

註釋:

 {A herd of many swine} (agel(8820)choir(936e) hikan(936e)). Word
{herd} (agel(885c)) old as Homer, but in N.T. only here and
parallels ( Mr 5:11  Mt 8:30 ). Luke shows his fondness for
adjective hikanos here again (see verse  27 ) where Mark has
megal(885c) and Matthew poll(936e).

經文:

路加福音 8:33-8:33

註釋:

 {Rushed down the steep} (h(9372)m(8873)en kata tou kr(886d)nou).
Ablative with kata as in  Mr 5:13  Mt 8:32  and the same vivid
verb in each account, to hurl impetuously, to rush. {Were choked}
(apepnig(885c)). Second aorist (constative) passive indicative third
singular (collective singular) where  Mr 5:13  has the
picturesque imperfect epnigonto.

經文:

路加福音 8:34-8:34

註釋:

 {Saw what had come to pass} (idontes to gegonos). This
item only in Luke. Note the neat Greek idiom 	o gegonos,
articular second perfect active participle of ginomai. Repeated
in verse  35  and in  Mr 5:14 . Note numerous participles here in
verse  35  as in  Mr 5:15 .

經文:

路加福音 8:36-8:36

註釋:

 {He that was possessed with devils (demons)} (only two words
in Greek, ho daimonistheis, the demonized). {Was made whole}
(es(9374)h(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of s(937a)(935c) to save
from s(9373) (safe and sound). This is additional information to
the news carried to them in verse  34 .

經文:

路加福音 8:37-8:37

註釋:

 {Were holden with great fear} (phob(9369) megal(9369)
suneichonto). Imperfect passive of sunech(935c) with the
instrumental case of phobos. See a similar use of this vigorous
verb in  Lu 12:50  of Jesus and in  Php 1:23  of Paul.

經文:

路加福音 8:38-8:38

註釋:

 {From whom the devils (demons) were gone out} (aph' hou
exel(886c)uthei ta daimonia). Past perfect active of exerchomai,
state of completion in the past. {Prayed him} (edeeito autou).
Imperfect middle, kept on begging.

經文:

路加福音 8:39-8:39

註釋:

 {Throughout the whole city} (kath' hol(886e) t(886e) polin).  Mr
5:20  has it "in Decapolis." He had a great story to tell and he
told it with power. The rescue missions in our cities can match
this incident with cases of great sinners who have made witnesses
for Christ.

經文:

路加福音 8:40-8:40

註釋:

 {Welcomed} (apedexato). Peculiar to Luke. To receive with
pleasure, from apodechomai, a common verb. {For they were all
waiting for him} ((8873)an gar pantes prosdok(936e)tes auton).
Periphrastic imperfect active of {prosdoka(937d), an old verb for
eager expectancy, a vivid picture of the attitude of the people
towards Jesus. Driven from Decapolis, he is welcomed in
Capernaum.

經文:

路加福音 8:41-8:41

註釋:

 {Was} (hup(8872)chen). Imperfect of huparch(935c) in sense of
(886e) as in modern Greek. Common in Luke, and Acts, but not in
other Gospels.

經文:

路加福音 8:42-8:42

註釋:

 {An only daughter} (	hugat(8872) monogen(8873)). The same
adjective used of the widow's son ( 7:12 ) and the epileptic boy
( 9:38 ) and of Jesus ( Joh 1:18  3:16 ). {She lay a dying}
(apethn(8873)ken). Imperfect active, she was dying.  Mt 9:18  has
it that she has just died. {Thronged} (sunepnigon). Imperfect
active of sumpnig(935c), to press together, the verb used of the
thorns choking the growing grain ( Lu 8:14 ). It was a jam.

經文:

路加福音 8:43-8:43

註釋:

 {Had spent all her living upon physicians} (eis iatrous
prosanal(9373)asa holon ton bion). First aorist active participle of
an old verb prosanalisk(935c), only here in the N.T. But Westcott
and Hort reject this clause because it is not in B D Syriac
Sinaitic. Whether genuine or not, the other clause in  Mr 5:26 
certainly is not in Luke: "had suffered many things of many
physicians." Probably both are not genuine in Luke who takes care
of the physicians by the simple statement that it was a chronic
case: {could not be healed of any} (ouk ischusen ap' oudenos
therapeuth(886e)ai). He omitted also what Mark has: "and was nothing
bettered but rather grew worse."

經文:

路加福音 8:44-8:44

註釋:

 {The border of his garment} (	ou kraspedou tou himatiou).
Probably the tassel of the overgarment. Of the four corners two
were in front and two behind. See on 烘t 9:20|. {Stanched}
(est(885c)). Second aorist active indicative, {stopped} at once
(effective aorist).

經文:

路加福音 8:45-8:45

註釋:

 {Press thee and crush thee} (sunechousin se kai
apothlibousin). Hold thee together, hold thee in (sunech(935c), see
verse  37 ). {Crush thee} (apothlib(935c)) here only in the N.T., a
verb used of pressing out grapes in Diodorus and Josephus.  Mr
5:31  has sunthlib(935c), to press together.

經文:

路加福音 8:46-8:46

註釋:

 {For I perceived that power had gone forth from me} (eg(930a)gar egn(936e) dunamin exel(886c)uthuian ap' emou). Egn(936e) is second
aorist active indicative of gin(9373)k(935c), knowledge by personal
experience as here. It is followed by the second perfect active
participle exel(886c)uthuian in indirect discourse (Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 1040-42). Jesus felt the sensation of power
already gone. Who does not know what this sense of "goneness" or
exhaustion of nervous energy means?

經文:

路加福音 8:47-8:47

註釋:

 {Trembling} (	remousa). Vivid touch of the feeling of this
sensitive woman who now had to tell everybody of her cure, "in
the presence of all the people" (en(9370)ion pantos tou laou). She
faced the widest publicity for her secret cure.

經文:

路加福音 8:49-8:49

註釋:

 {From the ruler of the synagogue's house} (para tou
archisunag(9367)ou). The word "house" is not in the Greek here as in
 Mr 5:35  where apo is used rather than para, as here. But
the ruler himself had come to Jesus ( Lu 8:41 ) and this is the
real idea. Trouble not (m(886b)eti skulle). See on 烊u 7:6| for
this verb and also  Mr 5:35  Mt 9:36 .

經文:

路加福音 8:50-8:50

註釋:

 {And she shall be made whole} (kai s(9374)h(8873)etai). This
promise in addition to the words in  Mr 5:36 . See there for
discussion of details.

經文:

路加福音 8:53-8:53

註釋:

 {Knowing that she was dead} (eidotes hoti apethanen). That
she died (apethanen), second aorist active indicative of
apothn(8873)k(935c).

經文:

路加福音 8:54-8:54

註釋:

 {Called} (eph(936e)(8873)en). Certainly not to wake up the dead,
but to make it plain to all that she rose in response to his
elevated tone of voice. Some think that the remark of Jesus in
verse  52  ( Mr 5:39  Mt 9:24 ) proves that she was not really
dead, but only in a trance. It matters little. The touch of
Christ's hand and the power of his voice restored her to life.
{Maiden} (h(8820)pais) rather than Mark's ( Mr 5:41 ) 	o korasion
(vernacular _Koin(825f)).

經文:

路加福音 8:55-8:55

註釋:

 {Her spirit returned} (epestrepsen to pneuma aut(8873)). The
life came back to her at once. {Be given her to eat} (aut(8869)
doth(886e)ai phagein). The first infinitive doth(886e)ai is an
indirect command. The second phagein (second aorist active of
esthi(935c)) is epexegetic purpose.

經文:

路加福音 9:1-9:1

註釋:

 {He called the twelve together} (sunkalesamenos tous
d(9364)eka).  Mr 6:7  Mt 10:1  have proskale(936d)ai, to call to him.
Both the indirect middle voice.

經文:

路加福音 9:2-9:2

註釋:

 {He sent them forth} (apesteilen autous). First aorist
active indicative of apostell(935c). {To preach the kingdom of God
and to heal the sick} (k(8872)ussein t(886e) basileian tou theou kai
i(8373)thai). Present indicative for the continuous functions during
this campaign. This double office of herald (k(8872)ussein) and
healer (i(8373)thai) is stated directly in  Mt 10:7-8 . Note the
verb iaomai for healing here, though 	herapeuein in verse
 1 , apparently used interchangeably.

經文:

路加福音 9:3-9:3

註釋:

 {Neither staff} (m(8874)e rabdon). For the apparent
contradiction between these words ( Mt 10:10 ) and  Mr 6:8  see
discussion there. For p(8872)an (wallet) see also on 烘r 6:8| ( Mt
10:10 ) for this and other details here.

經文:

路加福音 9:5-9:5

註釋:

 {As many as receive you not} (hosoi an m(8820)dech(936e)tai humas).
Indefinite relative plural with an and present middle
subjunctive and the negative m(885c). Here  Mt 10:14  has the
singular (whosoever) and  Mr 6:11  has "whatsoever place." {For a
testimony against them} (eis marturion ep' autous). Note use of
ep' autous where  Mr 6:11  has simply the dative autois
(disadvantage), really the same idea.

經文:

路加福音 9:6-9:6

註釋:

 {Went} (di(8872)chonto). Imperfect middle, continuous and
repeated action made plainer also by three present participles
(exerchomenoi, euaggelizomenoi, therapeuontes), describing the
wide extent of the work through all the villages (kata tas
k(936d)as, distributive use of kata) everywhere (pantachou) in
Galilee.

經文:

路加福音 9:7-9:7

註釋:

 {All that was done} (	a ginomena panta). Present middle
participle, "all that was coming to pass." {He was much
perplexed} (di(8870)orei). Imperfect active of diapore(935c), to be
thoroughly at a loss, unable to find a way out (dia, a
privative, poros, way), common ancient verb, but only in Luke's
writings in the N.T. {Because it was said} (dia to legesthai).
Neat Greek idiom, the articular passive infinitive after dia.
Three reports came to the ears of Herod as Luke has it, each
introduced by hoti (that) in indirect discourse: "By some"
(hupo tin(936e)), "by some" (hupo tin(936e) de), "by others" (all(936e)
de, hupo not here expressed, but carried over). The verbs in the
indirect discourse here (verses  7,8 ) are all three aorists
((8867)erth(885c) first passive; ephan(885c) second passive; anest(885c)
second active), not past perfects as the English has them.

經文:

路加福音 9:9-9:9

註釋:

 {He sought} (ez(8874)ei). Imperfect active. He keep on seeking
to see Jesus. The rumours disturbed Herod because he was sure
that he had put him to death ("John I beheaded").

經文:

路加福音 9:10-9:10

註釋:

 {Declared} (di(8867)(8873)anto). First aorist middle of
di(8867)eomai, to carry a narrative through to the end. Jesus
listened to it all. {They had done} (epoi(8873)an). Aorist active
indicative, they did. {He took them} (paralab(936e) autous). Second
aorist active participle of paralamban(935c). Very common verb.
{Bethsaida} (B(8874)hsaida). Peculiar to Luke. Bethsaida Julias is
the territory of Philip, for it is on the other side of the Sea
of Galilee ( Joh 6:1 ).

經文:

路加福音 9:11-9:11

註釋:

 {Spake} (elalei). Imperfect active, he continued speaking.
{He healed} (i(8374)o). Imperfect middle, he continued healing.

經文:

路加福音 9:12-9:12

註釋:

 {To wear away} (klinein). Old verb usually transitive, to
bend or bow down. Many compounds as in English decline, incline,
recline, clinic (klin(885c), bed), etc. Luke alone in the N.T. uses
it intransitively as here. The sun was turning down towards
setting. {Lodge} (katalus(9373)in). First aorist active subjunctive
of katalu(935c), a common verb, to dissolve, destroy, overthrow, and
then of travellers to break a journey, to lodge (kataluma, inn,
 Lu 2:7 ). Only here and  19:7  in the N.T. in this sense. {Get
victuals} (heur(9373)in episitismon). Ingressive aorist active of
heurisk(935c), very common verb. {Victuals} (episitismon, from
episitizomai, to provision oneself, sitiz(935c), from siton,
wheat) only here in the N.T., though common in ancient Greek,
especially for provisions for a journey (snack). See on 烘r
6:32-44; Mt 14:13-21| for discussion of details.

經文:

路加福音 9:13-9:13

註釋:

 1Co
14:5 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
14' or engs='1Co
14'
經文:

路加福音 9:14-9:14

註釋:

 {About} (h(9373)ei). Luke as  Mt 14:21  adds this word to the
definite statement of  Mr 6:44  that there were 5,000 men, a
hundred companies of fifty each. {Sit down} (kataklinate).
First aorist active imperative. Recline, lie down. Only in Luke
in the N.T. See also verse  15 . {In companies} (klisias).
Cognate accusative after {kataklinate}. Only here in the N.T. A
row of persons reclining at meals (table company). {About fifty
each} (h(9373)ei ana pent(886b)onta). Distributive use of ana and
approximate number again (h(9373)ei).

經文:

路加福音 9:16-9:16

註釋:

 {The five ... the two} (	ous pente ... tous duo). Pointing
back to verse  13 , fine example of the Greek article. {And gave}
(kai edidou). Imperfect active of did(936d)i, kept on giving.
This picturesque imperfect is preceded by the aorist kateklasen
(brake), a single act. This latter verb in the N.T. only here and
the parallel in  Mr 6:41 , though common enough in ancient Greek.
We say "break off" where here the Greek has "break down" (or
thoroughly), perfective use of kata.

經文:

路加福音 9:17-9:17

註釋:

 {Twelve baskets} (kophinoi d(9364)eka). For discussion of
kophonoi and sphurides as well as of klasmata (broken
pieces) see on 烘r 6:43; Mt 14:20|.

經文:

路加福音 9:18-9:18

註釋:

 {As he was praying} (en t(9369) einai auton proseuchomenon).
Common Lukan idiom of en with the articular infinitive for a
temporal clause, only here Luke has the periphrastic infinitive
(einai proseuchomenon) as also in  11:1 . This item about
Christ's praying alone in Luke. {Alone} (kata monas). In the
N.T. only here and  Mr 4:10 . Perhaps ch(9372)as (places) is to be
supplied with monas (lonely places). {Were with him} (sun(8873)an
aut(9369)). This seems like a contradiction unless "alone" is to be
taken with sun(8873)an. Westcott and Hort put sun(886e)t(8873)an in the
margin. This would mean that as Jesus was praying alone, the
disciples fell in with him. At any rate he was praying apart from
them.

經文:

路加福音 9:19-9:19

註釋:

 {That I am} (me einai). Accusative and infinitive in
indirect assertion, a common Greek idiom.  Mt 16:13  for "I" has
"the Son of man" as identical in the consciousness of Christ. The
various opinions of men about Jesus here run parallel to the
rumours heard by Herod (verses  8,9 ).

經文:

路加福音 9:20-9:20

註釋:

 {But who say ye?} (Humeis de tina legete;). Note the
emphatic proleptical position of humeis: "But _ye_ who do ye
say? This is really what mattered now with Jesus. {The Christ of
God} (Ton christon tou theou). The accusative though the
infinitive is not expressed. The Anointed of God, the Messiah of
God. See on 氧:26| for "the Anointed of the Lord." See on 烘t
16:17| for discussion of Peter's testimony in full.  Mr 6:29  has
simply "the Christ." It is clear from the previous narrative that
this is not a new discovery from Simon Peter, but simply the
settled conviction of the disciples after all the defections of
the Galilean masses and the hostility of the Jerusalem
ecclesiastics. The disciples still believed in Jesus as the
Messiah of Jewish hope and prophecy. It will become plain that
they do not grasp the spiritual conception of the Messiah and his
kingdom that Jesus taught, but they are clear that he is the
Messiah however faulty their view of the Messiah may be. There
was comfort in this for Jesus. They were loyal to him.

經文:

路加福音 9:21-9:21

註釋:

 {To tell this to no man} (m(8864)eni legein touto). Indirect
command with the negative infinitive after {commanded}
(par(8867)geilen). It had been necessary for Jesus to cease using
the word {Messiah} (Christos) about himself because of the
political meaning to the Jews. Its use by the disciples would
lead to revolution as was plain after the feeding of the five
thousand ( Joh 6:15 ).

經文:

路加福音 9:22-9:22

註釋:

 {Rejected} (apodokimasth(886e)ai). First aorist passive
infinitive of apodokimaz(935c), to reject after trial. {The third
day} (	(8869) trit(8869) h(886d)er(8369)). Locative case of time as in  Mt
16:21 . Here in the parallel passage  Mr 8:31  has "after three
days" (meta treis h(886d)eras) in precisely the same sense. That is
to say, "after three days" is just a free way of saying "on the
third day" and cannot mean "on the fourth day" if taken too
literally. For discussion of this plain prediction of the death
of Christ with various details see discussion on  Mt 16:21  Mr
8:31 . It was a melancholy outlook that depressed the disciples
as Mark and Matthew show in the protest of Peter and his rebuke.

經文:

路加福音 9:23-9:23

註釋:

 {He said unto all} (elegen de pros pantas). This is like
Luke (cf. verse  43 ). Jesus wanted all (the multitude with his
disciples, as  Mr 8:34  has it) to understand the lesson of
self-sacrifice. They could not yet understand the full meaning of
Christ's words as applied to his approaching death of which he
had been speaking. But certainly the shadow of the cross is
already across the path of Jesus as he is here speaking. For
details (soul, life, forfeit, gain, profit, lose, world) see
discussion on 烘t 16:24-26; Mr 8:34-37|. The word for lose
(apolesei, from apollumi, a very common verb) is used in the
sense of destroy, kill, lose, as here. Note the mercantile terms
in this passage (gain, lose, fine or forfeit, exchange). {Daily}
(kath' h(886d)eran). Peculiar to Luke in this incident. Take up the
cross (his own cross) daily (aorist tense, (8372)at(935c)), but keep on
following me (akoloutheit(935c), present tense). The cross was a
familiar figure in Palestine. It was rising before Jesus as his
destiny. Each man has his own cross to meet and bear.

經文:

路加福音 9:26-9:26

註釋:

 {Whosoever shall be ashamed} (hos an epaischunth(8869)).
Rather, {Whosoever is ashamed} as in  Mr 8:38 . The first aorist
passive subjunctive in an indefinite relative clause with an.
The passive verb is transitive here also. This verb is from epi
and aischun(885c), shame (in the eyes of men). Jesus endured the
shame of the cross ( Heb 12:2 ). The man at the feast who had to
take a lower seat did it with shame ( Lu 14:9 ). Paul is not
ashamed of the Gospel ( Ro 1:16 ). Onesiphorus was not ashamed of
Paul ( 2Ti 1:16 ). {In his own glory} (en t(8869) dox(8869) autou).
This item added to what is in  Mr 8:38  Mt 16:27 .

經文:

路加福音 9:27-9:27

註釋:

 {Till they see} (he(9373) an id(9373)in). Second aorist active
subjunctive with he(9373) and an referring to the future, an
idiomatic construction. So in  Mr 9:1  Mt 16:28 . In all three
passages "shall not taste of death" (ou m(8820)geus(936e)tai thanatou,
double negative with aorist middle subjunctive) occurs also.
Rabbinical writings use this figure. Like a physician Christ
tasted death that we may see how to die. Jesus referred to the
cross as "this cup" ( Mr 14:36  Mt 26:39  Lu 22:42 ). Mark speaks
of the kingdom of God as "come" (el(886c)uthuian, second perfect
active participle). Matthew as "coming" (erchomenon) referring
to the Son of man, while Luke has neither form. See Matthew and
Mark for discussion of the theories of interpretation of this
difficult passage. The Transfiguration follows in a week and may
be the first fulfilment in the mind of Jesus. It may also
symbolically point to the second coming.

經文:

路加福音 9:28-9:28

註釋:

 {About eight days} (h(9373)ei h(886d)erai okt(935c)). A _nominativus
pendens_ without connexion or construction.  Mr 9:2  ( Mt 17:1 )
has "after six days" which agrees with the general statement.
{Into the mountain} (eis to oros). Probably Mount Hermon
because we know that Jesus was near Caesarea Philippi when Peter
made the confession ( Mr 8:27  Mt 16:13 ). Hermon is still the
glory of Palestine from whose heights one can view the whole of
the land. It was a fit place for the Transfiguration. {To pray}
(proseuxasthai). Peculiar to Luke who so often mentions
Christ's habit of prayer (cf.  3:21 ). See also verse  29  "as he
was praying" (en t(9369) proseuchesthai, one of Luke's favourite
idioms). {His countenance was altered} (egeneto to eidos tou
pros(9370)ou autou heteron). Literally, "the appearance of his face
became different."  Mt 17:2  says that "his face did shine as the
sun." Luke does not use the word "transfigured" (metemorph(9374)h(885c))
in  Mr 9:2  Mt 17:2 . He may have avoided this word because of
the pagan associations with this word as Ovid's Metamorphoses.
{And his raiment became white and dazzling} (kai ho himatismos
autou leukos exastrapt(936e)). Literally, {And his raiment white
radiant}. There is no _and_ between "white" and "dazzling." The
participle exastrapt(936e) is from the compound verb meaning to
flash (astrapt(935c)) out or forth (ex). The simple verb is common
for lightning flashes and bolts, but the compound in the LXX and
here alone in the N.T. See  Mr 9:3  "exceeding white" and  Mt
17:2  "white as the light."

經文:

路加福音 9:31-9:31

註釋:

 {There talked with him} (sunelaloun aut(9369)). Imperfect
active, were talking with him. {Who appeared in glory} (hoi
ophthentes en dox(8869)). First aorist passive participle of
hora(935c). This item peculiar to Luke. Compare verse  26 . {Spake
of his decease} (elegon t(886e) exodon). Imperfect active, were
talking about his exodus (departure from earth to heaven) very
much like our English word "decease" (Latin _decessus_, a going
away). The glorious light graphically revealed Moses and Elijah
talking with Jesus about the very subject concerning which Peter
had dared to rebuke Jesus for mentioning ( Mr 8:32  Mt 16:22 ).
This very word exodus (way out) in the sense of death occurs in
 2Pe 1:15  and is followed by a brief description of the
Transfiguration glory. Other words for death (	hanatos) in the
N.T. are ekbasis, going out as departure ( Heb 13:7 ),
aphixis, departing ( Ac 20:29 ), analusis, loosening anchor
( 2Ti 4:6 ) and analusai ( Php 1:23 ). {To accomplish}
(pl(8872)oun). To fulfil. Moses had led the Exodus from Egypt.
Jesus will accomplish the exodus of God's people into the
Promised Land on high. See on Mark and Matthew for discussion of
significance of the appearance of Moses and Elijah as
representatives of law and prophecy and with a peculiar death.
The purpose of the Transfiguration was to strengthen the heart of
Jesus as he was praying long about his approaching death and to
give these chosen three disciples a glimpse of his glory for the
hour of darkness coming. No one on earth understood the heart of
Jesus and so Moses and Elijah came. The poor disciples utterly
failed to grasp the significance of it all.

經文:

路加福音 9:32-9:32

註釋:

 {Were heavy with sleep} ((8873)an bebar(886d)enoi hupn(9369)).
Periphrastic past perfect of are(935c), a late form for the ancient
arun(935c) (not in N.T. save Textus Receptus in  Lu 21:34 ). This
form, rare and only in passive (present, aorist, perfect) in the
N.T., is like arun(935c), from arus, and that from aros,
weight, burden ( Ga 6:2 ). Hupn(9369) is in the instrumental case.
They had apparently climbed the mountain in the early part of the
night and were now overcome with sleep as Jesus prolonged his
prayer. Luke alone tells of their sleep. The same word is used of
the eyes of these three disciples in the Garden of Gethsemane
( Mt 26:43 ) and of the hearts of many ( Lu 21:34 ). {But when
they were fully awake} (diagr(8867)or(8873)antes de). First aorist
active participle of this late (Herodian) and rare compound verb
(here alone in the N.T.), diagr(8867)ore(935c) (Luke is fond of
compounds with dia). The simple verb gr(8867)ore(935c) (from the
second perfect active egr(8867)ora) is also late, but common in the
LXX and the N.T. The effect of dia can be either to remain
awake in spite of desire to sleep (margin of Revised Version) or
to become thoroughly awake (ingressive aorist tense also) as
Revised Version has it. This is most likely correct. The Syriac
Sinaitic has it "When they awoke." Certainly they had been
through a strain. {His glory} (	(886e) doxan autou). See also verse
 26  in the words of Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 9:33-9:33

註釋:

 {As they were departing from him} (en t(9369) diach(9372)izesthai
autous ap' autou). Peculiar to Luke and another instance of
Luke's common idiom of en with the articular infinitive in a
temporal clause. This common verb occurs here only in the N.T.
The present middle voice means to separate oneself fully (direct
middle). This departing of Moses and Elijah apparently
accompanied Peter's remark as given in all three Gospels. See for
details on Mark and Matthew. {Master} (Epistata) here, {Rabbi}
( Mr 9:5 ), {Lord} (Kurie,  Mt 17:4 ). {Let us make}
(poi(8873)(936d)en, first aorist active subjunctive) as in  Mr 9:5 ,
but  Mt 17:4  has "I will make" (poi(8873)(935c)). It was near the time
of the feast of the tabernacles. So Peter proposes that they
celebrate it up here instead of going to Jerusalem for it as they
did a bit later ( Joh 7 ). {Not knowing what he said} (m(8820)eid(9373)
ho legei). Literally, {not understanding what he was saying}
(m(885c), regular negative with participle and legei, present
indicative retained in relative clause in indirect discourse).
Luke puts it more bluntly than Mark (Peter's account), "For he
wist not what to answer; for they became sore afraid" ( Mr 9:6 ).
Peter acted according to his impulsive nature and spoke up even
though he did not know what to say or even what he was saying
when he spoke. He was only half awake as Luke explains and he was
sore afraid as Mark (Peter) explains. He had bewilderment enough
beyond a doubt, but it was Peter who spoke, not James and John.

經文:

路加福音 9:34-9:34

註釋:

 {Overshadowed them} (epeskiazen autous). Imperfect active
(aorist in  Mt 17:5 ) as present participle in  Mr 9:7 ,
inchoative, the shadow began to come upon them. On Hermon as on
many high mountains a cloud will swiftly cover the cap. I have
seen this very thing at Blue Ridge, North Carolina. This same
verb is used of the Holy Spirit upon Mary ( Lu 1:35 ). Nowhere
else in the N.T., though an old verb (epi, skiaz(935c), from skia,
shadow). {As they entered into the cloud} (en t(9369) eiselthein
autous eis t(886e) nephel(886e)). Luke's idiom of en with the
articular infinitive again (aorist active this time, on the
entering in as to them). All six "entered into" the cloud, but
only Peter, James, and John "became afraid" (ephob(8874)h(8873)an,
ingressive first aorist passive).

經文:

路加福音 9:35-9:35

註釋:

 If ekeinous be accepted here instead of autous, the
three disciples would be outside of the cloud. {Out of the cloud}
(ek t(8873) nephel(8873)). This voice was the voice of the Father like
that at the baptism of Jesus ( Lu 3:22  Mr 1:11  Mt 3:17 ) and
like that near the end ( Joh 12:28-30 ) when the people thought
it was a clap of thunder or an angel. {My son, my chosen} (Ho
huios mou, ho eklelegmenos). So the best documents (Aleph B L
Syriac Sinaitic). The others make it "My Beloved" as in  Mr 9:7  Mt 17:5 . These disciples are commanded to hear Jesus, God's Son,
even when he predicts his death, a pointed rebuke to Simon Peter
as to all.

經文:

路加福音 9:36-9:36

註釋:

 {When the voice came} (en toi genesthai t(886e) ph(936e)(886e)).
Another example of Luke's idiom, this time with the second aorist
middle infinitive. Literally, "on the coming as to the voice"
(accusative of general reference). It does not mean that it was
"after" the voice was past that Jesus was found alone, but
simultaneously with it (ingressive aorist tense). {Alone}
(monos). Same adjective in  Mr 9:8  Mt 17:8  translated "only."
Should be rendered "alone" there also. {They held their peace}
(esig(8873)an). Ingressive aorist active of common verb siga(935c),
became silent. In  Mr 9:9  Mt 17:9 , Jesus commanded them not to
tell till His Resurrection from the dead. Luke notes that they in
awe obeyed that command and it turns out that they finally forgot
the lesson of this night's great experience. By and by they will
be able to tell them, but not "in those days." {Which they had
seen} (h(936e) he(9372)akan). Attraction of the relative ha into the
case of the unexpressed antecedent 	out(936e). Perfect active
indicative he(9372)akan with _Koin(825f) (papyri) form for the ancient
he(9372)ak(8373)in changed by analogy to the first aorist ending in
-an instead of -asin.

經文:

路加福音 9:37-9:37

註釋:

 {On the next day} (	(8869) hex(8873) h(886d)er(8369)). Alone in Luke. It
shows that the Transfiguration took place on the preceding night.
{They were come down} (katelthont(936e) aut(936e)). Genitive absolute
of second aorist active participle of katerchomai, a common
enough verb, but in the N.T. only in Luke's writings save  Jas
3:15 . {Met him} (sun(886e)t(8873)en aut(9369)). First aorist active of
sunanta(935c), common compound verb, to meet with, only in Luke's
writings in the N.T. save  Heb 7:1 . With associative
instrumental case aut(9369).

經文:

路加福音 9:38-9:38

註釋:

 {Master} (Didaskale). Teacher as in  Mr 9:17 . {Lord}
(kurie,  Mt 17:15 ). {To look upon} (epiblepsai). Aorist
active infinitive of epiblep(935c) (epi, upon, lep(935c), look),
common verb, but in the N.T. only here and  Jas 2:3  except  Lu
1:48  in quotation from LXX. This compound verb is common in
medical writers for examining carefully the patient. {Mine only
child} (monogen(8873) moi). Only in Luke as already about an only
child in  7:12  8:42 .

經文:

路加福音 9:39-9:39

註釋:

 {Suddenly} (exephn(8873)). Old adverb, but in the N.T. only in
Luke's writings save  Mr 13:36 . Used by medical writers of
sudden attacks of disease like epilepsy. {It teareth him that he
foameth} (sparassei auton meta aphrou). Literally, "It tears
him with (accompanied with, meta) foam" (old word, aphros,
only here in the N.T.). From sparass(935c), to convulse, a common
verb, but in the N.T. only here and  Mr 1:26  9:26  (and
sunsparass(935c),  Mr 9:20 ). See  Mr 9:17  Mt 17:15  Lu 9:39  for
variations in the symptoms in each Gospel. The use of meta
aphrou is a medical item. {Hardly} (molis). Late word used in
place of mogis, the old Greek term (in some MSS. here) and
alone in Luke's writings in the N.T. save  1Pe 4:18  Ro 5:7 .
{Bruising him sorely} (suntribon auton). Common verb for
rubbing together, crushing together like chains ( Mr 5:4 ) or as
a vase ( Mr 14:3 ). See on Matthew and Mark for discussion of
details here.

經文:

路加福音 9:41-9:41

註釋:

 {How long shall I be with you and bear with you?} (he(9373)
pote esomai pros hum(8373) kai anexomai hum(936e);). Here the two
questions of  Mr 9:19  (only one in  Mt 17:17 ) are combined in
one sentence. {Bear with} (anexomai, direct middle future) is,
hold myself from you (ablative case hum(936e)). {Faithless}
(apistos) is disbelieving and perverse (diestrammen(885c), perfect
passive participle of diastreph(935c)), is twisted, turned, or torn
in two.

經文:

路加福音 9:42-9:42

註釋:

 {As he was yet a coming} (eti proserchomenou autou).
Genitive absolute. While he was yet coming (the boy, that is, not
Jesus). Note quaint English "a coming" retained in the Revised
Version. {Dashed him} (err(8878)en auton). First aorist active
indicative of 
(8867)numi or 
(8873)s(935c), to rend or convulse, a common
verb, used sometimes of boxers giving knockout blows. {Tare
grievously} (sunesparaxen). Rare word as only here and  Mr
9:20  in the N.T., which see. {Gave him back to his father}
(aped(936b)en auton t(9369) patri autou). Tender touch alone in Luke as
in  7:15 . {They were all astonished} (exepl(8873)sonto de pantes).
Imperfect passive of the common verb ekpl(8873)s(935c) or ekpl(8867)numi,
to strike out, a picturesque description of the amazement of all
at the easy victory of Jesus where the nine disciples had failed.
{At the majesty of God} (epi t(8869) megaleiot(8874)i tou theou). A
late word from the adjective megaleios and that from megas
(great). In the N.T. only here and  Ac 19:27  of Artemis and in
 2Pe 1:16  of the Transfiguration. It came to be used by the
emperors like our word "Majesty." {Which he did} (hois epoiei).
This is one of the numerous poor verse divisions. This sentence
has nothing to do with the first part of the verse. The imperfect
active epoiei covers a good deal not told by Luke (see  Mr
9:30  Mt 17:22 ). Note the attraction of the relative {hois} into
the case of {p(8373)in}, its antecedent.

經文:

路加福音 9:44-9:44

註釋:

 {Sink into your ears} (Thesthe humeis eis ta (9374)a hum(936e)).
Second aorist imperative middle of 	ith(886d)i, common verb. "Do
you (note emphatic position) yourselves (whatever others do) put
into your ears." No word like "sink" here. The same prediction
here as in  Mr 9:31  Mt 17:22  about the Son of man only without
mention of death and resurrection as there, which see for
discussion.

經文:

路加福音 9:45-9:45

註釋:

 {It was concealed from them} ((886e) parakekalummenon ap'
aut(936e)). Periphrastic past perfect of parakalupt(935c), a common
verb, but only here in the N.T., to cover up, to hide from. This
item only in Luke. {That they should not perceive it} (hina m(880a)aisth(936e)tai auto). Second aorist middle subjunctive of the common
verb aisthanomai used with hina m(885c), negative purpose. This
explanation at least relieves the disciples to some extent of
full responsibility for their ignorance about the death of Jesus
as  Mr 9:32  observes, as does Luke here that they were afraid to
ask him. Plummer says, "They were not allowed to understand the
saying then, in order that they might remember it afterwards, and
see that Jesus had met His sufferings with full knowledge and
free will." Perhaps also, if they had fully understood, they
might have lacked courage to hold on to the end. But it is a hard
problem.

經文:

路加福音 9:46-9:46

註釋:

 {A reasoning} (dialogismos). A dispute. The word is from
dialogizomai, the verb used in  Mr 9:33  about this incident.
In Luke this dispute follows immediately after the words of Jesus
about his death. They were afraid to ask Jesus about that
subject, but  Mt 18:1  states that they came to Jesus to settle
it. {Which of them should be greatest} (	o tis an ei(8820)meiz(936e)
aut(936e)). Note the article with the indirect question, the clause
being in the accusative of general reference. The optative with
an is here because it was so in the direct question (potential
optative with an retained in the indirect). But Luke makes it
plain that it was not an abstract problem about greatness in the
kingdom of heaven as they put it to Jesus ( Mt 18:1 ), but a
personal problem in their own group. Rivalries and jealousies had
already come and now sharp words. By and by James and John will
be bold enough to ask for the first places for themselves in this
political kingdom which they expect ( Mr 10:35  Mt 20:20 ). It is
a sad spectacle.

經文:

路加福音 9:47-9:47

註釋:

 {Took a little child} (epilabomenos paidion). Second
aorist middle participle of the common verb epilamban(935c).
Strictly, Taking a little child to himself (indirect middle).  Mr
9:36  has merely the active lab(936e) of the simple verb lamban(935c).
Set him by his side (est(8873)en auto par' heaut(9369)). "In his arms"
 Mr 9:36  has it, "in the midst of them"  Mt 18:3  says. All
three attitudes following one another (the disciples probably in
a circle around Jesus anyhow) and now the little child (Peter's
child?) was slipped down by the side of Jesus as he gave the
disciples an object lesson in humility which they sorely needed.

經文:

路加福音 9:48-9:48

註釋:

 {This little child} (	outo to paidion). As Jesus spoke he
probably had his hand upon the head of the child.  Mt 18:5  has
"one such little child." The honoured disciple, Jesus holds, is
the one who welcomes little children "in my name" (epi t(9369)
onomati mou), upon the basis of my name and my authority. It was
a home-thrust against the selfish ambition of the Twelve.
Ministry to children is a mark of greatness. Have preachers ever
yet learned how to win children to Christ? They are allowed to
slip away from home, from Sunday school, from church, from
Christ. {For he that is least among you all} (ho gar mikroteros
en pasin humin huparch(936e)). Note the use of huparch(935c) as in
 8:41  23:50 . The comparative mikroteros is in accord with the
_Koin(825f) idiom where the superlative is vanishing (nearly gone in
modern Greek). But {great} (megas) is positive and very strong.
This saying peculiar to Luke here.

經文:

路加福音 9:49-9:49

註釋:

 {And John answered} (apokritheis de I(9361)n(8873)). As if John
wanted to change the subject after the embarrassment of the
rebuke for their dispute concerning greatness ( Lu 9:46-48 ).
{Master} (epistata). Only in Luke in the N.T. as already four
times ( 5:5  8:24,45  9:33 ). {We forbade him} (ek(936c)uomen
auton). Conative imperfect as in  Mr 9:38 , We tried to hinder
him. {Because he followeth not with us} (hoti ouk akolouthei
meth h(886d)(936e)). Present tense preserved for vividness where Mark
has imperfect {(886b)olouthei}. Note also here "with us" (meth'
h(886d)(936e)) where Mark has associative instrumental h(886d)in. It is a
pitiful specimen of partisan narrowness and pride even in the
Beloved Disciple, one of the Sons of Thunder. The man was doing
the Master's work in the Master's name and with the Master's
power, but did not run with the group of the Twelve.

經文:

路加福音 9:50-9:50

註釋:

 {"Against you is for you"} (kath' h(966d)(936e) huper h(966d)(936e)).  Mr
9:40  has "against us is for us" (h(886d)(936e) ... h(886d)(936e)). The _Koin(825f)
Greek (885c) and (965c) were often pronounced alike and it was easy to
interchange them. So many MSS. here read just as in Mark. The
point is precisely the same as it is a proverbial saying. See a
similar saying in  Lu 11:23 : "He that is not with me is against
me." The prohibition here as in  Mr 9:39  is general: "Stop
hindering him" (m(8820)k(936c)uete, m(885c) and the present imperative, not
m(885c) and the aorist subjunctive). The lesson of toleration in
methods of work for Christ is needed today.

經文:

路加福音 9:51-9:51

註釋:

 1Ti
3:16 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ti
3' or engs='1Ti
3'
經文:

路加福音 9:52-9:52

註釋:

 {Sent messengers} (apesteilen aggelous). As a precaution
since he was going to Jerusalem through Samaria. The Samaritans
did not object when people went north from Jerusalem through
their country. He was repudiating Mount Gerizim by going by it to
Jerusalem. This was an unusual precaution by Jesus and we do not
know who the messengers ({angels}) were. {To make ready for him}
(h(9373) hetoimasai aut(9369)). H(9373) is correct here, not h(9373)te. The
only examples of the final use of h(9373) with the infinitive in
the N.T. are this one and  Heb 7:9  (absolute use). In  Acts
20:24  Westcott and Hort read h(9373) telei(9373)(935c) and put h(9373)
telei(9373)ai in the margin (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1091).

經文:

路加福音 9:53-9:53

註釋:

 {And they did not receive him} (kai ouk edexanto auton).
Adversative use of kai = But. {Because his face was going to
Jerusalem} (hoti to pros(9370)on autou (886e) poreuomenon eis
Ierousal(886d)). Periphrastic imperfect middle. It was reason enough
to the churlish Samaritans.

經文:

路加福音 9:54-9:54

註釋:

 2Ki
1:10-12 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ki
1' or engs='2Ki
1'
經文:

路加福音 9:55-9:55

註釋:

 {But he turned} (strapheis de). Second aorist passive
participle of streph(935c), common verb, to turn round. Dramatic
act. Some ancient MSS. have here: {Ye know not what manner of
spirit ye are of} (ouk oidate poiou pneumatos este). This
sounds like Christ and may be a genuine saying though not a part
of Luke's Gospel. A smaller number of MSS. add also: {For the Son
of Man came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them} (Ho
gar huios tou anthr(9370)ou ouk (886c)then psuchas anthr(9370)(936e) apolesai
alla s(9373)ai), a saying reminding us of  Mt 5:17  Lu 19:10 .
Certain it is that here Jesus rebuked the bitterness of James and
John toward Samaritans as he had already chided John for his
narrowness towards a fellow-worker in the kingdom.

經文:

路加福音 9:57-9:57

註釋:

 {A certain man} (	is).  Mt 8:19  calls him "a scribe."  Lu
9:57-60  Mt 8:19-22 , but not in Mark and so from Q or the Logia.
{Wherever you go} (hopou ean aperch(8869)) is the present middle
subjunctive with the indefinite relative adverb ean, common
Greek idiom. See on Matthew for "holes," "nests," "Son of man."
The idiom "where to lay his head" (pou t(886e) kephal(886e) klin(8869)) is
the same in both, the deliberative subjunctive retained in the
indirect question. "Jesus knows the measure of the scribe's
enthusiasm" (Plummer). The wandering life of Jesus explains this
statement.

經文:

路加福音 9:59-9:59

註釋:

 {And he said unto another} (eipen de pros heteron).  Mt
8:21  omits Christ's "Follow me" (akolouthei moi) and makes
this man a volunteer instead of responding to the appeal of
Jesus. There is no real opposition, of course. In Matthew's
account the man is apologetic as in Luke. Plummer calls him "one
of the casual disciples" of whom there are always too many. The
scribes knew how to give plausible reasons for not being active
disciples. {First} (pr(9374)on). One of the problems of life is the
relation of duties to each other, which comes first. The burial
of one's father was a sacred duty ( Ge 25:9 ), but, as in the
case of Tobit 4:3, this scribe's father probably was still alive.
What the scribe apparently meant was that he could not leave his
father while still alive to follow Jesus around over the country.

經文:

路加福音 9:60-9:60

註釋:

 {Leave the dead to bury their own dead} (aphes tous nekrous
thapsai tous heaut(936e) nekrous). This paradox occurs so in  Mt
8:22 . The explanation is that the spiritually dead can bury the
literally dead. For such a quick change in the use of the same
words see  Joh 5:21-29  (spiritual resurrection from sin in  Joh
5:21-27 , bodily resurrection from the grave,  Joh 5:28,29 ) and
 Joh 11:25f . The harshness of this proverb to the scribe
probably is due to the fact that he was manifestly using his aged
father as an excuse for not giving Christ active service. {But go
thou and publish abroad the kingdom of God} (su de apelth(936e)
diaggelle t(886e) basileian tou theou). The scribe's duty is put
sharply (But do thou, su de). Christ called him to preach, and
he was using pious phrases about his father as a pretext. Many a
preacher has had to face a similar delicate problem of duty to
father, mother, brothers, sisters and the call to preach. This
was a clear case. Jesus will help any man called to preach to see
his duty. Certainly Jesus does not advocate renunciation of
family duties on the part of preachers.

經文:

路加福音 9:61-9:61

註釋:

 {And another also said} (eipen de kai heteros). A
volunteer like the first. This third case is given by Luke alone,
though the incident may also come from the same Logia as the
other two. Heteros does not here mean one of a "different" sort
as is sometimes true of this pronoun, but merely another like
allos (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 749). {But first} (pr(9374)on
de). He also had something that was to come "first." {To bid
farewell to them that are at my house} (apotaxasthai tois eis
ton oikon mou). In itself that was a good thing to do. This
first aorist middle infinitive is from apotass(935c), an old verb,
to detach, to separate, to assign as a detachment of soldiers. In
the N.T. it only appears in the middle voice with the meaning
common in late writers to bid adieu, to separate oneself from
others. It is used in  Ac 18:18  of Paul taking leave of the
believers in Corinth. See also  Mr 6:46  2Co 2:13 . It is thus a
formal function and this man meant to go home and set things in
order there and then in due time to come and follow Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 9:62-9:62

註釋:

 {Having put his hand to the plough} (epibal(936e) t(886e) cheira
ep' arotron). Second aorist active participle of epiball(935c), an
old and common verb, to place upon. Note repetition of
preposition epi before arotron (plough). This agricultural
proverb is as old as Hesiod. Pliny observes that the ploughman
who does not bend attentively to his work goes crooked. It has
always been the ambition of the ploughman to run a straight
furrow. The Palestine _fellah_ had good success at it. {And
looking back} (kai blep(936e) eis ta opis(935c)). Looking to the things
behind. To do that is fatal as any ploughman knows. The call to
turn back is often urgent. {Fit} (euthetos). From eu and
	ith(886d)i=well-placed, suited for, adapted to. "The first case is
that of inconsiderate impulse, the second that of conflicting
duties, the third that of a divided mind" (Bruce).

經文:

路加福音 10:1-10:1

註釋:

 {Appointed} (anedeixen). First aorist active indicative of
anadeiknumi, an old verb, not only common, but in LXX. In the
N.T. only here and  Ac 1:24 . Cf. anadeixis in  Lu 1:80 . To
show forth, display, proclaim, appoint. {Seventy others}
(heterous hebdom(886b)onta kai). The "also" (kai) and the
"others" point back to the mission of the Twelve in Galilee
( 9:1-6 ). Some critics think that Luke has confused this report
of a mission in Judea with that in Galilee, but needlessly so.
What earthly objection can there be to two similar missions? B D
Syr. Cur. and Syr. Sin. have "seventy-two." The seventy elders
were counted both ways and the Sanhedrin likewise and the nations
of the earth. It is an evenly balanced point. {Two and two} (ana
duo). For companionship as with the Twelve though  Mr 6:7  has
it duo (vernacular idiom). B K have here ana duo, a
combination of the idiom in  Mr 6:7  and that here. {He himself
was about to come} ((886d)ellen autos erchesthai). Imperfect of
mell(935c) with present infinitive and note autos. Jesus was to
follow after and investigate the work done. This was only a
temporary appointment and no names are given, but they could
cover a deal of territory.

經文:

路加福音 10:2-10:2

註釋:

 {Harvest} (	herismos). Late word for the older 	heros,
summer, harvest. The language in this verse is verbatim what we
have in  Mt 9:37,38  to the Twelve. Why not? The need is the same
and prayer is the answer in each case. Prayer for preachers is
Christ's method for increasing the supply.

經文:

路加福音 10:3-10:3

註釋:

 {As lambs} (h(9373) arnas). Here again the same language as
that in  Mt 10:16  except that there "sheep" (probata) appears
instead of "lambs." Pathetic picture of the risks of missionaries
for Christ. They take their life in their hands.

經文:

路加福音 10:4-10:4

註釋:

 {Purse} (allantion). Old word for money-bag, sometimes a
javelin as if from all(935c). Only in Luke in the N.T. ( 10:4  12:33  22:35ff. ). See  Lu 9:3  Mr 6:7f.  Mt 10:9f.  for the
other similar items. {Salute no man on the way} (m(8864)ena kata t(886e)
hodon aspas(8873)the). First aorist (ingressive) middle subjunctive
with m(8864)ena. The peril of such wayside salutations was palaver
and delay. The King's business required haste. Elisha's servant
was not to tarry for salutations or salaams ( 2Ki 4:29 ). These
oriental greetings were tedious, complicated, and often
meddlesome if others were present or engaged in a bargain.

經文:

路加福音 10:5-10:5

註釋:

 {First say} (pr(9374)on legete). Say first. The adverb
pr(9374)on can be construed with "enter" (eiselth(8874)e), but
probably with legete is right. The word spoken is the usual
oriental salutation.

經文:

路加福音 10:6-10:6

註釋:

 {A son of peace} (huios eir(886e)(8873)). A Hebraism, though some
examples occur in the vernacular _Koin(825f) papyri. It means one
inclined to peace, describing the head of the household. {Shall
rest} (epanapa(8873)etai). Second future passive of epanapau(935c), a
late double compound (epi, ana) of the common verb pau(935c). {It
shall turn to you again} (eph' hum(8373) anakampsei). Common verb
anakampt(935c), to bend back, return. The peace in that case will
bend back with blessing upon the one who spoke it.

經文:

路加福音 10:7-10:7

註釋:

 {In that same house} (en aut(8869) t(8869) oiki(8369)). Literally, in
the house itself, not "in the same house" (en t(8869) aut(8869)
oiki(8369)), a different construction. A free rendering of the
common Lukan idiom is, "in that very house." {Eating}
(esthontes). An old poetic verb esth(935c) for esthi(935c) that
survives in late Greek. {Such things as they give} (	a par'
aut(936e)). "The things from them." {For the labourer is worthy of
his hire} (axios gar ho ergat(8873) tou misthou autou). In  Mt
10:10  we have 	(8873) troph(8873) autou (his food).  1Ti 5:18  has
this saying quoted as scripture. That is not impossible if Luke
wrote by A.D. 62. Paul there however may quote only  De 25:4  as
scripture and get this quotation either from  Lu 10:7  or from a
proverbial saying of Jesus. It is certainly not a real objection
against the Pauline authorship of First Timothy. {Go not from
house to house} (m(8820)metabainete ex oikias eis oikian). As a
habit, m(885c) and the present imperative, and so avoid waste of
time with such rounds of invitations as would come.

經文:

路加福音 10:8-10:8

註釋:

 {Such things as are set before you} (	a paratithemena
humin). The things placed before you from time to time (present
passive participle, repetition). Every preacher needs this lesson
of common politeness. These directions may seem perfunctory and
even commonplace, but every teacher of young preachers knows how
necessary they are. Hence they were given both to the Twelve and
to the Seventy.

經文:

路加福音 10:9-10:9

註釋:

 {Is come nigh unto you} ((8867)giken eph' hum(8373)). Perfect
active indicative of eggiz(935c) as in  Mt 3:2  of the Baptist and
 Mr 1:15  of Jesus. Note eph' hum(8373) here.

經文:

路加福音 10:10-10:10

註釋:

 {Into the streets thereof} (eis tas plateias aut(8873)). Out
of the inhospitable houses into the broad open streets.

經文:

路加福音 10:11-10:11

註釋:

 {Even the dust} (kai ton koniorton). Old word from
konis, dust, and ornumi, to stir up. We have seen it already
in  Mt 10:14  Lu 9:5 . Dust is a plague in the east. Shake off
even that. {Cleaveth} (koll(8874)henta). First aorist passive
participle of kolla(935c), to cling as dust and mud do to shoes.
Hence the orientals took off the sandals on entering a house. {We
wipe off} (apomassometha). Middle voice of an old verb
apomass(935c), to rub off with the hands. Nowhere else in the N.T.
But ekmass(935c), occurs in  Lu 7:38,44 . {Against you} (Humin).
Fine example of the dative of disadvantage (the case of personal
interest, the dative).

經文:

路加福音 10:12-10:12

註釋:

 {More tolerable} (anektoteron). Comparative of the verbal
adjective anektos from anechomai. An old adjective, but only
the comparative in the N.T. and in this phrase ( Mt 10:15  11:22,24  Lu 10:12,14 ).

經文:

路加福音 10:13-10:13

註釋:

 {Would have repented} (an meteno(8873)an). Conclusion
(apodosis) of second-class condition, determined as unfulfilled.
{Long ago} (palai). Implies a considerable ministry in these
cities of which we are not told. Chorazin not mentioned save here
and  Mt 11:21 . Perhaps Kar(837a)eh near Tell Hum (Capernaum).
{Sitting in sackcloth and ashes} (en sakk(9369) kai spodoi
kath(886d)enoi). Pictorial and graphic. The sakkos (sackcloth) was
dark coarse cloth made of goat's hair and worn by penitents,
mourners, suppliants. It is a Hebrew word, _sag_. The rough cloth
was used for sacks or bags. To cover oneself with ashes was a
mode of punishment as well as of voluntary humiliation.

經文:

路加福音 10:15-10:15

註釋:

 {Shalt thou be exalted?} (m(8820)hups(9374)h(8873)(8869);). M(885c) expects
the answer No. The verb is future passive indicative second
singular of hupso(935c), to lift up, a late verb from hupsos,
height. It is used by Jesus of the Cross ( Joh 12:32 ). {Unto
Hades} (he(9373) Haidou). See on 烘t 16:18| for this word which is
here in contrast to Heaven as in  Isa 14:13-15 . Hades is not
Gehenna. "The desolation of the whole neighbourhood, and the
difficulty of identifying even the site of these flourishing
towns, is part of the fulfilment of this prophecy" (Plummer).
Ragg notes the omission of Nazareth from this list of cities of
neglected privilege and opportunity. "Is it the tender memories
of boyhood that keep from His lips the name of the arch-rejector
( 4:28  sqq.) Nazareth?"

經文:

路加福音 10:16-10:16

註釋:

 {Rejecteth him that sent me} (athetei ton aposteilanta
me). These solemn words form a fit close for this discourse to
the Seventy. The fate of Chorazin, Bethsaida, Capernaum will
befall those who set aside (a privative and 	hete(935c), from
	ith(886d)i) the mission and message of these messengers of Christ.
See this verb used in  7:30  of the attitude of the scribes and
Pharisees toward John and Jesus. It is this thought that makes it
so grave a responsibility to be co-workers with Christ, high
privilege as it is ( Joh 9:4 ).

經文:

路加福音 10:17-10:17

註釋:

 {Returned with joy} (hupestrepsan meta charas). They had
profited by the directions of Jesus. Joy overflows their faces
and their words. {Even the demons} (kai ta daimonia). This was
a real test. The Twelve had been expressly endowed with this
power when they were sent out ( Lu 9:1 ), but the Seventy were
only told to heal the sick ( 10:9 ). It was better than they
expected. The Gospel worked wonders and they were happy. The
demons were merely one sign of the conflict between Christ and
Satan. Every preacher has to grapple with demons in his work.
{Are subject} (hupotassetai). Present passive indicative
(repetition).

經文:

路加福音 10:18-10:18

註釋:

 {I beheld Satan fallen} (ethe(9372)oun ton Satan(836e) pesonta).
Imperfect active (I was beholding) and second aorist (constative)
active participle of pipt(935c) (not {fallen}, pept(936b)ota, perfect
active participle, nor {falling}, piptonta, present active
participle, but {fall}, pesonta). As a flash of lightning out
of heaven, quick and startling, so the victory of the Seventy
over the demons, the agents of Satan, forecast his downfall and
Jesus in vision pictured it as a flash of lightning.

經文:

路加福音 10:19-10:19

註釋:

 {And over all the power of the enemy} (kai epi p(8373)an t(886e)
dunamin tou echthrou). This is the heart of "the authority"
(	(886e) exousian) here given by Jesus which is far beyond their
expectations. The victory over demons was one phase of it. The
power to tread upon serpents is repeated in  Mr 16:18  (the
Appendix) and exemplified in Paul's case in Malta ( Ac 28:3-5 ).
But protection from physical harm is not the main point in this
struggle with Satan "the enemy" ( Mt 13:25  Ro 16:20  1Pe 5:8 ).
{Nothing shall in any wise hurt you} (ouden hum(8373) ou m(880a)adik(8873)ei). Text has future active indicative, while some MSS.
read adik(8873)(8869), aorist active subjunctive of adike(935c), common
verb from adikos (a privative and dikos), to suffer wrong,
to do wrong. The triple negative here is very strong. Certainly
Jesus does not mean this promise to create presumption or
foolhardiness for he repelled the enemy's suggestion on the
pinnacle of the temple.

經文:

路加福音 10:20-10:20

註釋:

 {Are written} (engegraptai). Perfect passive indicative,
state of completion, stand written, enrolled or engraved, from
engraph(935c), common verb. "As citizens possessing the full
privileges of the commonwealth" (Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 10:21-10:21

註釋:

 {In that same hour} (en aut(8869) t(8869) h(9372)(8369)). Literally, "at
the hour itself," almost a demonstrative use of autos
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 686) and in Luke alone in the N.T.
( 2:38  10:21  12:12  20:19 ).  Mt 11:25  uses the demonstrative
here, "at that time" (en ekein(9369) t(9369) kair(9369)). {Rejoiced in the
Holy Spirit} ((8867)alliasato t(9369) pneumati t(9369) hagi(9369)). First
aorist middle of the late verb agallia(935c) for agall(935c), to exult.
Always in the middle in the N.T. save  Lu 1:47  in Mary's
_Magnificat_. This holy joy of Jesus was directly due to the Holy
Spirit. It is joy in the work of his followers, their victories
over Satan, and is akin to the joy felt by Jesus in  Joh 4:32-38 
when the vision of the harvest of the world stirred his heart.
The rest of this verse is precisely like  Mt 11:25f. , a
peculiarly Johannine passage in Matthew and Luke, but not in
Mark, and so from Q (the Logia of Jesus). It has disturbed
critics who are unwilling to admit the Johannine style and type
of teaching as genuine, but here it is. See on Matthew for
discussion. "That God had proved his independence of the human
intellect is a matter for thankfulness. Intellectual gifts, so
far from being necessary, are often a hindrance" (Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 10:22-10:22

註釋:

 {Knoweth who the Son is} (gin(9373)kei tis estin ho huios).
Knows by experience, gin(9373)kei. Here  Mt 11:27  has
epigin(9373)kei (fully knows) and simply 	on huion (the Son)
instead of the "who" (	is) clause. So also in "who the Father
is" (	is estin ho pater). But the same use and contrast of "the
Father," "the Son." in both Matthew and Luke, "an aerolite from
the Johannean heaven" (Hase). No sane criticism can get rid of
this Johannine bit in these Gospels written long before the
Fourth Gospel was composed. We are dealing here with the oldest
known document about Christ (the Logia) and the picture is that
drawn in the Fourth Gospel (see my _The Christ of the Logia_). It
is idle to try to whittle away by fantastic exegesis the high
claims made by Jesus in this passage. It is an ecstatic prayer in
the presence of the Seventy under the rapture of the Holy Spirit
on terms of perfect equality and understanding between the Father
and the Son in the tone of the priestly prayer in  Joh 17 . We
are justified in saying that this prayer of supreme Fellowship
with the Father in contemplation of final victory over Satan
gives us a glimpse of the prayers with the Father when the Son
spent whole nights on the mountain alone with the Father. Here is
the Messianic consciousness in complete control and with perfect
confidence in the outcome. Here as in  Mt 11:27  by the use of
{willeth to reveal him} (oul(8874)ai apokalupsai). The Son claims
the power to reveal the Father "to whomsoever he wills" (h(9369) an
boul(8874)ai, indefinite relative and present subjunctive of
oulomai, to will, not the future indicative). This is divine
sovereignty most assuredly. Human free agency is also true, but
it is full divine sovereignty in salvation that is here claimed
along with possession (paredoth(885c), timeless aorist passive
indicative) of all power from the Father. Let that supreme claim
stand.

經文:

路加福音 10:23-10:23

註釋:

 {Turning to the disciples} (strapheis pros tous
math(8874)as). Second aorist passive of streph(935c) as in  9:55 . The
prayer was a soliloquy though uttered in the presence of the
Seventy on their return. Now Jesus turned and spoke "privately"
or to the disciples (the Twelve, apparently), whether on this
same occasion or a bit later. {Blessed} (makarioi). A
beatitude, the same adjective as in  Mt 5:3-11 . A beatitude of
privilege very much like that in  Mt 5:13-16 . Jesus often
repeated his sayings.

經文:

路加福音 10:24-10:24

註釋:

 {Which ye see} (ha humeis blepete). The expression of
humeis makes "ye" very emphatic in contrast with the prophets
and kings of former days.

經文:

路加福音 10:25-10:25

註釋:

 {And tempted him} (ekpeiraz(936e) auton). Present active
participle, conative idea, trying to tempt him. There is no "and"
in the Greek. He "stood up (anest(885c), ingressive second aorist
active) trying to tempt him." Peiraz(935c) is a late form of
peira(935c) and ekpeiraz(935c) apparently only in the LXX, and N.T.
(quoted by Jesus from  De 6:16  in  Mt 4:7  Lu 4:12  against
Satan). Here and  1Co 10:9 . The spirit of this lawyer was evil.
He wanted to entrap Jesus if possible. {What shall I do to
inherit eternal life?} (Ti poi(8873)as z(9388)n ai(936e)iou kl(8872)onom(8873)(933b)).
Literally, "By doing what shall I inherit eternal life?" Note the
emphasis on "doing" (poi(8873)as). The form of his question shows a
wrong idea as to how to get it. {Eternal life} (z(9388)n ai(936e)ion)
is endless life as in John's Gospel ( Joh 16:9  18:18,30 ) and in
 Mt 25:46 , which see.

經文:

路加福音 10:26-10:26

註釋:

 {How readest thou?} (p(9373) anagin(9373)keis;). As a lawyer it
was his business to know the facts in the law and the proper
interpretation of the law. See on 烊u 7:30| about 
omikos
(lawyer). The rabbis had a formula, "What readest thou?"

經文:

路加福音 10:27-10:27

註釋:

 {And he answering} (ho de apokritheis). First aorist
participle, no longer passive in idea. The lawyer's answer is
first from the _Shema_ ( De 6:3  11:13 ) which was written on the
phylacteries. The second part is from  Le 19:18  and shows that
the lawyer knew the law. At a later time Jesus himself in the
temple gives a like summary of the law to a lawyer ( Mr 12:28-34  Mt 22:34-40 ) who wanted to catch Jesus by his question. There is
no difficulty in the two incidents. God is to be loved with all
of man's four powers (heart, soul, strength, mind) here as in  Mr
12:30 .

經文:

路加福音 10:28-10:28

註釋:

 {Thou hast answered right} (orth(9373) apekrith(8873)). First
aorist passive indicative second singular with the adverb
orth(9373). The answer was correct so far as the words went. In  Mr
12:34  Jesus commends the scribe for agreeing to his
interpretation of the first and the second commandments. That
scribe was "not far from the kingdom of God," but this lawyer was
"tempting" Jesus. {Do this and thou shalt live} (	outo poiei kai
z(8873)(8869)). Present imperative (keep on doing this forever) and the
future indicative middle as a natural result. There was only one
trouble with the lawyer's answer. No one ever did or ever can
"do" what the law lays down towards God and man always. To slip
once is to fail. So Jesus put the problem squarely up to the
lawyer who wanted to know {by doing what}. Of course, if he kept
the law {perfectly always}, he would inherit eternal life.

經文:

路加福音 10:29-10:29

註釋:

 {Desiring to justify himself} (	hel(936e) dikai(9373)ai heauton).
The lawyer saw at once that he had convicted himself of asking a
question that he already knew. In his embarrassment he asks
another question to show that he did have some point at first:
{And who is my neighbour?} (kai tis estin mou pl(8873)ion;). The
Jews split hairs over this question and excluded from "neighbour"
Gentiles and especially Samaritans. So here was his loop-hole. A
neighbour is a nigh dweller to one, but the Jews made racial
exceptions as many, alas, do today. The word pl(8873)ion here is an
adverb (neuter of the adjective pl(8873)ios) meaning ho pl(8873)ion
(936e) (the one who is near), but (936e) was usually not expressed and
the adverb is here used as if a substantive.

經文:

路加福音 10:30-10:30

註釋:

 {Made answer} (hupolab(936e)). Second aorist active
participle of hupolamban(935c) (see  7:43 ), to take up literally,
and then in thought and speech, old verb, but in this sense of
interrupting in talk only in the N.T. {Was going down}
(katebainen). Imperfect active describing the journey. {Fell
among robbers} (l(8869)stais periepesen). Second aorist ingressive
active indicative of peripipt(935c), old verb with associative
instrumental case, to fall among and to be encompassed by
(peri, around), to be surrounded by robbers. A common
experience to this day on the road to Jericho. The Romans placed
a fort on this "red and bloody way." These were bandits, not
petty thieves. {Stripped} (ekdusantes). Of his clothing as well
as of his money, the meanest sort of robbers. {Beat him} (pl(8867)as
epithentes). Second aorist active participle of epitith(886d)i, a
common verb. Literally, "placing strokes or blows" (pl(8867)as,
plagues) upon him. See  Lu 12:48  Ac 16:23  Re 15:1,6,8  for
"plagues." {Half-dead} (h(886d)ithan(885c)). Late word from h(886d)i,
half, and 	hn(8873)k(935c), to die. Only here in the N.T. Vivid picture
of the robbery.

經文:

路加福音 10:31-10:31

註釋:

 {By chance} (kata sugkurian). Here only in the N.T.,
meaning rather, "by way of coincidence." It is a rare word
elsewhere and in late writers like Hippocrates. It is from the
verb sugkure(935c), though sugkur(8873)is is more common. {Was going
down} (katebainen). Imperfect active as in verse  30 . Passed
by on the other side (antipar(886c)then). Second aorist active
indicative of antiparerchomai, a late double compound here
(verses  31,32 ) only in the N.T., but in the papyri and late
writers. It is the ingressive aorist ((886c)then), came alongside
(para), and then he stepped over to the opposite side (anti)
of the road to avoid ceremonial contamination with a stranger. A
vivid and powerful picture of the vice of Jewish ceremonial
cleanliness at the cost of moral principle and duty. The Levite
in verse  32  behaved precisely as the priest had done and for
the same reason.

經文:

路加福音 10:33-10:33

註釋:

 {A certain Samaritan} (Samareit(8873) de tis). Of all men in
the world to do a neighbourly act! {As he journeyed} (hodeu(936e)).
Making his way. {Came where he was} ((886c)then kat' auton).
Literally, "came down upon him." He did not sidestep or dodge
him, but had compassion on him.

經文:

路加福音 10:34-10:34

註釋:

 {Bound up his wounds} (kated(8873)en ta traumata). First
aorist active indicative of katade(935c), old verb, but here only in
the N.T. The verb means "bound down." We say "bind up." Medical
detail that interested Luke. The word for "wounds" (	raumata)
here only in the N.T. {Pouring on them oil and wine} (epiche(936e)
elaion kai oinon). Old verb again, but here only in the N.T. Oil
and wine were household remedies even for wounds (soothing oil,
antiseptic alcohol). Hippocrates prescribed for ulcers: "Bind
with soft wool, and sprinkle with wine and oil." {Set him}
(epibibasas). An old verb epibibaz(935c) (epi, ibaz(935c)), to
cause to mount. In the N.T. only here and  Ac 19:35  23:24 ,
common in LXX. {Beast} (kt(886e)os). Old word from ktaomai, to
acquire, and so property (kt(886d)a) especially cattle or any beast
of burden. {An inn} (pandocheion). The old Attic form was
pandokeion (from pan, all, and dechomai, to receive). A
public place for receiving all comers and a more pretentious
caravanserai than a kataluma like that in  Lu 2:7 . Here only
in the N.T. There are ruins of two inns about halfway between
Bethany and Jericho.

經文:

路加福音 10:35-10:35

註釋:

 {On the morrow} (epi t(886e) aurion). Towards the morrow as
in  Ac 4:5 . (Cf. also  Ac 3:1 ). Syriac Sinaitic has it "at dawn
of the day." An unusual use of epi. {Took out} (ekbal(936e)).
Second aorist active participle of ekball(935c). It could mean,
"fling out," but probably only means "drew out." Common verb.
{Two pence} (duo d(886e)aria). About thirty-five cents, but worth
more in purchasing power. {To the host} (	(9369) pandochei). The
innkeeper. Here only in the N.T. {Whatsoever thou spendest more}
(hoti an prosdapan(8873)(8869)s). Indefinite relative clause with an
and the aorist active subjunctive of prosdapana(935c), to spend
besides (pros), a late verb for the common prosanalisk(935c) and
here only in the N.T. {I will repay} (ego apod(9373)(935c)). Emphatic.
What he had paid was merely by way of pledge. He was a man of his
word and known to the innkeeper as reliable. {When I come back
again} (en t(9369) epanerchesthai me). Luke's favourite idiom of
en and the articular infinitive with accusative of general
reference. Double compound verb epanerchomai.

經文:

路加福音 10:36-10:36

註釋:

 {Proved neighbour to him that fell} (pl(8873)ion gegonenai tou
empesontos). Second perfect infinitive of ginomai and second
aorist active participle of empipt(935c). Objective genitive, became
neighbour to the one, etc. Jesus has changed the lawyer's
standpoint and has put it up to him to decide which of "these
three" (	out(936e) t(936e) tri(936e), priest, Levite, Samaritan) acted like
a neighbour to the wounded man.

經文:

路加福音 10:37-10:37

註釋:

 {On him} (met' autou). With him, more exactly. The lawyer
saw the point and gave the correct answer, but he gulped at the
word "Samaritan" and refused to say that. {Do thou} (su poiei).
Emphasis on "thou." Would this Jewish lawyer act the neighbour to
a Samaritan? This parable of the Good Samaritan has built the
world's hospitals and, if understood and practised, will remove
race prejudice, national hatred and war, class jealousy.

經文:

路加福音 10:38-10:38

註釋:

 {Now as they went on their way} ((886e) de t(9369) poreuesthai
autous). Luke's favourite temporal clause again as in verse
 35 . {Received him into her house} (hupedexato auton eis t(886e)
oikian). Aorist middle indicative of hupodechomai, an old verb
to welcome as a guest (in the N.T. only here and  Lu 19:6  Ac
17:7  Jas 2:25 ). Martha is clearly the mistress of the home and
is probably the elder sister. There is no evidence that she was
the wife of Simon the leper ( Joh 12:1f. ). It is curious that in
an old cemetery at Bethany the names of Martha, Eleazar, and
Simon have been found.

經文:

路加福音 10:39-10:39

註釋:

 {Which also sat} (h(8820)kai parakathestheisa). First aorist
passive participle of parakathezomai, an old verb, but only
here in the N.T. It means to sit beside (para) and pros means
right in front of the feet of Jesus. It is not clear what the
point is in kai here. It may mean that Martha loved to sit here
also as well as Mary. {Heard} ((886b)ouen). Imperfect active. She
took her seat by the feet of Jesus and went on listening to his
talk.

經文:

路加福音 10:40-10:40

註釋:

 {Was cumbered} (periesp(8374)o). Imperfect passive of
perispa(935c), an old verb with vivid metaphor, to draw around. One
has sometimes seen women whose faces are literally drawn round
with anxiety, with a permanent twist, distracted in mind and in
looks. {She came up to him} (epist(8373)a). Second aorist active
participle of ephist(886d)i, an old verb to place upon, but in the
N.T. only in the middle voice or the intransitive tenses of the
active (perfect and second aorist as here). It is the ingressive
aorist here and really means. stepping up to or bursting in or
upon Jesus. It is an explosive act as is the speech of Martha.
{Dost thou not care} (ou melei soi). This was a reproach to
Jesus for monopolizing Mary to Martha's hurt. {Did leave me} (me
kateleipen). Imperfect active, she kept on leaving me. {Bid her}
(eipon aut(8869)). Late form instead of eipe, second aorist
active imperative, common in the papyri. Martha feels that Jesus
is the key to Mary's help. {That she help me} (hina moi
sunantilab(8874)ai). Sub-final use of hina with second aorist
middle subjunctive of sunantilambanomai, a double compound verb
(sun, with, anti, at her end of the line, and lambanomai,
middle voice of lamban(935c), to take hold), a late compound
appearing in the LXX, Diodorus and Josephus. Deissmann (_Light
from the Ancient East_, p. 87) finds it in many widely scattered
inscriptions "throughout the whole extent of the Hellenistic
world of the Mediterranean." It appears only twice in the N.T.
(here and  Ro 8:26 ). It is a beautiful word, to take hold
oneself (middle voice) at his end of the task (anti) together
with (sun) one.

經文:

路加福音 10:41-10:41

註釋:

 {Art anxious} (merimn(8369)s). An old verb for worry and
anxiety from meriz(935c) (meris, part) to be divided, distracted.
Jesus had warned against this in the Sermon on the Mount ( Mt
6:25,28,31,34 . See also  Lu 12:11,22,26 ). {And troubled} (kai
thorubaz(8869)). From 	horubazomai, a verb found nowhere else so
far. Many MSS. here have the usual form 	urbaz(8869), from
	urbaz(935c). Apparently from 	horubos, a common enough word for
tumult. Martha had both inward anxiety and outward agitation.
{But one thing is needful} (henos de estin chreia). This is the
reading of A C and may be correct. A few manuscripts have: "There
is need of few things." Aleph B L (and Westcott and Hort) have:
"There is need of few things or one," which seems like a conflate
reading though the readings are all old. See Robertson,
_Introduction to Textual Criticism of the N.T._, p. 190. Jesus
seems to say to Martha that only one dish was really necessary
for the meal instead of the "many" about which she was so
anxious.

經文:

路加福音 10:42-10:42

註釋:

 {The good portion} (	(886e) agath(886e) merida). The best dish on
the table, fellowship with Jesus. This is the spiritual
application of the metaphor of the dishes on the table. Salvation
is not "the good portion" for Martha had that also. {From her}
(aut(8873)). Ablative case after aphair(8874)h(8873)etai (future passive
indicative). Jesus pointedly takes Mary's side against Martha's
fussiness.


經文:

路加福音 11:1-11:1

註釋:

 {As he was praying in a certain place} (en t(9369) einai auton
en top(9369) tini proseuchomenon). Characteristically Lukan idiom:
en with articular periphrastic infinitive (einai
proseuchomenon) with accusative of general reference (auton).
{That}. Not in the Greek, asyndeton (kai egeneto eipen). {When
he ceased} (h(9373) epausato). Supply proseuchomenos (praying),
complementary or supplementary participle. {Teach us} (didaxon
h(886d)as). Jesus had taught them by precept ( Mt 6:7-15 ) and
example ( Lu 9:29 ). Somehow the example of Jesus on this
occasion stirred them to fresh interest in the subject and to
revival of interest in John's teachings ( Lu 5:33 ). So Jesus
gave them the substance of the Model Prayer in Matthew, but in
shorter form. Some of the MSS. have one or all of the phrases in
Matthew, but the oldest documents have it in the simplest form.
See on 烘t 6:7-15| for discussion of these details (Father,
hallowed, kingdom, daily bread, forgiveness, bringing us into
temptation). In  Mt 6:11  "give" is dos (second aorist active
imperative second singular, a single act) while here  Lu 11:3 
"give" is didou (present active imperative, both from did(936d)i)
and means, "keep on giving." So in  Lu 11:4  we have "For we
ourselves also forgive" (kai gar autoi aphiomen), present
active indicative of the late (935c) verb aphi(935c) while  Mt 6:12 
has "as we also forgave" (h(9373) kai h(886d)eis aph(886b)amen), first
aorist (k aorist) active of aphi(886d)i. So also where  Mt 6:12 
has "debts" (	a opheil(886d)ata)  Lu 11:4  has "sins" (	as
hamartias). But the spirit of each prayer is the same. There is
no evidence that Jesus meant either form to be a ritual. In both
 Mt 6:13  Lu 11:4  m(8820)eisenegk(8869)s occurs (second aorist
subjunctive with m(885c) in prohibition, ingressive aorist). "Bring
us not" is a better translation than "lead us not." There is no
such thing as God enticing one to sin ( Jas 1:13 ). Jesus urges
us to pray not to be tempted as in  Lu 22:40  in Gethsemane.

經文:

路加福音 11:5-11:5

註釋:

 {At midnight} (mesonuktiou). Genitive of time. {And say to
him} (kai eip(8869) aut(9369)). This is the deliberative subjunctive,
but it is preceded by two future indicatives that are
deliberative also (hexei, poreusetai). {Lend me} (chr(8873)on
moi). First aorist active imperative second singular. Lend me
{now}. From kichr(886d)i, an old verb, to lend as a matter of
friendly interest as opposed to daneiz(935c), to lend on interest as
a business. Only here in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 11:6-11:6

註釋:

 {To set before him} (ho parath(8873)(9320)aut(9369)). {Which I shall
place beside him}. Future active of paratith(886d)i. See  9:16  for
this same verb.

經文:

路加福音 11:7-11:7

註釋:

 {And he} (kakeinos). Emphatic. {Shall say} (eip(8869)).
Still the aorist active deliberative subjunctive as in verse  5 
(the same long and somewhat involved sentence). {Trouble me not}
(m(8820)moi kopous pareche). M(885c) and the present imperative
active. Literally, "Stop furnishing troubles to me." On this use
of kopous parech(935c) see also  Mt 26:10  Mr 14:6  Ga 6:17  and the
singular kopon,  Lu 18:5 . {The door is now shut} ((8864)(8820)h(880a)thura kekleistai). Perfect passive indicative, shut to stay
shut. Oriental locks are not easy to unlock. From klei(935c), common
verb. {In bed} (eis ten koit(886e)). Note use of eis in sense of
en. Often a whole family would sleep in the same room. {I
cannot} (ou dunamai). That is, I am not willing.

經文:

路加福音 11:8-11:8

註釋:

 {Though} (ei kai). Kai ei would be "Even if," a
different idea. {Because he is his friend} (dia to einai philon
autou). Dia and the accusative articular infinitive with
accusative of general reference, a causal clause="because of the
being a friend of his." {Yet because of his importunity} (dia ge
t(886e) anaidian autou). From anaid(8873), shameless, and that from
a privative and aid(9373), shame, shamelessness, impudence. An
old word, but here alone in the N.T. Examples in the papyri. The
use of ge here, one of the intensive particles, is to be noted.
It sharpens the contrast to "though" by "yet." As examples of
importunate prayer Vincent notes Abraham in behalf of Sodom ( Ge
18:23-33 ) and the Syro-Phoenician woman in behalf of her
daughter ( Mt 15:22-28 ).

經文:

路加福音 11:9-11:9

註釋:

 {Shall be opened} (anoig(8873)etai). Second future passive
third singular of anoignumi and the later anoig(935c).

經文:

路加福音 11:11-11:11

註釋:

 {Of which of you that is a father} (	ina de ex hum(936e) ton
patera). There is a decided anacoluthon here. The MSS. differ a
great deal. The text of Westcott and Hort makes 	on patera (the
father) in apposition with 	ina (of whom) and in the accusative
the object of ait(8873)ei (shall ask) which has also another
accusative (both person and thing) "a loaf." So far so good. But
the rest of the sentence is, {will ye give him a stone?} (m(880a)lithon epid(9373)ei aut(9369);). M(885c) shows that the answer No is
expected, but the trouble is that the interrogative 	ina in the
first clause is in the accusative the object of ait(8873)ei while
here the same man (he) is the subject of epid(9373)ei. It is a very
awkward piece of Greek and yet it is intelligible. Some of the
old MSS. do not have the part about "loaf" and "stone," but only
the two remaining parts about "fish" and "serpent," "egg" and
"scorpion." The same difficult construction is carried over into
these questions also.

經文:

路加福音 11:13-11:13

註釋:

 {Know how to give} (oidate didonai). See on  Mt 7:11  for
this same saying. Only here Jesus adds the Holy Spirit (pneuma
hagion) as the great gift (the _summum bonum_) that the Father
is ready to bestow. Jesus is fond of "how much more" (pos(9369)
m(836c)lon, by how much more, instrumental case).

經文:

路加福音 11:14-11:14

註釋:

 {When} (	ou daimoniou exelthontos). Genitive absolute ana
asyndeton between kai egeneto and elal(8873)en as often in Luke
(no hoti or kai).

經文:

路加福音 11:15-11:15

註釋:

 {Dumb} (k(9370)hon). See on 烘t 9:32|. {By Beelzebub} (en
Beezeboul). Blasphemous accusation here in Judea as in Galilee
( Mr 3:22  Mt 12:24,27 ). See on Matthew for discussion of the
form of this name and the various items in the sin against the
Holy Spirit involved in the charge. It was useless to deny the
fact of the miracles. So they were explained as wrought by Satan
himself, a most absurd explanation.

經文:

路加福音 11:16-11:16

註釋:

 {Tempting him} (peirazontes). These "others" (heteroi)
apparently realized the futility of the charge of being in league
with Beelzebub. Hence they put up to Jesus the demand for "a sign
from heaven" just as had been done in Galilee ( Mt 12:38 ). By
"sign" (s(886d)eion) they meant a great spectacular display of
heavenly power such as they expected the Messiah to give and such
as the devil suggested to Jesus on the pinnacle of the temple.
{Sought} (ez(8874)oun). Imperfect active, kept on seeking.

經文:

路加福音 11:17-11:17

註釋:

 {But he} (autos de). In contrast with them. {Knowing
their thoughts} (eid(9373) aut(936e) ta diano(886d)ata). From dianoe(935c), to
think through or distinguish. This substantive is common in
Plato, but occurs nowhere else in the N.T. It means intent,
purpose. Jesus knew that they were trying to tempt him. {And a
house divided against a house falleth} (kai oikos epi oikon
piptei). It is not certain that diameristheisa (divided) is to
be repeated here as in  Mt 12:25  Mr 3:25 . It may mean, {and
house falls upon house}, "one tumbling house knocking down its
neighbour, a graphic picture of what happens when a kingdom is
divided against itself" (Bruce).

經文:

路加福音 11:18-11:18

註釋:

 {Because ye say} (hoti legete). Jesus here repeats in
indirect discourse (accusative and infinitive) the charge made
against him in verse  15 . The condition is of the first class,
determined as fulfilled.

經文:

路加福音 11:19-11:19

註釋:

 {And if I by Beelzebub} (ei de eg(9320)en Beezeboul). Also a
condition of the first class, determined as fulfilled. A Greek
condition deals only with the _statement_, not with the actual
facts. For sake of argument, Jesus here assumes that he casts out
demons by Beelzebub. The conclusion is a _reductio ad absurdum_.
The Jewish exorcists practiced incantations against demons ( Ac
19:13 ).

經文:

路加福音 11:20-11:20

註釋:

 {By the finger of God} (en daktul(9369) theou). In
distinction from the Jewish exorcists.  Mt 12:28  has "by the
Spirit of God." {Then is come} (ara ephthasen). Phthan(935c) in
late Greek comes to mean simply to come, not to come before. The
aorist indicative tense here is timeless. Note ara
(accordingly) in the conclusion (apodosis).

經文:

路加福音 11:21-11:21

註釋:

 {Fully armed} (kath(9370)lismenos). Perfect passive
participle of kathopliz(935c), an old verb, but here only in the
N.T. Note perfective use of kata in composition with hopliz(935c),
to arm (from hopla, arms). Note indefinite temporal clause
(hotan and present subjunctive phulass(8869)). {His own court}
(	(886e) heautou aul(886e)). His own homestead.  Mr 3:27  Mt 12:29  has
"house" (oikian). Aul(885c) is used in the N.T. in various senses
(the court in front of the house, the court around which the
house is built, then the house as a whole). {His goods} (	a
huparchonta autou). "His belongings." Neuter plural present
active participle of huparch(935c) used as substantive with
genitive.

經文:

路加福音 11:22-11:22

註釋:

 {But when} (epan de). Note hotan in verse  21 .
{Stronger than he} (ischuroteros autou). Comparative of
ischuros followed by the ablative. {Come upon him and overcome
him} (epelth(936e) nik(8873)(8869) auton). Second aorist active participle
of eperchomai and first aorist active subjunctive of 
ika(935c).
Aorist tense here because a single onset while in verse  22  the
guarding (phulass(8869), present active subjunctive) is continuous.
{His whole armour} (	(886e) panoplian autou). An old and common
word for all the soldier's outfit (shield, sword, lance, helmet,
greaves, breastplate). Tyndale renders it "his harness." In the
N.T. only here and  Eph 6:11,13  where the items are given.
{Wherein he trusted} (eph' h(8869) epepoithei). Second past perfect
active of peith(935c), to persuade. The second perfect pepoitha is
intransitive, to trust. Old and common verb. He trusted his
weapons which had been so efficacious. {His spoils} (	a skula
autou). It is not clear to what this figure refers. Strong as
Satan is Jesus is stronger and wins victories over him as he was
doing then. In  Col 2:15  Christ is pictured as triumphing openly
over the powers of evil by the Cross.

經文:

路加福音 11:23-11:23

註釋:

 {He that is not with me} (ho m(8820)(936e) met' emou). This verse
is just like  Mt 12:30 .

經文:

路加福音 11:24-11:24

註釋:

 {And finding none} (kai m(8820)heuriskon). Here  Mt 12:43 
has kai ouch heuriskei (present active indicative instead of
present active participle).  Lu 11:24-26  is almost verbatim like
 Mt 12:43-45 , which see. Instead of just "taketh"
(paralambanei) in verse  26 , Matthew has "taketh with himself"
(paralambanei meth' heautou). And Luke omits: "Even so shall it
be also unto this evil generation" of  Mt 12:45 . {Than the
first} (	(936e) pr(9374)(936e)). Ablative case after the comparative
cheirona. The seven demons brought back remind one of the seven
that afflicted Mary Magdalene ( Lu 8:2 ).

經文:

路加福音 11:27-11:27

註釋:

 {As he said these things} (en t(9369) legein auton). Luke's
common idiom, en with articular infinitive. Verses  27,28  are
peculiar to Luke. His Gospel in a special sense is the Gospel of
Woman. This woman "speaks well, but womanly" (Bengel). Her
beatitude (makaria) reminds us of Elisabeth's words ( Lu 1:42 ,
eulog(886d)en(885c)). She is fulfilling Mary's own prophecy in  1:48 
(makariousin me, shall call me happy).

經文:

路加福音 11:28-11:28

註釋:

 {But he said} (autos de eipen). Jesus in contrast turns
attention to others and gives them a beatitude (makarioi). "The
originality of Christ's reply guarantees its historical
character. Such a comment is beyond the reach of an inventor"
(Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 11:29-11:29

註釋:

 {Were gathering together unto him} (epathroizomen(936e)).
Genitive absolute present middle participle of epathroiz(935c), a
rare verb, Plutarch and here only in the N.T., from epi and
athroiz(935c) (a common enough verb). It means to throng together
(athroos, in throngs). Vivid picture of the crowds around
Jesus. {But the sign of Jonah} (ei m(8820)to s(886d)eion I(936e)(835c)). Luke
does not give here the burial and resurrection of Jesus of which
Jonah's experience in the big fish was a type ( Mt 12:39ff. ),
but that is really implied (Plummer argues) by the use here of
"shall be given" (doth(8873)etai) and "shall be" (estai), for the
resurrection of Jesus is still future. The preaching of Jesus
ought to have been sign enough as in the case of Jonah, but the
resurrection will be given. Luke's report is much briefer and
omits what is in  Mt 12:41 .

經文:

路加福音 11:31-11:31

註釋:

 {With the men of this generation} (meta t(936e) andr(936e) t(8873)
gene(8373) taut(8873)). Here  Mt 12:42  has simply "with this
generation," which see.

經文:

路加福音 11:32-11:32

註釋:

 {At the preaching of Jonah} (eis to k(8872)ugma I(936e)a). Note
this use of eis as in  Mt 10:41  12:41 . Luke inserts the words
about the Queen of the South ( 31 ) in between the discussion of
Jonah (verses  29f., 32 ). Both Solom(936e)os ( 31 ) and I(936e)(835c)
(verse  32 ) are in the ablative case after the comparative
pleion (more, {something more}).

經文:

路加福音 11:33-11:33

註釋:

 {In a cellar} (eis krupt(886e)). A crypt (same word) or
hidden place from krupt(935c), to hide. Late and rare word and here
only in the N.T. These other words (lamp, luchnon, bushel,
modion, stand, luchnian) have all been discussed previously
( Mt 5:15 ).  Lu 11:33  is like  Mt 6:22f. , which see for
details.

經文:

路加福音 11:35-11:35

註釋:

 {Whether not} (m(885c)). This use of m(885c) in an indirect
question is good Greek (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1045). It is a
pitiful situation if the very light is darkness. This happens
when the eye of the soul is too diseased to see the light of
Christ.

經文:

路加福音 11:36-11:36

註釋:

 {With its bright shining} (	(8869) astrap(8869)). Instrumental
case, as if by a flash of lightning the light is revealed in him.
See on 氣0:18|.

經文:

路加福音 11:37-11:37

註釋:

 {Now as he spake} (en de t(9369) lal(8873)ai). Luke's common
idiom, en with the articular infinitive (aorist active
infinitive) but it does not mean "after he had spoken" as Plummer
argues, but simply "in the speaking," no time in the aorist
infinitive. See  3:21  for similar use of aorist infinitive with
en. {Asketh} (er(9374)(8369)). Present active indicative, dramatic
present. Request, not question. {To dine} (hop(9373) arist(8873)(8869)).
Note hop(9373) rather than the common hina. Aorist active
subjunctive rather than present, for a single meal. The verb is
from ariston (breakfast). See distinction between ariston and
deipnon (dinner or supper) in  Lu 14:12 . It is the morning
meal (breakfast or lunch) after the return from morning prayers
in the synagogue ( Mt 22:4 ), not the very early meal called
akratisma. The verb is, however, used for the early meal on the
seashore in  Joh 21:12,15 . {With him} (par' aut(9369)). By his
side. {Sat down to meat} (anepesen). Second aorist active
indicative of anapipt(935c), old verb, to recline, to fall back on
the sofa or lounge. No word here for "to meat."

經文:

路加福音 11:38-11:38

註釋:

 {That he had not first washed before dinner} (hoti ou
pr(9374)on ebaptisth(8820)pro tou aristou). The verb is first aorist
passive indicative of aptiz(935c), to dip or to immerse. Here it is
applied to the hands. It was the Jewish custom to dip the hands
in water before eating and often between courses for ceremonial
purification. In Galilee the Pharisees and scribes had sharply
criticized the disciples for eating with unwashed hands ( Mr
7:1-23  Mt 15:1-20 ) when Jesus had defended their liberty and
had opposed making a necessity of such a custom (tradition) in
opposition to the command of God. Apparently Jesus on this
occasion had himself reclined at the breakfast (not dinner)
without this ceremonial dipping of the hands in water. The Greek
has "first before" (pr(9374)on pro), a tautology not preserved in
the translation.

經文:

路加福音 11:39-11:39

註釋:

 {The Lord} (ho kurios). The Lord Jesus plainly and in the
narrative portion of Luke. {Now} (
un). Probably refers to him.
You Pharisees do now what was formerly done. {The platter} (	ou
pinakos). The dish. Old word, rendered "the charger" in  Mt
14:8 . Another word for "platter" (paropsis) in  Mt 23:25 
means "side-dish." {But your inward part} (	o de es(9374)hen
hum(936e)). The part within you (Pharisees). They keep the external
regulations, but their hearts are full of plunder (harpag(8873),
from harpaz(935c), to seize) and wickedness (pon(8872)ias, from
pon(8872)os, evil man). See  Mt 23:25  for a like indictment of the
Pharisees for care for the outside of the cup but neglect of what
is on the inside. Both inside and outside should be clean, but
the inside first.

經文:

路加福音 11:40-11:40

註釋:

 {Howbeit} (pl(886e)). See  Lu 6:24 . Instead of devoting so
much attention to the outside. {Those things which are within}
(	a enonta). Articular neuter plural participle from eneimi,
to be in, common verb. This precise phrase only here in the N.T.
though in the papyri, and it is not clear what it means.
Probably, give as alms the things within the dishes, that is have
inward righteousness with a brotherly spirit and the outward
becomes "clean" (kathara). Properly understood, this is not
irony and is not Ebionism, but good Christianity (Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 11:42-11:42

註釋:

 {Tithe} (apodekatoute). Late verb for the more common
dekateu(935c). So in  Mt 23:23 . Take a tenth off (apo-). Rue
(p(8867)anon). Botanical term in late writers from p(8867)numi, to
make fast because of its thick leaves. Here  Mt 23:23  has
"anise." {Every herb} (p(836e) lachanon). General term as in  Mr
4:32 . Matthew has "cummin." {Pass by} (parerchesthe). Present
middle indicative of parerchomai, common verb, to go by or
beside.  Mt 23:23  has "ye have left undone" (aph(886b)ate). Luke
here has "love" (agap(886e)), not in Matthew. {Ought} (edei). As
in Matthew. Imperfect of a present obligation, not lived up to
just like our "ought" (owed, not paid). Pareinai, as in
Matthew, the second aorist active infinitive of aphi(886d)i. to
leave off. Common verb. Luke does not have the remark about
straining out the gnat and swallowing the camel ( Mt 23:34 ). It
is plain that the terrible exposure of the scribes and Pharisees
in  Mt 23  in the temple was simply the culmination of previous
conflicts such as this one.

經文:

路加福音 11:43-11:43

註釋:

 {The chief seats in the synagogues} (	(886e) pr(9374)okathedrian
en tais sunag(9367)ais). Singular here, plural in  Mt 23:6 . This
semi-circular bench faced the congregation.  Mt 23:6  has also
the chief place at feasts given by Luke also in that discourse
( 20:46 ) as well as in  14:7 , a marked characteristic of the
Pharisees.

經文:

路加福音 11:44-11:44

註釋:

 {The tombs which appear not} (	a mn(886e)eia ta ad(886c)a). These
hidden graves would give ceremonial defilement for seven days
( Nu 19:16 ). Hence they were usually whitewashed as a warning.
So in  Mt 23:27  the Pharisees are called "whited sepulchres."
Men do not know how rotten they are. The word ad(886c)os (a
privative and d(886c)os, apparent or plain) occurs in the N.T. only
here and  1Co 14:8 , though an old and common word. {Here men
walking around} (peripatountes) walk over the tombs without
knowing it. These three woes cut to the quick and evidently made
the Pharisees wince.

經文:

路加福音 11:45-11:45

註釋:

 {Thou reproachest us also} (kai h(886d)(8373) hubrizeis). Because
the lawyers (scribes) were usually Pharisees. The verb hubriz(935c)
is an old one and common for outrageous treatment, a positive
insult (so  Lu 18:32  Mt 22:6  Ac 14  5  1Th 2:2 ). So Jesus
proceeds to give the lawyers three woes as he had done to the
Pharisees.

經文:

路加福音 11:46-11:46

註釋:

 {Grievous to be borne} (dusbastakta). A late word in LXX
and Plutarch (dus and astaz(935c)). Here alone in text of
Westcott and Hort who reject it in  Mt 23:4  where we have "heavy
burdens" (phortia barea). In  Gal 6:2  we have ar(885c) with a
distinction drawn. Here we have phortizete (here only in the
N.T. and  Mt 11:28 ) for "lade," phortia as cognate accusative
and then phortiois (dative after ou prospsauete, touch not).
It is a fierce indictment of scribes (lawyers) for their
pettifogging interpretations of the written law in their oral
teaching (later written down as _Mishna_ and then as _Gemarah_),
a terrible load which these lawyers did not pretend to carry
themselves, not even "with one of their fingers" to "touch"
(prospsau(935c), old verb but only here in the N.T.), touch with the
view to remove.  Mt 23:4  has kin(8873)ai, to move. A physician
would understand the meaning of prospau(935c) for feeling gently a
sore spot or the pulse.

經文:

路加福音 11:48-11:48

註釋:

 {Consent} (suneudokeite). Double compound (sun, eu,
doke(935c)), to think well along with others, to give full approval.
A late verb, several times in the N.T., in  Ac 8:1  of Saul's
consenting to and agreeing to Stephen's death. It is a somewhat
subtle, but just, argument made here. Outwardly the lawyers build
tombs for the prophets whom their fathers (forefathers) killed as
if they disapproved what their fathers did. But in reality they
neglect and oppose what the prophets teach just as their fathers
did. So they are "witnesses" (martures) against themselves ( Mt
23:31 ).

經文:

路加福音 11:49-11:49

註釋:

 {The wisdom of God} (h(8820)sophia tou theou). In  Mt 23:34 
Jesus uses "I send" (eg(9320)apostell(935c)) without this phrase "the
wisdom of God." There is no book to which it can refer. Jesus is
the wisdom of God as Paul shows ( 1Co 1:30 ), but it is hardly
likely that he so describes himself here. Probably he means that
God in his wisdom said, but even so "Jesus here speaks with
confident knowledge of the Divine counsels" (Plummer). See  Lu
10:22  15:7,10 . Here the future tense occurs, "I will send"
(apostel(935c)). {Some of them} (ex aut(936e)). No "some" (	inas) in
the Greek, but understood. They will act as their fathers did.
They will kill and persecute.

經文:

路加福音 11:50-11:50

註釋:

 {That ... may be required} (hina ... ekz(8874)(8874)h(8869)).
Divinely ordered sequence, first aorist passive subjunctive of
ekz(8874)e(935c), a late and rare verb outside of LXX and N.T.,
requiring as a debt the blood of the prophets. {Which was shed}
(	o ekkechumenon). Perfect passive participle of ekche(935c) and
ekchunn(935c) (an Aeolic form appearing in the margin of Westcott
and Hort here, ekchunnomenon, present passive participle). If
the present passive is accepted, it means the blood which is
perpetually shed from time to time. {From the foundation of the
world} (apo katabol(8873) kosmou). See also  Mt 25:34  Joh 17:24  Eph 1:4 , etc. It is a bold metaphor for the purpose of God.

經文:

路加福音 11:51-11:51

註釋:

 2Ch
24:22 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ch
24' or engs='2Ch
24'
經文:

路加福音 11:52-11:52

註釋:

 {Ye took away the key of knowledge} ((8872)ate t(886e) kleida t(8873)
gn(9373)e(9373)). First aorist active indicative of air(935c), common verb.
But this is a flat charge of obscurantism on the part of these
scribes (lawyers), the teachers (rabbis) of the people. They
themselves (autoi) refused to go into the house of knowledge
(beautiful figure) and learn. They then locked the door and hid
the key to the house of knowledge and hindered (ek(936c)usate,
effective aorist active) those who were trying to enter (	ous
eiserchomenous, present participle, conative action). It is the
most pitiful picture imaginable of blind ecclesiastics trying to
keep others as blind as they were, blind leaders of the blind,
both falling into the pit.

經文:

路加福音 11:53-11:53

註釋:

 {From thence} (k'akeithen). Out of the Pharisee's house.
What became of the breakfast we are not told, but the rage of
both Pharisees and lawyers knew no bounds. {To press upon him}
(enechein). An old Greek verb to hold in, to be enraged at, to
have it in for one. It is the same verb used of the relentless
hatred of Herodias for John the Baptist ( Mr 6:19 ). {To provoke
him to speak} (apostomatizein). From apo and stoma (mouth).
Plato uses it of repeating to a pupil for him to recite from
memory, then to recite by heart (Plutarch). Here (alone in the
N.T.) the verb means to ply with questions, to entice to answers,
to catechize. {Of many things} (peri pleion(936e)). "Concerning
more (comparative) things." They were stung to the quick by these
woes which laid bare their hollow hypocrisy.

經文:

路加福音 11:54-11:54

註釋:

 {Laying wait for him} (enedreuontes auton). An old verb
from en and hedra, a seat, so to lie in ambush for one. Here
only and  Ac 23:21  in the N.T. Vivid picture of the anger of
these rabbis who were treating Jesus as if he were a beast of
prey. {To catch something out of his mouth} (	h(8872)eusai to ek tou
stomatos autou). An old Greek verb, though here only in the
N.T., from 	h(8872)a (cf.  Ro 11:9 ), to ensnare, to catch in
hunting, to hunt. These graphic words from the chase show the
rage of the rabbis toward Jesus. Luke gives more details here
than in  20:45-47  Mt 23:1-7 , but there is no reason at all why
Jesus should not have had this conflict at the Pharisee's
breakfast before that in the temple in the great Tuesday debate.

經文:

路加福音 12:1-12:1

註釋:

 {In the meantime} (en hois). It is a classic idiom to
start a sentence or even a paragraph as here with a relative, "in
which things or circumstances," without any expressed antecedent
other than the incidents in  11:53f . In  12:3  Luke actually
begins the sentence with two relatives anth' h(936e) hosa
(wherefore whatsoever). {Many thousands} (muriad(936e)). Genitive
absolute with episunachtheis(936e) (first aorist passive participle
feminine plural because of muriad(936e)), a double compound late
verb, episunag(935c), to gather together unto. The word "myriads" is
probably hyperbolical as in  Ac 21:20 , but in the sense of ten
thousand, as in  Ac 19:19 , it means a very large crowd
apparently drawn together by the violent attacks of the rabbis
against Jesus. {Insomuch that they trode one upon another}
(h(9373)te katapatein all(886c)ous). The imagination must complete the
picture of this jam. {Unto his disciples first of all} (pros
tous math(8874)as autou pr(9374)on). This long discourse in  Lu 12  is
really a series of separate talks to various groups in the vast
crowds around Jesus. This particular talk goes through verse
 12 . {Beware of} (prosechete heautois apo). Put your mind
(
oun understood) for yourselves (dative) and avoid (apo with
the ablative). {The leaven of the Pharisees which is hypocrisy}
(	(8873) zum(8873) h(8874)is estin hupocrisis t(936e) Pharisai(936e)). In  Mr 8:15 
Jesus had coupled the lesson of the Pharisees with that of Herod,
in  Mt 16:6  with that of the Sadducees also. He had long ago
called the Pharisees hypocrites ( Mt 6:2,5,16 ). The occasion was
ripe here for this crisp saying. In  Mt 13:33  leaven does not
have an evil sense as here, which see. See  Mt 23:13  for
hypocrites. Hypocrisy was the leading Pharisaic vice (Bruce) and
was a mark of sanctity to hide an evil heart.

經文:

路加福音 12:2-12:2

註釋:

 {Covered up} (sugkekalummenon estin). Periphrastic perfect
passive indicative of sugkalupt(935c), an old verb, but here only in
the N.T., to cover up on all sides and so completely. Verses
 2-9  here are parallel with  Mt 10:26-33  spoken to the Twelve
on their tour of Galilee, illustrating again how often Jesus
repeated his sayings unless we prefer to say that he never did so
and that the Gospels have hopelessly jumbled them as to time and
place. See the passage in Matthew for discussion of details.

經文:

路加福音 12:3-12:3

註釋:

 {In the inner chambers} (en tois tameiois). Old form
	amieion, a store chamber ( Lu 12:24 ), secret room ( Mt 6:6  Lu 12:3 ).

經文:

路加福音 12:4-12:4

註釋:

 {Unto you my friends} (humin tois philois). As opposed to
the Pharisees and lawyers in  11:43,46,53 . {Be not afraid of}
(m(8820)phob(8874)h(8874)e apo). First aorist passive subjunctive with
m(885c), ingressive aorist, do not become afraid of, with apo and
the ablative like the Hebrew _min_ and the English "be afraid
of," a translation Hebraism as in  Mt 10:28  (Moulton,
_Prolegomena_, p. 102). {Have no more that they can do} (m(880a)echont(936e) perissoteron ti poi(8873)ai). Luke often uses the
infinitive thus with ech(935c), a classic idiom ( 7:40,42  12:4,50  14:14  Ac 4:14 , etc.).

經文:

路加福音 12:5-12:5

註釋:

 {Whom ye shall fear} (	ina phob(8874)h(8874)e). First aorist
passive subjunctive deliberative retained in the indirect
question. Tina is the accusative, the direct object of this
transitive passive verb (note apo in verse  4 ). {Fear him who}
(phob(8874)h(8874)e ton). First aorist passive imperative, differing
from the preceding form only in the accent and governing the
accusative also. {After he hath killed} (meta to apokteinai).
Preposition meta with the articular infinitive. Literally,
"After the killing" (first aorist active infinitive of the common
verb apoktein(935c), to kill. {Into hell} (eis t(886e) geennan). See
on 烘t 5:22|. Gehenna is a transliteration of _Ge-Hinnom_, Valley
of Hinnon where the children were thrown on to the red-hot arms
of Molech. Josiah ( 2Ki 23:10 ) abolished these abominations and
then it was a place for all kinds of refuse which burned
ceaselessly and became a symbol of punishment in the other world.
{This one fear} (	outon phob(8874)h(8874)e). As above.

經文:

路加福音 12:6-12:6

註釋:

 {Is forgotten} (estin epilel(8873)menon). Periphrastic perfect
passive indicative of epilanthanomai, common verb to forget.
See  Mt 10:29  for a different construction.

經文:

路加福音 12:7-12:7

註釋:

 {Numbered} ((8872)ithm(886e)tai). Perfect passive indicative.
Periphrastic form in  Mt 10:30  which see for details about
sparrows, etc.

經文:

路加福音 12:8-12:8

註釋:

 {Everyone who shall confess me} (pas hos an homolog(8873)ei en
emoi). Just like  Mt 10:32  except the use of an here which
adds nothing. The Hebraistic use of en after homologe(935c) both
here and in Matthew is admitted by even Moulton (_Prolegomena_,
p. 104). {The Son of man} (ho huios tou anthr(9370)ou). Here  Mt
10:32  has k'ag(935c) (I also) as the equivalent.

經文:

路加福音 12:9-12:9

註釋:

 {Shall be denied} (aparn(8874)h(8873)etai). First future passive
of the compound verb aparneomai. Here  Mt 10:33  has
arn(8873)omai simply. Instead of "in the presence of the angels of
God" (emprosthen t(936e) aggel(936e) tou theou)  Mt 10:33  has "before
my Father who is in heaven."

經文:

路加福音 12:10-12:10

註釋:

 {But unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Spirit}
(	(9369) de eis to hagion pneuma blasph(886d)(8873)anti). This unpardonable
sin is given by  Mr 3:28f.  Mt 12:31f.  immediately after the
charge that Jesus was in league with Beelzebub. Luke here
separates it from the same charge made in Judea ( 11:15-20 ). As
frequently said, there is no sound reason for saying that Jesus
only spoke his memorable sayings once. Luke apparently finds a
different environment here. Note the use of eis here in the
sense of "against."

經文:

路加福音 12:11-12:11

註釋:

 {Be not anxious} (m(8820)merimn(8873)(8874)e). First aorist active
subjunctive with m(885c) in prohibition. Do not become anxious. See
a similar command to the Twelve on their Galilean tour ( Mt
10:19f. ) and in the great discourse on the Mount of Olives at
the end ( Mr 13:11  Lu 21:14f. ), given twice by Luke as we see.
{How or what ye shall answer} (p(9373) (8820)ti apolog(8873)(8873)the).
Indirect question and retaining the deliberative subjunctive
apolog(8873)(8873)the and also eip(8874)e (say).

經文:

路加福音 12:12-12:12

註釋:

 {What ye ought to say} (h(8320)dei eipein). Literally, what
things it is necessary (dei) to say. This is no excuse for
neglect in pulpit preparation. It is simply a word for courage in
a crisis to play the man for Christ and to trust the issue with
God without fear.

經文:

路加福音 12:13-12:13

註釋:

 {Bid my brother} (eipe t(9369) adelph(9369) mou). This volunteer
from the crowd draws attention to the multitude (verses  13-21 ).
He does not ask for arbitration and there is no evidence that his
brother was willing for that. He wants a decision by Jesus
against his brother. The law ( De 21:17 ) was two-thirds to the
elder, one-third to the younger.

經文:

路加福音 12:14-12:14

註釋:

 {A judge or a divider} (krit(886e) (8820)merist(886e)). Jesus
repudiates the position of judge or arbiter in this family fuss.
The language reminds one of  Ex 2:14 . Jesus is rendering unto
Caesar the things of Caesar ( Lu 20:25 ) and shows that his
kingdom is not of this world ( Joh 18:36 ). The word for divider
or arbiter (merist(8873)) is a late word from merizomai (verse
 13 ) and occurs here only in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 12:15-12:15

註釋:

 {From all covetousness} (apo pas(8873) pleonexias). Ablative
case. From every kind of greedy desire for more (pleon, more,
hexia, from ech(935c), to have) an old word which we have robbed
of its sinful aspects and refined to mean business thrift. {In
the abundance of the things which he possesseth} (en t(9369)
perisseuein tini ek t(936e) huparchont(936e) aut(9369)). A rather awkward
Lukan idiom: "In the abounding (articular infinitive) to one out
of the things belonging (articular participle) to him."

經文:

路加福音 12:16-12:16

註釋:

 {A parable unto them} (parabol(886e) pros autous). The
multitude of verses  13,15 . A short and pungent parable
suggested by the covetousness of the man of verse  13 . {Brought
forth plentifully} (euphor(8873)en). Late word from euphoros
(bearing well), in medical writers and Josephus, here only in the
N.T.

經文:

路加福音 12:17-12:17

註釋:

 {Reasoned within himself} (dielogizeto en haut(9369)).
Imperfect middle, picturing his continued cogitations over his
perplexity. {Where to bestow} (pou sunax(935c)). Future indicative
deliberative, where I shall gather together. {My fruits} (	ous
karpous mou). So it is with the rich fool: my fruits, my barns,
my corn, my goods, just like Nabal whose very name means fool
( 1Sa 25:11 ), whether a direct reference to him or not.

經文:

路加福音 12:18-12:18

註釋:

 {I will pull down} (kathel(935c)). Future active of
kathaire(935c), an old verb, the usual future being kathair(8873)(935c).
This second form from the second aorist katheilon (from
obsolete hel(935c)) like aphelei in  Re 22:19 . {My barns} (mou
tas apoth(886b)as). From apotith(886d)i, to lay by, to treasure. So a
granary or storehouse, an old word, six times in the N.T. ( Mt
3:12  6:26  13:30  Lu 3:17  12:18,24 ). {All my corn} (panta ton
siton). Better grain (wheat, barley), not maize or Indian corn.
{My goods} (	a agatha mou). Like the English, my good things.
So the English speak of goods (freight) train.

經文:

路加福音 12:19-12:19

註釋:

 {Laid up for many years} (keimena eis et(8820)polla). Not in
D and some other Latin MSS. The man's apostrophe to his "soul"
(psuch(885c)) is thoroughly Epicurean, for his soul feeds on his
goods. The asyndeton here (take thine ease, eat, drink, be merry)
shows his eagerness. Note difference in tenses (anapauou, keep
on resting, phage, eat at once, pie, drink thy fill,
euphrainou, keep on being merry), first and last presents, the
other two aorists.

經文:

路加福音 12:20-12:20

註釋:

 {Thou foolish one} (aphr(936e)). Fool, for lack of sense (a
privative and phr(886e), sense) as in  11:40  2Co 11:19 . Old word,
used by Socrates in Xenophon. Nominative form as vocative. {Is
thy soul required of thee} (	(886e) psuch(886e) sou aitousin apo sou).
Plural active present, not passive: "They are demanding thy soul
from thee." The impersonal plural (aitousin) is common enough
( Lu 6:38  12:11  16:9  23:31 ). The rabbis used "they" to avoid
saying "God."

經文:

路加福音 12:21-12:21

註釋:

 {Not rich toward God} (m(8820)eis theon plout(936e)). The only
wealth that matters and that lasts. Cf.  16:9  Mt 6:19f . Some
MSS. do not have this verse. Westcott and Hort bracket it.

經文:

路加福音 12:22-12:22

註釋:

 {Unto his disciples} (pros tous math(8874)as autou). So Jesus
turns from the crowd to the disciples (verses  22-40 , when Peter
interrupts the discourse). From here to the end of the chapter
Luke gives material that appears in Matthew, but not in one
connection as here. In Matthew part of it is in the charge to the
Twelve on their tour in Galilee, part in the eschatological
discourse on the Mount of Olives. None of it is in Mark. Hence Q
or the Logia seems to be the source of it. The question recurs
again whether Jesus repeated on other occasions what is given
here or whether Luke has here put together separate discourses as
Matthew is held by many to have done in the Sermon on the Mount.
We have no way of deciding these points. We can only say again
that Jesus would naturally repeat his favourite sayings like
other popular preachers and teachers. So  Lu 12:22-31 
corresponds to  Mt 6:25-33 , which see for detailed discussion.
The parable of the rich fool was spoken to the crowd, but this
exhortation to freedom from care ( 22-31 ) is to the disciples.
So the language in  Lu 12:22  is precisely that in  Mt 6:25 . See
there for m(8820)merimn(8374)e (stop being anxious) and the
deliberative subjunctive retained in the indirect question
(phag(8874)e, endus(8873)the). So verse  23  here is the same in  Mt
6:25  except that there it is a question with ouch expecting
the affirmative answer, whereas here it is given as a reason
(gar, for) for the preceding command.

經文:

路加福音 12:24-12:24

註釋:

 {The ravens} (	ous korakas). Nowhere else in the N.T. The
name includes the whole crow group of birds (rooks and jackdaws).
Like the vultures they are scavengers.  Mt 6:26  has simply "the
birds" (	a peteina). {Storechamber} (tameion). Not in  Mt
6:26 . Means secret chamber in  Lu 12:3 . {Of how much more}
(pos(9369) m(836c)lon).  Mt 6:26  has question, ouch m(836c)lon.

經文:

路加福音 12:25-12:25

註釋:

 {A cubit} (p(8863)hun).  Mt 6:27  has p(8863)hun hena (one
cubit, though hena is sometimes merely the indefinite article.
{Stature} (h(886c)ikian) as in Matthew, which see.

經文:

路加福音 12:26-12:26

註釋:

 {Not able to do even that which is least} (oude elachiston
dunasthe). Negative oude in the condition of the first class.
Elative superlative, very small. This verse not in Matthew and
omitted in D. Verse  27  as in  Mt 6:28 , save that the verbs for
toil and spin are plural in Matthew and singular here (neuter
plural subject, 	a krina).

經文:

路加福音 12:28-12:28

註釋:

 {Clothe} (amphiazei). Late Greek verb in the _Koin(825f)
(papyri) for the older form amphiennumi ( Mt 6:30 ). See
Matthew for discussion of details. Matthew has "the grass of the
field" instead of "the grass in the field" as here.

經文:

路加福音 12:29-12:29

註釋:

 {Seek not ye} (humeis m(8820)z(8874)eite). Note emphatic position
of "ye" (humeis). Stop seeking (m(885c) and present imperative
active).  Mt 6:31  has: "Do not become anxious" (m(880a)merimn(8873)(8874)e), m(885c) and ingressive subjunctive occur as direct
questions (What are we to eat? What are we to drink? What are we
to put on?) whereas here they are in the indirect form as in
verse  22  save that the problem of clothing is not here
mentioned: {Neither be ye of doubtful mind} (kai m(880a)mete(9372)izesthe). M(885c) and present passive imperative (stop being
anxious) of mete(9372)iz(935c). An old verb from mete(9372)os in midair,
high (our meteor), to lift up on high, then to lift oneself up
with hopes (false sometimes), to be buoyed up, to be tossed like
a ship at sea, to be anxious, to be in doubt as in late writers
(Polybius, Josephus). This last meaning is probably true here. In
the LXX and Philo, but here only in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 12:31-12:31

註釋:

 See  Mt 6:33  for this verse. Luke does not have "first"
nor "his righteousness" nor "all."

經文:

路加福音 12:32-12:32

註釋:

 {Little flock} (	o mikron poimnion). Vocative with the
article as used in Hebrew and often in the _Koin(825f) and so in the
N.T. See both pater and ho pat(8872) in the vocative in  Lu
10:21 . See Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 465f. Poimnion (flock) is
a contraction from poimenion from poim(886e) (shepherd) instead
of the usual poimn(885c) (flock). So it is not a diminutive and
mikron is not superfluous, though it is pathetic. {For it is
your Father's good pleasure} (hoti eudok(8873)en ho pat(8872) hum(936e)).
First aorist active indicative of eudoke(935c). Timeless aorist as
in  Lu 3:22 . This verse has no parallel in Matthew.

經文:

路加福音 12:33-12:33

註釋:

 {Sell that ye have} (P(936c)(8873)ate ta huparchonta hum(936e)). Not
in Matthew. Did Jesus mean this literally and always? Luke has
been charged with Ebionism, but Jesus does not condemn property
as inherently sinful. "The attempt to keep the letter of the rule
here given ( Ac 2:44,45 ) had disastrous effects on the church of
Jerusalem, which speedily became a church of paupers, constantly
in need of alms ( Ro 15:25,26  1Co 16:3  2Co 8:4  9:1 )"
(Plummer). {Purses which wax not old} (allantia m(880a)palaioumena). So already allantion in  Lu 10:4 . Late verb
palaio(935c) from palaios, old, to make old, declare old as in
 Heb 8:13 , is passive to become old as here and  Heb 1:11 .
{That faileth not} (anekleipton). Verbal from a privative and
ekleip(935c), to fail. Late word in Diodorus and Plutarch. Only here
in the N.T. or LXX, but in papyri. "I prefer to believe that even
Luke sees in the words not a mechanical rule, but a law for the
spirit" (Bruce). {Draweth near} (eggizei). Instead of  Mt 6:19 
"dig through and steal." {Destroyeth} (diaphtheirei). Instead
of "doth consume" in  Mt 6:19 .

經文:

路加福音 12:34-12:34

註釋:

 {Will be} (estai). Last word in the sentence in Luke.
Otherwise like  Mt 6:21 . See  1Co 7:32-34  for similar
principle.

經文:

路加福音 12:35-12:35

註釋:

 {Be girded about} (est(9373)an periez(9373)menai). Periphrastic
perfect passive imperative third plural of the verb periz(936e)numi
or periz(936e)nu(935c) (later form), an old verb, to gird around, to
fasten the garments with a girdle. The long garments of the
orientals made speed difficult. It was important to use the
girdle before starting. Cf.  17:8  Ac 12:8 . {Burning}
(kaiomenoi). Periphrastic present middle imperative, already
burning and continuously burning. The same point of the Parable
of the Ten Virgins ( Mt 25:1-13 ) is found here in condensed
form. This verse introduces the parable of the waiting servants
( Lu 12:35-40 ).

經文:

路加福音 12:36-12:36

註釋:

 {When he shall return from the marriage feast} (pote
analus(8869) ek t(936e) gam(936e)). The interrogative conjunction pote and
the deliberative aorist subjunctive retained in the indirect
question. The verb analu(935c), very common Greek verb, but only
twice in the N.T. (here and  Php 1:23 ). The figure is breaking
up a camp or loosening the mooring of a ship, to depart. Perhaps
here the figure is from the standpoint of the wedding feast
(plural as used of a single wedding feast in  Lu 14:8 ),
departing from there. See on 烘t 22:2|. {When he cometh and
knocketh} (elthontos kai krousantos). Genitive absolute of the
aorist active participle without autou and in spite of autoi
(dative) being used after anoix(9373)in (first aorist active
subjunctive of anoig(935c)).

經文:

路加福音 12:37-12:37

註釋:

 {He shall gird himself} (periz(9373)etai). Direct future
middle. Jesus did this ( Joh 13:4 ), not out of gratitude, but to
give the apostles an object lesson in humility. See the usual
course in  Lu 17:7-10  with also the direct middle (verse  8 ) of
peris(936e)nu(935c).

經文:

路加福音 12:38-12:38

註釋:

 {And if} (k'an = kai + ean). Repeated. Elth(8869) and
heur(8869), both second aorist subjunctive with ean, condition of
the third class, undetermined, but with prospect of being
determined. {Blessed} (makarioi). Beatitude here as in verse
 37 .

經文:

路加福音 12:39-12:39

註釋:

 {The thief} (ho klept(8873)). The change here almost makes a
new parable to illustrate the other, the parable of the
housebreaking (verses  39,40 ) to illustrate the parable of the
waiting servants ( 35-38 ). This same language appears in  Mt
24:43f . "The Master returning from a wedding is replaced by a
thief whose study it is to come to the house he means to plunder
at an unexpected time" (Bruce). The parallel in  Mt 24:43-51 
with  Lu 12:39-46  does not have the interruption by Peter. {He
would have watched} (egr(8867)or(8873)en an). Apodosis of second-class
condition, determined as unfulfilled, made plain by use of an
with aorist indicative which is not repeated with ouk aph(886b)en
(first aorist active indicative of aphi(886d)i, k aorist), though
it is sometimes repeated ( Mt 24:43 ).

經文:

路加福音 12:40-12:40

註釋:

 {Be ye} (ginesthe). Present middle imperative, keep on
becoming. {Cometh} (erchetai). Futuristic present indicative.
See  Mt 24:43-51  for details in the comparison with Luke.

經文:

路加福音 12:41-12:41

註釋:

 {Peter said} (Eipen de ho Petros). This whole paragraph
from verse  22-40  had been addressed directly to the disciples.
Hence it is not surprising to find Peter putting in a question.
This incident confirms also the impression that Luke is giving
actual historical data in the environment of these discourses. He
is certain that the Twelve are meant, but he desires to know if
others are included, for he had spoken to the multitude in verses
 13-21 . Recall  Mr 13:37 . This interruption is somewhat like
that on the Mount of Transfiguration ( Lu 9:33 ) and is
characteristic of Peter. Was it the magnificent promise in verse
 37  that stirred Peter's impulsiveness? It is certainly more
than a literary device of Luke. Peter's question draws out a
parabolic reply by Jesus ( 42-48 ).

經文:

路加福音 12:42-12:42

註釋:

 {Who then} (	is ara). Jesus introduces this parable of
the wise steward ( 42-48 ) by a rhetorical question that answers
itself. Peter is this wise steward, each of the Twelve is, anyone
is who acts thus. {The faithful and wise steward} (ho pistos
oikonomos ho phronimos). The faithful steward, the wise one. A
steward is house manager (oikos, nem(935c), to manage). Each man is
a steward in his own responsibilities. {Household}
(	herapeias). Literally, service from 	herapeu(935c). medical
service as in  Lu 9:11 , by metonymy household (a body of those
domestics who serve). {Their portion of food} (	o sitometrion).
Late word from sitometre(935c) ( Ge 47:12 ) for the Attic 	on siton
metre(935c), to measure the food, the rations. Here only in the N.T.
or anywhere else till Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 158) found
it in an Egyptian papyrus and then an inscription in Lycia
(_Light from the Ancient East_, p. 104).

經文:

路加福音 12:44-12:44

註釋:

 {Over all} (epi p(8373)in). See  Mt 24-47  for epi with
locative in this sense. Usually with genitive as in verse  42 
and sometimes with accusative as in verse  14 .

經文:

路加福音 12:45-12:45

註釋:

 {Shall say} (eip(8869)). Second aorist subjunctive, with
ean, condition of the third class, undetermined, but with
prospect of being determined. {Delayeth} (chronizei). From
chronos, time, spends time, lingers. {Shall begin} (arx(8874)ai).
First aorist middle subjunctive with ean and the same condition
as eip(8869), above. {The menservants} (	ous paidas) {and the
maidservants} (kai tas paidiskas). Paidisk(885c) is a diminutive
of pais for a young female slave and occurs in the papyri,
orginally just a damsel. Here pais can mean slave also though
strictly just a boy.

經文:

路加福音 12:46-12:46

註釋:

 {Shall cut him asunder} (dichotom(8873)ei). An old and
somewhat rare word from dichotomos and that from dicha and
	emn(935c), to cut, to cut in two. Used literally here. In the N.T.
only here and  Mt 24:51 . {With the unfaithful} (meta t(936e)
apist(936e)). Not here "the unbelieving" though that is a common
meaning of apistos (a privative and pistos, from peith(935c)),
but the unreliable, the untrustworthy. Here  Mt 24:51  has "with
the hypocrites," the same point. The parallel with  Mt 24:43-51 
ends here.  Mt 24:51  adds the saying about the wailing and the
gnashing of teeth. Clearly there Luke places the parable of the
wise steward in this context while Matthew has it in the great
eschatological discourse. Once again we must either think that
Jesus repeated the parable or that one of the writers has
misplaced it. Luke alone preserves what he gives in verses
 47,48 .

經文:

路加福音 12:47-12:47

註釋:

 {Which knew} (ho gnous). Articular participle (second
aorist active, punctiliar and timeless). The one who knows. So as
to m(8820)hetoimasas (8820)poi(8873)as (does not make ready or do). {Shall
be beaten with many stripes} (dar(8873)etai pollas). Second future
passive of der(935c), to skin, to beat, to flay (see on  Mt 21:35  Mr 12:3,5 ). The passive voice retains here the accusative
pollas (supply pl(8867)as, present in  Lu 10:30 ). The same
explanation applies to oligas in verse  48 .

經文:

路加福音 12:48-12:48

註釋:

 {To whomsoever much is given} (panti de h(9369) edoth(8820)polu).
Here is inverse attraction from hoi to panti (Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 767f.). Note par' autou (from him) without any
regard to panti. {They commit} (parethento). Second aorist
middle indicative, timeless or gnomic aorist. Note the impersonal
plural after the passive voice just before.

經文:

路加福音 12:49-12:49

註釋:

 {I came to cast fire} (Pur (886c)thon balein). Suddenly Jesus
lets the volcano in his own heart burst forth. The fire was
already burning. "Christ came to set the world on fire, and the
conflagration had already begun" (Plummer). The very passion in
Christ's heart would set his friends on fire and his foes in
opposition as we have just seen ( Lu 11:53f. ). It is like the
saying of Jesus that he came to bring not peace, but a sword, to
bring cleavage among men ( Mt 10:34-36 ). {And what will I, if it
is already kindled?} (kai ti thel(9320)ei (8864)(8820)an(8870)hth(883b)). It is not
clear what this passage means. Probably 	i is be taken in the
sense of "how" (p(9373)). How I wish. Then ei can be taken as
equal to hoti. How I wish that it were already kindled.
An(8870)hth(885c) is first aorist passive of anapt(935c), to set fire to,
to kindle, to make blaze. Probably Luke means the conflagration
to come by his death on the Cross for he changes the figure and
refers to that more plainly.

經文:

路加福音 12:50-12:50

註釋:

 {I have a baptism} (aptisma de ech(935c)). Once again Jesus
will call his baptism the baptism of blood and will challenge
James and John to it ( Mr 10:32f.  Mt 20:22f. ). So here. "Having
used the metaphor of fire, Christ now uses the metaphor of water.
The one sets forth the result of his coming as it affects the
world, the other as it affects himself. The world is lit up with
flames and Christ is bathed in blood" (Plummer). {And how I am
straitened} (kai p(9373) sunechomai). See this same vivid verb
sunechomai in  Lu 8:37  Ac 18:5  Php 1:23  where Paul uses it
of his desire for death just as Jesus does here. The urge of the
Cross is upon Jesus at the moment of these words. We catch a
glimpse of the tremendous passion in his soul that drove him on.
{Till it be accomplished} (he(9373) hotou telesth(8869)). First aorist
passive subjunctive of 	ele(935c) with he(9373) hotou (until which
time), the common construction for the future with this
conjunction.

經文:

路加福音 12:51-12:51

註釋:

 {But rather division} (all' (8820)diamerismon). Peace at any
price is not the purpose of Christ. It is a pity for family jars
to come, but loyalty to Christ counts more than all else. These
ringing words ( Lu 12:51-53 ) occur in  Mt 10:34-36  in the
address to the Twelve for the Galilean tour. See discussion of
details there. These family feuds are inevitable where only part
cleave to Christ. In Matthew we have kata with the genitive
whereas in Luke it is epi with the dative (and accusative
once).

經文:

路加福音 12:54-12:54

註釋:

 {To the multitudes also} (kai tois ochlois). After the
strong and stirring words just before with flash and force Jesus
turns finally in this series of discourses to the multitudes
again as in verse  15 . There are similar sayings to these verses
 54-59  in  Mt 16:1f  5:25f . There is a good deal of difference
in phraseology whether that is due to difference of source or
different use of the same source (Q or Logia) we do not know. Not
all the old MSS. give  Mt 16:2,3 . In Matthew the Pharisees and
Sadducees were asking for a sign from heaven as they often did.
These signs of the weather, "a shower" (ombros,  Lu 12:54 ) due
to clouds in the west, "a hot wave" (kaus(936e), verse 55) due to a
south wind (
oton) blowing, "fair weather" (eudia,  Mt 16:2 )
when the sky is red, are appealed to today. They have a more or
less general application due to atmospheric and climatic
conditions.

經文:

路加福音 12:56-12:56

註釋:

 {To interpret this time} (	on kairon touton dokimazein).
To test dokimazein as spiritual chemists. No wonder that Jesus
here calls them "hypocrites" because of their blindness when
looking at and hearing him. So it is today with those who are
willfully blind to the steps of God among men. This ignorance of
the signs of the times is colossal.

經文:

路加福音 12:57-12:57

註釋:

 {Even of yourselves} (kai aph' heaut(936e)). Without the
presence and teaching of Jesus they had light enough to tell what
is right (	o dikaion) and so without excuse as Paul argued in
 Ro 1-3 .

經文:

路加福音 12:58-12:58

註釋:

 {Give diligence to be quit of him} (dos ergasian
ap(886c)lachthai ap' autou). Second aorist active imperative dos
from did(936d)i. Ap(886c)lachthai, perfect passive infinitive of
apallass(935c) an old verb common, but only twice in the N.T. (here
and  Ac 19:12 ). Used here in a legal sense and the tense
emphasizes a state of completion, to be rid of him for good.
{Hale thee} (katasur(8869)). Drag down forcibly, old verb, only
here in the N.T. {To the officer} (	(9369) praktori). The doer, the
proctor, the exactor of fines, the executor of punishment. Old
word, only here in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 12:59-12:59

註釋:

 {Till thou have paid} (he(9373) apod(9369)s). Second aorist
active subjunctive of apodid(936d)i, to pay back in full. {The last
mite} (	o eschaton lepton). From lep(935c), to peel off the bark.
Very small brass coin, one-eighth of an ounce. In the N.T. only
here and  Lu 21:2  Mr 12:42  (the poor widow's mite) which see.

經文:

路加福音 13:1-13:1

註釋:

 {At that very season} (en aut(9369) t(9369) kair(9369)). Luke's
frequent idiom, "at the season itself." Apparently in close
connexion with the preceding discourses. Probably "were present"
(par(8873)an, imperfect of pareimi) means "came," "stepped to his
side," as often ( Mt 26:50  Ac 12:20  Joh 11:28 ). These people
had a piece of news for Jesus. {Whose blood Pilate had mingled
with their sacrifices} (h(936e) to haima Peilatos emixen meta t(936e)
thusi(936e) aut(936e)). The verb emixen is first aorist active (not
past perfect) of mignumi, a common verb. The incident is
recorded nowhere else, but is in entire harmony with Pilate's
record for outrages. These Galileans at a feast in Jerusalem may
have been involved in some insurrection against the Roman
government, the leaders of whom Pilate had slain right in the
temple courts where the sacrifices were going on. Jesus comments
on the incident, but not as the reporters had expected. Instead
of denunciation of Pilate he turned it into a parable for their
own conduct in the uncertainty of life.

經文:

路加福音 13:2-13:2

註釋:

 {Sinners above all} (hamart(936c)oi para pantas). Para means
"beside," placed beside all the Galileans, and so beyond or above
(with the accusative). {Have suffered} (peponthasin). Second
perfect active indicative third plural from pasch(935c), common
verb, to experience, suffer. The tense notes that it is "an
irrevocable fact" (Bruce).

經文:

路加福音 13:3-13:3

註釋:

 {Except ye repent} (ean m(8820)metano(8874)e). Present active
subjunctive of metanoe(935c), to change mind and conduct, linear
action, keep on changing. Condition of third class, undetermined,
but with prospect of determination. {Ye shall perish}
(apoleisthe). Future middle indicative of apollumi and
intransitive. Common verb.

經文:

路加福音 13:4-13:4

註釋:

 {The tower in Siloam} (ho purgos en Sil(9361)m). Few sites
have been more clearly located than this. Jesus mentions this
accident (only in Luke) of his own accord to illustrate still
further the responsibility of his hearers. Jesus makes use of
public events in both these incidents to teach spiritual lessons.
He gives the "moral" to the massacre of the Galilean pilgrims and
the "moral" of the catastrophe at Siloam. {Offenders}
(opheiletai). Literally, {debtors}, not sinners as in verse  2 
and as the Authorized Version renders here. See  7:41  11:4  Mt
6:12  18:24-34 .

經文:

路加福音 13:5-13:5

註釋:

 {Except ye repent} (ean m(8820)metano(8873)(8874)e). First aorist
active subjunctive, immediate repentance in contrast to continued
repentance, metano(8874)e in verse  3 , though Westcott and Hort
put metano(8874)e in the margin here. The interpretation of
accidents is a difficult matter, but the moral pointed out by
Jesus is obvious.

經文:

路加福音 13:6-13:6

註釋:

 {Planted} (pephuteumen(886e)). Perfect passive participle of
phuteu(935c), to plant, an old verb, from phuton, a plant, and
that from phu(935c), to grow. But this participle with eichen
(imperfect active of ech(935c)) does not make a periphrastic past
perfect like our English "had planted." It means rather, he had a
fig tree, one already planted in his vineyard.

經文:

路加福音 13:7-13:7

註釋:

 {The vinedresser} (	on ampelourgon). Old word, but here
only in the N.T., from ampelos, vine, and ergon, work. {These
three years I come} (	ria et(8820)aph' hou erchomai). Literally,
"three years since (from which time) I come." These three years,
of course, have nothing to do with the three years of Christ's
public ministry. The three years are counted from the time when
the fig tree would normally be expected to bear, not from the
time of planting. The Jewish nation is meant by this parable of
the barren fig tree. In the withering of the barren fig tree
later at Jerusalem we see parable changed to object lesson or
fact ( Mr 11:12-14  Mt 21:18f. ). {Cut it down} (ekkopson).
"Cut it out," the Greek has it, out of the vineyard, perfective
use of ek with the effective aorist active imperative of
kopt(935c), where we prefer "down." {Why?} (hina ti). Ellipsis
here of gen(8874)ai of which 	i is subject (Robertson, _Grammar_,
pp. 739,916). {Also} (kai). Besides bearing no fruit. {Doth
cumber the ground} (	(886e) g(886e) katargei). Makes the ground
completely idle, of no use (kata, arge(935c), from argos, a
privative and ergon, work). Late verb, here only in the N.T.
except in Paul's Epistles.

經文:

路加福音 13:8-13:8

註釋:

 {Till I shall dig} (he(9373) hotou skaps(935c)). First aorist
active subjunctive like al(935c) (second aorist active subjunctive
of all(935c)), both common verbs. {Dung it} (al(9320)kopria). Cast
dung around it, manure it. Kopria, late word, here alone in the
N.T.

經文:

路加福音 13:9-13:9

註釋:

 {And if it bear fruit thenceforth} (k'an men poi(8873)(8869) karpon
eis to mellon). Aposiopesis, sudden breaking off for effect
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1203). See it also in  Mr 11:32  Ac
23:9 . Trench (_Parables_) tells a story like this of
intercession for the fig tree for one year more which is widely
current among the Arabs today who say that it will certainly bear
fruit this time.

經文:

路加福音 13:10-13:10

註釋:

 {He was teaching} ((886e) didask(936e)). Periphrastic imperfect
active.

經文:

路加福音 13:11-13:11

註釋:

 {A spirit of infirmity} (pneuma astheneias). A spirit
that caused the weakness (astheneias, lack of strength) like a
spirit of bondage ( Ro 8:15 ), genitive case. {She was bowed
together} ((886e) sunkuptousa). Periphrastic imperfect active of
sunkupt(935c), old verb, here only in the N.T., to bend together,
medical word for curvature of the spine. {And could in no wise
lift herself up} (kai m(8820)dunamen(8820)anakupsai eis to panteles).
Negative form of the previous statement. Anakupsai, first
aorist active infinitive of anakupt(935c) (ana, kupt(935c), same verb
above compounded with sun). Unable to bend herself up or back
at all (eis to panteles, wholly as in  Heb 7:25  only other
passage in the N.T. where it occurs). The poor old woman had to
come in all bent over.

經文:

路加福音 13:12-13:12

註釋:

 {He called her} (proseph(936e)(8873)en). To come to him (pros).
{Thou art loosed} (apolelusai). Perfect passive indicative of
apolu(935c), common verb, loosed to stay free. Only N.T. example of
use about disease.

經文:

路加福音 13:13-13:13

註釋:

 {He laid his hands upon her} (epeth(886b)en aut(8869) tas
cheiras). First aorist active indicative of epitith(886d)i. As the
Great Physician with gentle kindness. {She was made straight}
(an(9372)th(9374)h(885c)). First aorist (effective) passive indicative of
anortho(935c), old verb, but only three times in the N.T. ( Lu
13:13  Heb 12:12  Ac 15:16 ), to make straight again. Here it has
the literal sense of making straight the old woman's crooked
back. {She glorified God} (edoxazen ton theon). Imperfect
active. Began it (inchoative) and kept it up.

經文:

路加福音 13:14-13:14

註釋:

 {Answered} (apokritheis). First aorist passive participle
of apokrinomai. No one had spoken to him, but he felt his
importance as the ruler of the synagogue and was indignant
(aganakt(936e), from agan and achomai, to feel much pain). His
words have a ludicrous sound as if all the people had to do to
get their crooked backs straightened out was to come round to his
synagogue during the week. He forgot that this poor old woman had
been coming for eighteen years with no result. He was angry with
Jesus, but he spoke to the multitude (	(9369) ochl(9369)). {Ought}
(dei). Really, must, necessary, a direct hit at Jesus who had
"worked" on the sabbath in healing this old woman. {And not}
(kai m(885c)). Instead of kai ou, because in the imperative
clause.

經文:

路加福音 13:15-13:15

註釋:

 {The Lord answered him} (apekrith(8820)de aut(9369) ho Kurios).
Note use of "the Lord" of Jesus again in Luke's narrative. Jesus
answered the ruler of the synagogue who had spoken to the crowd,
but about Jesus. It was a crushing and overwhelming reply.
{Hypocrites} (hupokritai). This pretentious faultfinder and all
who agree with him. {Each of you} (hekastos hum(936e)). An
_argumentum ad hominen_. These very critics of Jesus cared too
much for an ox or an ass to leave it all the sabbath without
water. {Stall} (phatn(8873)). Old word, in the N.T. only here and
 Lu 2:7,12,16  the manger where the infant Jesus was placed. {To
watering} (potizei). Old verb, causative, to give to drink.

經文:

路加福音 13:16-13:16

註釋:

 {Daughter of Abraham} (	hugatera Abraam). Triple
argument, human being and not an ox or ass, woman, daughter of
Abraham (Jewess), besides being old and ill. {Ought not} (ouk
edei). Imperfect active. Of necessity. Jesus simply had to heal
her even if on the sabbath. {Whom S(8374)an bound} (h(886e) ed(8873)en ho
Satanas). Definite statement that her disease was due to Satan.

經文:

路加福音 13:17-13:17

註釋:

 {Were put to shame} (kat(8869)schunonto). Imperfect passive
of kataischun(935c), old verb, to make ashamed, make one feel
ashamed. Passive here, to blush with shame at their predicament.
{Rejoiced} (echairen). Imperfect active. Sharp contrast in the
emotions of the two groups. {Were done} (ginomenois). Present
middle participle, were continually being done.

經文:

路加福音 13:18-13:18

註釋:

 {He said therefore} (elegen oun). It is not clear to what
to refer "therefore," whether to the case of the woman in verse
 11 , the enthusiasm of the crowd in verse  17 , or to something
not recorded by Luke.

經文:

路加福音 13:19-13:19

註釋:

 {A grain of mustard seed} (kokk(9369) sinape(9373)). Either the
_sinapis nigra_ or the _salvadora persica_, both of which have
small seeds and grow to twelve feet at times. The Jews had a
proverb: "Small as a mustard seed." Given by  Mr 4:30-32  Mt
13:31f.  in the first great group of parables, but just the sort
to be repeated. {Cast into his own garden} (ebalen eis k(8870)on
heautou). Different from "earth" (Mark) or "field" (Matthew.)"
K(8870)os, old word for garden, only here in the N.T. and  Joh
19:1,26  19:41 . {Became a tree} (egeneto eis dendron). Common
Hebraism, very frequent in LXX, only in Luke in the N.T., but
does appear in _Koin(825f) though rare in papyri; this use of eis
after words like _ginomai_. It is a translation Hebraism in Luke.
{Lodged} (katesk(886e)(9373)en). Mark and Matthew have katask(886e)oin
infinitive of the same verb, to make tent (or nest).

經文:

路加福音 13:20-13:20

註釋:

 {Whereunto shall I liken?} (Tini homoi(9373)(933b)). This
question alone in Luke here as in verse  18 . But the parable is
precisely like that in  Mt 13:33 , which see for details.

經文:

路加福音 13:22-13:22

註釋:

 {Journeying on unto Jerusalem} (poreian poioumenos eis
Ierosoluma). Making his way to Jerusalem. Note tenses here of
continued action, and distributive use of kata with cities and
villages. This is the second of the journeys to Jerusalem in this
later ministry corresponding to that in  Joh 11 .

經文:

路加福音 13:23-13:23

註釋:

 {Are they few that be saved?} (ei oligoi hoi s(937a)omenoi;).
Note use of ei as an interrogative which can be explained as
ellipsis or as ei=(885c)  (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1024). This was
an academic theological problem with the rabbis, the number of
the elect.

經文:

路加福音 13:24-13:24

註釋:

 {Strive} (ag(936e)izesthe). Jesus makes short shrift of the
question. He includes others (present middle plural of
ag(936e)izomai, common verb, our agonize). Originally it was to
contend for a prize in the games. The kindred word ag(936e)ia
occurs of Christ's struggle in Gethsemane ( Lu 22:44 ). The
narrow gate appears also in  Mt 7:13 , only there it is an
outside gate (pul(8873)) while here it is the entrance to the
house, "the narrow door" (	huras).

經文:

路加福音 13:25-13:25

註釋:

 {When once} (aph' hou an). Possibly to be connected
without break with the preceding verse (so Westcott and Hort),
though Bruce argues for two parables here, the former (verse
 24 ) about being in earnest, while this one (verses  25-30 )
about not being too late. The two points are here undoubtedly. It
is an awkward construction, aph' hou = apo toutou hote with
an and the aorist subjunctive (egerth(8869) and apokleis(8869)).
See Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 978. {Hath shut to} (apokleis(8869)),
first aorist active subjunctive of apoklei(935c), old verb, but only
here in the N.T. Note effective aorist tense and perfective use
of apo, slammed the door fast. {And ye begin} (kai arx(8873)the).
First aorist middle subjunctive of archomai with aph' hou an
like egerth(8869) and apokleis(8869). {To stand} (hestanai). Second
perfect active infinitive of hist(886d)i, intransitive tense {and
to knock} (kai krouein). Present active infinitive, to keep on
knocking. {Open to us} (anoixon h(886d)in). First aorist active
imperative, at once and urgent. {He shall say} (erei). Future
active of eipon (defective verb). This is probably the apodosis
of the aph' hou clause.

經文:

路加福音 13:26-13:26

註釋:

 {Shall ye begin} (arxesthe). Future middle, though
Westcott and Hort put arx(8873)the (aorist middle subjunctive of
archomai) and in that case a continuation of the aph' hou
construction. It is a difficult passage and the copyists had
trouble with it. {In thy presence} (en(9370)ion sou). As guests or
hosts or neighbours some claim, or the master of the house. It is
grotesque to claim credit because Christ taught in their streets,
but they are hard run for excuses and claims.

經文:

路加福音 13:27-13:27

註釋:

 {I know not whence ye are} (ouk oida pothen este). This
blunt statement cuts the matter short and sweeps away the flimsy
cobwebs. Acquaintance with Christ in the flesh does not open the
door. Jesus quotes  Ps 8:9  as in  Mt 7:23 , there as in the LXX,
here with pantes ergatai adikias, there with hoi ergazomenoi
t(886e) anomian. But apost(8874)e (second aorist active imperative)
here, and there apoch(9372)eite (present active imperative).

經文:

路加福音 13:28-13:28

註釋:

 {There} (ekei). Out there, outside the house whence they
are driven. {When ye shall see} (hotan ops(8873)the). First aorist
middle subjunctive (of a late aorist (9370)sam(886e)) of hora(935c),
though opsesthe (future middle) in margin of Westcott and Hort,
unless we admit here a "future" subjunctive like Byzantine Greek
(after Latin). {And yourselves cast forth without} (hum(8373) de
ekballomenous ex(935c)). Present passive participle, continuous
action, "you being cast out" with the door shut. See on 烘t
8:11f.| for this same picture.

經文:

路加福音 13:29-13:29

註釋:

 {Shall sit down} (anaklith(8873)ontai). Future passive
indicative third plural. Recline, of course, is the figure of
this heavenly banquet. Jesus does not mean that these will be
saved in different ways, but only that many will come from all
the four quarters of the earth.

經文:

路加福音 13:30-13:30

註釋:

 {Last} (eschatoi). This saying was repeated many times
( Mt 19:30  Mr 10:31  Mt 20:16 ).

經文:

路加福音 13:31-13:31

註釋:

 {In that very hour} (en aut(8869) t(8869) h(9372)(8369)). Luke's
favourite notation of time. {Pharisees} (Pharisaioi). Here we
see the Pharisees in a new role, warning Jesus against the
machinations of Herod, when they are plotting themselves.

經文:

路加福音 13:32-13:32

註釋:

 {That fox} (	(8869) al(9370)eki taut(8869)). This epithet for the
cunning and cowardice of Herod shows clearly that Jesus
understood the real attitude and character of the man who had put
John the Baptist to death and evidently wanted to get Jesus into
his power in spite of his superstitious fears that he might be
John the Baptist _redivivus_. The message of Jesus means that he
is independent of the plots and schemes of both Herod and the
Pharisees. The preacher is often put in a tight place by
politicians who are quite willing to see him shorn of all real
power. {Cures} (iaseis). Old word, but in the N.T. only here
and  Ac 4:22,30 . {I am perfected} (	eleioumai). Present
passive indicative of 	eleio(935c), old verb from 	eleios, to
bring to perfection, frequent in the N.T. Used in  Heb 2:10  of
the Father's purpose in the humanity of Christ. Perfect humanity
is a process and Jesus was passing through that, without sin, but
not without temptation and suffering. It is the prophetic present
with the sense of the future.

經文:

路加福音 13:33-13:33

註釋:

 {The day following} (	(8869) echomen(8869)). See  Ac 20:15 . The
same as the third day in verse  32 . A proverb. {It cannot be}
(ouk endechetai). It is not accepted, it is inadmissible. A
severely ironical indictment of Jerusalem. The shadow of the
Cross reaches Perea where Jesus now is as he starts toward
Jerusalem.

經文:

路加福音 13:34-13:34

註釋:

 {O Jerusalem, Jerusalem} (Ierousal(886d), Ierousal(886d)). In  Mt
23:37f.  Jesus utters a similar lament over Jerusalem. The
connection suits both there and here, but Plummer considers it
"rather a violent hypothesis" to suppose that Jesus spoke these
words twice. It is possible, of course, though not like Luke's
usual method, that he put the words here because of the mention
of Jerusalem. In itself it is not easy to see why Jesus could not
have made the lament both here and in Jerusalem. The language of
the apostrophe is almost identical in both places ( Lu 13:34f.  Mt 23:37-39 ). For details see on Matthew. In Luke we have
episunaxai (late first aorist active infinitive) and in Matthew
episunagagein (second aorist active infinitive), both from
episunag(935c), a double compound of late Greek (Polybius). Both
have "How often would I" (posakis (8874)hel(8873)a). How often did I
wish. Clearly showing that Jesus made repeated visits to
Jerusalem as we know otherwise only from John's Gospel. {Even as}
(hon tropon). Accusative of general reference and in  Mt 23:37 
also. Incorporation of antecedent into the relative clause.
{Brood} (
ossian) is in Luke while Matthew has {chickens}
(
ossia), both late forms for the older 
eossia. The
adjective {desolate} (er(886d)os) is wanting in  Lu 13:35  and is
doubtful in  Mt 23:39 .

經文:

路加福音 14:1-14:1

註釋:

 {When he went} (en t(9369) elthein auton). Luke's favourite
temporal clause = "on the going as to him." {That} (kai).
Another common Lukan idiom, kai=hoti after egeneto, like
Hebrew _wav_. {They} (autoi). Emphatic. {Were watching} ((8873)an
parat(8872)oumenoi). Periphrastic imperfect middle. Note force of
autoi, middle voice, and para-. They were themselves watching
on the side (on the sly), watching insidiously, with evil intent
as in  Mr 3:2  (active).

經文:

路加福音 14:2-14:2

註釋:

 {Which had the dropsy} (hudr(9370)ikos). Late and medical word
from hud(9372) (water), one who has internal water (hudr(9370)s).
Here only in the N.T. and only example of the disease healed by
Jesus and recorded.

經文:

路加福音 14:3-14:3

註釋:

 {Answering} (apokritheis). First aorist passive participle
without the passive meaning. Jesus answered the thoughts of those
mentioned in verse  1 . Here "lawyers and Pharisees" are treated
as one class with one article (	ous) whereas in  7:30  they are
treated as two classes with separate articles. {Or not} ((8820)ou).
The dilemma forestalled any question by them. {They held their
peace} (h(8873)uchasan). Ingressive aorist active of old verb
h(8873)uchaz(935c). They became silent, more so than before.

經文:

路加福音 14:4-14:4

註釋:

 {Took him} (epilabomenos). Second aorist middle participle
of epilamban(935c), an old verb, only in the middle in the N.T. It
is not redundant use, "took and healed," but "took hold of him
and healed him." Only instance in the N.T. of its use in a case
of healing. {Let him go} (apelusen). Probably, dismissed from
the company to get him away from these critics.

經文:

路加福音 14:5-14:5

註釋:

 {An ass or an ox} (onos (8820)bous). But Westcott and Hort
huios (8820)bous ({a son or an ox}). The manuscripts are much
divided between huios (son) and onos (ass) which in the
abbreviated uncials looked much alike (TC, OC) and were much
alike. The sentence in the Greek reads literally thus: Whose ox
or ass of you shall fall (peseitai, future middle of pipto)
into a well and he (the man) will not straightway draw him up
(anaspasei, future active of anaspa(935c)) on the sabbath day? The
very form of the question is a powerful argument and puts the
lawyers and the Pharisees hopelessly on the defensive.

經文:

路加福音 14:6-14:6

註釋:

 {Could not answer again} (ouk ischusan antapokrith(886e)ai).
Did not have strength to answer back or in turn (anti-) as in
 Ro 9:20 . They could not take up the argument and were helpless.
They hated to admit that they cared more for an ox or ass or even
a son than for this poor dropsical man.

經文:

路加福音 14:7-14:7

註釋:

 {A parable for those which were bidden} (pros tous
kekl(886d)enous parabol(886e)). Perfect passive participle of kale(935c),
to call, to invite. This parable is for the guests who were there
and who had been watching Jesus. {When he marked} (epech(936e)).
Present active participle of epech(935c) with 	on noun understood,
holding the mind upon them, old verb and common. {They chose out}
(exelegonto). Imperfect middle, were picking out for
themselves. {The chief seats} (	as pr(9374)oklisias). The first
reclining places at the table. Jesus condemned the Pharisees
later for this very thing ( Mt 23:6  Mr 12:39  Lu 20:46 ). On a
couch holding three the middle place was the chief one. At
banquets today the name of the guests are usually placed at the
plates. The place next to the host on the right was then, as now,
the post of honour.

經文:

路加福音 14:8-14:8

註釋:

 {Sit not down} (m(8820)kataklith(8869)s). First aorist
(ingressive) passive subjunctive of kataklin(935c), to recline. Old
verb, but peculiar to Luke in the N.T. ( 7:36  9:14  14:8  24:30 ). {Be bidden} ((8869) kekl(886d)enos). Periphrastic perfect
passive subjunctive of kale(935c) after m(8820)pote.

經文:

路加福音 14:9-14:9

註釋:

 {And say} (kai erei). Changes to future indicative with
m(8820)pote as in  12:58 . {Shalt begin with shame} (arx(8869) meta
aischun(8873)). The moment of embarrassment. {To take the lowest
place} (	on eschaton topon katechein). To hold down the lowest
place, all the intermediate ones being taken.

經文:

路加福音 14:10-14:10

註釋:

 {Sit down} (anapese). Second aorist active imperative of
anapipt(935c), to fall up or back, to lie back or down. Late Greek
word for anaklin(935c) (cf. kataklin(935c) in verse  8 ). {He that hath
bidden thee} (ho kekl(886b)(9373) se). Perfect active participle as in
verse  12  (	(9369) kekl(886b)oti) with which compare ho kalesas in
verse  9  (first aorist active participle). {He may say}
(erei). The future indicative with hina does occur in the
_Koin(825f) (papyri) and so in the N.T. (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
984). {Go up higher} (prosanab(8874)hi). Second aorist active
imperative second singular of prosanabain(935c), an old double
compound verb, but here only in the N.T. Probably, "Come up
higher," because the call comes from the host and because of
pros.

經文:

路加福音 14:11-14:11

註釋:

 {Shall be humbled} (	apein(9374)h(8873)etai). First future
passive. One of the repeated sayings of Jesus ( 18:14  Mt
23:12 ).

經文:

路加福音 14:12-14:12

註釋:

 {A dinner or a supper} (ariston (8820)deipnon). More exactly,
a breakfast or a dinner with distinction between them as already
shown. This is a parable for the host as one had just been given
for the guests, though Luke does not term this a parable. {Call
not} (m(8820)ph(936e)ei). M(885c) and the present imperative active,
prohibiting the habit of inviting only friends. It is the
_exclusive_ invitation of such guests that Jesus condemns. There
is a striking parallel to this in Plato's _Phaedrus_ 233.
{Recompense} (antapodoma). In the form of a return invitation.
Like anti in "bid thee again" (antikales(9373)in).

經文:

路加福音 14:13-14:13

註釋:

 {When thou makest a feast} (hotan doch(886e) poi(8869)s). Hotan
and the present subjunctive in an indefinite temporal clause.
Doch(885c) means reception as in  Lu 5:29 , late word, only in these
two passages in the N.T. Note absence of article with these
adjectives in the Greek (poor people, maimed folks, lame people,
blind people).

經文:

路加福音 14:14-14:14

註釋:

 {To recompense thee} (antapodounai soi). Second aorist
active infinitive of this old and common double compound verb, to
give back in return. The reward will come at the resurrection if
not before and thou shalt be happy.

經文:

路加福音 14:15-14:15

註釋:

 {Blessed} (makarios). Happy, same word in the Beatitudes
of Jesus ( Mt 5:3ff. ). This pious platitude whether due to
ignorance or hypocrisy was called forth by Christ's words about
the resurrection. It was a common figure among the rabbis, the
use of a banquet for the bliss of heaven. This man may mean that
this is a prerogative of the Pharisees. He assumed complacently
that he will be among the number of the blest. Jesus himself uses
this same figure of the spiritual banquet for heavenly bliss ( Lu
22:29 ). {Shall eat} (phagetai). Future middle from esthi(935c),
defective verb, from stem of the aorist (ephagon) like edomai
of the old Greek.

經文:

路加福音 14:16-14:16

註釋:

 {Made} (epoiei). Imperfect active, was on the point of
making (inchoative). {Great supper} (deipnon). Or dinner, a
formal feast. Jesus takes up the conventional remark of the guest
and by this parable shows that such an attitude was no guarantee
of godliness (Bruce). This parable of the marriage of the King's
son ( Lu 14:15-24 ) has many points of likeness to the parable of
the wedding garment ( Mt 22:1-14 ) and as many differences also.
The occasions are very different, that in Matthew grows out of
the attempt to arrest Jesus while this one is due to the pious
comment of a guest at the feast and the wording is also quite
different. Hence we conclude that they are distinct parables.
{And he bade many} (kai ekalesen pollous). Aorist active, a
distinct and definite act following the imperfect epoiei.

經文:

路加福音 14:17-14:17

註釋:

 {His servant} (	on doulon autou). His bondservant.
_Vocator_ or Summoner ( Es 5:8  6:14 ). This second summons was
the custom then as now with wealthy Arabs. Tristram (_Eastern
Customs_, p. 82) says: "To refuse the second summons would be an
insult, which is equivalent among the Arab tribes to a
declaration of war."

經文:

路加福音 14:18-14:18

註釋:

 2Ti
2:23 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ti
2' or engs='2Ti
2'
經文:

路加福音 14:19-14:19

註釋:

 {To prove them} (dokimasai auta). He could have tested
them before buying. The oxen would not run away or be stolen.

經文:

路加福音 14:20-14:20

註釋:

 {I cannot come} (ou dunamai elthein). Less polite than
the others but a more plausible pretence if he wanted to make it
so. The law excused a newly married man from war ( De 24:5 ),
"but not from social courtesy" (Ragg). The new wife would
probably have been glad to go with him to the feast if asked. But
see  1Co 7:33 . There is here as often a sharp difference between
the excuses offered and the reasons behind them.

經文:

路加福音 14:21-14:21

註釋:

 {Being angry} (orgistheis). First aorist (ingressive)
passive, becoming angry. {Quickly} (	ache(9373)). The dinner is
ready and no time is to be lost. The invitation goes still to
those in the city. {Streets and lanes} (	as plateias kai
rhumas). Broadways and runways (broad streets and narrow lanes).
{Maimed} (anapeirous). So Westcott and Hort for the old word
anap(8872)ous, due to itacism (ei=(885c) in pronunciation). The word
is compounded of ana and p(8872)os, lame all the way up.

經文:

路加福音 14:22-14:22

註釋:

 {And yet there is room} (kai eti topos estin). The Master
had invited "many" (verse  16 ) who had all declined. The servant
knew the Master wished the places to be filled.

經文:

路加福音 14:23-14:23

註釋:

 {The highways and hedges} (	as hodous kai phragmous). The
public roads outside the city of Judaism just as the streets and
lanes were inside the city. The heathen are to be invited this
time. {Hedges} is fenced in places from phrass(935c), to fence in
( Ro 3:19 ). {Compel} (anagkason). First aorist active
imperative of anagkaz(935c), from anagk(885c) (verse  18 ). By
persuasion of course. There is no thought of compulsory
salvation. "Not to use force, but to constrain them against the
reluctance which such poor creatures would feel at accepting the
invitation of a great lord" (Vincent). As examples of such
"constraint" in this verb see  Mt 14:22  Ac 26:11  Ga 6:12 .
{That my house may be filled} (hina gemisth(8869) mou ho oikos).
First aorist passive subjunctive of gemiz(935c), to fill full, old
verb from gem(935c), to be full. Effective aorist. Subjunctive with
hina in final clause. The Gentiles are to take the place that
the Jews might have had ( Ro 11:25 ). Bengel says: _Nec natura
nec gratia patitur vacuum_.

經文:

路加福音 14:24-14:24

註釋:

 {My supper} (mou tou deipnou). Here it is still the
Master of the feast who is summing up his reasons for his
conduct. We do not have to say that Jesus shuts the door now in
the face of the Jews who may turn to him.

經文:

路加福音 14:25-14:25

註釋:

 {And he turned} (kai strapheis). Second aorist passive
participle of streph(935c), common verb. It is a dramatic act on the
part of Jesus, a deliberate effort to check the wild and
unthinking enthusiasm of the crowds who followed just to be
following. Note "many multitudes" (ochloi polloi) and the
imperfect tense suneporeuonto, were going along with him.

經文:

路加福音 14:26-14:26

註釋:

 {Hateth not} (ou misei). An old and very strong verb
mise(935c), to hate, detest. The orientals use strong language where
cooler spirits would speak of preference or indifference. But
even so Jesus does not here mean that one must hate his father or
mother of necessity or as such, for  Mt 15:4  proves the
opposite. It is only where the element of choice comes in (cf.
 Mt 6:24 ) as it sometimes does, when father or mother opposes
Christ. Then one must not hesitate. The language here is more
sharply put than in  Mt 10:37 . The ou here coalesces with the
verb misei in this conditional clause of the first class
determined as fulfilled. It is the language of exaggerated
contrast, it is true, but it must not be watered down till the
point is gone. In mentioning "and wife" Jesus has really made a
comment on the excuse given in verse  20  (I married a wife and
so I am not able to come). {And his own life also} (eti te kai
t(886e) psuch(886e) heautou). Note 	e kai, both--and. "The 	e (B L)
binds all the particulars into one bundle of _renuncianda_"
(Bruce). Note this same triple group of conjunctions (eti te
kai) in  Ac 21:28 , "And moreover also," "even going as far as
his own life." Martyrdom should be an ever-present possibility to
the Christian, not to be courted, but not to be shunned. Love for
Christ takes precedence "over even the elemental instinct of
self-preservation" (Ragg).

經文:

路加福音 14:27-14:27

註釋:

 {His own cross} (	on stauron heauto(965c)). This familiar
figure we have had already ( Lu 9:23  Mr 8:34  Mt 10:38  16:24 ).
Each follower has a cross which he must bear as Jesus did his.
Bastaz(935c) is used of cross bearing in the N.T. only here
(figuratively) and  Joh 19:17  literally of Jesus. Crucifixion
was common enough in Palestine since the days of Antiochus
Epiphanes and Alexander Jannaeus.

經文:

路加福音 14:28-14:28

註釋:

 {Build a tower} (purgon oikodom(8873)ai). A common metaphor,
either a tower in the city wall like that by the Pool of Siloam
( Lu 13:4 ) or a watchtower in a vineyard ( Mt 21:33 ) or a
tower-shaped building for refuge or ornament as here. This
parable of the rash builder has the lesson of counting the cost.
{Sit down} (kathisas). Attitude of deliberation. {First}
(pr(9374)on). First things first. So in verse  31 . {Count}
(ps(8870)hizei). Common verb in late writers, but only here and  Re
13:18  in the N.T. The verb is from ps(8870)hos, a stone, which was
used in voting and so counting. Calculate is from the Latin
_calculus_, a pebble. To vote was to cast a pebble (	ith(886d)i
ps(8870)hon). Luke has Paul using "deposit a pebble" for casting his
vote ( Ac 26:10 ). {The cost} (	(886e) dapan(886e)). Old and common
word, but here only in the N.T. from dapt(935c), to tear, consume,
devour. Expense is something which eats up one's resources.
{Whether he hath wherewith to complete it} (ei echei eis
apartismon). If he has anything for completion of it.
Apartismon is a rare and late word (in the papyri and only here
in the N.T.). It is from apartiz(935c), to finish off (ap- and
artiz(935c) like our articulate), to make even or square. Cf.
ex(8872)tismenos in  2Ti 3:17 .

經文:

路加福音 14:29-14:29

註釋:

 {Lest haply} (hina m(8870)ote). Double final particles
(positive and negative with addition of pote). Used here with
aorist middle subjunctive in arx(936e)tai (begin). {When he hath
laid ... and was not able} (	hentos autou ... kai m(880a)ischuontos) {to finish} (ektelesai). First aorist active
infinitive. Note perfective use of ek, to finish out to the
end. Two genitive absolutes, first, second aorist active
participle 	hentos; second, present active participle
ischuontos. {To mock him} (aut(9369) empaizein). An old verb,
em-paiz(935c), to play like a child (pais), at or with, to mock,
scoff at, to trifle with like Latin _illudere_.

經文:

路加福音 14:30-14:30

註釋:

 {This man} (houtos ho anthr(9370)os). This fellow,
contemptuous or sarcastic use of houtos.

經文:

路加福音 14:31-14:31

註釋:

 {To encounter} (sunbalein). Second aorist active
infinitive of sunball(935c), old and common verb, to throw or bring
together, to dispute, to clash in war as here. {Another king}
(heter(9369) basilei), to grapple with another king in war or for
war (eis polemon). Associative instrumental case. {Take
counsel} (ouleusetai). Future middle indicative of old and
common verb ouleu(935c), from oul(885c), will, counsel. The middle
means to take counsel with oneself, to deliberate, to ponder.
{With ten thousand} (en deka chiliasin). Literally, in ten
thousand. See this so-called instrumental use of en in  Jude
1:14 . Equipped in or with ten thousand. See  Lu 1:17 . Note
meta eikosi chiliad(936e) just below (midst of twenty thousand).
{To meet} (hupant(8873)ai). Common verb (like apanta(935c)) from
anta(935c) (anta, end, face to face, from which anti) with
preposition hupo (or apo), to go to meet. Here it has a
military meaning.

經文:

路加福音 14:32-14:32

註釋:

 {Or else} (ei de m(8867)e). Same idiom in  5:36 . Luke is
fond of this formula. {An ambassage} (presbeian). Old and
common word for the office of ambassador, composed of old men
(presbeis) like Japanese Elder Statesmen who are supposed to
possess wisdom. In the N.T. only here and  Lu 19:14 . {Asketh
conditions of peace} (er(9374)(8369) pros eir(886e)(886e)). The use of er(9374)a(935c)
in this sense of beg or petition is common in the papyri and
_Koin(825f) generally. The original use of asking a question survives
also. The text is uncertain concerning pros eir(886e)(886e) which means
with er(9374)a(935c), to ask negotiations for peace. In B we have eis
instead of pros like verse  28 . Most MSS. have 	a before
pros or eis, but not in Aleph and B. It is possible that the
	a was omitted because of preceding 	ai (homoeoteleuton),
but the sense is the same. See  Ro 14:19  	a t(8873) eir(886e)(8873), the
things of peace, which concern or look towards peace, the
preliminaries of peace.

經文:

路加福音 14:33-14:33

註釋:

 {Renounceth not} (ouk apotassetai). Old Greek word to set
apart as in a military camp, then in the middle voice to separate
oneself from, say good-bye to ( Lu 9:61 ), to renounce, forsake,
as here. {All that he hath} (pasin tois heautou huparchousin).
Dative case, says good-bye to all his property, "all his own
belongings" (neuter plural participle used as substantive) as
named in verse  26 . This verse gives the principle in the two
parables of the rash builder and of the rash king. The minor
details do not matter. The spirit of self-sacrifice is the point.

經文:

路加福音 14:35-14:35

註釋:

 14:35, Mt 11:15 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '14' or engs='14'
經文:

路加福音 15:1-15:1

註釋:

 {All the publicans and sinners} (pantes hoi tel(936e)ai kai hoi
hamart(936c)oi). The two articles separate the two classes (all the
publicans and the sinners). They are sometimes grouped together
( 5:30  Mt 9:11 ), but not here. The publicans are put on the
same level with the outcasts or sinners. So in verse  2  the
repeated article separates Pharisees and scribes as not quite
one. The use of "all" here may be hyperbole for very many or the
reference may be to these two classes in the particular place
where Jesus was from time to time. {Were drawing near unto him}
((8873)an aut(9369) eggizontes). Periphrastic imperfect of eggiz(935c),
from eggus (near), late verb. {For to hear} (akouein). Just
the present active infinitive of purpose.

經文:

路加福音 15:2-15:2

註釋:

 {Both ... and} (	e ... kai). United in the complaint.
{Murmured} (diegogguzon). Imperfect active of diagogguz(935c),
late Greek compound in the LXX and Byzantine writers. In the N.T.
only here and  Lu 19:7 . The force of dia here is probably
between or among themselves. It spread (imperfect tense) whenever
these two classes came in contact with Jesus. As the publicans
and the sinners were drawing near to Jesus just in that
proportion the Pharisees and the scribes increased their
murmurings. The social breach is here an open yawning chasm.
{This man} (houtos). A contemptuous sneer in the use of the
pronoun. They spoke out openly and probably pointed at Jesus.
{Receiveth} (prosdechetai). Present middle indicative of the
common verb prosdechomai. In  12:36  we had it for expecting,
here it is to give access to oneself, to welcome like
hupedexato of Martha's welcome to Jesus ( Lu 10:38 ). The
charge here is that this is the habit of Jesus. He shows no sense
of social superiority to these outcasts (like the Hindu
"untouchables" in India). {And eateth with them} (kai sunesthiei
autois). Associative instrumental case (autois) after sun-
in composition. This is an old charge ( Lu 5:30 ) and a much more
serious breach from the standpoint of the Pharisees. The
implication is that Jesus prefers these outcasts to the
respectable classes (the Pharisees and the scribes) because he is
like them in character and tastes, even with the harlots. There
was a sting in the charge that he was the "friend" (philos) of
publicans and sinners ( Lu 7:34 ).

經文:

路加福音 15:3-15:3

註釋:

 {This parable} (	(886e) parabol(886e) taut(886e)). The Parable of the
Lost Sheep ( 15:3-7 ). This is Christ's way of answering the
cavilling of these chronic complainers. Jesus gave this same
parable for another purpose in another connection ( Mt
18:12-14 ). The figure of the Good Shepherd appears also in  Joh
10:1-18 . "No simile has taken more hold upon the mind of
Christendom" (Plummer). Jesus champions the lost and accepts the
challenge and justifies his conduct by these superb stories. "The
three Episodes form a climax: The Pasture--the House--the Home;
the Herdsman--the Housewife--the Father; the Sheep--the
Treasure--the Beloved Son" (Ragg).

經文:

路加福音 15:4-15:4

註釋:

 {In the wilderness} (en t(8869) er(886d)(9369)). Their usual
pasturage, not a place of danger or peril. It is the owner of the
hundred sheep who cares so much for the one that is lost. He
knows each one of the sheep and loves each one. {Go after that
which is lost} (poreuetai epi to apol(936c)os). The one lost sheep
(apol(936c)os, second perfect active participle of apollumi, to
destroy, but intransitive, to be lost). There is nothing more
helpless than a lost sheep except a lost sinner. The sheep went
off by its own ignorance and folly. The use of epi for the goal
occurs also in  Mt 22:9  Ac 8:26  9:11 . {Until he find it}
(he(9373) heur(8869) auto). Second aorist active subjunctive of
heurisk(935c), common verb, with he(9373), common Greek idiom. He
keeps on going (poreuetai, linear present middle indicative)
until success comes (effective aorist, heur(8869)).

經文:

路加福音 15:5-15:5

註釋:

 {On his shoulders} (epi tous (936d)ous autou). He does it
himself in exuberant affection and of necessity as the poor lost
sheep is helpless. Note the plural shoulders showing that the
sheep was just back of the shepherd's neck and drawn around by
both hands. The word for shoulder ((936d)os) is old and common, but
in the N.T. only here and  Mt 23:4 . {Rejoicing} (chair(936e)).
"There is no upbraiding of the wandering sheep, nor murmuring at
the trouble" (Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 15:6-15:6

註釋:

 {Rejoice with me} (sunchar(8874)e moi). Second aorist passive
of sunchair(935c), an old and common verb for mutual joy as in  Php
2:17f . Joy demands fellowship. Same form in verse  9 . So the
shepherd {calls together} (sunkalei, note sun again) both his
friends and his neighbours. This picture of the Good Shepherd has
captured the eye of many artists through the ages.

經文:

路加福音 15:7-15:7

註釋:

 {Over one sinner that repenteth} (epi heni hamart(936c)(9369)
metanoounti). The word sinner points to verse  1 . Repenting is
what these sinners were doing, these lost sheep brought to the
fold. The joy in heaven is in contrast with the grumbling
Pharisees and scribes. {More than over} ((8820)epi). There is no
comparative in the Greek. It is only implied by a common idiom
like our "rather than." {Which need no repentance} (hoitines ou
chreian echousin metanoias). Jesus does not mean to say that the
Pharisees and the scribes do not need repentance or are perfect.
He for the sake of argument accepts their claims about themselves
and by their own words condemns them for their criticism of his
efforts to save the lost sheep. It is the same point that he made
against them when they criticized Jesus and the disciples for
being at Levi's feast ( Lu 5:31f. ). They posed as "righteous."
Very well, then. That shuts their mouths on the point of Christ's
saving the publicans and sinners.

經文:

路加福音 15:8-15:8

註釋:

 {Ten pieces of silver} (drachmas deka). The only instance
in the N.T. of this old word for a coin of 65.5 grains about the
value of the common d(886e)arius (about eighteen cents), a quarter
of a Jewish shekel. The double drachma (didrachmon) occurs in
the N.T. only in  Mt 17:24 . The root is from drassomai, to
grasp with the hand ( 1Co 3:19 ), and so a handful of coin. Ten
drachmas would be equal to nearly two dollars, but in purchasing
power much more. {Sweep} (saroi). A late colloquial verb
saro(935c) for the earlier sair(935c), to clear by sweeping. Three
times in the N.T. ( Lu 11:25  15:8  Mt 12:44 ). The house was
probably with out windows (only the door for light and hence the
lamp lit) and probably also a dirt floor. Hence Bengel says: _non
sine pulvere_. This parable is peculiar to Luke.

經文:

路加福音 15:9-15:9

註釋:

 {Her friends and neighbours} (	as philas kai geitonas).
Note single article and female friends (feminine article and
philas). He(9373) hou eur(8869) here as in verse  4 , only hou
added after he(9373) (until which time) as often. {Which I lost}
(h(886e) ap(936c)esa). First aorist active indicative of apollumi.
She lost the coin (note article). The shepherd did not lose the
one sheep.

經文:

路加福音 15:10-15:10

註釋:

 {There is joy} (ginetai chara). More exactly, joy arises.
Futuristic present of ginomai (cf. estai in verse  7 ). {In
the presence of the angels of God} (en(9370)ion t(936e) aggel(936e) tou
theou). That is to say, the joy of God himself. The angels are
in a sense the neighbours of God.

經文:

路加福音 15:11-15:11

註釋:

 {Had} (eichen). Imperfect active. Note ech(936e) (verse
 4 ), echousa (verse  8 ), and now eichen. The
self-sacrificing care is that of the owner in each case. Here
(verses  11-32 ) we have the most famous of all the parables of
Jesus, the Prodigal Son, which is in Luke alone. We have had the
Lost Sheep, the Lost Coin, and now the Lost Son. Bruce notes that
in the moral sphere there must be self-recovery to give ethical
value to the rescue of the son who wandered away. That comes out
beautifully in this allegory.

經文:

路加福音 15:12-15:12

註釋:

 {The portion} (	o meros). The Jewish law alloted one-half
as much to the younger son as to the elder, that is to say
one-third of the estate ( De 21:17 ) at the death of the father.
The father did not have to abdicate in favour of the sons, but
"this very human parable here depicts the impatience of home
restraints and the optimistic ambition of youth" (Ragg). {And he
divided} (ho de dieilen). The second aorist active indicative
of diaire(935c), an old and common verb to part in two, cut asunder,
divide, but in the N.T. only here and  1Co 12:11 . The elder son
got his share also of the "substance" or property or estate (	(8873)
ousias), "the living" (	on bion) as in  Mr 12:44 , not "life"
as in  Lu 8:14 .

經文:

路加福音 15:13-15:13

註釋:

 {Not many days after} (met' ou pollas h(886d)eras).
Literally, after not many days. Luke is fond of this idiom ( 7:6  Ac 1:5 ). {Took his journey} (aped(886d)(8873)en). First aorist active
indicative of apod(886d)e(935c) (from apod(886d)os, away from home).
Common verb. In the N.T. here and  Mt 21:33  25:14  Mr 12:1  Lu
20:9 . He burned all his bridges behind him, gathering together
all that he had. {Wasted} (dieskorpisen). First aorist active
indicative of diaskorpiz(935c), a somewhat rare verb, the very
opposite of "gathered together" (sunagog(936e)). More exactly he
scattered his property. It is the word used of winnowing grain
( Mt 25:24 ). {With riotous living} (z(936e) as(9374)(9373)). Living
dissolutely or profligately. The late adverb as(9374)(9373) (only here
in the N.T.) from the common adjective as(9374)os (a privative
and s(937a)(935c)), one that cannot be saved, one who does not save, a
spendthrift, an abandoned man, a profligate, a prodigal. He went
the limit of sinful excesses. It makes sense taken actively or
passively (_prodigus_ or _perditus_), active probably here.

經文:

路加福音 15:14-15:14

註釋:

 {When he had spent} (dapan(8873)antos autou). Genitive
absolute. The verb is here used in a bad sense as in  Jas 4:3 .
See on dapan(885c) 烊u 14:28|. {He} (autos). Emphasis. {To be in
want} (hustereisthai). The verb is from husteros, behind or
later (comparative). We use "fall behind" (Vincent) of one in
straitened circumstances. Plummer notes the coincidences of
Providence. The very land was in a famine when the boy had spent
all.

經文:

路加福音 15:15-15:15

註釋:

 He 8:11 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'He' or engs='He'
經文:

路加福音 15:16-15:16

註釋:

 {He would fain have been filled} (epethumei
chortasth(886e)ai). Literally, he was desiring (longing) to be
filled. Imperfect indicative and first aorist passive infinitive.
Chortasth(886e)ai is from chortaz(935c) and that from chortos
(grass), and so to feed with grass or with anything. Westcott and
Hort put gemisai t(886e) koilian autou in the margin (the Textus
Receptus). {With the husks} (ek t(936e) kerati(936e)). The word occurs
here alone in the N.T. and is a diminutive of keras (horn) and
so means little horn. It is used in various senses, but here
refers to the pods of the carob tree or locust tree still common
in Palestine and around the Mediterannean, so called from the
shape of the pods like little horns, _Bockshornbaum_ in German or
goat's-horn tree. The gelatinous substance inside has a sweetish
taste and is used for feeding swine and even for food by the
lower classes. It is sometimes called Saint John's Bread from the
notion that the Baptist ate it in the wilderness. {No man gave
unto him} (oudeis edidou aut(9369)). Imperfect active. Continued
refusal of anyone to allow him even the food of the hogs.

經文:

路加福音 15:17-15:17

註釋:

 {But when he came to himself} (eis heauton de elth(936e)). As
if he had been far from himself as he was from home. As a matter
of fact he had been away, out of his head, and now began to see
things as they really were. Plato is quoted by Ackerman
(_Christian Element in Plato_) as thinking of redemption as
coming to oneself. {Hired servants} (misthioi). A late word
from misthos (hire). In the N.T. only in this chapter. The use
of "many" here suggests a wealthy and luxurious home. {Have bread
enough and to spare} (perisseuontai art(936e)). Old verb from
perissos and that from peri (around). Present passive here,
"are surrounded by loaves" like a flood. {I perish} (eg(9320)de
lim(9369) h(9364)e apollumai). Every word here counts: While I on the
other hand am here perishing with hunger. It is the linear
present middle of apollumi. Note eg(935c) expressed and de of
contrast.

經文:

路加福音 15:18-15:18

註釋:

 {I will arise and go} (anastas proreusomai). This
determination is the act of the will after he comes to himself
and sees his real condition. {I did sin} (h(886d)arton). That is
the hard word to say and he will say it first. The word means to
miss the mark. I shot my bolt and I missed my aim (compare the
high-handed demand in verse  12 ).

經文:

路加福音 15:19-15:19

註釋:

 {No longer worthy} (ouketi axios). Confession of the
facts. He sees his own pitiful plight and is humble. {As one}
(h(9373) hena). The hired servants in his father's house are high
above him now.

經文:

路加福音 15:20-15:20

註釋:

 {To his father} (pros ton patera heautou). Literally, to
his own father. He acted at once on his decision. {Yet afar off}
(eti autou makran apechontos). Genitive absolute. Makran
agrees with hodon understood: While he was yet holding off a
distant way. This shows that the father had been looking for him
to come back and was even looking at this very moment as he came
in sight. {Ran} (dram(936e)). Second aorist active participle of
the defective verb 	rech(935c). The eager look and longing of the
father. {Kissed} (katephil(8873)en). Note perfective use of kata
kissed him much, kissed him again and again. The verb occurs so
in the older Greek.

經文:

路加福音 15:21-15:21

註釋:

 The son made his speech of confession as planned, but it is
not certain that he was able to finish as a number of early
manuscripts do not have "Make me as one of the hired servants,"
though Aleph B D do have them. It is probable that the father
interrupted him at this point before he could finish.

經文:

路加福音 15:22-15:22

註釋:

 {The best robe} (stol(886e) t(886e) pr(9374)(886e)). Stol(885c) is an old
word for a fine stately garment that comes down to the feet (from
stello, to prepare, equip), the kind worn by kings ( Mr 16:5  Lu 22:46 ). Literally, "a robe the first." But not the first that
you find, but the first in rank and value, the finest in the
house. This in contrast with his shabby clothes. {A ring}
(daktulion). Common in classical writers and the LXX, but here
only in the N.T. From daktulos, finger. See chrusodaktulios
in  Jas 2:2 . {Shoes} (hupod(886d)ata). Sandals, "bound under."
Both sandals and ring are marks of the freeman as slaves were
barefooted.

經文:

路加福音 15:23-15:23

註釋:

 {The fatted calf} (	on moschon ton siteuton). The calf
the fatted one. Siteuton is the verbal adjective of sileu(935c),
to feed with wheat (sitos). The calf was kept fat for festive
occasions, possibly in the hope of the son's return. {Kill}
(	husate). Not as a sacrifice, but for the feast. {Make merry}
(euphranth(936d)en). First aorist passive subjunctive (volitive).
From euphrain(935c), an old verb from eu (well) and phr(886e)
(mind).

經文:

路加福音 15:24-15:24

註釋:

 {And is alive} (kai anez(8873)en). First aorist active
indicative of anaza(935c), to live again. Literally, he was dead and
he came back to life. {He was lost} ((886e) apol(936c)(9373), periphrastic
past perfect active of apollumi and intransitive, in a lost
state) and he was found (heureth(885c)). He was found, we have to
say, but this aorist passive is really timeless, he is found
after long waiting (effective aorist) The artists have vied with
each other in picturing various items connected with this
wonderful parable.

經文:

路加福音 15:25-15:25

註釋:

 {As he came and drew nigh} (h(9373) erchomenos (8867)gisen). More
exactly, "As, coming, he drew nigh," for erchomenos is present
middle participle and (8867)gisen is aorist active indicative.
{Music} (sumph(936e)ias). Our word "symphony." An old Greek word
from sumph(936e)os (sun, together, and ph(936e)(885c), voice or sound),
{harmony, concord}, by a band of musicians. Here alone in the
N.T. {And dancing} (kai chor(936e)). An old word again, but here
alone in the N.T. Origin uncertain, possibly from orchos by
metathesis (orcheomai, to dance). A circular dance on the
green.

經文:

路加福音 15:26-15:26

註釋:

 {Servants} (paid(936e)). Not douloi (bondslaves) as in
verse  22 . The Greeks often used pais for servant like the
Latin _puer_. It could be either a hired servant (misthios,
verse  17 ) or slave (doulos). {He inquired} (epunthaneto).
Imperfect middle, inquired repeatedly and eagerly. {What these
things might be} (	i an ei(8820)tauta). Not "poor" Greek as Easton
holds, but simply the form of the direct question retained in the
indirect. See the direct form as the apodosis of a condition of
the fourth class in  Ac 17:18 . In  Ac 10:17  we have the
construction with an ei(885c) of the direct retained in the indirect
question. So also in  Lu 1:62 : See Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
1044.

經文:

路加福音 15:27-15:27

註釋:

 {Is come} (h(886b)ei). Present indicative active, but a stem
with perfect sense, old verb h(886b)(935c) retaining this use after
perfect tenses came into use (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 893).
{Hath killed} (ethusen). Aorist active indicative and literally
means, {did kill}. Difficult to handle in English for our tenses
do not correspond with the Greek. {Hath received} (apelaben).
Second aorist active indicative with similar difficulty of
translation. Note apo in compositions, like _re-_ in "receive,"
hath gotten him back (ap-). {Safe and sound} (hugiainonta).
Present active participle of hugiain(935c) from hugi(8873), to be in
good health. In spite of all that he has gone through and in
spite of the father's fears.

經文:

路加福音 15:28-15:28

註釋:

 {But he was angry} ((9372)gisth(885c)). First aorist (ingressive)
passive indicative. But he became angry, he flew into a rage
(org(885c)). This was the explosion as the result of long resentment
towards the wayward brother and suspicion of the father's
partiality for the erring son. {Would not go in} (ouk (8874)helen
eiselthein). Imperfect tense (was not willing, refused) and
aorist active (ingressive) infinitive. {Entreated} (parekalei).
Imperfect tense, he kept on beseeching him.

經文:

路加福音 15:29-15:29

註釋:

 {Do I serve thee} (douleu(9320)soi). Progressive present
tense of this old verb from doulos (slave) which the elder son
uses to picture his virtual slavery in staying at home and
perhaps with longings to follow the younger son (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 879). {Transgressed} (par(886c)thon). Second aorist
active indicative of parerchomai, to pass by. Not even once
(aorist) in contrast with so many years of service (linear
present). {A kid} (eriphon). Some MSS. have eriphion,
diminutive, a little kid. So margin of Westcott and Hort. B has
it also in  Mt 25:32 , the only other N.T. passage where the word
occurs. {That I might make merry} (hina euphranth(935c)). Final
clause, first aorist passive subjunctive of the same verb used in
verses  23,25 .

經文:

路加福音 15:30-15:30

註釋:

 {This thy son} (ho huios sou houtos). Contempt and
sarcasm. He does not say: "This my brother." {Came} ((886c)then).
He does not even say, came back or came home. {Devoured}
(kataphag(936e)). We say, "eaten up," but the Greek has, "eaten
down" (perfective use of kata-). Suggested by the feasting
going on. {With harlots} (meta porn(936e)). This may be true (verse
 13 ), but the elder son did not know it to be true. He may
reflect what he would have done in like case.

經文:

路加福音 15:31-15:31

註釋:

 {Son} (Teknon). Child. {Thou} (su). Expressed and in
emphatic position in the sentence. He had not appreciated his
privileges at home with his father.

經文:

路加福音 15:32-15:32

註釋:

 {It was meet} (edei). Imperfect tense. It expressed a
necessity in the father's heart and in the joy of the return that
justifies the feasting. Euphranth(886e)ai is used again (first
aorist passive infinitive) and char(886e)ai (second aorist passive
infinitive) is more than mere hilarity, deep-seated joy. The
father repeats to the elder son the language of his heart used in
verse  24  to his servants. A real father could do no less. One
can well imagine how completely the Pharisees and scribes (verse
 2 ) were put to silence by these three marvellous parables. The
third does it with a graphic picture of their own attitude in the
case of the surly elder brother. Luke was called a painter by the
ancients. Certainly he has produced a graphic pen picture here of
God's love for the lost that justifies forever the coming of
Christ to the world to seek and to save the lost. It glorifies
also soul-saving on the part of his followers who are willing to
go with Jesus after the lost in city and country, in every land
and of every race.


經文:

路加福音 16:1-16:1

註釋:

 {Unto the disciples} (kai pros tous math(8874)as). The three
preceding parables in chapter 15 exposed the special faults of
the Pharisees, "their hard exclusiveness, self-righteousness, and
contempt for others" (Plummer). This parable is given by Luke
alone. The kai (also) is not translated in the Revised Version.
It seems to mean that at this same time, after speaking to the
Pharisees (chapter 15), Jesus proceeds to speak a parable to the
disciples ( 16:1-13 ), the parable of the Unjust Steward. It is a
hard parable to explain, but Jesus opens the door by the key in
verse  9 . {Which had a steward} (hos (8869)chen oikonomon).
Imperfect active, continued to have. Steward is house-manager or
overseer of an estate as already seen in  Lu 12:42 . {Was
accused} (diebl(8874)h(885c)). First aorist indicative passive, of
diaball(935c), an old verb, but here only in the N.T. It means to
throw across or back and forth, rocks or words and so to slander
by gossip. The word implies malice even if the thing said is
true. The word diabolos (slanderer) is this same root and it is
used even of women, she-devils ( 1Ti 3:11 ). {That he was
wasting} (h(9373) diaskorpiz(936e)). For the verb see on 氣5:13|. The
use of h(9373) with the participle is a fine Greek idiom for giving
the alleged ground of a charge against one. {His goods} (	a
huparchonta autou). "His belongings," a Lukan idiom.

經文:

路加福音 16:2-16:2

註釋:

 {What is this that I hear?} (	i touto akou(933b)). There are
several ways of understanding this terse Greek idiom. The Revised
Version (above) takes 	i to be equal to 	i estin touto ho
akou(935c); That is a possible use of the predicate 	outo. Another
way is to take 	i to be exclamatory, which is less likely.
Still another view is that 	i is " Why": "Why do I hear this
about thee?" See  Ac 14:15  where that is the idiom employed.
{Render} (apodos). Second aorist active imperative of
apodid(936d)i, Give back (and at once). {The account} (	on
logon). The reckoning or report. Common use of logos.
{Stewardship} (oikonomias). Same root as oikonomos (steward).
This demand does not necessarily mean dismissal if investigation
proved him innocent of the charges. But the reason given implies
that he is to be dismissed: {Thou canst no longer} (ou gar
dun(8869)).

經文:

路加福音 16:3-16:3

註釋:

 {Within himself} (en heaut(9369)). As soon as he had time to
think the thing over carefully. He knew that he was guilty of
embezzlement of the Master's funds. {Taketh away}
(aphaireitai). Present (linear) middle indicative of
aphaire(935c), old verb to take away. Here the middle present means,
He is taking away for himself. {To beg I am not ashamed}
(epaitein aischunomai). The infinitive with aischunomai means
ashamed to begin to beg. The participle, epait(936e) aischunomai
would mean, ashamed while begging, ashamed of begging while doing
it.

經文:

路加福音 16:4-16:4

註釋:

 {I am resolved} (egn(936e)). Second aorist active indicative
of gin(9373)k(935c). A difficult tense to reproduce in English. I knew,
I know, I have known, all miss it a bit. It is a burst of
daylight to the puzzled, darkened man: I've got it, I see into it
now, a sudden solution. {What to do} (	i poi(8873)(935c)). Either
deliberative first aorist active subjunctive or deliberative
future active indicative. {When I am put out} (hotan
metastath(935c)). First aorist passive subjunctive of methist(886d)i,
(meta, hist(886d)i), old verb, to transpose, transfer, remove. He
is expecting to be put out. {They may receive me} (dex(936e)tai).
First aorist middle subjunctive of dechomai, common verb.
Subjunctive with final particle hina. He wishes to put the
debtors under obligation to himself. {Debtors} (	(936e)
chreophilet(936e)). A late word. In the N.T. only here and  Lu 7:41 
from chreos, loan, and opheilet(8873), debtor. It is probable
that he dealt with "each one" separately.

經文:

路加福音 16:6-16:6

註釋:

 {Measures} (atous). Transliterated word for Hebrew
_bath_, between eight and nine gallons. Here alone in the N.T.
Not the same word as atos ({bush}) in  Lu 6:44 . {Thy bond}
(sou ta grammata). Thy writings, thy contracts, thy note.
{Quickly} (	ache(9373)). It was a secret arrangement and speed was
essential.

經文:

路加福音 16:7-16:7

註釋:

 {Measures} (korous). Another Hebrew word for dry measure.
The Hebrew _cor_ was about ten bushels. Data are not clear about
the Hebrew measures whether liquid ({bath}) or dry ({cor}).

經文:

路加福音 16:8-16:8

註釋:

 {His lord commended} (ep(8869)nesen ho kurios). The steward's
lord praised him though he himself had been wronged again (see
verse  1  "wasting his goods"). {The unrighteous steward} (	on
oikonomon t(8873) adikias). Literally, the steward of
unrighteousness. The genitive is the case of genus, species, the
steward distinguished by unrighteousness as his characteristic.
See "the mammon of unrighteousness" in verse  9 . See "the
forgetful hearer" in  Jas 1:25 . It is a vernacular idiom common
to Hebrew, Aramaic, and the _Koin(825f). {Wisely} (phronim(9373)). An
old adverb, though here alone in the N.T. But the adjective
phronimos from which it comes occurs a dozen times as in  Mt
10:16 . It is from phrone(935c) and that from phr(886e), the mind
( 1Co 14:20 ), the discerning intellect. Perhaps "shrewdly" or
"discreetly" is better here than "wisely." The lord does not
absolve the steward from guilt and he was apparently dismissed
from his service. His shrewdness consisted in finding a place to
go by his shrewdness. He remained the steward of unrighteousness
even though his shrewdness was commended. {For} (hoti).
Probably by this second hoti Jesus means to say that he cites
this example of shrewdness because it illustrates the point.
"This is the moral of the whole parable. Men of the world in
their dealings with men like themselves are more prudent than the
children of light in their intercourse with one another"
(Plummer). We all know how stupid Christians can be in their
co-operative work in the kingdom of God, to go no further. {Wiser
than} (phronim(9374)eroi huper). Shrewder beyond, a common Greek
idiom.

經文:

路加福音 16:9-16:9

註釋:

 {By the mammon of unrighteousness} (ek tou mam(936e)(8320)t(8873)
adikias). By the use of what is so often evil (money). In  Mt
6:24  mammon is set over against God as in  Lu 16:13  below.
Jesus knows the evil power in money, but servants of God have to
use it for the kingdom of God. They should use it discreetly and
it is proper to make friends by the use of it. {When it shall
fail} (hotan eklip(8869)). Second aorist active subjunctive with
hotan, future time. The mammon is sure to fail. {That they may
receive you into the eternal tabernacles} (hina dex(936e)tai humas
eis tas ai(936e)ious sk(886e)as). This is the purpose of Christ in
giving the advice about their making friends by the use of money.
The purpose is that those who have been blessed and helped by the
money may give a welcome to their benefactors when they reach
heaven. There is no thought here of purchasing an entrance into
heaven by the use of money. That idea is wholly foreign to the
context. These friends will give a hearty welcome when one gives
him mammon here. The wise way to lay up treasure in heaven is to
use one's money for God here on earth. That will give a cash
account there of joyful welcome, not of purchased entrance.

經文:

路加福音 16:10-16:10

註釋:

 and from  Ac 20:6  to the end of chapter  Ac 28  shows it
beyond controversy if the same man wrote the "we" sections and
the rest of the Acts. This proof Harnack has produced with
painstaking detail in his _Date of the Acts and the Synoptic
Gospels_ and in his volume _The Acts of the Apostles_ and in his
_Luke the Physician_.

                THIS COMPANION OF PAUL A PHYSICIAN

        The argument for this position lies in the use of medical
terms throughout the Gospel and the Acts. Hobart in his _Medical
Language of St. Luke_ proves that the author of both Gospel and
Acts shows a fondness for medical terms best explained by the
fact that he was a physician. Like most enthusiasts he overdid it
and some of his proof does not stand the actual test of sifting.
Harnack and Hawkins in his _Horae Synopticae_ have picked out the
most pertinent items which will stand. Cadbury in his _Style and
Literary Method of Luke_ denies that Luke uses Greek medical
words more frequently in proportion than Josephus, Philo,
Plutarch, or Lucian. It is to miss the point about Luke merely to
count words. It is mainly the interest in medical things shown in
Luke and Acts. The proof that Luke is the author of the books
does not turn on this fact. It is merely confirmatory. Paul calls
Luke "the beloved physician" (ho iatros ho agap(8874)os,  Col
4:14 ), "my beloved physician." Together they worked in the
Island of Malta ( Ac 28:8-10 ) where many were healed and Luke
shared with Paul in the appreciation of the natives who "came and
were healed (etherapeuonto) who also honoured us with many
honours." The implication there is that Paul wrought miracles of
healing (iasato), while Luke practised his medical art also.
Other notes of the physician's interest will be indicated in the
discussion of details like his omitting Mark's apparent discredit
of physicians ( Mr 5:26 ) by a milder and more general statement
of a chronic case ( Lu 8:43 ).

                  THIS COMPANION AND AUTHOR LUKE

        All the Greek manuscripts credit the Gospel to Luke in
the title. We should know that Luke wrote these two books if
there was no evidence from early writers. Irenaeus definitely
ascribes the Gospel to Luke as does Clement of Alexandria,
Tertullian, the Muratorian Fragment. Plummer holds that the
authorship of the four great Epistles of Paul (I and II
Corinthians, Galatians, Romans) which even Baur accepted, is
scarcely more certain than the Lukan authorship of the Gospel.
Even Renan says: "There is no very strong reason for supposing
that Luke was not the author of the Gospel which bears his name."

                         A SKETCH OF LUKE

        His name is not a common one, and is probably a shortened
form of Lukios and Lukanos. Some of the manuscripts of the
Gospel actually have as the title Kata Lukanon. Dean Plumptre
suggests that the Latin poet Lucanus was named after Luke who
probably was the family physician when he was born. That is
conjecture as well as the notion of Hayes that, since the
brothers Gallio and Seneca were uncles of Lucanus they were
influenced by Luke to be friendly toward Paul both in Corinth and
in Rome. It is probable that Luke was a Greek, certainly a
Gentile, possibly a freedman. So this man who wrote more than
one-fourth of the New Testament was not a Jew. It is not certain
whether his home was in Antioch or in Philippi. It is also
uncertain whether he was already converted when Paul met him at
Troas. The Codex Bezae has a "we" passage after  Ac 11:27  which,
if genuine, would bring Luke in contact with Paul before Troas.
Hayes thinks that he was a slave boy in the family of Theophilus
at Antioch, several conjectures in one. We do not know that
Theophilus lived at Antioch. It may have been Rome. But, whether
one of Paul's converts or not, he was a loyal friend to Paul. If
he lived at Antioch, he could have studied medicine there and the
great medical temple of Aesculapius was at Aegae, not far away.
As a Greek physician, Luke was a university man and in touch with
the science of his day. Greek medicine is the beginning of the
science of medicine as it is known today. Tradition calls him a
painter, but of that we know nothing. Certainly he was a humanist
and a man of culture and broad sympathies and personal charm. He
was the first genuine scientist who faced the problem of Christ
and of Christianity. It must be said of him that he wrote his
books with open mind and not as a credulous enthusiast.

                      THE DATE OF THE GOSPEL

        There are two outstanding facts to mark off the date of
this Gospel by Luke. It was later than the Gospel of Mark since
Luke makes abundant use of it. It was before the Acts of the
Apostles since he definitely refers to it in  Ac 1:1 .
Unfortunately the precise date of both _termini_ is uncertain.
There are still some scholars who hold that the author of the
Acts shows knowledge of the _Antiquities_ of Josephus and so is
after A.D. 85, a mistaken position, in my opinion, but a point to
be discussed when Acts is reached. Still others more plausibly
hold that the Acts was written after the destruction of Jerusalem
and that the Gospel of Luke has a definite allusion to that event
( Lu 21:20f. ), which is interpreted as a prophecy _post eventum_
instead of a prediction by Christ a generation beforehand. Many
who accept this view hold to authorship of both Acts and Gospel
by Luke. I have long held the view, now so ably defended by
Harnack, that the Acts of the Apostles closes as it does for the
simple and obvious reason that Paul was still a prisoner in Rome.
Whether Luke meant the Acts to be used in the trial in Rome,
which may or may not have come to pass, is not the point. Some
argue that Luke contemplated a third book which would cover the
events of the trial and Paul's later career. There is no proof of
that view. The outstanding fact is that the book closes with Paul
already a prisoner for two years in Rome. If the Acts was written
about A.D. 63, as I believe to be the case, then obviously the
Gospel comes earlier. How much before we do not know. It so
happens that Paul was a prisoner a little over two years in
Caesarea. That period gave Luke abundant opportunity for the kind
of research of which he speaks in  Lu 1:1-4 . In Palestine he
could have access to persons familiar with the earthly life and
teachings of Jesus and to whatever documents were already
produced concerning such matters. Luke may have produced the
Gospel towards the close of the stay of Paul in Caesarea or
during the early part of the first Roman imprisonment, somewhere
between A.D. 59 and 62. The other testimony concerns the date of
Mark's Gospel which has already been discussed in volume I. There
is no real difficulty in the way of the early date of Mark's
Gospel. All the facts that are known admit, even argue for a date
by A.D. 60. If Mark wrote his Gospel in Rome, as is possible, it
would certainly be before A.D. 64, the date of the burning of
Rome by Nero. There are scholars, however, who argue for a much
earlier date for his gospel, even as early as A.D. 50. The
various aspects of the Synoptic problem are ably discussed by
Hawkins in his _Horae Synopticae_, by Sanday and others in
_Oxford Studies in the Synoptic Problem_, by Streeter in his _The
Four Gospels_, by Hayes in his _The Synoptic Gospels and the Book
of Acts_, by Harnack in his _Date of the Acts and the Synoptic
Gospels_, by Stanton in his _The Gospels as Historical
Documents_, and by many others. My own views are given at length
in my _Studies in Mark's Gospel_ and in _Luke the Historian in
the Light of Research_.

                    THE SOURCES OF THE GOSPEL

        In his Preface or Prologue ( Lu 1:1-4 ) the author tells
us that he had two kinds of sources, oral and written, and that
they were many, how many we have no way of telling. It is now
generally accepted that we know two of his written sources,
Mark's Gospel and Q or the Logia of Jesus (written by Matthew,
Papias says). Mark is still preserved and it is not difficult for
any one by the use of a harmony of the Gospels to note how Luke
made use of Mark, incorporating what he chose, adapting it in
various ways, not using what did not suit his purposes. The other
source we only know in the non-Markan portions of Matthew and
Luke, that is the material common to both, but not in Mark. This
also can be noted by any one in a harmony. Only it is probable
that this source was more extensive than just the portions used
by both Matthew and Luke. It is probable that both Matthew and
Luke each used portions of the Logia not used by the other. But
there is a large portion of Luke's Gospel which is different from
Mark and Matthew. Some scholars call this source L. There is
little doubt that Luke had another document for the material
peculiar to him, but it is also probable that he had several
others. He spoke of "many." This applies especially to chapters 9
to 21. But Luke expressly says that he had received help from
"eye-witnesses and ministers of the word," in oral form this
means. It is, then, probable that Luke made numerous notes of
such data and used them along with the written sources at his
command. This remark applies particularly to chapters 1 and 2
which have a very distinct Semitic (Aramaic) colouring due to the
sources used. It is possible, of course, that Mary the mother of
Jesus may have written a statement concerning these important
matters or that Luke may have had converse with her or with one
of her circle. Ramsay, in his volume, _Was Christ Born at
Bethlehem?_ shows the likelihood of Luke's contact with Mary or
her circle during these two years at Caesarea. Luke handles the
data acquired with care and skill as he claims in his Prologue
and as the result shows. The outcome is what Renan called the
most beautiful book in the world.

                    THE CHARACTER OF THE BOOK

        Literary charm is here beyond dispute. It is a book that
only a man with genuine culture and literary genius could write.
It has all the simple grace of Mark and Matthew plus an
indefinable quality not in these wonderful books. There is a
delicate finish of detail and proportion of parts that give the
balance and poise that come only from full knowledge of the
subject, the chief element in a good style according to Dr. James
Stalker. This scientific physician, this man of the schools, this
converted Gentile, this devoted friend of Paul, comes to the
study of the life of Christ with a trained intellect, with an
historian's method of research, with a physician's care in
diagnosis and discrimination, with a charm of style all his own,
with reverence for and loyalty to Jesus Christ as Lord and
Saviour. One could not afford to give up either of the Four
Gospels. They each supplement the other in a wonderful way.
John's Gospel is the greatest book in all the world, reaching the
highest heights of all. But if we had only Luke's Gospel, we
should have an adequate portrait of Jesus Christ as Son of God
and Son of Man. If Mark's is the Gospel for the Romans and
Matthew's for the Jews, the Gospel of Luke is for the Gentile
world. He shows the sympathy of Jesus for the poor and the
outcast. Luke understands women and children and so is the
universal Gospel of mankind in all phases and conditions. It is
often called the Gospel of womanhood, of infancy, of prayer, of
praise. We have in Luke the first Christian hymns. With Luke we
catch some glimpses of the child Jesus for which we are grateful.
Luke was a friend and follower of Paul, and verbal parallels with
Paul's Epistles do occur, but there is no Pauline propaganda in
the Gospel as Moffatt clearly shows (_Intr. to Lit. of the N.T._,
p. 281). The Prologue is in literary _Koin(825f) and deserves
comparison with those in any Greek and Latin writers. His style
is versatile and is often coloured by his source. He was a great
reader of the Septuagint as is shown by occasional Hebraisms
evidently due to reading that translation Greek. He has
graciousness and a sense of humour as McLachlan and Ragg show.
Every really great man has a saving sense of humour as Jesus
himself had. Ramsay dares to call Luke, as shown by the Gospel
and Acts, the greatest of all historians not even excepting
Thucydides. Ramsay has done much to restore Luke to his rightful
place in the estimation of modern scholars. Some German critics
used to cite  Lu 2:1-7  as a passage containing more historical
blunders than any similar passage in any historian. The story of
how papyri and inscriptions have fully justified Luke in every
statement here made is carefully worked out by Ramsay in his
various books, especially in _The Bearing of Recent Discovery on
the Trustworthiness of the New Testament_. The main feature of
this proof appears also in my _Luke the Historian in the Light of
Research_. So many items, where Luke once stood alone, have been
confirmed by recent discoveries that the burden of proof now
rests on those who challenge Luke in those cases where he still
stands alone.

經文:

路加福音 16:11-16:11

註釋:

 {Faithful in the unrighteous mammon} (en t(9369) adik(9369)
mam(936e)(8369)). In the use of what is considered "unrighteous" as it
so often is. Condition of the first class, "if ye did not prove
to be" (ei ouk egenesthe). Failure here forfeits confidence in
"the true riches" (	o al(8874)hinon). There is no sadder story than
to see a preacher go down by the wrong use of money, caught in
this snare of the devil.

經文:

路加福音 16:12-16:12

註釋:

 {That which is your own} (	o h(966d)eteron). But Westcott and
Hort read 	o h(886d)eteron (our own) because of B L Origen. The
difference is due to itacism in the pronunciation of h(962d) and
h(885c) alike (long i). But the point in the passage calls for
"yours" as correct. Earthly wealth is ours as a loan, a trust,
withdrawn at any moment. It belongs to another (en t(9369)
allotri(9369)). If you did not prove faithful in this, who will give
you what is really yours forever? Compare "rich toward God" ( Lu
12:21 ).

經文:

路加福音 16:13-16:13

註釋:

 {Servant} (oiket(8873)). Household (oikos) servant. This is
the only addition to  Mt 6:24  where otherwise the language is
precisely the same, which see. Either Matthew or Luke has put the
logion in the wrong place or Jesus spoke it twice. It suits
perfectly each context. There is no real reason for objecting to
repetition of favourite sayings by Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 16:14-16:14

註釋:

 {Who were lovers of money} (philarguroi huparchontes).
Literally, being lovers of money. Philarguroi is an old word,
but in the N.T. only here and  2Ti 3:2 . It is from philos and
arguros. {Heard} ((886b)ouon). Imperfect active, were listening
(all the while Jesus was talking to the disciples (verses
 1-13 ). {And they scoffed at him} (kai exemukt(8872)izon).
Imperfect active again of ekmukt(8872)iz(935c). LXX where late writers
use simple verb. In the N.T. only here and  Lu 23:35 . It means
to turn out or up the nose at one, to sneer, to scoff. The Romans
had a phrase, _naso adunco suspendere_, to hang on the hooked
nose (the subject of ridicule). These money-loving Pharisees were
quick to see that the words of Jesus about the wise use of money
applied to them. They had stood without comment the three
parables aimed directly at them (the lost sheep, the lost coin,
the lost son). But now they do not remain quiet while they hear
the fourth parable spoken to the disciples. No words were
apparently spoken, but their eyes, noses, faces were eloquent
with a fine disdain.

經文:

路加福音 16:15-16:15

註釋:

 {That justify yourselves} (hoi dikaiountes heautous).
They were past-masters at that and were doing it now by upturned
noses. {An abomination in the sight of God} (delugma en(9370)ion
tou theou). See on 烘t 24:15; Mr 13:14| for this LXX word for a
detestable thing as when Antiochus Epiphanes set up an altar to
Zeus in place of that to Jehovah. There is withering scorn in the
use of this phrase by Jesus to these pious pretenders.

經文:

路加福音 16:16-16:16

註釋:

 {Entereth violently into it} (eis aut(886e) biazetai). A
corresponding saying occurs in  Mt 11:12  in a very different
context. In both the verb iazetai, occurs also, but nowhere
else in the N.T. It is present middle here and can be middle or
passive in Matthew, which see. It is rare in late prose.
Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 258) cites an inscription where
iazomai is reflexive middle and used absolutely. Here the
meaning clearly is that everyone forces his way into the kingdom
of God, a plea for moral enthusiasm and spiritual passion and
energy that some today affect to despise.

經文:

路加福音 16:17-16:17

註釋:

 {One tittle} (mian kerean). See on 烘t 5:18|.

經文:

路加福音 16:18-16:18

註釋:

 {Committeth adultery} (moicheuei). Another repeated
saying of Christ ( Mt 5:32  Mr 10:11f.  Mt 19:9f. ). Adultery
remains adultery, divorce or no divorce, remarriage or no
marriage.

經文:

路加福音 16:19-16:19

註釋:

 {He was clothed} (enedidusketo). Imperfect middle of
endidusk(935c), a late intensive form of endu(935c). He clothed himself
in or with. It was his habit. {Purple} (porphuran). This purple
dye was obtained from the purple fish, a species of mussel or
murex (1Macc. 4:23). It was very costly and was used for the
upper garment by the wealthy and princes (royal purple). They had
three shades of purple (deep violet, deep scarlet or crimson,
deep blue). See also  Mr 15:17,20  Re 18:12 . {Fine linen}
(usson). {Byssus} or Egyptian flax (India and Achaia also). It
is a yellowed flax from which fine linen was made for
undergarments. It was used for wrapping mummies. "Some of the
Egyptian linen was so fine that it was called _woven air_"
(Vincent). Here only in the N.T. for the adjective ussinos
occurs in  Re 18:12  19:8,14 . {Faring sumptuously}
(euphrainomenos lampr(9373)). {Making merry brilliantly}. The verb
euphrainomai we have already had in  12:19  15:23,25,32 .
Lampr(9373) is an old adverb from lampros, brilliant, shining,
splendid, magnificent. It occurs here only in the N.T. This
parable apparently was meant for the Pharisees (verse  14 ) who
were lovers of money. It shows the wrong use of money and
opportunity.

經文:

路加福音 16:20-16:20

註釋:

 {Beggar} (pt(9363)hos). Original meaning of this old word.
See on 烘t 5:3|. The name Lazarus is from Eleazaros, "God a
help," and was a common one. _Lazar_ in English means one
afflicted with a pestilential disease. {Was laid} (ebebl(8874)o).
Past perfect passive of the common verb all(935c). He had been
flung there and was still there, "as if contemptuous roughness is
implied" (Plummer). {At his gate} (pros ton pul(936e)a autou).
Right in front of the large portico or gateway, not necessarily a
part of the grand house, porch in  Mt 26:71 . {Full of sores}
(heilk(936d)enos). Perfect passive participle of helko(935c), to make
sore, to ulcerate, from helkos, ulcer (Latin _ulcus_). See use
of helkos in verse  21 . Common in Hippocrates and other
medical writers. Here only in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 16:21-16:21

註釋:

 {With the crumbs that fell} (apo t(936e) piptont(936e)). From the
things that fell from time to time. The language reminds one of
 Lu 15:16  (the prodigal son) and the Syro-Phoenician woman ( Mr
7:28 ). Only it does not follow that this beggar did not get the
scraps from the rich man's table. Probably he did, though nothing
more. Even the wild street dogs would get them also. {Yea, even
the dogs} (alla kai hoi kunes). For alla kai see also  12:7  24:22 . Alla can mean "yea," though it often means "but." Here
it depends on how one construes Luke's meaning. If he means that
he was dependent on casual scraps and it was so bad that even the
wild dogs moreover were his companions in misery, the climax came
that he was able to drive away the dogs. The other view is that
his hunger was unsatisfied, but even the dogs increased his
misery. {Licked his sores} (epeleichon ta helk(8820)autou).
Imperfect active of epileich(935c), a late vernacular _Koin(825f) verb,
to lick over the surface. It is not clear whether the licking of
the sores by the dogs added to the misery of Lazarus or gave a
measure of comfort, as he lay in his helpless condition. "Furrer
speaks of witnessing dogs and lepers waiting together for the
refuse" (Bruce). It was a scramble between the dogs and Lazarus.

經文:

路加福音 16:22-16:22

註釋:

 {Was borne} (apenechth(886e)ai). First aorist passive
infinitive from apopher(935c), a common compound defective verb. The
accusative case of general reference (auton) is common with the
infinitive in such clauses after egeneto, like indirect
discourse. It is his soul, of course, that was so borne by the
angels, not his body. {Into Abraham's bosom} (eis ton holpon
Abraam). To be in Abraham's bosom is to the Jew to be in
Paradise. In  Joh 1:18  the Logos is in the bosom of the Father.
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are in heaven and welcome those who
come ( Mt 8:11 ; 4Macc. 14:17). The beloved disciple reclined on
the bosom of Jesus at the last passover ( Joh 13:23 ) and this
fact indicates special favour. So the welcome to Lazarus was
unusual. {Was buried} (etaph(885c)). Second aorist (effective)
passive of the common verb 	hapt(935c). Apparently in contrast with
the angelic visitation to the beggar.

經文:

路加福音 16:23-16:23

註釋:

 {In Hades} (en t(9369) H(8369)d(8869)). See on  Mt 16:18  for
discussion of this word. Lazarus was in Hades also for both
Paradise (Abraham's bosom) and Gehenna are in the unseen world
beyond the grave. {In torments} (en basanois). The touchstone
by which gold and other metals were tested, then the rack for
torturing people. Old word, but in the N.T. only here,  Lu 16:28  Mt 4:24 . {Sees} (hor(8369)). Dramatic present indicative. The Jews
believed that Gehenna and Paradise were close together. This
detail in the parable does not demand that we believe it. The
picture calls for it. {From afar} (apo makrothen). Pleonastic
use of apo as makrothen means {from afar}.

經文:

路加福音 16:24-16:24

註釋:

 {That he may dip} (hina baps(8869)). First aorist active
subjunctive of apt(935c), common verb, to dip. {In water}
(hudatos). Genitive, the specifying case, water and not
something else. {Cool} (katapsux(8869)). First aorist active
subjunctive of katapsuch(935c), a late Greek compound, to cool off,
to make cool. Only here in the N.T. but common in medical books.
Note perfective use of kata- (down). A small service that will
be welcome. {For I am in anguish} (hoti odun(936d)ai). The active
has a causative sense to cause intense pain, the middle to
torment oneself ( Lu 2:48  Ac 20:38 ), the passive to be
translated as here. Common verb, but no other examples in the
N.T.

經文:

路加福音 16:25-16:25

註釋:

 {Receivedst} (apelabes). Second aorist indicative of
apolamban(935c), old verb to get back what is promised and in full.
See also  Lu 6:34  18:30  23:41 . {Evil things} (	a kaka). Not
"his," but "the evil things" that came upon him. {Thou art in
anguish} (odun(8373)ai). Like kauch(8373)ai in  Ro 2:17 . They
contracted -aesai without the loss of s. Common in the
_Koin(825f).

經文:

路加福音 16:26-16:26

註釋:

 {Beside all this} (en p(8373)i toutois). {In all these
things} (or regions). {Gulf} (chasma). An old word from
chain(935c), to yawn, our chasm, a gaping opening. Only here in the
N.T. {Is fixed} (est(8872)iktai). Perfect passive indicative of
st(8872)iz(935c), old verb (see on 烊u 9:51|). Permanent chasm. {May not
be able} (m(8820)dun(936e)tai). Present middle subjunctive of
dunamai. The chasm is there on purpose ({that not}, hop(9373) m(885c))
to prevent communication.

經文:

路加福音 16:27-16:27

註釋:

 {That you send him} (hina pemps(8869)s auton). As if he had
not had a fair warning and opportunity. The Roman Catholics
probably justify prayer to saints from this petition from the
Rich Man to Abraham, but both are in Hades (the other world). It
is to be observed besides, that Abraham makes no effort to
communicate with the five brothers. But heavenly recognition is
clearly assumed. Dante has a famous description of his visit to
the damned (_Purg_. iii, 114).

經文:

路加福音 16:28-16:28

註釋:

 {That he may testify} (hop(9373) diamartur(8874)ai). An old verb
for solemn and thorough (dia-) witness. The Rich Man labours
under the delusion that his five brothers will believe the
testimony of Lazarus as a man from the dead.

經文:

路加福音 16:29-16:29

註釋:

 {Let them hear them} (akousat(9373)an aut(936e)). Even the
heathen have the evidence of nature to show the existence of God
as Paul argues in Romans so that they are without excuse ( Ro
1:20f. ).

經文:

路加福音 16:30-16:30

註釋:

 {They will repent} (metano(8873)ousin). The Rich Man had
failed to do this and he now sees that it is the one thing
lacking. It is not wealth, not poverty, not alms, not influence,
but repentance that is needed. He had thought repentance was for
others, not for all.

經文:

路加福音 16:31-16:31

註釋:

 {Neither will they be persuaded} (oud' peisth(8873)ontai).
First future passive of peith(935c). Gressmann calls attention to
the fact that Jesus is saying this in the conclusion of the
parable. It is a sharp discouragement against efforts today to
communicate with the dead. "Saul was not led to repentance when
he saw Samuel at Endor nor were the Pharisees when they saw
Lazarus come forth from the tomb. The Pharisees tried to put
Lazarus to death and to explain away the resurrection of Jesus"
(Plummer). Alford comments on the curious fact that Lazarus was
the name of the one who did rise from the dead but whose return
from the dead "was the immediate exciting cause of their
(Pharisees) crowning act of unbelief."

經文:

路加福音 17:1-17:1

註釋:

 {It is impossible} (anendekton estin). See ouk
endechetai in  13:33 . Alpha privative (an-) and endektos,
verbal adjective, from endechomai. The word occurs only in late
Greek and only here in the N.T. The meaning is inadmissible,
unallowable. {But that occasions of stumbling should come} (	ou
ta skandala m(8820)elthein). This genitive articular infinitive is
not easy to explain. In  Ac 10:25  there is another example where
the genitive articular infinitive seems to be used as a
nominative (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1040). The loose Hebrew
infinitive construction may have a bearing here, but one may
recall that the original infinitives were either locatives
(-eni) or datives (-ai). Ta skandala is simply the
accusative of general reference. Literally, the not coming as to
occasions of stumbling. For skandalon (a trap) see on 烘t 5:29;
16:23|. It is here only in Luke. The positive form of this saying
appears in  Mt 18:7 , which see.

經文:

路加福音 17:2-17:2

註釋:

 {It were well for him} (lusitelei aut(9369)). An old word, but
only here in the N.T., from lusitel(8873) and this from lu(935c), to
pay, and 	a tel(885c), the taxes. So it pays the taxes, it returns
expenses, it is profitable. Literally here, "It is profitable for
him" (dative case, aut(9369)). Matthew has sumpherei (it is
advantageous, bears together for). {If a millstone were hanged}
(ei lithos mulikos perikeitai). Literally, "if a millstone is
hanged." Present passive indicative from perikeimai (to lie or
be placed around). It is used as a perfect passive of
peritith(886d)i. So it is a first-class condition, determined as
fulfilled, not second-class as the English translations imply.
Mulikos is simply a stone (lithos), belonging to a mill. Here
only in the text of Westcott and Hort, not in  Mr 9:42  which is
like  Mt 18:6  mulos onikos where the upper millstone is turned
by an ass, which see. {Were thrown} (erriptai). Perfect passive
indicative from 
hipt(935c), old verb. Literally, is thrown or has
been thrown or cast or hurled. Mark has ebl(8874)ai and Matthew
katapontisth(8869), which see, all three verbs vivid and
expressive. Rather than ((885c)). The comparative is not here
expressed before (885c) as one would expect. It is implied in
lusitelei. See the same idiom in  Lu 15:7 .

經文:

路加福音 17:3-17:3

註釋:

 {If thy brother sin} (ean hamart(8869)). Second aorist
(ingressive) subjunctive in condition of third class.

經文:

路加福音 17:4-17:4

註釋:

 {Seven times in a day} (heptakis t(8873) h(886d)eras). Seven times
within the day. On another occasion Peter's question ( Mt 18:21 )
brought Christ's answer "seventy times seven" (verse  22 ), which
see. Seven times during the day would be hard enough for the same
offender.

經文:

路加福音 17:5-17:5

註釋:

 {Increase} (prosthes). Second aorist active imperative of
prostith(886d)i, to add to. Bruce thinks that this sounds much like
the stereotyped petition in church prayers. A little reflection
will show that they should answer the prayer themselves.

經文:

路加福音 17:6-17:6

註釋:

 {If ye have} (ei echete). Condition of the first class,
assumed to be true. {Ye would say} (elegete an). Imperfect
active with an and so a conclusion (apodosis) of the second
class, determined as unfulfilled, a mixed condition therefore.
{Sycamine tree} (sukamin(9369)). At the present time both the black
mulberry (sycamine) and the white mulberry (sycamore) exist in
Palestine. Luke alone in the N.T. uses either word, the sycamine
here, the sycamore in  19:4 . The distinction is not observed in
the LXX, but it is observed in the late Greek medical writers for
both trees have medicinal properties. Hence it may be assumed
that Luke, as a physician, makes the distinction. Both trees
differ from the English sycamore. In  Mt 17:20  we have
"mountain" in place of "sycamine tree." {Be thou rooted up}
(ekriz(9374)h(8874)i). First aorist passive imperative as is
phuteuth(8874)i. {Would have obeyed} (hup(886b)ousen an). First
aorist active indicative with an, apodosis of a second-class
condition (note aorist tense here, imperfect elegete).

經文:

路加福音 17:7-17:7

註釋:

 {Sit down to meat} (anapese). Recline (for the meal).
Literally, fall up (or back).

經文:

路加福音 17:8-17:8

註釋:

 {And will not rather say} (all' ouk erei). {But will not
say?} Ouk in a question expects the affirmative answer. {Gird
thyself} (periz(9373)amenos). Direct middle first aorist participle
of periz(936e)numi, to gird around. {Till I have eaten and drunken}
(he(9373) phag(9320)kai pi(935c)). More exactly, till I eat and drink. The
second aorist subjunctives are not future perfects in any sense,
simply punctiliar action, effective aorist. {Thou shalt eat and
drink} (phagesai kai piesai). Future middle indicative second
person singular, the uncontracted forms -esai as often in the
_Koin(825f). These futures are from the aorist stems ephagon and
epion without _sigma_.

經文:

路加福音 17:9-17:9

註釋:

 {Does he thank?} (m(8820)echei charin;). M(885c) expects the
negative answer. Ech(9320)charin, to have gratitude toward one, is
an old Greek idiom ( 1Ti 1:12  2Ti 1:3  Heb 12:28 ).

經文:

路加福音 17:10-17:10

註釋:

 {Unprofitable} (achreioi). The Syriac Sinaitic omits
"unprofitable." The word is common in Greek literature, but in
the N.T. only here and  Mt 25:30  where it means "useless" (a
privative and chreios from chraomai, to use). The slave who
only does what he is commanded by his master to do has gained no
merit or credit. "In point of fact it is not commands, but
demands we have to deal with, arising out of special emergencies"
(Bruce). The slavish spirit gains no promotion in business life
or in the kingdom of God.

經文:

路加福音 17:11-17:11

註釋:

 {Through the midst of Samaria and Galilee} (dia meson
Samarias kai Galilaias). This is the only instance in the N.T.
of dia with the accusative in the local sense of "through."
Xenophon and Plato use dia mesou (genitive). Jesus was going
from Ephraim ( Joh 11:54 ) north through the midst of Samaria and
Galilee so as to cross over the Jordan near Bethshean and join
the Galilean caravan down through Perea to Jerusalem. The
Samaritans did not object to people going north away from
Jerusalem, but did not like to see them going south towards the
city ( Lu 9:51-56 ).

經文:

路加福音 17:12-17:12

註釋:

 {Which stood afar off} (hoi anest(8873)an porr(9374)hen). The
margin of Westcott and Hort reads simply est(8873)an. The compound
read by B means "rose up," but they stood at a distance ( Le
13:45f. ). The first healing of a leper ( 5:12-16 ) like this is
given by Luke only.

經文:

路加福音 17:13-17:13

註釋:

 {Lifted up} ((8872)an). First aorist active of the liquid
verb air(935c).

經文:

路加福音 17:14-17:14

註釋:

 {As they went} (en t(9369) hupagein autous). Favourite Lukan
idiom of en with articular infinitive as in  17:11  and often.

經文:

路加福音 17:16-17:16

註釋:

 {And he was a Samaritan} (kai autos (886e) Samareit(8873)). This
touch colours the whole incident. The one man who felt grateful
enough to come back and thank Jesus for the blessing was a
despised Samaritan. The autos has point here.

經文:

路加福音 17:18-17:18

註釋:

 {Save this stranger} (ei m(8820)ho allogen(8873)). The old word
was allophulos ( Ac 10:28 ), but allogen(8873) occurs in the LXX,
Josephus, and inscriptions. Deissmann (_Light from the Ancient
East_, p. 80) gives the inscription from the limestone block from
the Temple of Israel in Jerusalem which uses this very word which
may have been read by Jesus: {Let no foreigner enter within the
screen and enclosure surrounding the sanctuary} (M(8874)hena
allogen(8820)eisporeuesthai entos tou peri to hieron truphaktou kai
peribolou).

經文:

路加福音 17:20-17:20

註釋:

 {With observation} (meta parat(8873)e(9373)). Late Greek word
from parat(8872)e(935c), to watch closely. Only here in the N.T. Medical
writers use it of watching the symptoms of disease. It is used
also of close astronomical observations. But close watching of
external phenomena will not reveal the signs of the kingdom of
God.

經文:

路加福音 17:21-17:21

註釋:

 {Within you} (entos hum(936e)). This is the obvious, and, as
I think, the necessary meaning of entos. The examples cited of
the use of entos in Xenophon and Plato where entos means
"among" do not bear that out when investigated. Field (_Ot.
Norv_.) "contends that there is no clear instance of entos in
the sense of among" (Bruce), and rightly so. What Jesus says to
the Pharisees is that they, as others, are to look for the
kingdom of God within themselves, not in outward displays and
supernatural manifestations. It is not a localized display "Here"
or "There." It is in this sense that in  Lu 11:20  Jesus spoke of
the kingdom of God as "come upon you" (ephthasen eph' hum(8373)),
speaking to Pharisees. The only other instance of entos in the
N.T. ( Mt 23:26 ) necessarily means "within" ("the inside of the
cup"). There is, beside, the use of entos meaning "within" in
the Oxyrhynchus Papyrus saying of Jesus of the Third Century
(Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 426) which is
interesting: "The kingdom of heaven is within you" (entos hum(936e)
as here in  Lu 17:21 ).

經文:

路加福音 17:23-17:23

註釋:

 {Go not away nor follow after them} (m(8820)apelth(8874)e m(8864)e
di(9378)(8874)e). Westcott and Hort bracket apelth(8874)e m(8864)e. Note
aorist subjunctive with m(885c) in prohibition, ingressive aorist.
Do not rush after those who set times and places for the second
advent. The Messiah was already present in the first advent
(verse  21 ) though the Pharisees did not know it.

經文:

路加福音 17:24-17:24

註釋:

 {Lighteneth} (astraptousa). An old and common verb,
though only here and  24:4  in the N.T. The second coming will be
sudden and universally visible. There are still some poor souls
who are waiting in Jerusalem under the delusion that Jesus will
come there and nowhere else.

經文:

路加福音 17:25-17:25

註釋:

 {But first} (pr(9374)on de). The second coming will be only
after the Cross.

經文:

路加福音 17:27-17:27

註釋:

 {They ate, they drank, they married, they were given in
marriage} ((8873)thion, epinon, egamoun, egamizonto). Imperfects
all of them vividly picturing the life of the time of Noah. But
the other tenses are aorists (Noah entered eis(886c)then, the flood
came (886c)then, destroyed ap(936c)esen).

經文:

路加福音 17:28-17:28

註釋:

 Note the same sharp contrast between the imperfects here
({ate} (8873)thion, {drank} epinon, {bought} (8867)orazon, {sold}
ep(936c)oun, {planted} ephuteuon, {builded} (9369)kodomoun) and the
aorists in verse  29  ({went out} ex(886c)then, {rained} ebrexen,
{destroyed} ap(936c)esen).

經文:

路加福音 17:30-17:30

註釋:

 {Is revealed} (apokaluptetai). Prophetic and futuristic
present passive indicative.

經文:

路加福音 17:31-17:31

註釋:

 {Let him not go down} (m(8820)katabat(935c)). Second aorist active
imperative of katabain(935c) with m(885c) in a prohibition in the third
person singular. The usual idiom here would be m(885c) and the
aorist subjunctive. See  Mr 13:15f.  Mt 24:17f.  when these words
occur in the great eschatological discussion concerning flight
before the destruction of Jerusalem. Here the application is
"absolute indifference to all worldly interests as the attitude
of readiness for the Son of Man" (Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 17:32-17:32

註釋:

 {Remember Lot's wife} (mn(886d)oneuete t(8873) gunaikos L(9374)).
Here only in the N.T. A pertinent illustration to warn against
looking back with yearning after what has been left behind ( Ge
19:26 ).

經文:

路加福音 17:33-17:33

註釋:

 {Shall preserve it} (z(936f)gon(8873)ei aut(886e)). Or save it alive.
Here only in the N.T. except  1Ti 6:13  Ac 7:19 . It is a late
word and common in medical writers, to bring forth alive (z(936f)s,
gen(935c)) and here to keep alive.

經文:

路加福音 17:34-17:34

註釋:

 {In that night} (	aut(8869) t(8869) nukti). More vivid still, "on
this night," when Christ comes.

經文:

路加福音 17:35-17:35

註釋:

 {Shall be grinding} (esontai al(8874)housai). Periphrastic
future active indicative of al(8874)h(935c), an old verb only in the
N.T. here and  Mt 24:41 . {Together} (epi to auto). In the same
place, near together as in  Ac 2:1 .

經文:

路加福音 17:37-17:37

註釋:

 {The eagles} (hoi aetoi). Or the vultures attracted by
the carcass. This proverb is quoted also in  Mt 24:28 . See  Job
39:27-30  Heb 1:8  Ho 8:1 . Double compound (epi-sun-) in
epi-sun-achth(8873)ontai completes the picture.

經文:

路加福音 18:1-18:1

註釋:

 {To the end that} (pros to dein). {With a view to the
being necessary}, pros and the articular infinitive. The
impersonal verb dei here is in the infinitive and has another
infinitive loosely connected with it proseuchesthai, to pray.
{Not to faint} (m(8820)enkakein). Literally, not to give in to evil
(en, kake(935c), from kakos, bad or evil), to turn coward, lose
heart, behave badly. A late verb used several times in the N.T.
( 2Co 4:1,16,  etc.).

經文:

路加福音 18:2-18:2

註釋:

 Regarded not (m(8820)entrepomenos). Present middle participle
of entrep(935c), old verb, to turn one on himself, to shame one, to
reverence one. This was a "hard-boiled" judge who knew no one as
his superior. See on 烘t 21:37|.

經文:

路加福音 18:3-18:3

註釋:

 {Came oft} ((8872)cheto). Imperfect tense denotes repetitions,
no adverb for "oft" in the Greek. {Avenge me of} (ekdik(8873)on me
apo). A late verb for doing justice, protecting one from another
(note both ek and apo, here). Deissmann (_Light from the
Ancient East_, pp. 420ff.) quotes a st(886c)(885c) of the second century
B.C. with a prayer for vengeance for a Jewish girl that had been
murdered which has this very verb ekdike(935c).

經文:

路加福音 18:4-18:4

註釋:

 {He would not} (ouk (8874)helen). Imperfect tense of continued
refusal. {Though} (ei kai). Concerning sentence, not kai ei
(even if).

經文:

路加福音 18:5-18:5

註釋:

 {Yet} (ge). Delicate intensive particle of deep feeling as
here. {Because this widow troubleth me} (dia to parechein moi
kopon t(886e) ch(8872)an taut(886e)). Literally, because of the furnishing
me trouble as to this widow (accusative of general reference with
the articular infinitive). {Lest she wear me out} (hina m(880a)hup(9370)iaz(8869) me). Some take it that the judge is actually afraid
that the widow may come and assault him, literally beat him under
the eye. That idea would be best expressed here by the aorist
tense.

經文:

路加福音 18:6-18:6

註釋:

 {The unrighteous judge} (ho krit(8873) t(8873) adikias). The judge
of unrighteousness (marked by unrighteousness), as in  16:8  we
have "the steward of unrighteousness," the same idiom.

經文:

路加福音 18:7-18:7

註釋:

 {And he is longsuffering} (makrothumei). This present
active indicative comes in awkwardly after the aorist subjunctive
poi(8873)(8869) after ou m(885c), but this part of the question is
positive. Probably kai here means "and yet" as so often ( Joh
9:30  16:32 , etc.). God delays taking vengeance on behalf of his
people, not through indifference, but through patient
forbearance.

經文:

路加福音 18:8-18:8

註釋:

 {Howbeit} (pl(886e)). It is not clear whether this sentence is
also a question or a positive statement. There is no way to
decide. Either will make sense though not quite the same sense.
The use of (8372)a before heur(8873)ei seems to indicate a question
expecting a negative answer as in  Ac 8:30  Ro 14:19 . But here
(8372)a comes in the middle of the sentence instead of near the
beginning, an unusual position for either inferential (8372)a or
interrogative (8372)a. On the whole the interrogative (8372)a is
probably correct, meaning to question if the Son will find a
persistence of faith like that of the widow.

經文:

路加福音 18:9-18:9

註釋:

 {Set all others at naught} (exouthenountas tous loipous).
A late verb exouthene(935c), like oudene(935c), from outhen
(ouden), to consider or treat as nothing. In LXX and chiefly in
Luke and Paul in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 18:10-18:10

註釋:

 {Stood} (statheis). First aorist passive participle of
hist(886d)i. Struck an attitude ostentatiously where he could be
seen. Standing was the common Jewish posture in prayer ( Mt 6:5  Mr 11:25 ). {Prayed thus} (	auta pros(8875)cheto). Imperfect
middle, was praying these things (given following). {With
himself} (pros heauton). A soliloquy with his own soul, a
complacent recital of his own virtues for his own
self-satisfaction, not fellowship with God, though he addresses
God. {I thank thee} (eucharist(9320)soi). But his gratitude to God
is for his own virtues, not for God's mercies to him. One of the
rabbis offers a prayer like this of gratitude that he was in a
class by himself because he was a Jew and not a Gentile, because
he was a Pharisee and not of the _am-haaretz_ or common people,
because he was a man and not a woman. {Extortioners}
(harpages). An old word, harpax from same root as harpaz(935c),
to plunder. An adjective of only one gender, used of robbers and
plunderers, grafters, like the publicans ( Lu 3:13 ), whether
wolves ( Mt 7:15 ) or men ( 1Co 5:19f. ). The Pharisee cites the
crimes of which he is not guilty. {Or even} ((8820)kai). As the
climax of iniquity (Bruce), he points to "this publican."
Zaccheus will admit robbery ( Lu 19:8 ). {God} (ho theos).
Nominative form with the article as common with the vocative use
of 	heos (so verse  13  Joh 20:28 ).

經文:

路加福音 18:12-18:12

註釋:

 {Twice in the week} (dis tou sabbatou). One fast a year
was required by the law ( Le 16:29  Nu 29:7 ). The Pharisees
added others, twice a week between passover and pentecost, and
between tabernacles and dedication of the temple. {I get}
(kt(936d)ai). Present middle indicative, not perfect middle
kekt(886d)ai (I possess). He gave a tithe of his income, not of his
property.

經文:

路加福音 18:13-18:13

註釋:

 {Standing afar off} (makrothen hest(9373)). Second perfect
active participle of hist(886d)i, intransitive like statheis
above. But no ostentation as with the Pharisee in verse  11 . At
a distance from the Pharisee, not from the sanctuary. {Would not
lift} (ouk (8874)helen oude ep(8372)ai). Negatives (double) imperfect
of {thel(937d), was not willing even to lift up, refused to lift
(ep(8372)ai, first aorist active infinitive of the liquid compound
verb, ep-air(935c)). Smote (etupte). Imperfect active of 	upt(935c),
old verb, kept on smiting or beating. Worshippers usually lifted
up their closed eyes to God. {Be merciful} (hilasth(8874)i). First
aorist passive imperative of hilaskomai, an old verb, found
also in LXX and inscriptions (exhilaskomai, Deissmann, _Bible
Studies_, p. 224). {A sinner} (	(9369) hamart(936c)(9369)). The sinner, not
a sinner. It is curious how modern scholars ignore this Greek
article. The main point in the contrast lies in this article. The
Pharisee thought of others as sinners. The publican thinks of
himself alone as the sinner, not of others at all.

經文:

路加福音 18:14-18:14

註釋:

 {This man} (houtos). This despised publican referred to
contemptuously in verse  11  as "this" (houtos) publican.
{Rather than the other} (par' ekeinon). In comparison with
(placed beside) that one. A neat Greek idiom after the perfect
passive participle dedikaiomenos. {For} (hoti). This moral
maxim Christ had already used in  14:11 . Plummer pertinently
asks: "Why is it assumed that Jesus did not repeat his sayings?"

經文:

路加福音 18:15-18:15

註釋:

 {They brought} (prosepheron). Imperfect active, they were
bringing. So  Mr 10:13 . {Their babes} (	a breph(885c)). Old word
for {infants}. Here  Mr 10:13  Mt 19:13  have paidia (little
children). Note "also" (kai) in Luke, not in Mark and Matthew.
{That he should touch them} (hina aut(936e) hapt(8874)ai). Present
middle subjunctive (linear action, repeatedly touch or one after
the other), where  Mr 10:13  has aorist middle subjunctive
(haps(8874)ai). {Rebuked} (epetim(936e)). Imperfect indicative
active. Either inchoative began to rebuke, or continued, kept on
rebuking. Matthew and Mark have the aorist epetim(8873)an.

經文:

路加福音 18:16-18:16

註釋:

 {Called} (prosekalesato). Indirect middle aorist
indicative, called the children with their parents to himself and
then rebuked the disciples for their rebuke of the parents. The
language of Jesus is precisely that of  Mr 10:14  which see, and
nearly that of  Mt 19:14  which see also. The plea of Jesus that
children be allowed to come to him is one that many parents need
to heed. It is a tragedy to think of parents "forbidding" their
children or of preachers doing the same or of both being
stumbling-blocks to children.

經文:

路加福音 18:17-18:17

註釋:

 {As a little child} (h(9373) paidion). Jesus makes the child
the model for those who seek entrance into the kingdom of God,
not the adult the model for the child. He does not say that the
child is already in the kingdom without coming to him. Jesus has
made the child's world by understanding the child and opening the
door for him.

經文:

路加福音 18:18-18:18

註釋:

 {Ruler} (arch(936e)). Not in  Mr 10:17  Mt 19:16 . {What
shall I do to inherit?} (Ti poi(8873)as kl(8872)onom(8873)(933b)). "By doing
what shall I inherit?" Aorist active participle and future active
indicative. Precisely the same question is asked by the lawyer in
 Lu 10:25 . This young man probably thought that by some one act
he could obtain eternal life. He was ready to make a large
expenditure for it. {Good} (agathon). See on 烘r 10:17; Mt
19:16| for discussion of this adjective for absolute goodness.
Plummer observes that no Jewish rabbi was called "good" in direct
address. The question of Jesus will show whether it was merely
fulsome flattery on the part of the young man or whether he
really put Jesus on a par with God. He must at any rate define
his attitude towards Christ.

經文:

路加福音 18:22-18:22

註釋:

 {One thing thou lackest yet} (eti hen soi leipei).
Literally, one thing still fails thee or is wanting to thee. An
old verb with the dative of personal interest.  Mr 10:21  has
here husterei se, which see. It was an amazing compliment for
one who was aiming at perfection ( Mt 19:21 ). The youth
evidently had great charm and was sincere in his claims.
{Distribute} (diados). Second aorist active imperative of
diadid(936d)i (give to various ones, dia-). Here Mark and Matthew
simply have dos (give). The rest the same in all three Gospels.

經文:

路加福音 18:23-18:23

註釋:

 {Became} (egen(8874)h(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of
ginomai. Like his countenance fell (stugnasas), in  Mr
10:22 . {Exceedingly sorrowful} (perilupos). Old adjective
(peri, lup(885c)) with perfective use of peri. {Very rich}
(plousios sphodra). Rich exceedingly. Today, a
multimillionaire.

經文:

路加福音 18:24-18:24

註釋:

 {Shall they enter} (eisporeuontai). Present middle
indicative, futuristic present.

經文:

路加福音 18:25-18:25

註釋:

 {Through a needle's eye} (dia tr(886d)atos belon(8873)). Both
words are old. Tr(886d)a means a perforation or hole or eye and in
the N.T. only here and  Mt 19:24 . Belon(885c) means originally the
point of a spear and then a surgeon's needle. Here only in the
N.T.  Mr 10:25  Mt 19:24  have 
haphidos for needle. This is
probably a current proverb for the impossible. The Talmud twice
speaks of an elephant passing through the eye of a needle as
being impossible.

經文:

路加福音 18:26-18:26

註釋:

 {Then who} (kai tis). Literally, {and who}. The kai
calls attention to what has just been said. Wealth was assumed to
be mark of divine favour, not a hindrance to salvation.

經文:

路加福音 18:27-18:27

註釋:

 {The impossible with men possible with God} (	a adunata
para anthr(9370)ois dunata para t(9369) the(9369)). Paradoxical, but true.
Take your stand "beside" (para) God and the impossible becomes
possible. Clearly then Jesus meant the humanly impossible by the
parabolic proverb about the camel going through the needle's eye.
God can break the grip of gold on a man's life, but even Jesus
failed with this young ruler.

經文:

路加福音 18:28-18:28

註釋:

 {Our own} (	a idia). Our own things (home, business,
etc.). Right here is where so many fail. Peter speaks here not in
a spirit of boastfulness, but rather with his reactions from
their consternation at what has happened and at the words of
Jesus (Plummer).

經文:

路加福音 18:30-18:30

註釋:

 {Shall not receive} (ouchi m(8820)lab(8869)). Very strong double
negative with aorist active subjunctive of lamban(935c). {Manifold
more} (pollaplasiona). Late Greek word, here alone in the N.T.
save  Mt 19:29  where Westcott and Hort have it though many MSS.
there read hekatonplasiona (a hundredfold) as in  Mr 10:30 .

經文:

路加福音 18:31-18:31

註釋:

 {Took unto him} (paralab(936e)). Second aorist active
participle of paralamban(935c). Taking along with himself. So  Mr
10:32 .  Mt 20:17  adds kat' idian (apart). Jesus is making a
special point of explaining his death to the Twelve. {We go up}
(anabainomen). Present active indicative, we are going up.
{Unto the Son of man} (	(9369) hui(9369) tou anthr(9370)ou). Dative case of
personal interest. The position is amphibolous and the
construction makes sense either with "shall be accomplished"
(	elesth(8873)etai) or "that are written" (	a gegrammena),
probably the former. Compare these minute details of the prophecy
here (verses  32f. ) with the words in  Mr 10:33f.  Mt 20:18f. ,
which see.

經文:

路加福音 18:33-18:33

註釋:

 {The third day} (	(8869) h(886d)er(8369) t(8869) trit(8869)). The day the
third. In  Mt 20:19  it is "the third day" while in  Mr 10:34 
"after three days" occurs in the same sense, which see.

經文:

路加福音 18:34-18:34

註釋:

 {And they perceived not} (kai ouk egin(9373)kon). Imperfect
active. They kept on not perceiving. Twice already Luke has said
this in the same sentence. {They understood none of these things}
(ouden tout(936e) sun(886b)an). First aorist active indicative, a
summary statement. {This saying was hid from them} ((886e) to rh(886d)a
touto kekrummenon ap' aut(936e)). Past perfect passive indicative
(periphrastic), state of completion. It was a puzzling
experience. No wonder that Luke tries three times to explain the
continued failure of the apostles to understand Jesus. The words
of Christ about his death ran counter to all their hopes and
beliefs.

經文:

路加福音 18:35-18:35

註釋:

 {Unto Jericho} (eis Iereich(935c)). See on 烘t 20:29; Mr
10:46|, for discussion of the two Jerichos in Mark and Matt. (the
old and the new as here). {Begging} (epait(936e)). Asking for
something. He probably was by the wayside between the old Jericho
and the new Roman Jericho. Mark gives his name Bartimaeus
( 10:46 ).  Mt 20:30  mentions two.

經文:

路加福音 18:36-18:36

註釋:

 {Inquired} (epunthaneto). Imperfect middle. Repeatedly
inquired as he heard the tramp of the passing crowd going by
(diaporeuomenou). {What this meant} (Ti ei(8820)touto).
Literally, What it was. Without an the optative is due to
indirect discourse, changed from estin. With an (margin of
Westcott and Hort) the potential optative of the direct discourse
is simply retained.

經文:

路加福音 18:37-18:37

註釋:

 {Passeth by} (parerchetai). Present middle indicative
retained in indirect discourse as paragei is in  Mt 20:30 . No
reason for differences of English tenses in the two passages (was
passing by, passeth by).

經文:

路加福音 18:38-18:38

註釋:

 {He cried} (ebo(8873)en). Old verb, oa(935c), to shout, as in
 9:38 . {Son of David} (huie Daueid). Shows that he recognizes
Jesus as the Messiah.

經文:

路加福音 18:39-18:39

註釋:

 {That he should hold his peace} (hina sig(8873)(8869)).
Ingressive aorist subjunctive. That he should become silent; as
with hina si(9370)(8873)(8869) in  Mr 10:48 . {The more a great deal}
(poll(9369) m(836c)lon). By much more as in  Mr 10:48 .

經文:

路加福音 18:40-18:40

註釋:

 {Stood} (statheis). First aorist passive where  Mr 10:49  Mt 20:32  have stas (second aorist active) translated "stood
still." One is as "still" as the other. The first is that Jesus "
stopped." {Be brought} (achth(886e)ai). First aorist infinitive in
indirect command.

經文:

路加福音 18:41-18:41

註釋:

 {What wilt thou that I should do unto thee?} (Ti soi
theleis poi(8873)(933b)). Same idiom in  Mr 10:51  Mt 20:32  which see,
the use of 	hel(935c) without hina with aorist subjunctive (or
future indicative). See same references also for hina anableps(935c)
"that I may see again" without verb before hina. Three uses of
anablep(935c) here (verses  41,42,43 ).

經文:

路加福音 18:43-18:43

註釋:

 {Followed} ((886b)olouthei). Imperfect active as in  Mr
10:52 . Either inchoative he began to follow, or descriptive, he
was following.

經文:

路加福音 19:1-19:1

註釋:

 {Was passing through} (di(8872)cheto). Imperfect middle. Now
Jesus was inside the Roman Jericho with the procession.

經文:

路加福音 19:2-19:2

註釋:

 {Chief publican} (architel(936e)(8873)). The word occurs nowhere
else apparently but the meaning is clear from the other words
with archi- like archiereus (chief priest) archipoim(886e)
(chief shepherd). Jericho was an important trading point for
balsam and other things and so Zacchaeus was the head of the tax
collections in this region, a sort of commissioner of taxes who
probably had other publicans serving under him.

經文:

路加福音 19:3-19:3

註釋:

 {He sought} (ez(8874)ei). Imperfect active. He was seeking,
conative idea. {Jesus who he was} (I(8873)oun tis estin).
Prolepsis, to see who Jesus was. He had heard so much about him.
He wanted to see which one of the crowd was Jesus. {For the
crowd} (apo tou ochlou). He was short and the crowd was thick
and close. {Stature} (	(8869) h(886c)iki(8369)). No doubt of that meaning
here and possibly so in  2:52 . Elsewhere "age" except  Lu 12:25  Mt 6:27  where it is probably "stature" also.

經文:

路加福音 19:4-19:4

註釋:

 {Ran on before} (prodram(936e) eis to emprosthen). Second
aorist active participle of protrech(935c) (defective verb).
"Before" occurs twice (pro- and eis to emprosthen). {Into a
sycamore tree} (epi sukomorean). From sukon, fig, and
moron, mulberry. The fig-mulberry and quite a different tree
from the sycamine tree in  17:6 , which see. It bore a poor fruit
which poor people ate ( Am 7:14 ). It was a wide open tree with
low branches so that Zacchaeus could easily climb into it. {That
way} (ekein(8873)). Feminine for hodos (way) is understood.
Genitive case with di in composition (dierchesthai) or as an
adverbial use.

經文:

路加福音 19:5-19:5

註釋:

 {Make haste and come down} (speusas katab(8874)hi).
Simultaneous aorist active participle (speusas) with the second
aorist active imperative. "Come down in a hurry."

經文:

路加福音 19:6-19:6

註釋:

 {He made haste and came down} (speusas kateb(885c)). Luke
repeats the very words of Jesus with the same idiom. {Received
him joyfully} (hupedexato auton chair(936e)). The very verb used of
Martha's welcome to Jesus ( 10:38 ). "Joyfully" is the present
active participle, "rejoicing" (chair(936e)).

經文:

路加福音 19:7-19:7

註釋:

 {Murmured} (diegogguzonto). Imperfect middle of this
compound onomatopoetic word dia-gogguz(935c). In  Lu 5:30  we have
the simple gogguz(935c), a late word like the cooing doves or the
hum of bees. This compound with dia- is still rarer, but more
expressive. {To lodge} (katalusai). Jesus was the hero of this
crowd from Galilee on their way to the passover. But here he had
shocked their sensibilities and those of the people of Jericho by
inviting himself to be the guest of this chief publican and
notorious sinner who had robbed nearly everybody in the city by
exorbitant taxes.

經文:

路加福音 19:8-19:8

註釋:

 {Stood} (statheis). Apparently Jesus and Zacchaeus had
come to the house of Zacchaeus and were about to enter when the
murmur became such a roar that Zacchaeus turned round and faced
the crowd. {If I have wrongfully exacted aught of any man} (ei
tinos ti esukophant(8873)a). A most significant admission and
confession. It is a condition of the first class (ei and the
aorist active indicative) that assumes it to be true. His own
conscience was at work. He may have heard audible murmurs from
the crowd. For the verb sukophantein, see discussion on 氨:14|,
the only two instances in the N.T. He had extorted money
wrongfully as they all knew. {I return fourfold} (apodid(936d)i
tetraploun). I offer to do it here and now on this spot. This
was the Mosaic law ( Ex 22:1  Nu 5:6f. ). Restitution is good
proof of a change of heart. D. L. Moody used to preach it with
great power. Without this the offer of Zacchaeus to give half his
goods to the poor would be less effective. "It is an odd
coincidence, nothing more, that the fig-mulberry (sycamore)
should occur in connexion with the _fig_-shewer (sycophant)."

經文:

路加福音 19:10-19:10

註釋:

 {The lost} (	o apol(936c)os). The neuter as a collective
whole, second perfect active participle of apollumi, to
destroy. See  Lu 15  for the idea of the lost.

經文:

路加福音 19:11-19:11

註釋:

 {He added and spake} (prostheis eipen). Second aorist
active participle of prostith(886d)i with eipen. It is a Hebrew
idiom seen also in  Lu 20:1f.  he added to send (prosetheto
pempsai) and in  Ac 12:3  "he added to seize" (prosetheto
sullabein). This undoubted Hebraism occurs in the N.T. in Luke
only, probably due to the influence of the LXX on Luke the Greek
Christian. {To appear} (anaphainesthai). Present passive
infinitive of an old verb to be made manifest, to be shown up. In
the N.T. only here and  Ac 21:3 .

經文:

路加福音 19:12-19:12

註釋:

 {To take to himself a kingdom} (labein heaut(9369)
basileian). Second aorist active infinitive of lamban(935c) with
the dative reflexive heaut(9369) where the middle voice could have
been used. Apparently this parable has the historical basis of
Archelaus who actually went from Jerusalem to Rome on this very
errand to get a kingdom in Palestine and to come back to it. This
happened while Jesus was a boy in Nazareth and it was a matter of
common knowledge.

經文:

路加福音 19:13-19:13

註釋:

 {Trade ye herewith till I come} (pragmateusasthe en h(9369)
erchomai). First aorist middle imperative of pragmateuomai, an
old verb from pr(8367)ma, business. Here only in the N.T. Westcott
and Hort in their text read pragmateusasthai, first aorist
middle infinitive (-ai and -e were pronounced alike). The
infinitive makes it indirect discourse, the imperative direct.
{While I am coming} is what en h(9369) erchomai really means.

經文:

路加福音 19:14-19:14

註釋:

 {His citizens} (hoi politai autou). That actually
happened with Archelaus.

經文:

路加福音 19:15-19:15

註釋:

 {When he was come back again} (en t(9369) epanelthein auton).
"On the coming back again as to him." Luke's favourite idiom of
the articular infinitive after en and with the accusative of
general reference. {Had given} (ded(936b)ei). Past perfect active
indicative without augment of did(936d)i. {That he might know}
(hina gnoi). Second aorist active subjunctive of ginosk(935c). The
optative would be gnoi(885c).

經文:

路加福音 19:16-19:16

註釋:

 {Hath made} (pros(8872)gasato). Only here in the N.T. Note
pros- in addition, besides, more.

經文:

路加福音 19:17-19:17

註釋:

 {Have thou authority} (isthi exousian ech(936e)).
Periphrastic present active imperative. Keep on having authority.

經文:

路加福音 19:19-19:19

註釋:

 {Be thou also over} (kai su epano ginou). Present middle
imperative. Keep on becoming over. There is no real reason for
identifying this parable of the pounds with the parable of the
talents in  Mt 25 . The versatility of Jesus needs to be
remembered by those who seek to flatten out everything.

經文:

路加福音 19:20-19:20

註釋:

 {I kept} (eichon). Imperfect active of ech(935c). I kept on
keeping. {Laid up} (apokeimen(886e)). Present passive participle
agreeing with h(886e) (which), used often as perfect passive of
	ith(886d)i as here, laid away or off (apo). It is not the
periphrastic construction, but two separate verbs, each with its
own force. {In a napkin} (en soudari(9369)). A Latin word
_sudarium_ from _sudor_ (sweat) transliterated into Greek, a
sweatcloth handkerchief or napkin. Found in papyrus marriage
contracts as part of the dowry (second and third centuries A.D.,
Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 223). Used also for swathing the
head of the dead ( Joh 11:44  20:7 ).

經文:

路加福音 19:21-19:21

註釋:

 {I feared} (ephoboum(886e)). Imperfect middle, I continued to
fear. {Austere} (aust(8872)os). Old Greek word from au(935c), to dry
up. Reproduced in Latin _austeros_ and English _austere_. It
means rough to the taste, stringent. Here only in the N.T.
Compare skl(8872)os (hard) in  Mt 25:24 . "Harsh in flavour, then
in disposition" (Bruce). {Thou layedst not down} (ouk eth(886b)as).
Probably a proverb for a grasping profiteer.

經文:

路加福音 19:22-19:22

註釋:

 {Thou knewest} ((8869)deis). Second past perfect of hora(935c),
to see, used as imperfect of oida, to know. Either it must be
taken as a question as Westcott and Hort do or be understood as
sarcasm as the Revised Version has it. The words of the wicked
(pon(8872)os) slave are turned to his own condemnation.

經文:

路加福音 19:23-19:23

註釋:

 {Then wherefore} (kai dia ti). Note this inferential use
of kai- in that case. {Into the bank} (epi trapezan).
Literally, {upon a table}. This old word 	rapeza, from
	etrapeza (	etra, four, pous, foot). It means then any
table ( Mr 7:28 ), food on the table ( Ac 16:34 ), feast or
banquet ( Ro 11:9 ), table of the money-changers ( Joh 2:15  Mr
11:15  Mt 21:12 ), or bank as here. Our word bank is from Old
English _bench_. {With interest} (sun tok(9369)). Not usury, but
proper and legal interest. Old word from 	ikt(935c), to bring forth.
In the N.T. only here and  Mt 25:27 . {Should have required it}
(an auto epraxa). Conclusion of second-class condition the
condition or apodosis being implied in the participle "coming"
(elth(936e)), and the previous question. On this technical use of
prass(935c) (epraxa) see  Lu 3:13 .

經文:

路加福音 19:25-19:25

註釋:

 {And they said unto him} (kai eipan aut(9369)). Probably the
eager audience who had been listening to this wonderful parable
interrupted Jesus at this point because of this sudden turn when
the one pound is given to the man who has ten pounds. If so, it
shows plainly how keenly they followed the story which Jesus was
giving because of their excitement about the kingdom ( Lu
19:11 ).

經文:

路加福音 19:26-19:26

註釋:

 {That hath not} (	ou m(8820)echontos). The present tense of
ech(935c) here, that keeps on not having, probably approaches the
idea of acquiring or getting, the one who keeps on not acquiring.
This is the law of nature and of grace.

經文:

路加福音 19:27-19:27

註釋:

 {Reign} (asileusai). First aorist active infinitive,
ingressive aorist, come to rule. {Slay} (katasphaxate). First
aorist active imperative of katasphaz(935c), to slaughter, an old
verb, but only here in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 19:28-19:28

註釋:

 {Went on before} (eporeueto emprosthen). Imperfect
middle. Jesus left the parable to do its work and slowly went on
his way up the hill to Jerusalem.

經文:

路加福音 19:29-19:29

註釋:

 {Unto Bethphage and Bethany} (eis B(8874)hphag(8820)kai
B(8874)hania). Both indeclinable forms of the Hebrew or Aramaic
names. In  Mr 11:1  "Bethany" is inflected regularly, which see.
{Of Olives} (Elai(936e)). As in  Mr 11:1  Mt 21:1 , though some
editors take it to be, not the genitive plural of elaia (olive
tree), but the name of the place Olivet. In the Greek it is just
a matter of accent (circumflex or acute) Olivet is correct in  Ac
1:12 . See on 烘t 21:1ff.; Mr 11:1ff.| for details.

經文:

路加福音 19:30-19:30

註釋:

 {Whereon no man ever yet sat} (eph' hon oudeis p(9370)ote
anthr(9370)(936e) ekathisen). Plummer holds that this fact indicated to
the disciples a royal progress into the city of a piece with the
Virgin Birth of Jesus and the burial in a new tomb.

經文:

路加福音 19:32-19:32

註釋:

 {As he had said unto them} (kath(9373) eipen autois). Luke
alone notes this item.

經文:

路加福音 19:33-19:33

註釋:

 {As they were loosing} (luont(936e) aut(936e)). Genitive
absolute. {The owners thereof} (hoi kurioi autou). The same
word kurios used of the Lord Jesus in verse  31  (and  34 ) and
which these "owners" would understand. See on 烘t 21:3; Mr 11:3|
for kurios used by Jesus about himself with the expectation
that these disciples would recognize him by that title as they
did. The word in common use for the Roman emperor and in the LXX
to translate the Hebrew _Elohim_ (God).

經文:

路加福音 19:35-19:35

註釋:

 {Set Jesus thereon} (epebibasan ton I(8873)oun). First aorist
active. Old verb, to cause to mount, causative verb from ain(935c),
to go. In the N.T. only here and  Lu 10:34  Ac 23:24 .

經文:

路加福音 19:36-19:36

註釋:

 {They spread} (hupestr(936e)nuon). Imperfect active
describing the continued spreading as they went on.
Hupostr(936e)nu(935c) is a late form of the old verb hupostorennumi.
Here only in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 19:37-19:37

註釋:

 {At the descent} (pros t(8869) katabasei). Epexegetic of
"drawing nigh." They were going by the southern slope of the
Mount of Olives. As they turned down to the city, the grand view
stirred the crowd to rapturous enthusiasm. This was the first
sight of the city on this route which is soon obscured in the
descent. The second view bursts out again (verse  41 ). It was a
shout of triumph from the multitude with their long pent-up
enthusiasm (verse  11 ), restrained no longer by the parable of
the pounds. {For all the mighty works which they had seen} (peri
pas(936e) eidon duname(936e)). Neat Greek idiom, incorporation of the
antecedent (duname(936e)) into the relative clause and attraction
of the case of the relative from the accusative has to the
genitive h(936e). And note "all." The climax had come, Lazarus,
Bartimaeus, and the rest.

經文:

路加福音 19:38-19:38

註釋:

 {The king cometh} (ho erchomenos, ho basileus). The
Messianic hopes of the people were now all ablaze with
expectation of immediate realization. A year ago in Galilee he
had frustrated their plans for a revolutionary movement "to take
him by force to make him king" ( Joh 6:15 ). The phrase "the
coming king" like "the coming prophet" ( Joh 6:14  De 18:15 )
expressed the hope of the long-looked-for Messiah. They are
singing from the Hallel in their joy that Jesus at last is making
public proclamation of his Messiahship. {Peace in heaven, and
glory in the highest} (en ouran(9369) eir(886e)(8820)kai doxa en
hupsistois). This language reminds one strongly of the song of
the angels at the birth of Jesus ( Lu 2:14 ).  Mr 11:10  Mt 21:9 
have "Hosannah in the highest."

經文:

路加福音 19:39-19:39

註釋:

 {Some of the Pharisees} (	ines t(936e) Pharisai(936e)). Luke
seems to imply by "from the multitude" (apo tou ochlou) that
these Pharisees were in the procession, perhaps half-hearted
followers of the mob. But  Joh 12:19  speaks of Pharisees who
stood off from the procession and blamed each other for their
failure and the triumph of Jesus. These may represent the bolder
spirits of their same group who dared to demand of Jesus that he
rebuke his disciples.

經文:

路加福音 19:40-19:40

註釋:

 {If these shall hold their peace} (ean houtoi
si(9370)(8873)ousin). A condition of the first class, determined as
fulfilled. The use of ean rather than ei cuts no figure in
the case (see  Ac 8:31  1Th 3:8  1Jo 5:15 ). The kind of
condition is determined by the mode which is here indicative. The
future tense by its very nature does approximate the aorist
subjunctive, but after all it is the indicative. {The stones will
cry out} (hoi lithoi kraxousin). A proverb for the impossible
happening.

經文:

路加福音 19:41-19:41

註釋:

 {Wept} (eklausen). Ingressive aorist active indicative,
burst into tears. Probably audible weeping.

經文:

路加福音 19:42-19:42

註釋:

 {If thou hadst known} (ei egn(9373)). Second aorist active
indicative of gin(9373)k(935c). Second-class condition, determined as
unfulfilled. {Even thou} (kai su). Emphatic position of the
subject. {But now} (
un de). Aposiopesis. The conclusion is not
expressed and the sudden breaking off and change of structure is
most impressive. {They are hid} (ekrub(885c)). Second aorist passive
indicative of krupt(935c), common verb, to hide.

經文:

路加福音 19:43-19:43

註釋:

 {Shall cast up a bank} (parembalousin charaka). Future
active indicative of paremball(935c), a double compound (para, en,
ball(935c)) of long usage, finally in a military sense of line of
battle or in camp. Here alone in the N.T. So also the word
charaka (charax) for bank, stake, palisade, rampart, is here
alone in the N.T., though common enough in the old Greek.
{Compass thee round} (perikukl(9373)ousin se). Future active
indicative. Another common compound to make a circle (kuklos)
around (peri), though here only in the N.T. {Keep thee in}
(sunexousin se). Shall hold thee together on every side
(pantothen). See about sunech(935c) on  4:38 .

經文:

路加福音 19:44-19:44

註釋:

 {Shall dash to the ground} (edaphiousin). Attic future of
edaphiz(935c), to beat level, to raze to the ground, a rare verb
from edaphos, bottom, base, ground ( Ac 22:7 ), here alone in
the N.T. {Because} (anth' h(936e)). "In return for which things."
{Thou knewest not} (ouk egn(9373)). Applying the very words of the
lament in the condition in verse  42 . This vivid prophecy of the
destruction of Jerusalem is used by those who deny predictive
prophecy even for Jesus as proof that Luke wrote the Gospel after
the destruction of Jerusalem. But it is no proof at all to those
who concede to Jesus adequate knowledge of his mission and
claims.

經文:

路加福音 19:45-19:45

註釋:

 {Began to cast out} ((8872)xato ekballein). So  Mr 11:15 
whereas  Mt 21:12  has simply "he cast out." See Mark and Matthew
for discussion of this second cleansing of the temple at the
close of the public ministry in relation to the one at the
beginning in  Joh 2:14-22 . There is nothing gained by accusing
John or the Synoptics of a gross chronological blunder. There was
abundant time in these three years for all the abuses to be
revived.

經文:

路加福音 19:47-19:47

註釋:

 {He was teaching} ((886e) didask(936e)). Periphrastic imperfect.
{Daily} (	o kath' h(886d)eran). Note the accusative neuter article,
"as to the according to the day," very awkward English surely,
but perfectly good Greek. The same idiom occurs in  11:3 .
{Sought} (ez(8874)oun). Imperfect active, conative imperfect, were
seeking, trying to seek. {The principal men of the people} (hoi
pr(9374)oi tou laou). The first men of the people. The position
after the verb and apart from the chief priests and the scribes
calls special attention to them. Some of these "first men" were
chief priests or scribes, but not all of them. The lights and
leaders of Jerusalem were bent on the destruction (apolesai) of
Jesus. The raising of Lazarus from the dead brought them together
for this action ( Joh 11:47-53  12:9-11 ).

經文:

路加福音 19:48-19:48

註釋:

 {They could not find} (ouch h(8875)riskon). Imperfect active.
They kept on not finding. {What they might do} (	o ti
poi(8873)(9373)in). First aorist active deliberative subjunctive in a
direct question retained in the indirect. Note the article 	o
(neuter accusative) with the question. {Hung upon him}
(exekremeto autou). Imperfect middle of ekkremamai, an old
verb (mi form) to hang from, here only in the N.T. The form is
an omega form from ekkremomai, a constant tendency to the
omega form in the _Koin(825f). It pictures the whole nation (save
the leaders in verse  47 ) hanging upon the words of Jesus as if
in suspense in mid-air, rapt attention that angered these same
leaders. Tyndale renders it "stuck by him."

經文:

路加福音 20:1-20:1

註釋:

 {On one of the days} (en mi(8369) t(936e) h(886d)er(936e)). Luke's
favourite way of indicating time. It was the last day of the
temple teaching (Tuesday).  Lu 20:1-19  is to be compared with
 Mr 11:27-12:12  Mt 21:23-46 . {There came upon him}
(epest(8873)an). Second aorist active indicative, ingressive aorist
of ephist(886d)i, old and common verb, stood up against him, with
the notion of sudden appearance. These leaders (cf.  19:47 ) had
determined to attack Jesus on this morning, both Sadducees (chief
priests) and Pharisees (scribes), a formal delegation from the
Sanhedrin.

經文:

路加福音 20:2-20:2

註釋:

 {Tell us} (eipon h(886d)in). Luke adds these words to what
Mark and Matthew have. Second aorist active imperative for the
old form eipe and with ending -on of the first aorist active.
Westcott and Hort punctuate the rest of the sentence as an
indirect question after eipon, but the Revised Version puts a
semicolon after "us" and retains the direct question. The Greek
manuscripts have no punctuation.

經文:

路加福音 20:3-20:3

註釋:

 {Question} (logon). Literally, word. So in  Mr 11:29  Mt
21:24 .

經文:

路加福音 20:5-20:5

註釋:

 {They reasoned with themselves} (sunelogisanto). First
aorist middle of sullogizomai, to bring together accounts, an
old word, only here in the N.T. Mark and Matthew have
dielogizonto (imperfect middle of dialogizomai, a kindred
verb, to reckon between one another, confer). This form
(dielogizonto) in verse  14  below. {If we shall say} (ean
eip(936d)en). Third-class condition with second aorist active
subjunctive. Suppose we say! So in verse  6 .

經文:

路加福音 20:6-20:6

註釋:

 {Will stone us} (katalithasei). Late verb and here only in
the N.T. Literally, will throw stones down on us, stone us down,
overwhelm us with stones. {They be persuaded} (pepeismenos
estin). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of peith(935c), to
persuade, a settled state of persuasion, "is persuaded" (no
reason for use of "be" here). {That John was a prophet} (I(9361)n(886e)
proph(8874)(886e) einai). Accusative and infinitive in indirect
assertion.

經文:

路加福音 20:7-20:7

註釋:

 {That they knew not} (m(8820)eidenai). Accusative and
infinitive in indirect assertion again with the negative m(885c)
rather than ou.

經文:

路加福音 20:9-20:9

註釋:

 {Vineyard} (ampel(936e)a). Late word from ampelos (vine),
place of vines. So in  Mr 12:1  Mt 21:33 . {Let it out}
(exedeto). Second aorist middle of ekdid(936d)i, but with
variable vowel e in place of o of the stem do (exedoto).
Same form in Mark and Matthew. {For a long time} (chronous
hikanous). Accusative of extent of time, considerable times or
periods of time. Not in Mark and Matthew, though all three have
aped(886d)(8873)en (went off from home). See on 烊u 7:6| for hikanos.

經文:

路加福音 20:10-20:10

註釋:

 {At the season} (kair(9369)). The definite season for the
fruit like ho kairos t(936e) karp(936e) ( Mt 21:34 ). That they should
give (hina d(9373)ousin). Future indicative with hina for purpose
like the aorist subjunctive, though not so frequent.

經文:

路加福音 20:11-20:11

註釋:

 {He sent yet another} (prosetheto heteron pempsai).
Literally, {he added to send another}. A clear Hebraism repeated
in verse  12  and also in  19:11 .

經文:

路加福音 20:12-20:12

註釋:

 {They wounded} (	raumatisantes). First aorist active
participle of 	raumatiz(935c). An old verb, from 	rauma, a wound,
but in the N.T. only here and  Ac 19:16 .

經文:

路加福音 20:13-20:13

註釋:

 {What shall I do?} (Ti poi(8873)(933b)). Deliberative future
indicative or aorist subjunctive (same form). This detail only in
Luke. Note the variations in all three Gospels. All three have
"will reverence" (entrap(8873)ontai) for which see Matthew and
Mark. {It may be} (is(9373)). Perhaps, from isos, equal. Old
adverb, but only here in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 20:14-20:14

註釋:

 {That the inheritance may be ours} (hina h(886d)(936e) gen(8874)ai h(880a)kl(8872)onomia). That the inheritance may become (gen(8874)ai, second
aorist middle subjunctive of ginomai). Here  Mt 21:39  has
sch(936d)en "let us get, ingressive aorist active subjunctive." Cf.
ech(936d)en, present subjunctive of the same verb ech(935c) in  Ro
5:1  Mr 12:7  has "and it will be ours" (estai).

經文:

路加福音 20:16-20:16

註釋:

 {God forbid} (m(8820)genoito). Optative of wish about the
future with m(885c). Literally, {may it not happen}. No word "God"
in the Greek. This was the pious protest of the defeated members
of the Sanhedrin who began to see the turn of the parable against
themselves.

經文:

路加福音 20:17-20:17

註釋:

 {He looked upon them} (emblepsas autois). Not in Mark and
Matthew. First aorist active participle of emblep(935c), to look on.
It was a piercing glance. The scripture quoted is from  Ps
118:22  and is in  Mr 11:10  Mt 21:42 , which see for the
inverted attraction of the case lithon (stone) to that of the
relative hon (which).

經文:

路加福音 20:18-20:18

註釋:

 {Shall be broken to pieces} (sunthlasth(8873)etai). Future
passive indicative of sunthla(935c), a rather late compound, only
here in the N.T. unless  Mt 21:44  is genuine. It means to
shatter. {Will scatter him as dust} (likm(8873)ei). From likma(935c),
an old verb to winnow and then to grind to powder. Only here in
the N.T. unless in  Mt 21:44  is genuine, which see.

經文:

路加福音 20:19-20:19

註釋:

 {To lay hands on him} (epibalein ep' auton tas cheiras).
Second aorist active infinitive of epiball(935c), an old verb and
either transitively as here or intransitively as in  Mr 4:37 .
Vivid picture here where  Mr 12:12  Mt 21:46  has "to seize"
(krat(8873)ai). {In that very hour} (en aut(8869) t(8869) h(9372)(8369)). Luke's
favourite idiom, in the hour itself. Not in Mark or Matthew and
shows that the Sanhedrin were angry enough to force the climax
then. {And they feared} (kai ephob(8874)h(8873)an). Adversative use of
kai = but they feared. Hence they refrained. {For they
perceived} (egn(9373)an gar). The reason for their rage. Second
aorist active indicative of gin(9373)k(935c). {Against them} (pros
autous). As in  Mr 12:12 . The cap fitted them and they saw it.

經文:

路加福音 20:20-20:20

註釋:

 {They watched him} (parat(8872)(8873)antes). First aorist active
participle of parat(8872)e(935c), a common Greek verb to watch on the
side or insidiously or with evil intent as in  Lu 6:7 
(paret(8872)ounto) of the scribes and Pharisees. See on 烘r 3:2|.
There is no "him" in the Greek. They were watching their chance.
{Spies} (enkathetous). An old verbal adjective from
enkathi(886d)i, to send down in or secretly. It means liers in wait
who are suborned to spy out, one who is hired to trap one by
crafty words. Only here in the N.T. {Feigned themselves}
(hupokrinomenous heautous). Hypocritically professing to be
"righteous" (dikaious). "They posed as scrupulous persons with
a difficulty of conscience" (Plummer). {That they might take hold
of his speech} (hina epilab(936e)tai autou logou). Second aorist
middle of epilamban(935c), an old verb for seizing hold with the
hands and uses as here the genitive case. These spies are for the
purpose of (hina) catching hold of the talk of Jesus if they
can get a grip anywhere. This is their direct purpose and the
ultimate purpose or result is also stated, "so as to deliver him
up" (h(9373)te paradounai auton). Second aorist active infinitive
of paradid(936d)i, to hand over, to give from one's side to
another. The trap is all set now and ready to be sprung by these
"spies." {Of the governor} (	ou h(8867)emonos). The Sanhedrin knew
that Pilate would have to condemn Jesus if he were put to death.
So then all their plans focus on this point as the goal. Luke
alone mentions this item here.

經文:

路加福音 20:21-20:21

註釋:

 {Rightly} (orth(9373)). Matthew ( Mt 22:16 ) notes that these
"spies" were "disciples" (students) of the Pharisees and Mark
( Mr 12:13 ) adds that the Herodians are also involved in the
plot. These bright theologues are full of palaver and flattery
and openly endorse the teaching of Jesus as part of their scheme.
{Acceptest not the person of any} (ou lambaneis pros(9370)on). Dost
not take the face (or personal appearance) as the test. It is a
Hebraism from which the word pros(9370)olempsia ( Jas 2:1 ) comes.
Originally it meant to lift the face, to lift the countenance, to
regard the face, to accept the face value. See  Mr 12:13-17  Mt
22:15-22  for discussion of details here. They both have
lepeis here.

經文:

路加福音 20:22-20:22

註釋:

 {Tribute} (phoron). Old word for the annual tax on land,
houses, etc. Mark and Matthew have k(886e)son, which see for this
Latin word in Greek letters. The picture on the coin may have
been that of Tiberius.

經文:

路加福音 20:23-20:23

註釋:

 {Perceived} (katano(8873)as). From katanoe(935c), to put the
mind down on. Mark has eid(9373), "knowing," and Matthew gnous,
coming to know or grasping (second aorist active participle of
gin(9373)k(935c)). {Craftiness} (panourgian). Old word for doing any
deed. Matthew has "wickedness" (pon(8872)ian) and Mark "hypocrisy"
(hupokrisin). Unscrupulous they certainly were. They would
stoop to any trick and go the limit.

經文:

路加福音 20:26-20:26

註釋:

 {They were not able} (ouk ischusan). They did not have
strength. An old verb ischu(935c) from ischus (strength). They
failed "to take hold (cf. verse  20 ) of the saying before the
people." These "crack" students had made an ignominious failure
and were not able to make a case for the surrender of Jesus to
Pilate. He had slipped through their net with the utmost ease.
{Held their peace} (esig(8873)an). Ingressive aorist active of
siga(935c). They became silent as they went back with the "dry
grins."

經文:

路加福音 20:27-20:27

註釋:

 {There is no resurrection} (anastasin m(8820)einai).
Accusative and infinitive with negative m(885c) in indirect
assertion. The Sadducees rally after the complete discomfiture of
the Pharisees and Herodians. They had a stock conundrum with
which they had often gotten a laugh on the Pharisees. So they
volunteer to try it on Jesus. For discussion of details here see
on 烘t 22:23-33; Mr 12:18-27|. Only a few striking items remain
for Luke.

經文:

路加福音 20:33-20:33

註釋:

 {Had her} (eschon). Constative second aorist indicative
of ech(935c) including all seven seriatim. So  Mt 22:28  Mr 12:33 
{To wife} (gunaika). As wife, accusative in apposition with
"her."

經文:

路加福音 20:36-20:36

註釋:

 {Equal unto the angels} (isaggeloi). A rare and late word
from isos, equal, and aggelos. Only here in the N.T. Mark and
Matthew have "as angels" (h(9373) aggeloi). Angels do not marry,
there is no marriage in heaven. {Sons of God, being sons of the
resurrection} (huioi theou t(8873) anastase(9373) huioi ontes). This
Hebraistic phrase, "sons of the resurrection" defines "sons of
God" and is a direct answer to the Sadducees.

經文:

路加福音 20:37-20:37

註釋:

 {Even Moses} (kai M(9375)s(8873)). Moses was used by the
Sadducees to support their denial of the resurrection. This
passage ( Ex 3:6 ) Jesus skilfully uses as a proof of the
resurrection. See discussion on 烘t 22:32; Mr 12:26f|.

經文:

路加福音 20:39-20:39

註釋:

 {Certain of the scribes} (	ines t(936e) grammate(936e)).
Pharisees who greatly enjoyed this use by Jesus of a portion of
the Pentateuch against the position of the Sadducees. So they
praise the reply of Jesus, hostile though they are to him.

經文:

路加福音 20:40-20:40

註釋:

 {They durst not any more} (ouketi etolm(936e) ouden). Double
negative and imperfect active of 	olma(935c). The courage of
Pharisees, Sadducees, Herodians vanished.

經文:

路加福音 20:41-20:41

註釋:

 {How say they?} (P(9373) legousin;). The Pharisees had
rallied in glee and one of their number, a lawyer, had made a
feeble contribution to the controversy which resulted in his
agreement with Jesus and in praise from Jesus ( Mr 12:28-34  Mt
27:34-40 ). Luke does not give this incident which makes it plain
that by "they say" (legousin) Jesus refers to the Pharisees
(rabbis, lawyers), carrying on the discussion and turning the
tables on them while the Pharisees are still gathered together
( Mt 22:41 ). The construction with legousin is the usual
infinitive and the accusative in indirect discourse. By "the
Christ" (	on Christon) "the Messiah" is meant.

經文:

路加福音 20:42-20:42

註釋:

 {For David himself} (autos gar Daueid). This language of
Jesus clearly means that he treats David as the author of  Ps
110 . The inspiration of this Psalm is expressly stated in  Mr
12:36  Mt 22:43  (which see) and the Messianic character of the
Psalm in all three Synoptics who all quote the LXX practically
alike. Modern criticism that denies the Davidic authorship of
this Psalm has to say either that Jesus was ignorant of the fact
about it or that he declined to disturb the current acceptation
of the Davidic authorship. Certainly modern scholars are not
agreed on the authorship of  Ps 110 . Meanwhile one can certainly
be excused for accepting the natural implication of the words of
Jesus here, "David himself." {In the book of the Psalms} (en
bibl(9369) Psalm(936e)). Compare  3:4  "in the book of the words of
Isaiah the prophet."

經文:

路加福音 20:44-20:44

註釋:

 {David therefore} (Daueid oun). Without ei as in  Mt
22:45 . On the basis of this definite piece of exegesis (oun,
therefore) Jesus presses the problem (p(9373), how) for an
explanation. The deity and the humanity of the Messiah in  Ps
110  are thus set forth, the very problems that disturbed the
rabbis then and that upset many critics today.

經文:

路加福音 20:45-20:45

註釋:

 {In the hearing of all the people} (akouontos pantos tou
laou). Genitive absolute, "while all the people were listening"
(present active participle). That is the time to speak. The
details in this verse and verse  47  are precisely those given in
 Mr 12:38f. , which see for discussion of details.  Mt 23:1-39 
has a very full and rich description of this last phase of the
debate in the temple where Jesus drew a full-length portrait of
the hypocrisy of the Pharisees and scribes in their presence. It
was a solemn climax to this last public appearance of Christ in
the temple when Jesus poured out the vials of his indignation as
he had done before ( Mt 16:2  Lu 11:37-54  12-1 ).

經文:

路加福音 21:1-21:1

註釋:

 {And he looked up} (Anablepsas de). He had taken his seat,
after the debate was over and the Sanhedrin had slunk away in
sheer defeat, "over against the treasury" ( Mr 12:41 ). The word
for "treasury" (gazophulakion) is a compound of gaza (Persian
word for royal treasury) and phulak(885c) guard or protection. It is
common in the LXX, but in the N.T. only here and  Mr 12:41,43  Joh 8:20 . Jesus was watching ( Mr 12:41 ) the rich put in their
gifts as a slight diversion from the intense strain of the hours
before.

經文:

路加福音 21:2-21:2

註釋:

 {Poor} (penichran). A rare word from pen(8873) (penomai,
to work for one's living). Latin _penuria_ and Greek peina(935c), to
be hungry are kin to it. Here only in the N.T.  Mr 12:42  has
pt(9363)h(885c), a more common word from pt(9373)s(935c), to be frightened, to
strike and hide from fear, to be in beggary. And Luke uses this
adjective also of her in verse  3 .

經文:

路加福音 21:3-21:3

註釋:

 {More than they all} (pleion pant(936e)). Ablative case after
the comparative pleion.

經文:

路加福音 21:4-21:4

註釋:

 {All these did cast} (pantes houtoi ebalon). Constative
second aorist active indicative covering the whole crowd except
the widow. {Living} (ion). Livelihood as in  Mr 12:44 , not
z(9388)n, principle of life.

經文:

路加福音 21:5-21:5

註釋:

 {As some spake} (	in(936e) legont(936e)). Genitive absolute. The
disciples we know from  Mr 13:1  Mt 24:1 . {How} (hoti).
Literally, "that." {It was adorned} (kekosm(8874)ai). Perfect
passive indicative, state of completion, stands adorned, tense
retained in indirect discourse, though English has to change it.
Kosme(935c), old and common verb for orderly arrangement and
adorning. {With goodly stones and offerings} (lithois kalois kai
anath(886d)asin). Instrumental case. Some of these stones in the
substructure were enormous. "The columns of the cloister or
portico were monoliths of marble over forty feet high" (Plummer).
Cf. Josephus, _War_, V.5. The word anath(886d)a (here only in the
N.T.) is not to be confused with anathema from the same verb
anatith(886d)i, but which came to mean a curse ( Ga 1:8  Ac
23:14 ). So anathema came to mean devoted in a bad sense,
anath(886d)a in a good sense. "Thus _knave_, lad, becomes a
_rascal; villain_, a _farmer_, becomes a _scoundrel; cunning_,
_skilful_, becomes _crafty_" (Vincent). These offerings in the
temple were very numerous and costly (2Macc. 3:2-7) like the
golden vine of Herod with branches as tall as a man (Josephus,
_Ant_. XV. ii.3).

經文:

路加福音 21:6-21:6

註釋:

 {As for these things} (	auta). Accusative of general
reference. {One stone upon another} (lithos epi lith(9369)). Stone
upon stone (locative). Here both  Mr 13:2  Mt 24:2  have epi
lithon (accusative). Instead of ouk apheth(8873)etai (future
passive) they both have ou m(8820)apheth(8869) (double negative with
aorist passive subjunctive). It was a shock to the disciples to
hear this after the triumphal entry.

經文:

路加福音 21:8-21:8

註釋:

 {That ye be not led astray} (m(8820)plan(8874)h(8874)e). First aorist
passive subjunctive with m(885c) (lest). This verb plana(935c) occurs
here only in Luke though often in the rest of the N.T. (as  Mt
24:4,5,11,24 , which see). Our word _planet_ is from this word.
{The time is at hand} (ho kairos (8867)giken). Just as John the
Baptist did of the kingdom ( Mt 3:2 ) and Jesus also ( Mr 1:15 ).
{Go ye not after them} (m(8820)poreuth(8874)e opis(9320)aut(936e)). First
aorist passive subjunctive with m(885c). A needed warning today with
all the false cries in the religious world.

經文:

路加福音 21:9-21:9

註釋:

 {Be not terrified} (m(8820)pto(8874)h(8874)e). First aorist passive
subjunctive with m(885c) from ptoe(935c) an old verb to terrify, from
ptoa, terror. In the N.T. only here and  Lu 24:37 . {First}
(Pr(9374)on). It is so easy to forget this and to insist that the
end is "immediately" in spite of Christ's explicit denial here.
See  Mt 24:4-42  Mr 13:1-37  for discussion of details for  Lu
21:8-36 , the great eschatological discourse of Jesus

經文:

路加福音 21:11-21:11

註釋:

 {Famines and pestilences} (loimoi kai limoi). Play on the
two words pronounced just alike in the _Koin(825f) (itacism). {And
terrors} (phob(8874)hra te). The use of 	e ... te in this verse
groups the two kinds of woes. This rare word phob(8874)hra is only
here in the N.T. It is from phobe(935c), to frighten, and occurs
only in the plural as here.

經文:

路加福音 21:12-21:12

註釋:

 {But before all these things} (pro de tout(936e) pant(936e)). In
 Mr 13:8  Mt 24:8  these things are termed "the beginning of
travail." That may be the idea here. Plummer insists that
priority of time is the point, not magnitude. {Bringing you}
(apagomenous). Present passive participle from apag(935c), an old
verb to lead off or away. But here the participle is in the
accusative plural, not the nominative like paradidontes
(present active participle, delivering you up), agreeing with
humas not expressed the object of paradidontes, "you being
brought before or led off." "A technical term in Athenian legal
language" (Bruce).

經文:

路加福音 21:13-21:13

註釋:

 {It shall turn unto you} (apob(8873)etai humin). Future
middle of apobain(935c). It will come off, turn out for you (dative
of advantage). {For a testimony} (eis marturion). To their
loyalty to Christ. Besides, "the blood of the martyrs is the seed
of the church."

經文:

路加福音 21:14-21:14

註釋:

 {Not to meditate beforehand} (m(8820)promelet(8369)n). The
classical word for conning a speech beforehand.  Mr 13:11  has
promerimna(935c), a later word which shows previous anxiety rather
than previous preparation. {How to answer} (apolog(8874)h(886e)ai).
First aorist passive infinitive. It is the preparation for the
speech of defence (apology) that Jesus here forbids, not the
preparation of a sermon.

經文:

路加福音 21:15-21:15

註釋:

 {Your adversaries} (hoi antikeimenoi humin). Those who
stand against, line up face to face with (note anti-). {To
withstand or to gainsay} (antist(886e)ai (8820)anteipein). Two second
aorist active infinitives with anti- in composition again. But
these "antis" will go down before the power of Christ.

經文:

路加福音 21:16-21:16

註釋:

 {Shall they cause to be put to death} (	hanat(9373)ousin).
Future active of 	hanato(935c), to put to death or to make to die
(causative). Either makes sense here. Old and common verb.

經文:

路加福音 21:17-21:17

註釋:

 {Not a hair of your head shall perish} (	hrix ek t(8873)
kephal(8873) hum(936e) ou m(8820)apol(8874)ai). Only in Luke. Second aorist
middle subjunctive of apollumi with ou m(885c) (double negative).
Jesus has just said that some they will put to death. Hence it is
spiritual safety here promised such as Paul claimed about death
in  Php 1:21 .

經文:

路加福音 21:19-21:19

註釋:

 {Ye shall win} (kt(8873)esthe). Future middle of ktaomai,
to acquire. They will win their souls even if death does come.

經文:

路加福音 21:20-21:20

註釋:

 {Compassed with armies} (kukloumen(886e) hupo stratoped(936e)).
Present passive participle of kuklo(935c), to circle, encircle, from
kuklos, circle. Old verb, but only four times in N.T. The point
of this warning is the present tense, being encircled. It will be
too late after the city is surrounded. It is objected by some
that Jesus, not to say Luke, could not have spoken (or written)
these words before the Roman armies came. One may ask why not, if
such a thing as predictive prophecy can exist and especially in
the case of the Lord Jesus. The word stratoped(936e) (stratos,
army, pedon, plain) is a military camp and then an army in
camp. Old word, but only here in the N.T. {Then know} (	ote
gn(9374)e). Second aorist active imperative of gin(9373)k(935c). Christians
did flee from Jerusalem to Pella before it was too late as
directed in  Lu 21:21  Mr 13:14f.  Mt 24:16f .

經文:

路加福音 21:22-21:22

註釋:

 {That may be fulfilled} (	ou pl(8873)th(886e)ai). Articular
infinitive passive to express purpose with accusative of general
reference. The O.T. has many such warnings ( Ho 9:7  De
28:49-57 , etc.).

經文:

路加福音 21:24-21:24

註釋:

 {Edge of the sword} (stomati machair(8873)). Instrumental
case of stomati which means "mouth" literally ( Ge 34:26 ).
This verse like the close of verse  22  is only in Luke. Josephus
(_War_, VI. 9.3) states that 1,100,000 Jews perished in the
destruction of Jerusalem and 97,000 were taken captive. Surely
this is an exaggeration and yet the number must have been large.
{Shall be led captive} (aichmal(9374)isth(8873)ontai). Future passive
of aichmal(9374)iz(935c) from aichm(885c), spear and hal(9374)os
(haliskomai). Here alone in the literal sense in the N.T.
{Shall be trodden under foot} (estai patoumen(885c)). Future passive
periphrastic of pate(935c), to tread, old verb. {Until the times of
the Gentiles be fulfilled} (achri hou pl(8872)(9374)h(9373)in kairoi
ethn(936e)). First aorist passive subjunctive with achri hou like
he(9373) hou. What this means is not clear except that Paul in  Ro
11:25  shows that the punishment of the Jews has a limit. The
same idiom appears there also with achri hou and the aorist
subjunctive.

經文:

路加福音 21:25-21:25

註釋:

 {Distress} (sunoch(885c)). From sunech(935c). In the N.T. only
here and  2Co 2:4 . Anguish. {In perplexity} (en apori(8369)).
State of one who is aporos, who has lost his way (a privative
and poros). Here only in the N.T. though an old and common
word. {For the roaring of the sea} ((8863)hous thalass(8873)). Our word
echo (Latin _echo_) is this word (8863)hos, a reverberating sound.
Sense of rumour in  Lu 4:37 . {Billows} (salou). Old word
salos for the swell of the sea. Here only in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 21:26-21:26

註釋:

 {Men fainting} (apopsuchont(936e) anthr(9370)(936e)). Genitive
absolute of apopsuch(935c), to expire, to breathe off or out. Old
word. Here only in N.T. {Expectation} (prosdokias). Old word
from prosdoka(935c), to look for or towards. In the N.T. only here
and  Ac 12:11 . {The world} (	(8869) oikoumen(8869)). Dative case, "the
inhabited" (earth, g(8869)).

經文:

路加福音 21:27-21:27

註釋:

 {And then shall they see} (kai tote opsontai). As much as
to say that it will be not till then. Clearly the promise of the
second coming of the Son of man in glory here ( Mr 13:26f.  Mt
24:30f. ) is pictured as not one certain of immediate
realization. The time element is left purposely vague.

經文:

路加福音 21:28-21:28

註釋:

 {Look up} (anakupsate). First aorist active imperative of
anakupt(935c), to raise up. Here of the soul as in  Joh 8:7,10 , but
in  Lu 13:11  of the body. These the only N.T. examples of this
common verb. {Redemption} (apolutr(9373)is). Act of redeeming from
apolutro(935c). The final act at the second coming of Christ, a
glorious hope.

經文:

路加福音 21:29-21:29

註釋:

 {The fig tree, and all the trees} (	(886e) suk(886e) kai panta ta
dendra). This parable of the fig-tree ( Mr 13:28-32  Mt
24:32-35 ) Luke applies to "all the trees." It is true about all
of them, but the fig tree was very common in Palestine.

經文:

路加福音 21:30-21:30

註釋:

 {Shoot forth} (probal(9373)in). Second aorist active
subjunctive of proball(935c), common verb, but in the N.T. only here
and  Ac 19:33 . {Summer} (	heros). Not harvest, but summer. Old
word, but in the N.T. only here ( Mr 13:28  Mt 24:32 ).

經文:

路加福音 21:31-21:31

註釋:

 {Coming to pass} (ginomena). Present middle participle of
ginomai and so descriptive of the process. {Nigh} (eggus).
The consummation of the kingdom is here meant, not the beginning.

經文:

路加福音 21:32-21:32

註釋:

 {This generation} (h(8820)genea haut(885c)). Naturally people then
living. {Shall not pass away} (ou m(8820)parelth(8869)). Second aorist
active subjunctive of parerchomai. Strongest possible negative
with ou m(885c). {Till all things be accomplished} (he(9373) an panta
gen(8874)ai). Second aorist middle subjunctive of ginomai with
he(9373), common idiom. The words give a great deal of trouble to
critics. Some apply them to the whole discourse including the
destruction of the temple and Jerusalem, the second coming and
the end of the world. Some of these argue that Jesus was simply
mistaken in his eschatology, some that he has not been properly
reported in the Gospels. Others apply them only to the
destruction of Jerusalem which did take place in A.D. 70 before
that generation passed away. It must be said for this view that
it is not easy in this great eschatological discourse to tell
clearly when Jesus is discussing the destruction of Jerusalem and
when the second coming. Plummer offers this solution: "The
reference, therefore, is to the destruction of Jerusalem regarded
as the type of the end of the world."

經文:

路加福音 21:33-21:33

註釋:

 {My words shall not pass away} (hoi logoi mou ou m(880a)pareleusontai). Future middle indicative with ou m(885c), a bit
stronger statement than the subjunctive. It is noteworthy that
Jesus utters these words just after the difficult prediction in
verse  32 .

經文:

路加福音 21:34-21:34

註釋:

 {Lest haply your hearts be overcharged} (m(8820)pote
bar(8874)h(9373)in hai kardiai hum(936e)). First aorist passive subjunctive
of are(935c), an old verb to weigh down, depress, with m(8820)pote.
{With surfeiting} (en krepal(8869)). A rather late word, common in
medical writers for the nausea that follows a debauch. Latin
_crapula_, the giddiness caused by too much wine. Here only in
the N.T. {Drunkenness} (meth(8869)). From methu (wine). Old word
but in the N.T. only here and  Ro 13:13  Ga 5:21 . {Cares of this
life} (merimnais bi(9374)ikais). Anxieties of life. The adjective
i(9374)ikos is late and in the N.T. only here and  1Co 6:3f .
{Come on you} (epist(8869)). Second aorist active subjunctive of
ephist(886d)i, ingressive aorist. Construed also with m(8820)pote.
{Suddenly} (ephnidios). Adjective in predicate agreeing with
h(886d)era (day). {As a snare} (h(9373) pagis). Old word from
p(8867)numi, to make fast a net or trap. Paul uses it several times
of the devil's snares for preachers ( 1Ti 3:7  2Ti 2:26 ).

經文:

路加福音 21:36-21:36

註釋:

 {But watch ye} (agrupneite de). Agrupne(935c) is a late verb
to be sleepless (a privative and hupnos, sleep). Keep awake
and be ready is the pith of Christ's warning. {That ye may
prevail to escape} (hina katischus(8874)e ekphugein). First aorist
active subjunctive with hina of purpose. The verb katischu(935c)
means to have strength against (cf.  Mt 16:18 ). Common in later
writers. Ekphugein is second aorist active infinitive, to
escape out. {To stand before the Son of man} (stath(886e)ai
emprosthen tou huiou tou anthr(9370)ou). That is the goal. There
will be no dread of the Son then if one is ready. Stath(886e)ai is
first aorist passive infinitive of hist(886d)i.

經文:

路加福音 21:37-21:37

註釋:

 {Every day} (	as h(886d)eras). During the days, accusative of
extent of time. {Every night} (	as nuktas). "During the
nights," accusative of extent of time. {Lodged} ((8875)lizeto).
Imperfect middle, was lodging, aulizomai from aul(885c) (court).

經文:

路加福音 21:38-21:38

註釋:

 {Came early} ((9372)thrizen). Imperfect active of orthriz(935c)
from orthros, late form for orthreu(935c), to rise early. Only
here in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 22:1-22:1

註釋:

 Ex. 23:15 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Ex.' or engs='Ex.'
經文:

路加福音 22:2-22:2

註釋:

 {Sought} (ez(8874)oun). Imperfect active of z(8874)e(935c), were
seeking, conative imperfect. {How they might put him to death}
(	o p(9373) anel(9373)in auton). Second aorist active deliberative
subjunctive (retained in indirect question) of anaire(935c), to take
up, to make away with, to slay. Common in Old Greek. Luke uses it
so here and in  23:32  and eighteen times in the Acts, a
favourite word with him. Note the accusative neuter singular
article 	o with the whole clause, "as to the how, etc." {For
they feared} (ephobounto gar). Imperfect middle describing the
delay of the "how." The triumphal entry and the temple speeches
of Jesus had revealed his tremendous power with the people,
especially the crowds from Galilee at the feast. They were afraid
to go on with their plan to kill him at the feast.

經文:

路加福音 22:3-22:3

註釋:

 {Satan entered into Judas} (eis(886c)then eis Ioudan).
Ingressive aorist active indicative. Satan was now renewing his
attack on Jesus suspended temporarily ( Lu 4:13 ) "until a good
chance." He had come back by the use of Simon Peter ( Mr 8:33  Mt
16:23 ). The conflict went on and Jesus won ultimate victory ( Lu
10:18 ). Now Satan uses Judas and has success with him for Judas
allowed him to come again and again ( Joh 13:27 ). Judas
evidently opened the door to his heart and let Satan in. Then
Satan took charge and he became a devil as Jesus said ( Joh
6:70 ). This surrender to Satan in no way relieves Judas of his
moral responsibility.

經文:

路加福音 22:4-22:4

註釋:

 {Went away} (apelth(936e)). Second aorist active participle of
aperchomai. He went off under the impulse of Satan and after
the indignation over the rebuke of Jesus at the feast in Simon's
house ( Joh 12:4-6 ). {Captains} (strat(8867)ois). Leaders of the
temple guards ( Ac 4:1 ), the full title, "captains of the
temple," occurs in verse  52 . {How he might deliver him unto
them} (	o p(9373) autois parad(9369) auton). The same construction as
in verse  2 , the article 	o with the indirect question and
deliberative subjunctive second aorist active (parad(9369)).

經文:

路加福音 22:5-22:5

註釋:

 {Were glad} (echar(8873)an). Second aorist passive indicative
of chair(935c) as in  Mr 14:11 . Ingressive aorist, a natural
exultation that one of the Twelve had offered to do this thing.
{Covenanted} (sunethento). Second aorist indicative middle of
suntith(886d)i. An old verb to put together and in the middle with
one another. In the N.T. outside of  Joh 9:22  only in Luke (here
and  Ac 23:20  24:9 ). Luke only mentions "money" (argurion),
but not "thirty pieces" ( Mt 26:15 ).

經文:

路加福音 22:6-22:6

註釋:

 {Consented} (ex(936d)olog(8873)en). Old verb, but the ancients
usually used the simple form for promise or consent rather than
the compound. This is the only instance of this sense in the N.T.
It is from homologos (homos, same, and leg(935c), to say), to
say the same thing with another and so agree. {Opportunity}
(eukarian). From eukairos (eu, kairos), a good chance. Old
word, but in the N.T. only here and parallel passage  Mt 26:16 .
{In the absence of the multitude} (ater ochlou). Ater is an
old preposition, common in the poets, but rare in prose. Also in
verse  35 . It means "without," "apart from," like ch(9372)is. The
point of Judas was just this. He would get Jesus into the hands
of the Sanhedrin during the feast in spite of the crowd. It was
necessary to avoid tumult ( Mt 26:5 ) because of the popularity
of Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 22:7-22:7

註釋:

 {The day of unleavened bread came} ((886c)then h(8820)h(886d)era t(936e)
azum(936e)). The day itself came, not simply was drawing nigh (verse
 1 ). {Must be sacrificed} (edei thuesthai). This was Nisan 14
which began at sunset. Luke is a Gentile and this fact must be
borne in mind. The lamb must be slain by the head of the family
( Ex 12:6 ). The controversy about the day when Christ ate the
last passover meal has already been discussed ( Mt 26:17  Mr
14:12 ). The Synoptics clearly present this as a fact. Jesus was
then crucified on Friday at the passover or Thursday (our time)
at the regular hour 6 P.M. (beginning of Friday). The five
passages in John ( 13:1f.  13:27  18:28  19:14  19:31 ) rightly
interpreted teach the same thing as shown in my _Harmony of the
Gospels for Students of the Life of Christ_ (pp.279-284).

經文:

路加福音 22:8-22:8

註釋:

 {Peter and John} (Petron kai I(9361)n(886e)).  Mr 14:13  has only
"two" while  Mt 26:17  makes the disciples take the initiative.
The word passover in this context is used either of the meal, the
feast day, the whole period (including the unleavened bread).
"Eat the passover" can refer to the meal as here or to the whole
period of celebration ( Joh 18:28 ).

經文:

路加福音 22:9-22:9

註釋:

 {Where wilt thou that we make ready?} (Pou theleis
hetoimas(936d)en;). Deliberative first aorist active subjunctive
without hina after 	heleis, perhaps originally two separate
questions.

經文:

路加福音 22:10-22:10

註釋:

 {When you are entered} (eiselthont(936e) hum(936e)). Genitive
absolute. {Meet you} (sunant(8873)ei humin). An old verb sunanta(935c)
(from sun, with, and anta(935c), to face, anti) with associative
instrumental (humin). See on 烘r 14:13| about the "man bearing
a pitcher of water."

經文:

路加福音 22:11-22:11

註釋:

 {Goodman of the house} (oikodespot(8869)). Master of the
house as in  Mr 14:14  Mt 10:25 . A late word for the earlier
despot(8873) oikou. {I shall eat} (phag(935c)). Second aorist
futuristic (or deliberative) subjunctive as in  Mr 14:14 .

經文:

路加福音 22:12-22:12

註釋:

 {And he} (k'akeinos). Kai and ekeinos (crasis)
where  Mr 14:15  has kai autos. Literally, And that one. See on
Mark for rest of the verse.

經文:

路加福音 22:13-22:13

註釋:

 {He had said} (eir(886b)ei). Past perfect active indicative
of eipon where  Mr 14:16  has eipen (second aorist).

經文:

路加福音 22:14-22:14

註釋:

 {Sat down} (anepesen). Reclined, fell back (or up).
Second aorist active of anapipt(935c).

經文:

路加福音 22:15-22:15

註釋:

 {With desire I have desired} (epithumi(8369) epethum(8873)a). A
Hebraism common in the LXX. Associative instrumental case of
substantive and first aorist active indicative of same like a
cognate accusative. Peculiar to Luke is all this verse. See this
idiom in  Joh 3:29  Ac 4:17 . {Before I suffer} (pro tou me
pathein). Preposition pro with articular infinitive and
accusative of general reference, "before the suffering as to me."
Pathein is second aorist active infinitive of pasch(935c).

經文:

路加福音 22:16-22:16

註釋:

 {Until it be fulfilled} (he(9373) hotou pl(8872)(9374)h(8869)). First
aorist passive subjunctive of pl(8872)o(935c) with he(9373) (hotou), the
usual construction about the future. It seems like a Messianic
banquet that Jesus has in mind (cf.  14:15 ).

經文:

路加福音 22:17-22:17

註釋:

 {He received a cup} (dexamenos pot(8872)ion). This cup is a
diminutive of pot(8872). It seems that this is still one of the
four cups passed during the passover meal, though which one is
uncertain. It is apparently just before the formal introduction
of the Lord's Supper, though he gave thanks here also
(eucharist(8873)as). It is from this verb euchariste(935c) (see also
verse  19 ) that our word Eucharist comes. It is a common verb
for giving thanks and was used also for "saying grace" as we call
it.

經文:

路加福音 22:18-22:18

註釋:

 {The fruit of the vine} (	ou gen(886d)atos t(8873) ampelou). So
 Mr 14:25  Mt 26:29  and not oinos though it was wine
undoubtedly. But the language allows anything that is "the fruit
of the vine." {Come} (elth(8869)). Second aorist active subjunctive
with he(9373) as in verse  16 . Here it is the consummation of the
kingdom that Jesus has in mind, for the kingdom had already come.

經文:

路加福音 22:19-22:19

註釋:

 {Which is given for you} (	o huper hum(936e) didomenon). Some
MSS. omit these verses though probably genuine. The correct text
in  1Co 11:24  has "which is for you," not "which is broken for
you." It is curious to find the word "broken" here preserved and
justified so often, even by Easton in his commentary on Luke, p.
320. {In remembrance of me} (eis t(886e) em(886e) anamn(8873)in). Objective
use of the possessive pronoun em(886e), not the subjective. {This
do} (	outo poieite). Present active indicative, repetition,
keep on doing this.

經文:

路加福音 22:20-22:20

註釋:

 {After the supper} (meta to deipn(8873)ai). Preposition
meta and the accusative articular infinitive. The textual
situation here is confusing, chiefly because of the two cups
(verses  17,20 ). Some of the documents omit the latter part of
verse  19  and all of verse  20 . It is possible, of course, that
this part crept into the text of Luke from  1Co 11:24f . But, if
this part is omitted, Luke would then have the order reversed,
the cup before the bread. So there are difficulties whichever
turn one takes here with Luke's text whether one cup or two cups.
{The New Covenant} (he kain(8820)diath(886b)(885c)). See on 烘t 26:28; Mr
14:24| for "covenant." Westcott and Hort reject "new" there, but
accept it here and in  1Co 11:25 . See on 烊u 5:38| for
difference between kain(885c) and 
ea. "The ratification of a
covenant was commonly associated with the shedding of blood; and
what was written in blood was believed to be indelible"
(Plummer). {Poured out} (ekchunnomenon). Same word in  Mr
14:24  Mt 26:28  translated "shed." Late form present passive
participle of ekchunn(935c) of ekche(935c), to pour out.

經文:

路加福音 22:21-22:21

註釋:

 {That betrayeth} (	ou paradidontos). Present active
participle, actually engaged in doing it. The hand of Judas was
resting on the table at the moment. It should be noted that Luke
narrates the institution of the Lord's Supper before the exposure
of Judas as the traitor while Mark and Matthew reverse this
order.

經文:

路加福音 22:22-22:22

註釋:

 {As it hath been determined} (kata to h(9372)ismenon).
Perfect passive participle of horiz(935c), to limit or define, mark
off the border, our "horizon." But this fact does not absolve
Judas of his guilt as the "woe" here makes plain.

經文:

路加福音 22:23-22:23

註釋:

 {Which of them it was} (	o tis ara ei(8820)ex aut(936e)). Note
the article 	o with the indirect question as in verses  2,4 .
The optative ei(885c) here is changed from the present active
indicative estin, though it was not always done, for see
dokei in verse  24  where the present indicative is retained.
They all had their hands on the table. Whose hand was it?

經文:

路加福音 22:24-22:24

註釋:

 {Contention} (philoneikia). An old word from
philoneikos, fond of strife, eagerness to contend. Only here in
the N.T. {Greatest} (meiz(936e)). Common use of the comparative as
superlative.

經文:

路加福音 22:25-22:25

註釋:

 {Have lordship over} (kurieuousin). From kurios. Common
verb, to lord it over. {Benefactors} (euergetai). From eu and
ergon. Doer of good. Old word. Here only in the N.T. Latin
Benefactor is exact equivalent.

經文:

路加福音 22:26-22:26

註釋:

 {Become} (ginesth(935c)). Present middle imperative of
ginomai. Act so. True greatness is in service, not in rank.

經文:

路加福音 22:27-22:27

註釋:

 {But I} (Eg(9320)de). Jesus dares to cite his own conduct,
though their leader, to prove his point and to put a stop to
their jealous contention for the chief place at this very feast,
a wrangling that kept up till Jesus had to arise and give them
the object lesson of humility by washing their feet ( Joh
13:1-20 ).

經文:

路加福音 22:28-22:28

註釋:

 {In my temptations} (en tois peirasmois mou). Probably
"trials" is better here as in  Jas 1:2  though temptations
clearly in  Jas 1:13ff . This is the tragedy of the situation
when Jesus is facing the Cross with the traitor at the table and
the rest chiefly concerned about their own primacy and dignity.

經文:

路加福音 22:29-22:29

註釋:

 {And I appoint unto you} (k'ag(9320)diatith(886d)ai humin). They
had on the whole been loyal and so Jesus passes on to them
(diath(886d)ai verb from which diath(886b)(885c) comes).

經文:

路加福音 22:30-22:30

註釋:

 {And ye shall sit} (kath(8873)esthe). But Westcott and Hort
read in the text kath(8873)the (present middle subjunctive with
hina). The picture seems to be that given in  Mt 19:28  when
Jesus replied to Peter's inquiry. It is not clear how literally
this imagery is to be taken. But there is the promise of honour
for the loyal among these in the end.

經文:

路加福音 22:31-22:31

註釋:

 {Asked to have you} (ex(8869)t(8873)ato). First aorist indirect
middle indicative of exaite(935c), an old verb to beg something of
one and (middle) for oneself. Only here in the N.T. The verb is
used either in the good or the bad sense, but it does not mean
here "obtained by asking" as margin in Revised Version has it.
{That he might sift you} (	ou siniasai). Genitive articular
infinitive of purpose. First aorist active infinitive of
siniaz(935c), to shake a sieve, to sift, from sinion, a winnowing
fan. Later word. Here only in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 22:32-22:32

註釋:

 {That thy faith fail not} (hina m(8820)eklip(8869) he pistis
mou). Second aorist active subjunctive of purpose with hina
after ede(8874)h(886e) ({I prayed}) of ekleip(935c), old verb. Our word
_eclipse_ is this word. Evidently Jesus could not keep Satan from
attacking Peter. He had already captured Judas. Did he not
repeatedly attack Jesus? But he could and did pray for Peter's
faith and his praying won in the end, though Peter stumbled and
fell. {And do thou} (kai su). The words single out Peter
sharply. {Once thou hast turned again} (pote epistrepsas).
First aorist active participle of epistreph(935c), common verb to
turn to, to return. But the use of this word implied that Peter
would fall though he would come back and "strengthen thy
brethren."

經文:

路加福音 22:33-22:33

註釋:

 {To prison and to death} (eis phulak(886e) kai eis thanaton).
Evidently Peter was not flattered by the need of Christ's earnest
prayers for his welfare and loyalty. Hence this loud boast.

經文:

路加福音 22:34-22:34

註釋:

 {Until thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me} (he(9373)
tris me aparn(8873)(8869) eidenai). "Thrice" is in all four Gospels here
for they all give this warning to Peter ( Mr 14:30  Mt 26:34  Lu
22:34  Joh 18:38 ). Peter will even deny knowing Jesus
(eidenai).

經文:

路加福音 22:35-22:35

註釋:

 {Without purse} (ater ballantiou). Money bag or purse.
Old word, but in the N.T. only in Luke ( 10:4  12:33  22:35ff. ).
{Wallet} (p(8872)as). See on 烘t 10:10|. {Lacked ye anything} (m(880a)tinos huster(8873)ate;). Answer No expected (outhenos below).
Ablative case after hustere(935c).

經文:

路加福音 22:36-22:36

註釋:

 {Buy a sword} (agorasat(9320)machairan). This is for defence
clearly. The reference is to the special mission in Galilee ( Lu
9:1-6  Mr 6:6-13  Mt 9:35-11:1 ). They are to expect persecution
and bitter hostility ( Joh 15:18-21 ). Jesus does not mean that
his disciples are to repel force by force, but that they are to
be ready to defend his cause against attack. Changed conditions
bring changed needs. This language can be misunderstood as it was
then.

經文:

路加福音 22:38-22:38

註釋:

 {Lord, behold, here are two swords} (kurie idou machairai
h(9364)e duo). They took his words literally. And before this very
night is over Peter will use one of these very swords to try to
cut off the head of Malchus only to be sternly rebuked by Jesus
( Mr 14:47  Mt 26:51f.  Lu 22:50f.  Joh 18:10f. ). Then Jesus
will say: "For all that take the sword shall perish with the
sword" ( Mt 26:52 ). Clearly Jesus did not mean his language even
about the sword to be pressed too literally. So he said: "It is
enough" (Hikanon estin). It is with sad irony and sorrow that
Jesus thus dismisses the subject. They were in no humour now to
understand the various sides of this complicated problem. Every
preacher and teacher understands this mood, not of impatience,
but of closing the subject for the present.

經文:

路加福音 22:39-22:39

註釋:

 {As his custom was} (kata to ethos). According to the
custom (of him). It was because Judas knew the habit of Jesus of
going to Gethsemane at night that he undertook to betray him
without waiting for the crowd to go home after the feast.

經文:

路加福音 22:40-22:40

註釋:

 {At the place} (epi tou topou). The place of secret
prayer which was dear to Jesus. {Pray that ye enter not into
temptation} (proseuchesthe m(8820)eiselthein eis peirasmon). "Keep
on praying not to enter (ingressive aorist infinitive, not even
once) into temptation." It is real "temptation" here, not just
"trial." Jesus knew the power of temptation and the need of
prayer. These words throw a light on the meaning of his language
in  Mt 6:13 . Jesus repeats this warning in verse  46 .

經文:

路加福音 22:41-22:41

註釋:

 {About a stone's throw} (h(9373)ei lithou bol(886e)). Accusative
of extent of space. Luke does not tell of leaving eight disciples
by the entrance to Gethsemane nor about taking Peter, James, and
John further in with him. {Kneeled down} (	heis ta gonata).
Second aorist active participle from 	ith(886d)i.  Mr 14:35  says
"fell on the ground" and  Mt 26:39  "fell on his face." All could
be true at different moments. {Prayed} (pros(8875)cheto). Imperfect
middle, was praying, kept on praying.

經文:

路加福音 22:42-22:42

註釋:

 {If thou be willing} (ei boulei). This condition is in
the first petition at the start. {Be done} (ginesth(935c)). Present
middle imperative, keep on being done, the Father's will.

經文:

路加福音 22:43-22:43

註釋:

 {An angel} (aggelos). The angels visited Jesus at the
close of the three temptations at the beginning of his ministry
( Mt 4:11 ). Here the angel comes during the conflict.

經文:

路加福音 22:44-22:44

註釋:

 {In an agony} (en ag(936e)i(8369)). It was conflict, contest from
ag(936e). An old word, but only here in the N.T. Satan pressed
Jesus harder than ever before. {As it were great drops of blood}
(h(9373)ei thromboi haimatos). Thick, clotted blood. An old word
(	hromboi) common in medical works, but here only in the N.T.
This passage (verses  43,44 ) is absent from some ancient
documents. Aristotle speaks of a bloody sweat as does
Theophrastus.

經文:

路加福音 22:45-22:45

註釋:

 {Sleeping for sorrow} (koim(936d)enous apo t(8873) lup(8873)). Luke
does not tell of the three turnings of Jesus to the trusted three
for human sympathy.

經文:

路加福音 22:46-22:46

註釋:

 {Why sleep ye?} (Ti katheudete;). This reproach Luke
gives, but not the almost bitter details in  Mr 14:37-42  Mt
26:40-46 ).

經文:

路加福音 22:47-22:47

註釋:

 {Went before them} (pro(8872)cheto). Imperfect middle. Judas
was leading the band for he knew the place well ( Joh 18:2 ).

經文:

路加福音 22:48-22:48

註釋:

 {With a kiss} (phil(886d)ati). Instrumental case. Jesus
challenges the act of Judas openly and calls it betrayal, but it
did not stop him.

經文:

路加福音 22:49-22:49

註釋:

 {What would follow} (	o esomenon). Article and the future
middle participle of eimi, to be. {Shall we smite with a
sword?} (ei pataxomen en machair(8869);). Note ei in a direct
question like the Hebrew. Luke alone gives this question.
Instrumental use of en. They had the two swords already
mentioned ( 22:38 ).

經文:

路加福音 22:50-22:50

註釋:

 {His right ear} (	o ous autou to dexion).  Mark 14:47  Mt
26:51  do not mention "right," but Luke the Physician does.  Joh
18:10  follows Luke in this item and also adds the names of Peter
and of Malchus since probably both were dead by that time and
Peter would not be involved in trouble.

經文:

路加福音 22:51-22:51

註釋:

 {Suffer us thus far} (e(8374)e he(9373) toutou). Present active
imperative of ea(935c), to allow. But the meaning is not clear. If
addressed to Peter and the other disciples it means that they are
to suffer this much of violence against Jesus. This is probably
the idea. If it is addressed to the crowd, it means that they are
to excuse Peter for his rash act. {He touched his ear and healed
him} (hapsamenos tou otiou iasato auton). Whether Jesus picked
up the piece of the ear and put it back is not said. He could
have healed the wound without that. This miracle of surgery is
given alone by Luke.

經文:

路加福音 22:52-22:52

註釋:

 {As against a robber?} (h(9373) epi l(8869)st(886e);). They were
treating Jesus as if he were a bandit like Barabbas.

經文:

路加福音 22:53-22:53

註釋:

 {But this is your hour} (all' haut(8820)estin hum(936e) h(8820)h(9372)a).
So Jesus surrenders. The moral value of his atoning sacrifice on
the Cross consists in the voluntariness of his death. He makes it
clear that they have taken undue advantage of him in this hour of
secret prayer and had failed to seize him in public in the
temple. But "the power of darkness" (h(8820)exousia tou skotous),
had its turn. A better day will come. The might, authority of
darkness.

經文:

路加福音 22:54-22:54

註釋:

 {Into the high priest's house} (eis t(886e) oikian tou
archiere(9373)). Luke alone mentions "the house." Though it is
implied in  Mr 14:53  Mt 26:57 . {Followed} ((886b)olouthei).
Imperfect, was following, as  Mt 26:58  Joh 18:15 . Curiously  Mr
14:54  has the aorist.

經文:

路加福音 22:55-22:55

註釋:

 {When they had kindled a fire} (periapsant(936e) pur).
Genitive absolute, first aorist active participle of periapt(935c),
an old verb, but here only in the N.T. Kindle around, make a good
fire that blazes all over. It was April and cool at night. The
servants made the fire. {And had sat down together} (kai
sunkathisant(936e)). Genitive absolute again. Note sun-
(together), all had taken seats around the fire. {Peter sat in
the midst of them} (ekath(8874)o ho Petros mesos aut(936e)). Imperfect
tense, he was sitting, and note mesos, nominative predicate
adjective with the genitive, like  Joh 1:26 , good Greek idiom.

經文:

路加福音 22:56-22:56

註釋:

 {In the light} (pros to ph(9373)). Facing (pros) the light,
for the fire gave light as well as heat.  Mr 14:65  has "warming
himself in the light," John ( Joh 18:18,25 ) "warming himself."
{Looking steadfastly} (atenisasa). Favourite word in Luke
( 4:20 , etc.) for gazing steadily at one. {This man also} (kai
houtos). As if pointing to Peter and talking about him. The
other Gospels ( Mr 14:67  Mt 26:69  Joh 18:25 ) make a direct
address to Peter. Both could be true, as she turned to Peter.

經文:

路加福音 22:57-22:57

註釋:

 {I know him not} (ouk oida auton). Just as Jesus had
predicted that he would do ( Lu 22:34 ).

經文:

路加福音 22:58-22:58

註釋:

 {After a little while another} (meta brachu heteros).  Mt
26:71  makes it after Peter had gone out into the porch and
mentions a maid as speaking as does  Mr 14:69 , while here the
"other" (heteros) is a man (masculine gender). It is almost
impossible to co-ordinate the three denials in the four accounts
unless we conceive of several joining in when one led off. This
time Peter's denial is very blunt, "I am not."

經文:

路加福音 22:59-22:59

註釋:

 {After the space of about one hour} (diastas(8873) h(9373)ei h(9372)as
mias). Genitive absolute with second aorist active participle
feminine singular of diist(886d)i. This classical verb in the N.T.
is used only by Luke ( 22:59  24:51  Ac 27:28 ). It means
standing in two or apart, about an hour intervening. {Confidently
affirmed} (diischurizeto). Imperfect middle, he kept affirming
strongly. An old verb (dia, ischurizomai), to make oneself
strong, to make emphatic declaration. In the N.T. only here and
 Ac 12:15 . {For he is a Galilean} (kai gar Galilaios estin).
 Mt 26:73  makes it plain that it was his speech that gave him
away, which see.

經文:

路加福音 22:60-22:60

註釋:

 {I know not what thou sayest} (ouk oida ho legeis). Each
denial tangles Peter more and more. {While he yet spake} (eti
lalountos autou). Genitive absolute. Peter could hear the
crowing all right.

經文:

路加福音 22:61-22:61

註釋:

 {The Lord turned} (strapheis ho kurios). Second aorist
passive participle of streph(935c), coming verb. Graphic picture
drawn by Luke alone. {Looked upon Peter} (eneblepsen t(9369)
Petr(9369)). Ingressive aorist active indicative of enblep(935c), an
old and vivid verb, to glance at. {Remembered} (hupemn(8873)th(885c)).
First aorist passive indicative of hupomimn(8873)k(935c), common verb to
remind one of something (hupo giving a suggestion or hint). The
cock crowing and the look brought swiftly back to Peter's mind
the prophecy of Jesus and his sad denials. The mystery is how he
had forgotten that warning.

經文:

路加福音 22:62-22:62

註釋:

 {And he went out and wept bitterly} (kai exelth(936e) ex(930a)eklausen pikr(9373)). A few old Latin documents omit this verse
which is genuine in  Mt 26:75 . It may be an insertion here from
there, but the evidence for the rejection is too slight. It is
the ingressive aorist (eklausen), he burst into tears. "Bitter"
is a common expression for tears in all languages and in all
hearts.

經文:

路加福音 22:63-22:63

註釋:

 {That held} (hoi sunechontes). See on 涕:45; 19:43| for
this verb sunech(935c). Here alone in the N.T. for holding a
prisoner (holding together). The servants or soldiers, not the
Sanhedrin. {Mocked} (enepaizon). Imperfect active, were
mocking, inchoative, began to mock, to play like boys. {And beat
him} (derontes). Present active participle of der(935c), to flay,
tan, or hide. Literally, "beating."

經文:

路加福音 22:64-22:64

註釋:

 {Blindfolded} (perikalupsantes). First aorist active
participle of perikalupt(935c), old verb, to put a veil around. In
the N.T. only here and  Mr 14:65 . See  Mr 14:65  Mt 26:67f.  for
further discussion.

經文:

路加福音 22:65-22:65

註釋:

 {Many other things} (hetera polla). These are just
samples.

經文:

路加福音 22:66-22:66

註釋:

 {As soon as it was day} (h(9373) egeneto h(886d)era).  Mr 15:1 
( Mt 27:1 ) has "morning." {The assembly of the people} (	o
presbuterion tou laou). The technical word for "the eldership"
(from presbuteros, an old man or elder) or group of the elders
composing the Sanhedrin. The word occurs in the LXX for the
Sanhedrin. In the N.T. occurs only here and  Ac 22:5  of the
Sanhedrin. In  1Ti 4:14  Paul uses it of the elders in a church
(or churches). The Sanhedrin was composed of the elders and
scribes and chief priests ( Mr 15:1 ) and all three groups are at
this meeting. Luke's language (both chief priests and scribes,
	e ... kai) seems to apply the word presbuterion to the whole
Sanhedrin. Sadducees (chief priests) and Pharisees (scribes) were
nearly equally represented. {Into their council} (eis to
sunedrion aut(936e)). The place of the gathering is not given, but
Jesus was led into the council chamber.

經文:

路加福音 22:67-22:67

註釋:

 {If thou art the Christ} (Ei su ei ho Christos). The
Messiah, they mean. The condition is the first class, assuming it
to be true. {If I tell you} (Ean humin eip(935c)). Condition of the
third class, undetermined, but with likelihood of being
determined. This is the second appearance of Jesus before the
Sanhedrin merely mentioned by  Mr 15:1  Mt 27:1  who give in
detail the first appearance and trial. Luke merely gives this
so-called ratification meeting after daybreak to give the
appearance of legality to their vote of condemnation already
taken ( Mr 14:64  Mt 26:66 ). {Ye will not believe} (ou m(880a)pisteus(8874)e). Double negative with the aorist subjunctive,
strongest possible negative. So as to verse  68 .

經文:

路加福音 22:69-22:69

註釋:

 {The Son of man} (ho huios tou anthr(9370)ou). Jesus really
answers their demand about "the Messiah" by asserting that he is
"the Son of man" and they so understand him. He makes claims of
equality with God also which they take up.

經文:

路加福音 22:70-22:70

註釋:

 {Art thou the Son of God?} (Su oun ei ho huios tou
theou;). Note how these three epithets are used as practical
equivalents. They ask about "the Messiah." Jesus affirms that he
is the Son of Man and will sit at the right hand of the power of
God. They take this to be a claim to be the Son of God (both
humanity and deity). Jesus accepts the challenge and admits that
he claims to be all three (Messiah, the Son of man, the Son of
God). {Ye say} (Humeis legete). Just a Greek idiom for "Yes"
(compare "I am" in  Mr 14:62  with "Thou has said" in  Mt
26:64 ).

經文:

路加福音 22:71-22:71

註釋:

 {For we ourselves have heard} (autoi gar (886b)ousamen). They
were right if Jesus is not what he claimed to be. They were
eternally wrong for he is the Christ, the Son of man, the Son of
God. They made their choice and must face Christ as Judge.

經文:

路加福音 23:1-23:1

註釋:

 {The whole company} (hapan to pl(8874)hos). All but Nicodemus
and Joseph of Arimathea who were probably not invited to this
meeting.

經文:

路加福音 23:2-23:2

註釋:

 {Began to accuse} ((8872)xanto kat(8867)orein). They went at it
and kept it up. Luke mentions three, but neither of them includes
their real reason nor do they mention their own condemnation of
Jesus. They had indulged their hatred in doing it, but they no
longer have the power of life and death. Hence they say nothing
to Pilate of that. {We found} (heuramen). Second aorist active
indicative with first aorist vowel a. Probably they mean that
they had caught Jesus in the act of doing these things (_in
flagrante delicto_) rather than discovery by formal trial.
{Perverting our nation} (diastrephonta to ethnos h(886d)(936e)).
Present active participle of diastreph(935c), old verb to turn this
way and that, distort, disturb. In the N.T. only here and  Ac
13:10 . The Sanhedrin imply that the great popularity of Jesus
was seditious. {Forbidding to give tribute to Caesar}, (k(936c)uonta
phorous kaisari didonai). Note object infinitive didonai after
the participle k(936c)uonta. Literally, hindering giving tribute to
Caesar. This was a flat untruth. Their bright young students had
tried desperately to get Jesus to say this very thing, but they
had failed utterly ( Lu 20:25 ). {Saying that he himself is
Christ a king} (legonta hauton Christon basilea einai). Note
the indirect discourse here after the participle legonta with
the accusative (hauton where auton could have been used), and
the infinitive. This charge is true, but not in the sense meant
by them. Jesus did claim to be the Christ and the king of the
kingdom of God. But the Sanhedrin wanted Pilate to think that he
set himself up as a rival to Caesar. Pilate would understand
little from the word "Christ," but "King" was a different matter.
He was compelled to take notice of this charge else he himself
would be accused to Caesar of winking at such a claim by Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 23:3-23:3

註釋:

 {Thou sayest} (su legeis). A real affirmative as in
 22:70 . The Gospels all give Pilate's question about Jesus
asking of the Jews in precisely the same words ( Mr 15:2  Mt
27:11  Lu 23:3  Joh 18:33 ).

經文:

路加福音 23:4-23:4

註釋:

 Heb. 5:9 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Heb.' or engs='Heb.'
經文:

路加福音 23:5-23:5

註釋:

 {But they were the more urgent} (hoi de epischuon).
Imperfect active of epischu(935c), to give added (epi) strength
(ischu(935c)). And they kept insisting. Evidently Pilate had taken
the thing too lightly. {He stirred up the people} (anaseiei ton
laon). This compound is rare, though old (Thucydides), to shake
up (back and forth). This is a more vigorous repetition of the
first charge (verse  2 , "perverting our nation"). {Beginning
from Galilee} (arxamenos apo t(8873) Galilaias). These very words
occur in the address of Peter to the group in the house of
Cornelius ( Ac 10:37 ). The idiomatic use of arxamenos appears
also in  Ac 1:22 . Galilee (Grote) was the mother of seditious
men (see Josephus).

經文:

路加福音 23:6-23:6

註釋:

 {A Galilean} (Galilaios). If so, here was a way out for
Herod without going back on his own decision.

經文:

路加福音 23:7-23:7

註釋:

 {When he knew} (epignous). Second aorist active participle
from epigin(9373)k(935c), having gained full (epi, added knowledge).
{Of Herod's jurisdiction} (ek t(8873) exousias H(8872)(9369)dou). Herod was
naturally jealous of any encroachment by Pilate, the Roman
Procurator of Judea. So here was a chance to respect the
prerogative (exousia) of Herod and get rid of this troublesome
case also. {Sent him up} (anepempsen). First aorist active
indicative of anapemp(935c). This common verb is used of sending
back as in verse  11  or of sending up to a higher court as of
Paul to Caesar ( Ac 25:21 ). {Who himself also was} (onta kai
auton). Being also himself in Jerusalem. Present active
participle of eimi.

經文:

路加福音 23:8-23:8

註釋:

 {Was exceeding glad} (echar(8820)lian). Second aorist passive
indicative of chair(935c), ingressive aorist, became glad. {Of a
long time} (ex hikan(936e) chron(936e)). For this idiom see  8:27  20:9  Ac 8:11 ). {He hoped} ((886c)pizen). Imperfect active. He was
still hoping. He had long ago gotten over his fright that Jesus
was John the Baptist come to life again ( 9:7-9 ). {Done}
(ginomenon). Present middle participle. He wanted to see a
miracle happening like a stunt of a sleight-of-hand performer.

經文:

路加福音 23:9-23:9

註釋:

 {He questioned} (ep(8872)(9374)(835c)). Imperfect active, kept on
questioning. {In many words} (en logois hikanois). Same use of
hikanos as in verse  8 .

經文:

路加福音 23:10-23:10

註釋:

 {Stood} (hist(886b)eisan). Second perfect active intransitive
of hist(886d)i with sense of imperfect. They stood by while Herod
quizzed Jesus and when he refused to answer, they broke loose
with their accusations like a pack of hounds with full voice
(euton(9373), adverb from adjective eutonos, from eu, well, and
	ein(935c), to stretch, well tuned). Old word, but in the N.T. only
here and  Ac 18:28 .

經文:

路加福音 23:11-23:11

註釋:

 {Set him at nought} (exouthen(8873)as). First aorist active
participle from exouthene(935c), to count as nothing, to treat with
utter contempt, as zero. {Arraying him in gorgeous apparel}
(peribal(936e) esth(8874)a lampran). Second aorist active participle of
periball(935c), to fling around one. Lampran is brilliant, shining
as in  Jas 2:2 , so different from the modest dress of the
Master. This was part of the shame.

經文:

路加福音 23:12-23:12

註釋:

 {For before they were at enmity between themselves}
(proup(8872)chon gar en echthr(8369) ontes pros heautous). A
periphrastic imperfect of the double compound prouperch(935c), an
old verb, to exist (huparch(935c)) previously (pro-), here alone
in the N.T., with ontes (participle of eimi) added.

經文:

路加福音 23:13-23:13

註釋:

 {Called together} (sunkalesamenos). First aorist middle
participle (to himself). Pilate included "the people" in the hope
that Jesus might have some friends among them.

經文:

路加福音 23:14-23:14

註釋:

 {As one that perverteth the people} (h(9373) apostrephonta ton
laon). Pilate here condenses the three charges in verse  2  into
one (Plummer). He uses a more common compound of streph(935c) here,
apostreph(935c), to turn away from, to seduce, to mislead, whereas
diastreph(935c) in verse  2  has more the notion of disturbing
(turning this way and that). Note the use of h(9373) with the
particle, the alleged reason. Pilate understands the charge
against Jesus to be that he is a revolutionary agitator and a
dangerous rival to Caesar, treason in plain words. {Having
examined him before you} (en(9370)ion hum(936e) anakrinas). Right
before your eyes I have given him a careful examination (ana)
up and down, krin(935c), to judge, sift. Old and common verb in the
general sense and in the forensic sense as here and which Luke
alone has in the N.T. ( Lu 23:14  4:9  12:19  28:18  Ac 24:8 )
except  1Co 9:3 . {Whereof} (h(936e)). Attraction of the relative
ha to the case (genitive) of the unexpressed antecedent
	out(936e).

經文:

路加福音 23:15-23:15

註釋:

 {No nor yet} (all' oude). But not even. {Hath been done
by him} (estin pepragmenon aut(9369)). Periphrastic perfect passive
indicative of prass(935c), common verb, to do. The case of aut(9369)
can be regarded as either the dative or the instrumental
(Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 534,542).

經文:

路加福音 23:16-23:16

註釋:

 {Chastise} (paideusas). First aorist active participle of
paideu(935c), to train a child (pais), and then, as a part of the
training, punishment. Our English word chasten is from the Latin
_castus_, pure, chaste, and means to purify (cf.  Heb 12:6f. ).
Perhaps Pilate may have split a hair over the word as Wycliff
puts it: "I shall deliver him amended." But, if Jesus was
innocent, Pilate had no doubt to "chastise" him to satisfy a mob.
Verse  17  is omitted by Westcott and Hort as from  Mr 15:6  Mt
27:15 .

經文:

路加福音 23:18-23:18

註釋:

 {All together} (panpl(8874)hei). An adverb from the adjective
panpl(8874)h(8873), all together. Used by Dio Cassius. Only here in the
N.T. {Away} (aire). Present active imperative, Take him on away
and keep him away as in  Ac 21:36  22:22 , of Paul. But {release}
(apoluson) is first aorist active imperative, do it now and at
once.

經文:

路加福音 23:19-23:19

註釋:

 {Insurrection} (stasin). An old word for sedition,
standing off, the very charge made against Jesus (and untrue). If
Jesus had raised insurrection against Caesar, these accusers
would have rallied to his standard. {And for murder} (kai
phonon). They cared nought for this. In fact, the murderer was
counted a hero like bandits and gangsters today with some
sentimentalists. {Was cast} ((886e) bl(8874)heis). Periphrastic aorist
passive indicative of all(935c), a quite unusual form.

經文:

路加福音 23:21-23:21

註釋:

 {But they shouted} (hoi de epeph(936e)oun). Imperfect active
of epiph(936e)e(935c), to call to. Old verb and a verb pertinent here.
They kept on yelling. {Crucify, crucify} (staurou, staurou).
Present active imperative. Go on with the crucifixion.  Mr 15:13 
has staur(9373)on (first aorist active imperative), do it now and
be done with it. No doubt some shouted one form, some another.

經文:

路加福音 23:22-23:22

註釋:

 {Why, what evil?} (Ti gar kakon;). Note this use of gar
(explanatory and argumentative combined).

經文:

路加福音 23:23-23:23

註釋:

 {But they were instant} (hoi de epekeinto). Imperfect
middle of epikeimai, an old verb for the rush and swirl of a
tempest. {With loud voices} (ph(936e)ais megalais). Instrumental
case. Poor Pilate was overwhelmed by this tornado. {Prevailed}
(katischuon). Imperfect active of katischu(935c) (see  Mt 16:18  Lu 21:36 ). The tempest Pilate had invited ( 23:13 ).

經文:

路加福音 23:24-23:24

註釋:

 {Gave sentence} (epekrinen). Pronounced the final
sentence. The usual verb for the final decision. Only here in the
N.T.

經文:

路加福音 23:25-23:25

註釋:

 {Whom they asked for} (hon (8869)tounto). Imperfect middle,
for whom they had been asking for themselves. Luke repeats that
Barabbas was in prison "for insurrection and murder." {To their
will} (	(9369) thel(886d)ati aut(936e)). This is mob law by the judge who
surrenders his own power and justice to the clamour of the crowd.

經文:

路加福音 23:26-23:26

註釋:

 {They laid hold} (epilabomenoi). Second aorist middle
participle of the common verb epilamban(935c). The soldiers had no
scruples about taking hold of any one of themselves (middle
voice).  Mr 15:21  Lu 27:32  use the technical word for this
process aggareu(935c), which see for discussion and also about
Cyrene. {Laid on him} (epeth(886b)an). K first aorist of
epitith(886d)i. {To bear it} (pherein). Present infinitive, to go
on bearing.

經文:

路加福音 23:27-23:27

註釋:

 {Followed} ((886b)olouthei). Imperfect active, was following.
Verses  27-32  are peculiar to Luke. {Bewailed} (ekoptonto).
Imperfect middle of kopt(935c), to cut, smite, old and common verb.
Direct middle, they were smiting themselves on the breast. "In
the Gospels there is no instance of a woman being hostile to
Christ" (Plummer). Luke's Gospel is appropriately called the
Gospel of Womanhood ( 1:39-56  2:36-38  7:11-15, 37-50  8:1-3  10:38-42  11:27  13:11-16 ). {Lamented} (ethr(886e)oun). Imperfect
active of 	hr(886e)e(935c), old verb from 	hreomai, to cry aloud,
lament.

經文:

路加福音 23:28-23:28

註釋:

 {Turning} (strapheis). Luke is fond of this second aorist
passive participle of streph(935c) ( 7:9,44,55  10:23 ). If he had
been still carrying the Cross, he could not have made this
dramatic gesture. {Weep not} (m(8820)klaiete). Present active
imperative with m(885c), Stop weeping.

經文:

路加福音 23:29-23:29

註釋:

 {Blessed} (makariai). A beatitude to the barren, the
opposite of the hopes of Jewish mothers. Childless women are
commiserated ( 1:25,36 ). {To the hills} (	ois bounois). A
Cyrenaic word. In the N.T. only here and  3:5 . Quotation from
 Ho 10:8 .

經文:

路加福音 23:31-23:31

註釋:

 {In the green tree} (en hugr(9369) xul(9369)). Green wood is hard
to burn and so is used for the innocent. {In the dry} (en t(9369)
x(8872)(9369)). Dry wood kindles easily and is a symbol for the guilty.
This common proverb has various applications. Here the point is
that if they can put Jesus to death, being who he is, what will
happen to Jerusalem when its day of judgment comes? {What shall
be done} (	i gen(8874)ai). Deliberative subjunctive.

經文:

路加福音 23:32-23:32

註釋:

 {Were led} ((8867)onto). Imperfect passive of ag(935c), were being
led. {Malefactors} (kakourgoi). Evil (kakon), doers (work,
ergon). Old word, but in the N.T. only in this passage
( 32,33,39 ) and  2Ti 2:9 . Luke does not call them "robbers"
like  Mr 15:27  Mt 27:38,44 . {To be put to death}
(anaireth(886e)ai). First aorist passive infinitive of anaire(935c),
old verb, to take up, to take away, to kill.

經文:

路加福音 23:33-23:33

註釋:

 {The skull} (	o kranion). Probably because it looked like
a skull. See on 烘t 27:33; Mr 15:22|. {There they crucified him}
(ekei estaur(9373)an). There between the two robbers and on the
very cross on which Barabbas, the leader of the robber band, was
to have been crucified. {One} (hon men), {the other} (hon
de). Common idiom of contrast with this old demonstrative hos
and men and de.

經文:

路加福音 23:34-23:34

註釋:

 {Father forgive them} (Pater, aphes autois). Second
aorist active imperative of aphi(886d)i, with dative case. Some of
the oldest and best documents do not contain this verse, and yet,
while it is not certain that it is a part of Luke's Gospel, it is
certain that Jesus spoke these words, for they are utterly unlike
any one else. Jesus evidently is praying for the Roman soldiers,
who were only obeying, but not for the Sanhedrin. {Cast lots}
(ebalon kl(8872)on). Second aorist active indicative of all(935c).
See  Mr 15:24  Mt 27:35 .  Joh 19:23f . shows how the lot was
cast for the seamless garment, the four soldiers dividing the
other garments.

經文:

路加福音 23:35-23:35

註釋:

 {The people stood beholding} (hist(886b)ei). Past perfect
active of hist(886d)i, intransitive and like imperfect. A graphic
picture of the dazed multitude, some of whom may have been in the
Triumphal Entry on Sunday morning. {Scoffed} (exemukt(8872)izon).
Imperfect active, perhaps inchoative, began to turn up (out,
ex) at the dying Christ. The language comes from  Ps 22:7 .
{The Christ of God} (ho Christos tou theou). He had claimed to
be just this ( 22:67,70 ). The sarcastic sneer (he saved others;
let him save others, for himself he cannot save) is in  Mr 15:31  Mt 27:42 . Luke alone gives the contemptuous use of houtos
(this fellow) and the fling in "the elect" (ho eklektos). These
rulers were having their day at last.

經文:

路加福音 23:36-23:36

註釋:

 {Mocked} (enepaixan). Even the soldiers yielded to the
spell and acted like boys in their jeers. Aorist tense here and
different verb also from that used of the rulers. They were not
so bitter and persistent.

經文:

路加福音 23:37-23:37

註釋:

 {If} (ei). Condition of the first class as is text in
verse  35  used by the rulers. The soldiers pick out "the king of
the Jews" as the point of their sneer, the point on which Jesus
was condemned. But both soldiers and rulers fail to understand
that Jesus could not save himself if he was to save others.

經文:

路加福音 23:38-23:38

註釋:

 {A superscription} (epigraph(885c)).  Mr 15:26  has "the
superscription of his accusation"  Mt 27:37 , "his accusation,"
 Joh 19:19  "a title." But they all refer to the charge written
at the top on the cross giving, as was the custom, the accusation
on which the criminal was condemned, with his name and residence.
Put all the reports together and we have: This is Jesus of
Nazareth the King of the Jews. This full title appeared in Latin
for law, in Aramaic for the Jews, in Greek for everybody ( Joh
19:20 ).

經文:

路加福音 23:39-23:39

註釋:

 {Railed} (eblasph(886d)ei). Imperfect active, implying that
he kept it up. His question formally calls for an affirmative
answer (ouchi), but the ridicule is in his own answer: "Save
thyself and us." It was on a level with an effort to break
prison. Luke alone gives this incident ( 39-43 ), though  Mr
15:32  Mt 27:44  allude to it.

經文:

路加福音 23:40-23:40

註釋:

 {Rebuking} (epitim(936e)). From what Mark and Matthew say
both robbers sneered at Jesus at first, but this one came to
himself and turned on his fellow robber in a rage. {Dost thou not
even fear God?} (Oude phob(8869) ton theon;). Oude here goes with
the verb. Phob(8869) (second person singular present indicative
middle of phobeomai. Both of you will soon appear before God.
Jesus has nothing to answer for and you have added this to your
other sins.

經文:

路加福音 23:41-23:41

註釋:

 {Nothing amiss} (ouden atopon). Nothing out of place (a
privative, 	opos, place). Old word, three times in the N.T.
( Lu 23:44  Ac 28:6  2Th 3:2 ). This can only mean that this
robber accepts the claims of Jesus to be true. He is dying for
claiming to be Messiah, as he is.

經文:

路加福音 23:42-23:42

註釋:

 {In thy kingdom} (eis t(886e) basileian sou, text of Westcott
and Hort or en tei basilei(8369) sou, margin). Probably no
difference in sense is to be found, for eis and en are
essentially the same preposition. He refers to the Messianic rule
of Jesus and begs that Jesus will remember him. It is not clear
whether he hopes for immediate blessing or only at the judgment.

經文:

路加福音 23:43-23:43

註釋:

 {Today shalt thou be with me in Paradise} (S(886d)eron met'
emou es(8869) en t(9369) paradeis(9369)). However crude may have been the
robber's Messianic ideas Jesus clears the path for him. He
promises him immediate and conscious fellowship after death with
Christ in Paradise which is a Persian word and is used here not
for any supposed intermediate state; but the very bliss of heaven
itself. This Persian word was used for an enclosed park or
pleasure ground (so Xenophon). The word occurs in two other
passages in the N.T. ( 2Co 12:4  Re 2:7 ), in both of which the
reference is plainly to heaven. Some Jews did use the word for
the abode of the pious dead till the resurrection, interpreting
"Abraham's bosom" ( Lu 16:22f. ) in this sense also. But the
evidence for such an intermediate state is too weak to warrant
belief in it.

經文:

路加福音 23:45-23:45

註釋:

 {The sun's light failing} (	ou h(886c)iou ekleipontos).
Genitive absolute of the present active participle of ekleip(935c),
an old verb, to leave out, omit, pass by, to fail, to die. The
word was used also of the eclipse of the sun or moon. But this
was impossible at this time because the moon was full at the
passover. Hence many documents change this correct text to "the
sun was darkened" (eskotisth(8820)ho h(886c)ios) to obviate the
difficulty about the technical eclipse. But the sun can be
darkened in other ways. In a London fog at noon the street lights
are often turned on. The Revised Version translates it correctly,
"the sun's light failing." Leave the darkness unexplained. {In
the midst} (meson). In the middle.  Mr 15:38  Mt 27:51  have
"in two" (eis duo).

經文:

路加福音 23:46-23:46

註釋:

 {Father} (Pater). Jesus dies with the words of  Ps 31:5 
on his lips. {Gave up the ghost} (exepneusen). First aorist
active indicative of ekpne(935c), to breathe out, to expire, old
word, but in the N.T. only here and  Mr 15:37,39 . There is no
special reason for retaining "ghost" in the English as both  Mt
27:50  (yielded up his spirit, aph(886b)en to pneuma) and  Joh
19:30  (gave up his spirit, pared(936b)en to pneuma) use pneuma
which is the root of ekpne(935c), the verb in Mark and Luke.

經文:

路加福音 23:47-23:47

註釋:

 {Glorified} (edoxazen). Imperfect active. Began to
glorify (inchoative) or kept on glorifying.

經文:

路加福音 23:48-23:48

註釋:

 {Certainly} (ont(9373)). Really, old adverb from the
participle on from eimi, to be. Used also in  24:34  of the
resurrection of Jesus. {A righteous man} (dikaios).  Mr 15:39 
( Mt 27:54 ) which see, represents the centurion as saying 	heou
huios (God's Son) which may mean to him little more than
"righteous man." {That came together} (sunparagenomenoi).
Double compound (sun, together, para, along), that came along
together. {To this sight} (epi t(886e) the(9372)ian taut(886e)). This
spectacle (	he(9372)ian from 	he(9372)e(935c), verse  35 ). {Returned}
(hupestrephon). Imperfect active of hupostreph(935c). See them
slowly wending their way back to the city from this Tragedy of
the Ages which they had witnessed in awe.

經文:

路加福音 23:49-23:49

註釋:

 {Stood afar off} (hist(886b)eisan apo makrothen). Same verb
as in verse  35 . Melancholy picture of the inner circle of the
acquaintances of Jesus and the faithful band of women from
Galilee. {Seeing these things} (hor(9373)ai tauta). And helpless
either to prevent them or to understand them. They could only
stand and look with blinded eyes.

經文:

路加福音 23:51-23:51

註釋:

 {He had not consented to their counsel and deed} (houtos
ouk (886e) sunkatatetheimenos t(8869) boul(8869) kai t(8869) praxei aut(936e)). This
parenthesis is given by Luke alone and explains that, though a
councillor (ouleut(8873),  Mr 5:43 ) he had not agreed to the vote
of the Sanhedrin. It is fairly certain that both Joseph and
Nicodemus were suspected of sympathy with Jesus and so were not
invited to the trial of Jesus. {Was looking for}
(prosedecheto). Imperfect middle.  Mr 15:43  has the
periphrastic imperfect ((886e) prosdechomenos).

經文:

路加福音 23:52-23:52

註釋:

 {Asked for} ((8869)t(8873)ato). First aorist middle (indirect)
indicative as in  Mr 15:43  Mt 27:58 . The middle voice shows
that Joseph of Arimathea asked the body of Jesus as a personal
favour.

經文:

路加福音 23:53-23:53

註釋:

 {Took it down} (kathel(936e)). Second aorist active
participle of kathaire(935c) as in  Mr 15:46 . {Wrapped}
(enetulixen), as in  Mt 27:59  where  Mr 15:46  has eneil(8873)en
(wound), which see.  Joh 19:40  has "bound" (ed(8873)an). See Matt.
and Mark also for the linen cloth (sindoni). {Hewn in stone}
(laxeut(9369)). From laxeu(935c) (las, a stone, xe(935c), to polish).
In the LXX and here only in the N.T. Nowhere else so far as
known. See the usual Greek verb latome(935c) in  Mr 15:46  Mt
27:60 . {Where never man had yet lain} (hou ouk en oudeis oup(930a)keimenos). Triple negative and periphrastic past perfect passive
in sense (keimai), though periphrastic imperfect passive in
form. Same item in  Joh 19:40  who uses (886e) tetheimenos
(periphrastic past perfect passive in form).

經文:

路加福音 23:54-23:54

註釋:

 {The day of the Preparation} (h(886d)era paraskeu(8873)). The
technical Jewish phrase for the day before the sabbath for which
see discussion on 烘t 27:62|. {Drew on} (epeph(9373)ken). Imperfect
active, began to dawn or give light. However, it was sundown, not
sunrise when the Jewish sabbath (twenty-four-hour day) began. The
confusion is to us, not to the Jews or the readers of the Greek
New Testament. Luke is not speaking of the twelve-hour day which
began with sunrise, but the twenty-four-hour day which began with
sunset.

經文:

路加福音 23:55-23:55

註釋:

 {Had come with him} ((8873)an sunel(886c)uthuiai). Periphrastic
past perfect active of sunerchomai. {Followed after}
(katakolouth(8873)asai). Aorist active participle of
katakolouthe(935c), an old verb, but in the N.T. only here and  Ac
16:17 . It is possible that they followed after Joseph and
Nicodemus so that they "beheld the tomb," (etheasanto to
mn(886d)eion), and also "how his body was laid" (h(9373) eteth(8820)to s(936d)a
autou). First aorist passive indicative of 	ith(886d)i. They may
in fact, have witnessed the silent burial from a distance. The
Syriac Sinaitic and the Syriac Curetonian give it thus: "and the
women, who came with Him from Galilee went to the sepulchre in
their footsteps, and saw the body when they had brought it in
there." At any rate the women saw "that" and "how" the body of
Jesus was laid in this new tomb of Joseph in the rocks.

經文:

路加福音 23:56-23:56

註釋:

 {On the sabbath they rested} (	o sabbaton h(8873)uchasan).
They returned and prepared spices before the sabbath began. Then
they rested all during the sabbath (accusative of extent of time,
	o sabbaton).

經文:

路加福音 24:1-24:1

註釋:

 {At early dawn} (orthrou batheos). Genitive of time.
Literally, at deep dawn. The adjective athus (deep) was often
used of time. This very idiom occurs in Aristophanes, Plato, et
cetera.  Joh 20:1  adds "while it was yet dark." That is, when
they started, for the sun was risen when they arrived ( Mr
16:2 ). {Which they had prepared} (ha h(8874)oimasan).  Mr 16:1 
notes that they bought other spices after the sabbath was over
besides those which they already had ( Lu 23:56 ).

經文:

路加福音 24:2-24:2

註釋:

 {Rolled away} (apokekulismenon). Perfect passive
participle of apokuli(935c), late verb and in the N.T. only in this
context ( Mr 16:3  Mt 28:2 ) while  Joh 20:1  has (8872)menon
(taken away).

經文:

路加福音 24:3-24:3

註釋:

 {Of the Lord Jesus} (	ou kuriou I(8873)ou). The Western family
of documents does not have these words and Westcott and Hort
bracket them as Western non-interpolations. There are numerous
instances of this shorter Western text in this chapter. For a
discussion of the subject see my _Introduction to the Textual
Criticism of the New Testament_, pp. 225-237. This precise
combination (the Lord Jesus) is common in the Acts, but nowhere
else in the Gospels.

經文:

路加福音 24:4-24:4

註釋:

 {While they were perplexed thereabout} (en t(9369) aporeisthai
autas peri toutou). Luke's common Hebraistic idiom, en with
the articular infinitive (present passive aporeisthai from
apore(935c), to lose one's way) and the accusative of general
reference. {Two men} (andres duo). Men, not women.  Mr 16:5 
speaks of a young man (
eaniskon) while  Mt 28:5  has "an
angel." We need not try to reconcile these varying accounts which
agree in the main thing. The angel looked like a man and some
remembered two. In verse  23  Cleopas and his companion call them
"angels." {Stood by} (epest(8873)an). Second aorist active
indicative of ephist(886d)i. This common verb usually means to step
up suddenly, to burst upon one. {In dazzling apparel} (en
esth(8874)i astraptous(8869)). This is the correct text. This common
simplex verb occurs only twice in the N.T., here and  Lu 17:24 
(the Transfiguration). It has the same root as astrap(885c)
(lightning). The "men" had the garments of "angels."

經文:

路加福音 24:5-24:5

註釋:

 {As they were affrighted} (emphob(936e) genomen(936e) aut(936e)).
Genitive absolute with second aorist middle of ginomai, to
become. Hence, {when they became affrighted}. They had utterly
forgotten the prediction of Jesus that he would rise on the third
day.

經文:

路加福音 24:6-24:6

註釋:

 {He is not here, but is risen} (ouk estin h(9364)e, alla
(8867)erth(885c)). Another Western non-interpolation according to
Westcott and Hort. The words are genuine at any rate in  Mr 16:6  Mt 28:7 . {The third day rise again} (	(8869) trit(8869) h(886d)er(8369)
anast(886e)ai). See  9:22  18:32,33  where Jesus plainly foretold
this fact. And yet they had forgotten it, for it ran counter to
all their ideas and hopes.

經文:

路加福音 24:9-24:9

註釋:

 {From the tomb} (apo tou mn(886d)eiou). Some documents omit
these words. This word for tomb is like our "memorial" from
mimn(8873)k(935c), to remind. {Told} (ap(8867)geilan). It was a wonderful
proclamation. Luke does not separate the story of Mary Magdalene
from that of the other women as John does ( Joh 20:2-18 ).

經文:

路加福音 24:11-24:11

註釋:

 {As idle talk} (h(9373) l(8872)os). Old word for nonsense, only
here in the N.T. Medical writers used it for the wild talk of
those in delirium or hysteria. {Disbelieved} ((8870)istoun).
Imperfect active of apiste(935c), old verb from apistos, without
confidence or faith in. They kept on distrusting the story of the
women.

經文:

路加福音 24:12-24:12

註釋:

 1Pe
1:12 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Pe
1' or engs='1Pe
1'
經文:

路加福音 24:13-24:13

註釋:

 {Were going} ((8873)an poreuomenoi). Periphrastic imperfect
middle of poreuomai. {Sixty stadia} (stadious hex(886b)onta).
About seven miles.

經文:

路加福音 24:14-24:14

註釋:

 {They communed} (h(936d)iloun). Imperfect active of
homile(935c), old and common verb (from homilos, in company with).
In the N.T. only here (and verse  15 ) and  Ac 20:11  24:26 . Our
word homiletics is derived from this word for preaching was at
first largely conversational in style and not declamatory.

經文:

路加福音 24:15-24:15

註釋:

 {While they communed and questioned together} (en t(9369)
homilein autous kai sunz(8874)ein). Same idiom as in verse  14 ,
which see. Note sunz(8874)ein; each questioned the other. {Jesus
himself} (autos I(8873)ous). In actual person. {Went with them}
(suneporeueto autois). Imperfect middle, was going along with
them.

經文:

路加福音 24:16-24:16

註釋:

 {Were holden that they should not know him} (ekratounto
tou m(8820)epign(936e)ai auton). Imperfect passive of krate(935c),
continued being held, with the ablative case of the articular
infinitive, "from recognizing him," from knowing him fully
(epi-gn(936e)ai, ingressive aorist of epigin(9373)ko). The m(885c) is a
redundant negative after the negative idea in ekratounto.

經文:

路加福音 24:17-24:17

註釋:

 {That you have with another} (hous antiballete pros
all(886c)ous). Anti-ball(935c) is an old verb and means to throw in
turn, back and forth like a ball, from one to another, a
beautiful picture of conversation as a game of words. Only here
in the N.T. {They stood still} (estath(8873)an). First aorist
passive of hist(886d)i, intransitive. They stopped. {Looking sad}
(skuthr(9370)oi). This is the correct text. It is an old adjective
from skuthros, gloomy and ops, countenance. Only here in the
N.T.

經文:

路加福音 24:18-24:18

註釋:

 {Dost thou alone sojourn?} (su monos paroikeis;). Monos
is predicate adjective. "Hast thou been dwelling alone (all by
thyself)?" {And not know?} (kai ouk egn(9373);). Second aorist
active indicative and difficult to put into English as the aorist
often is. The verb paroike(935c) means to dwell beside one, then as
a stranger like paroikoi ( Eph 2:19 ). In Jerusalem everybody
was talking about Jesus.

經文:

路加福音 24:21-24:21

註釋:

 {But we hoped} (h(886d)eis de (886c)pizomen). Imperfect active,
we were hoping. Note emphasis in h(886d)eis (we). {Redeem}
(lutrousthai). From the bondage of Rome, no doubt. {Yea and
beside all this} (alla ge kai sun p(8373)in toutois). Particles
pile up to express their emotions. {Yea} (alla here
affirmative, as in verse  22 , not adversative) at least (ge)
also (kai) together with all these things (sun p(8373)in
toutois). Like Pelion on Ossa with them in their perplexity.
{Now the third day} (	rit(886e) taut(886e) h(886d)eran agei). A difficult
idiom for the English. "One is keeping this a third day." And he
is still dead and we are still without hope.

經文:

路加福音 24:22-24:22

註釋:

 {Amazed us} (exest(8873)an h(886d)as). First aorist active
(transitive) indicative with accusative h(886d)as of exist(886d)i.
The second aorist active is intransitive. {Early} (orthrinai).
A poetic and late form for orthrios. In the N.T. only here and
 Re 24:22 . Predicate adjective agreeing with the women.

經文:

路加福音 24:23-24:23

註釋:

 {Had seen} (he(9372)akenai). Perfect active infinitive in
indirect assertion after legousai. Same construction for z(8869)n
after legousin. But all this was too indirect and uncertain
(women and angels) for Cleopas and his companion.

經文:

路加福音 24:25-24:25

註釋:

 {Foolish men} (ano(8874)oi). Literally without sense
(
ous), not understanding. Common word. {Slow of heart}
(radeis t(8869) kardi(8369)). Slow in heart (locative case). Old word
for one dull, slow to comprehend or to act. {All that} (p(8373)in
hois). Relative attracted from the accusative ha to the case
of the antecedent p(8373)in (dative). They could only understand
part of the prophecies, not all.

經文:

路加福音 24:26-24:26

註釋:

 {Behooved it not?} (ouchi edei;). Was it not necessary?
The very things about the death of Jesus that disturbed them so
were the strongest proof that he was the Messiah of the Old
Testament.

經文:

路加福音 24:27-24:27

註釋:

 {Interpreted} (di(8872)m(886e)eusen). First aorist active
(constative aorist) indicative of dierm(886e)eu(935c) (Margin has the
imperfect di(8872)m(886e)euen), intensive compound (dia) of
herm(886e)eu(935c), the old verb to interpret from herm(886e)eus,
interpreter, and that from Herm(8873), the messenger of the gods as
the people of Lystra took Paul to be ( Ac 14:12 ). But what
wonderful exegesis the two disciples were now hearing!
{Concerning himself} (peri heauton). Jesus found himself in the
Old Testament, a thing that some modern scholars do not seem able
to do.

經文:

路加福音 24:28-24:28

註釋:

 {Made as though} (prosepoi(8873)ato). First aorist active
middle (Some MSS. have prosepoieito imperfect) indicative of
prospoie(935c), old verb to conform oneself to, to pretend. Only
here in the N.T. Of course he would have gone on if the disciples
had not urged him to stay.

經文:

路加福音 24:29-24:29

註釋:

 {Constrained} (parebiasanto). Strong verb parabiazomai,
to compel by use of force (Polybius and LXX). In the N.T. only
here and  Ac 16:15 . It was here compulsion of courteous words.
{Is far spent} (kekliken). Perfect active indicative of
klin(935c). The day "has turned" toward setting.

經文:

路加福音 24:30-24:30

註釋:

 {When he had sat down} (en t(9369) kataklith(886e)ai auton).
Luke's common idiom as in verses  4,15 . Note first aorist
passive infinitive (on the reclining as to him). {Gave}
(epedidou). Imperfect, inchoative idea, began to give to them,
in contrast with the preceding aorist (punctiliar) participles.

經文:

路加福音 24:31-24:31

註釋:

 {Were opened} (di(886e)oichth(8873)an). Ingressive first aorist
passive indicative of dianoig(935c). {Knew} (epegn(9373)an). Effective
first aorist active indicative fully recognized him. Same word in
verse  16 . {Vanished} (aphantos egeneto). Became invisible or
unmanifested. Aphantos from a privative and phainomai, to
appear. Old word, only here in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 24:32-24:32

註釋:

 {Was not our heart burning?} (Ouchi h(8820)kardia hem(936e)
kaiomen(8820)(886e);). Periphrastic imperfect middle. {Spake}
(elalei). Imperfect active, was speaking. This common verb
lale(935c) is onomatopoetic, to utter a sound, la-la and was used
of birds, children chattering, and then for conversation, for
preaching, for any public speech. {Opened} (di(886e)oigen).
Imperfect active indicative of the same verb used of the eyes in
verse  31 .

經文:

路加福音 24:33-24:33

註釋:

 {That very hour} (aut(8869) t(8869) h(9372)(8369)). Locative case and
common Lukan idiom, at the hour itself. They could not wait.
{Gathered} ((8874)hroismenous). Perfect passive participle of
athroiz(935c), old verb from athroos (copulative a and 	hroos,
crowd). Only here in the N.T.

經文:

路加福音 24:34-24:34

註釋:

 1Co
15:5 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
15' or engs='1Co
15'
經文:

路加福音 24:35-24:35

註釋:

 {Rehearsed} (ex(8867)ounto). Imperfect middle indicative of
ex(8867)eomai, verb to lead out, to rehearse. Our word exegesis
comes from this verb. Their story was now confirmatory, not
revolutionary. The women were right then after all. {Of them}
(autois). To them, dative case. They did not recognize Jesus in
his exegesis, but did in the breaking of bread. One is reminded
of that saying in the _Logia of Jesus_: "Raise the stone and
there thou shalt find me, cleave the wood and there am I."

經文:

路加福音 24:36-24:36

註釋:

 {He himself stood} (autos est(885c)). He himself stepped and
stood. Some documents do not have "Peace be unto you."

經文:

路加福音 24:37-24:37

註釋:

 {Terrified} (pto(8874)hentes). First aorist passive
participle of ptoe(935c), old verb and in the N.T. only here and  Lu
21:9  which see. {Affrighted} (emphoboi genomenoi). Late
adjective from en and phobos (fear). Both these terms of fear
are strong. {Supposed} (edokoun). Imperfect active of doke(935c),
kept on thinking so.

經文:

路加福音 24:38-24:38

註釋:

 {Why are ye troubled?} (	i tetaragmenoi este;).
Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of 	arass(935c), old verb,
to agitate, to stir up, to get excited.

經文:

路加福音 24:39-24:39

註釋:

 {Myself} (autos). Jesus is patient with his proof. They
were convinced before he came into the room, but that
psychological shock had unnerved them all. {Handle}
(ps(886c)aph(8873)ate). This very word is used in  1Jo 1:1  as proof of
the actual human body of Jesus. It is an old verb for touching
with the hand. {Flesh and bones} (sarka kai ostea). At least
this proves that he is not just a ghost and that Jesus had a real
human body against the Docetic Gnostics who denied it. But
clearly we are not to understand that our resurrection bodies
will have "flesh and bones." Jesus was in a transition state and
had not yet been glorified. The mystery remains unsolved, but it
was proof to the disciples of the identity of the Risen Christ
with Jesus of Nazareth.

經文:

路加福音 24:40-24:40

註釋:

 Another Western non-interpolation according to Westcott and
Hort. It is genuine in  Joh 20:20 .

經文:

路加福音 24:41-24:41

註釋:

 {Disbelieved for joy} (apistount(936e) aut(936e) apo t(8873) charas).
Genitive absolute and a quite understandable attitude. They were
slowly reconvinced, but it was after all too good to be true.
{Anything to eat} (r(9373)imon). Only here in the N.T., though an
old word from ibr(9373)k(935c), to eat.

經文:

路加福音 24:42-24:42

註釋:

 {A piece of broiled fish} (ichthuos optou meros). Optos
is a verbal from opta(935c), to cook, to roast, to broil. Common
word, but only here in the N.T. The best old documents omit "and
a honeycomb" (kai apo melissiou k(8872)iou).

經文:

路加福音 24:44-24:44

註釋:

 {While I was yet with you} (eti (936e) sun humin). Literally,
{Being yet with you}. The participle (936e) takes the time of the
principal verb.

經文:

路加福音 24:45-24:45

註釋:

 {Opened he their mind} (di(886e)oixen aut(936e) ton noun). The
same verb as that in verses  31,32  about the eyes and the
Scriptures. Jesus had all these years been trying to open their
minds that they might understand the Scriptures about the Messiah
and now at last he makes one more effort in the light of the
Cross and the Resurrection. They can now see better the will and
way of God, but they will still need the power of the Holy Spirit
before they will fully know the mind of Christ.

經文:

路加福音 24:46-24:46

註釋:

 {It is written} (gegraptai). Perfect passive indicative
of graph(935c), to write, the usual phrase for quoting Scripture.
Jesus now finds in the Old Testament his suffering, his
resurrection, and the preaching of repentance and forgiveness of
sins to all nations. Note the infinitives pathein, anast(886e)ai,
k(8872)uchth(886e)ai.

經文:

路加福音 24:47-24:47

註釋:

 {Beginning} (arxamenoi). Aorist middle participle of
arch(935c), but the nominative plural with no syntactical connection
(an anacoluthon).

經文:

路加福音 24:49-24:49

註釋:

 {Until ye be clothed} (he(9373) hou endus(8873)the). First aorist
middle subjunctive of endu(935c) or endun(935c). It is an old verb for
putting on a garment. It is here the indirect middle, put on
yourselves power from on high as a garment. They are to wait till
this experience comes to them. This is "the promise of the
Father." It is an old metaphor in Homer, Aristophanes, Plutarch,
and Paul uses it often.

經文:

路加福音 24:50-24:50

註釋:

 {Over against Bethany} (he(9373) pros B(8874)hanian). That is on
Olivet. On this blessed spot near where he had delivered the
great Eschatological Discourse he could see Bethany and
Jerusalem.

經文:

路加福音 24:51-24:51

註釋:

 {He parted from them} (diest(8820)ap' aut(936e)). Second aorist
active (intransitive) indicative of diist(886d)i. He stood apart
(dia) and he was gone. Some manuscripts do not have the words
"and was carried into heaven." But we know that Jesus was taken
up into heaven on a cloud ( Ac 1:9 ).

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