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經文:

雅各書 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 {James} (Iak(9362)os). Grecised form (nominative absolute) of
the Hebrew Iak(9362) (so LXX). Common name among the Jews, and this
man in Josephus (_Ant_. XX.9.1) and three others of this name in
Josephus also. {Servant} (doulos). Bond-servant or slave as
Paul ( Ro 1:1  Php 1:1  Tit 1:1 ). {Of the Lord Jesus Christ}
(kuriou I(8873)ou Christou). Here on a par with God (	heou) and
calls himself not adelphos (brother) of Jesus, but doulos.
The three terms here as in  2:1  have their full significance:
Jesus is the Messiah and Lord. James is not an Ebionite. He
accepts the deity of Jesus his brother, difficult as it was for
him to do so. The word kurios is frequent in the LXX for
_Elohim_ and _Jahweh_ as the Romans applied it to the emperor in
their emperor worship. See  1Co 12:3  for Kurios I(8873)ous and
 Php 2:11  for Kurios I(8873)ous Christos. {To the twelve tribes}
(	ais d(9364)eka phulais). Dative case. The expression means
"Israel in its fulness and completeness" (Hort), regarded as a
unity ( Ac 26:7 ) with no conception of any "lost" tribes. {Which
are of the Dispersion} (	ais en t(8869) diaspor(8369)). "Those in the
Dispersion" (repeated article). The term appears in  De 28:25 
(LXX) and comes from diaspeir(935c), to scatter (sow) abroad. In its
literal sense we have it in  Joh 7:34 , but here and in  1Pe 1:1 
Christian Jews are chiefly, if not wholly, in view. The Jews at
this period were roughly divided into Palestinian Jews (chiefly
agriculturists) and Jews of the Dispersion (dwellers in cities
and mainly traders). In Palestine Aramaic was spoken as a rule,
while in the Western Diaspora the language was Greek (_Koin(825f),
LXX), though the Eastern Diaspora spoke Aramaic and Syriac. The
Jews of the Diaspora were compelled to compare their religion
with the various cults around them (comparative religion) and had
a wider outlook on life. James writes thus in cultural _Koin(825f)
but in the Hebraic tone. {Greeting} (chairein). Absolute
infinitive (present active of chair(935c)) as in  Ac 15:23  (the
Epistle to Antioch and the churches of Syria and Galatia). It is
the usual idiom in the thousands of papyri letters known to us,
but in no other New Testament letter. But note chairein legete
in  2Jo 1:10,11 .

經文:

雅各書 1:2-1:2

註釋:

 {Count it} (h(8867)(8873)asthe). First aorist middle imperative of
h(8867)eomai, old verb to consider. Do it now and once for all.
{All joy} (p(8373)an charan). "Whole joy," " unmixed joy," as in
 Php 2:29 . Not just "some joy" along with much grief. {When}
(hotan). "Whenever," indefinite temporal conjunction. {Ye fall
into} (peripes(8874)e). Second aorist active subjunctive (with the
indefinite hotan) from peripipt(935c), literally to fall around
(into the midst of), to fall among as in  Lu 10:30  l(8869)stais
periepesen (he fell among robbers). Only other N.T. example of
this old compound is in  Ac 27:41 . Thucydides uses it of falling
into affliction. It is the picture of being surrounded (peri)
by trials. {Manifold temptations} (peirasmois poikilois).
Associative instrumental case. The English word temptation is
Latin and originally meant trials whether good or bad, but the
evil sense has monopolized the word in our modern English, though
we still say "attempt." The word peirasmos (from peiraz(935c),
late form for the old peira(935c) as in  Ac 26:21 , both in good
sense as in  Joh 6:6 , and in bad sense as in  Mt 16:1 ) does not
occur outside of the LXX and the N.T. except in Dioscorides (A.D.
100?) of experiments on diseases. "Trials" is clearly the meaning
here, but the evil sense appears in verse  12  (clearly in
peiraz(935c) in verse  13 ) and so in  Heb 3:8 . Trials rightly
faced are harmless, but wrongly met become temptations to evil.
The adjective poikilos (manifold) is as old as Homer and means
variegated, many coloured as in  Mt 4:24  2Ti 3:6  Heb 2:4 . In
 1Pe 1:6  we have this same phrase. It is a bold demand that
James here makes.

經文:

雅各書 1:3-1:3

註釋:

 {Knowing} (gin(9373)kontes). Present active participle of
gin(9373)k(935c) (experimental knowledge, the only way of getting this
view of "trials" as "all joy"). {The proof} (	o dokimion). Now
known (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, pp. 259ff.) from the papyri
examples of dokimios as an adjective in the same sense (good
gold, standard gold) as dokimos proved or tested ( Jas 1:12 ).
The use of 	o dokimion (neuter article with neuter single
adjective) here and in  1Pe 1:7 , clearly means "the genuine
element in your faith," not "crucible" nor "proving." Your faith
like gold stands the test of fire and is approved as standard.
James here, as in verse  6  2:1  5:15 , regards faith (pistis)
like Paul "as the very foundation of religion" (Mayor). {Worketh}
(katergazetai). Present (durative) middle indicative of the
compound verb with the perfective sense of kata as in  Php
2:12 , which see. {Patience} (hupomon(886e)). Old and common word
for remaining under (hupomen(935c)), "staying power" (Ropes), as in
 Col 1:11 .

經文:

雅各書 1:4-1:4

註釋:

 {Let have} (echet(935c)). Present active imperative of ech(935c),
let it keep on having. {Perfect} (	eleion). See  Ro 5:3f.  for
a like chain of blessings. Carry on the work to the end or
completion (from 	elos, end) as in  Joh 17:4  (	o ergon
telei(9373)as, having finished the work). {That ye may be} (hina
(8874)e). Purpose clause with hina and present active subjunctive
of eimi. This is the goal of patience. {Perfect and entire}
(	eleioi kai holokl(8872)oi). Perfected at the end of the task
(	elos) and complete in all parts (holokl(8872)oi, holos whole
and kl(8872)os lot or part). "Perfected all over." These two
adjectives often occur together in Philo, Plutarch, etc. See  Ac
3:16  for holokl(8872)ian (perfect soundness). {Lacking in nothing}
(en m(8864)eni leipomenoi). Present passive participle of leip(935c)
to leave. Negative statement of the preceding positive as often
in James (cf.  1:6 ). There is now a digression (verses  5-8 )
from the discussion of peirasmos, which is taken up again in
verse  9 . The word leipomenoi (lacking) suggests the
digression.

經文:

雅各書 1:5-1:5

註釋:

 {Lacketh wisdom} (leipetai sophias). Condition of first
class, assumed as true, ei and present passive indicative of
leip(935c) to be destitute of, with ablative case sophias. "If any
one falls short of wisdom." A banking figure, to have a shortage
of wisdom (not just knowledge, gn(9373)e(9373), but wisdom sophias,
the practical use of knowledge) . {Let him ask} (aiteit(935c)).
Present active imperative of aite(935c), "let him keep on asking."
{Of God} (para tou theou). "From (from beside) God," ablative
case with para. Liberally (hapl(9373)). This old adverb occurs
here only in the N.T. (from haplous, single-fold,  Mt 6:22 ,
and haplot(8873), simplicity, generosity, is common--  2Co 8:2  Ro
12:8 ). But the adverb is common in the papyri by way of emphasis
as simply or at all (Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_). Mayor
argues for the sense of "unconditionally" (the logical moral
sense) while Hort and Ropes agree and suggest "graciously." The
other sense of "abundantly" or "liberally" suits the idea in
haplot(8873) in  2Co 8:2  Ro 12:8 , but no example of the adverb in
this sense has been found unless this is one here. See  Isa 55:1 
for the idea of God's gracious giving and the case of Solomon
( 1Ki 3:9-12  Pr 2:3 ). {Upbraideth not} (m(8820)oneidizontos).
Present active participle of oneidiz(935c) (old verb to reproach, to
cast in one's teeth,  Mt 5:11 ) in the ablative case like
didontos agreeing with 	heou and with the usual negative of
the participle (me). This is the negative statement of
didontos hapl(9373) (giving graciously). The evil habit of giving
stinging words along with the money is illustrated in Sirach
經文:

雅各書 1:6-1:6

註釋:

 {In faith} (en pistei). Faith here "is the fundamental
religious attitude" (Ropes), belief in God's beneficent activity
and personal reliance on him (Oesterley). {Nothing doubting}
(m(8864)en diakrinomenos). Negative way of saying en pistei (in
faith), present passive participle of diakrin(935c), old verb to
separate (krin(935c)) between (dia), to discriminate as shown
clearly in  Ac 11:12, 15:9 , but no example of the sense of
divided against oneself has been found earlier than the N.T.,
though it appears in later Christian writings. It is like the use
of diamerizomai in  Lu 11:18  and occurs in  Mt 21:21  Mr
11:23  Ac 10:20  Ro 2:4  4:20  14:23 . It is a vivid picture of
internal doubt. {Is like} (eoiken). Second perfect active
indicative with the linear force alone from eik(935c) to be like.
Old form, but in N.T. only here and verse  23  (a literary touch,
not in LXX). {The surge of the sea} (klud(936e)i thalass(8873)). Old
word (from kluz(935c) to wash against) for a dashing or surging wave
in contrast with kuma (successive waves), in N.T. only here and
 Lu 8:24 . In associative instrumental case after eoiken. In
 Eph 4:14  we have kludoniz(935c) (from klud(936e)), to toss by waves.
{Driven by the wind} (anemizomen(9369)). Present passive participle
(agreeing in case with klud(936e)i) of anemiz(935c), earliest known
example and probably coined by James (from anemos), who is fond
of verbs in -iz(935c) (Mayor). The old Greek used anemo(935c). In  Eph
4:14  Paul uses both kludoniz(935c) and peripher(9320)anem(9369). It is a
vivid picture of the sea whipped into white-caps by the winds.
{Tossed} (
ipizomen(9369)). Present passive participle also in
agreement with klud(936e)i from 
ipiz(935c), rare verb (Aristophanes,
Plutarch, Philo) from 
ipis (a bellows or fire-fan), here only
in N.T. It is a picture of "the restless swaying to and fro of
the surface of the water, blown upon by shifting breezes" (Hort),
the waverer with slight rufflement.

經文:

雅各書 1:7-1:7

註釋:

 {That man} (ho anthr(9370)os ekeinos). Emphatic use of
ekeinos. {Of the Lord} (para tou kuriou). Ablative case with
para like 	heou in verse  5 .

經文:

雅各書 1:8-1:8

註釋:

 {Man} (an(8872)). Instead of anthr(9370)os (general term) in
verse  7 , perhaps for variety (Ropes), but often in James
( 1:12,23  2:2  3:2 ), though in other Epistles usually in
distinction from gun(885c) (woman). {Double-minded} (dipsuchos).
First appearance of this compound known and in N.T. only here and
 4:8 . Apparently coined by James, but copied often in early
Christian writings and so an argument for the early date of
James' Epistle (Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_). From dis
twice and psuch(885c) soul, double-souled, double-minded, Bunyan's
"Mr. Facing-both-ways." Cf. the rebuke to Peter (edistasas) in
 Mt 14:31 . {Unstable} (akatastatos). Late double compound
(alpha privative and katastatos verbal from kathist(886d)i), in
LXX once ( Is 54:11 ) and in Polybius, in N.T. only here and
 3:8 . It means unsteady, fickle, staggering, reeling like a
drunken man. Surely to James such "doubt" is no mark of
intellectuality.

經文:

雅各書 1:9-1:9

註釋:

 {But} (de). Return to the point of view in verse  2 . {Of
low degree} (ho tapeinos). "The lowly" brother, in outward
condition ( Lu 1:52 ), humble and poor as in  Ps 9:39  Pr 30:14 ,
not the spiritually humble as in  Mt 11:29  Jas 4:6 . In the LXX
	apeinos was used for either the poor in goods or the poor in
spirit. Christianity has glorified this word in both senses.
Already the rich and the poor in the churches had their occasion
for jealousies. {Glory in his high estate} (kauchasth(9320)en t(9369)
hupsei autou). Paradox, but true. In his low estate he is "in
his height" (hupsos, old word, in N.T., also in  Lu 1:78  Eph
3:1 ; etc.).

經文:

雅各書 1:10-1:10

註釋:

 {In that he is made low} (en t(8869) tapein(9373)ei autou). "In
his low estate." Play on 	apein(9373)is (from 	apeino(935c),  Php
3:7 ), like 	apeinos of verse  9 , old word in various senses,
in N.T. only here,  Lu 1:48  Ac 8:33  Php 3:21 . The Cross of
Christ lifts up the poor and brings down the high. It is the
great leveller of men. {As the flower of the grass} (h(9373) anthos
chortou). From the LXX ( Isa 40:6 ). Chortos means pasture,
then grass ( Mr 6:39 ) or fodder. Anthos is old word, in N.T.
only here, verse  11  1Pe 1:24  (same quotation). This warning is
here applied to "the rich brother," but it is true of all. {He
shall pass away} (pareleusetai). Future middle indicative
(effective aoristic future, shall pass completely away from
earth).

經文:

雅各書 1:11-1:11

註釋:

 {Ariseth} (aneteilen). Gnomic or timeless aorist active
indicative of the old compound anatell(935c), used here of plants
(cf. anathall(935c) in  Php 4:10 ), often of the sun ( Mt 13:6 ).
{With the scorching wind} (sun t(9369) kaus(936e)i). Associative
instrumental case with sun. In the LXX this late word (from
kausos) is usually the sirocco, the dry east wind from the
desert ( Job 1:19 ). In  Mt 20:12  Lu 12:55  it is the burning
heat of the sun. Either makes sense here. {Withereth}
(ex(8872)anen). Another gnomic aorist active indicative (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 837) of x(8872)ain(935c), old verb (from x(8872)os, dry or
withered,  Mt 12:10 ), to dry up. Grass and flowers are often
used to picture the transitoriness of human life. {Falleth}
(exepesen). Another gnomic aorist (second aorist active
indicative) of ekpipt(935c) to fall out (off). {The grace} (h(880a)euprepeia). Old word (from euprep(8873) well-looking, not in the
N.T.), only here in N.T. Goodly appearance, beauty. {Of the
fashion of it} (	ou pros(9370)ou autou). "Of the face of it." The
flower is pictured as having a "face," like a rose or lily.
{Perisheth} (ap(936c)eto). Another gnomic aorist (second aorist
middle indicative of apollumi, to destroy, but intransitive
here, to perish). The beautiful rose is pitiful when withered.
{Shall fade away} (maranth(8873)etai). Future passive indicative of
marain(935c), old verb, to extinguish a flame, a light. Used of
roses in Wisdom 2:8. {Goings} (poreiais). Old word from
poreu(935c) to journey, in N.T. only here and  Lu 13:22  (of
Christ's journey toward Jerusalem). The rich man's travels will
come to "journey's end."

經文:

雅各書 1:12-1:12

註釋:

 {Endureth} (hupomenei). Present active indicative of
hupomen(935c). Cf. verse  3 . {Temptation} (peirasmon). Real
temptation here. See verse  2  for "trials." {When he hath been
approved} (dokimos genomenos). "Having become approved," with
direct reference to 	o dokimion in verse  3 . See also  Ro 5:4 
for dokim(885c) (approval after test as of gold or silver). This
beatitude (makarios) is for the one who has come out unscathed.
See  1Ti 6:9 . {The crown of life} (	on stephanon t(8873) z(9388)s).
The same phrase occurs in  Re 2:10 . It is the genitive of
apposition, life itself being the crown as in  1Pe 5:4 . This
crown is "an honourable ornament" (Ropes), with possibly no
reference to the victor's crown (garland of leaves) as with Paul
in  1Co 9:25  2Ti 4:8 , nor to the linen fillet (diad(886d)a) of
royalty ( Ps 20:3 , where stephanos is used like diad(886d)a, the
kingly crown). Stephanos has a variety of uses. Cf. the thorn
chaplet on Jesus ( Mt 27:29 ). {The Lord}. Not in the oldest
Greek MSS., but clearly implied as the subject of ep(8867)geilato
({he promised}, first aorist middle indicative).

經文:

雅各書 1:13-1:13

註釋:

 {Let no one say} (m(8864)eis leget(935c)). Present active
imperative, prohibiting such a habit. {When he is tempted}
(peirazomenos). Present passive participle of peiraz(935c), here
in evil sense of tempt, not test, as in  Mt 4:1 . Verses  12-18 
give a vivid picture of temptation. {I am tempted of God} (apo
theou peirazomai). The use of apo shows origin (apo with
ablative case), not agency (hupo), as in  Mr 1:13 , of Satan.
It is contemptible, but I have heard wicked and weak men blame
God for their sins. Cf.  Pr 19:3 ; Sirach 15:11f. Temptation does
not spring "from God." {Cannot be tempted with evil} (apeirastos
kak(936e)). Verbal compound adjective (alpha privative and
peiraz(935c)), probably with the ablative case, as is common with
alpha privative (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 516), though Moulton
(_Prolegomena_, p. 74) treats it as the genitive of definition.
The ancient Greek has apeiratos (from peira(935c)), but this is
the earliest example of apeirastos (from peiraz(935c)) made on the
same model. Only here in the N.T. Hort notes apeiratos kak(936e) as
a proverb (Diodorus, Plutarch, Josephus) "free from evils." That
is possible here, but the context calls for "untemptable" rather
than "untempted." {And he himself tempteth no man} (peirazei de
autos oudena). Because "untemptable."

經文:

雅各書 1:14-1:14

註釋:

 2Pe
2:14,18 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Pe
2' or engs='2Pe
2'
經文:

雅各書 1:15-1:15

註釋:

 {Then} (eita). The next step. {The lust} (h(8820)epithumia).
Note article, the lust (verse  14 ) which one has. {When it hath
conceived} (sullabousa). Second aorist active participle of
sullamban(935c), old word to grasp together, in hostile sense ( Ac
26:21 ), in friendly sense of help ( Php 4:3 ), in technical
sense of a woman taking a man's seed in conception ( Lu 1:24 ),
here also of lust (as a woman), "having conceived." The will
yields to lust and conception takes place. {Beareth sin} (	iktei
hamartian). Present active indicative of 	ikt(935c) to bring forth
as a mother or fruit from seed, old verb, often in N.T., here
only in James. Sin is the union of the will with lust. See  Ps
7:14  for this same metaphor. {The sin} (h(8820)hamartia). The
article refers to hamartia just mentioned. {When it is
full-grown} (apotelestheisa). First aorist passive participle
of apotele(935c), old compound verb with perfective use of apo, in
N.T. only here and  Lu 13:32 . It does not mean "full-grown" like
	eleio(935c), but rather completeness of parts or functions as
opposed to rudimentary state (Hort) like the winged insect in
contrast with the chrysalis or grub (Plato). The sin at birth is
fully equipped for its career ( Ro 6:6  Col 3:5 ). {Bringeth
forth death} (apokuei thanaton). Late compound (kue(935c) to be
pregnant, perfective use of apo) to give birth to, of animals
and women, for normal birth (papyrus example) and abnormal birth
(Hort). A medical word (Ropes) rather than a literary one like
	ikt(935c). The child of lust is sin, of sin is death, powerful
figure of abortion. The child is dead at birth. For death as the
fruit of sin see  Ro 6:21-23  8:6 . "The birth of death follows
of necessity when one sin is fully formed" (Hort).

經文:

雅各書 1:16-1:16

註釋:

 {Be not deceived} (m(8820)plan(8373)the). Prohibition with m(885c)
and the present passive imperative of plana(935c), common verb to
lead astray. This is the way of sin to deceive and to kill ( Ro
7:7-14 ). The devil is a pastmaster at blinding men's eyes about
sin ( 2Co 4:4  Ro 1:27  Eph 4:14 ; etc.).

經文:

雅各書 1:17-1:17

註釋:

 {Gift} (dosis) {--boon} (d(9372)(886d)a). Both old substantives
from the same original verb (did(936d)i), to give. Dosis is the
act of giving (ending -sis), but sometimes by metonymy for the
thing given like ktisis for ktisma ( Col 1:15 ). But d(9372)(886d)a
(from d(9372)e(935c), from d(9372)on a gift) only means a gift, a
benefaction ( Ro 5:16 ). The contrast here argues for "giving" as
the idea in dosis. Curiously enough there is a perfect
hexameter line here: p(8373)a do / sis aga / th(8820)kai / p(836e) d(9320)/ r(886d)a
te / leion. Such accidental rhythm occurs occasionally in many
writers. Ropes (like Ewald and Mayor) argues for a quotation from
an unknown source because of the poetical word d(9372)(886d)a, but that
is not conclusive. {From above} (an(9374)hen). That is, from
heaven. Cf.  Joh 3:31  19:11 . {Coming down} (katabainon).
Present active neuter singular participle of katabain(935c) agreeing
with d(9372)(886d)a, expanding and explaining an(9374)hen (from above).
{From the Father of lights} (apo tou patros t(936e) ph(9374)(936e)). "Of
the lights" (the heavenly bodies). For this use of pat(8872) see
 Job 38:28  (Father of rain);  2Co 1:3  Eph 1:17 . God is the
Author of light and lights. {With whom} (par' h(9369)). For para
(beside) with locative sense for standpoint of God see para t(9369)
the(9369) ( Mr 10:27  Ro 2:11  9:14  Eph 6:9 . {Can be no} (ouk
eni). This old idiom (also in  Ga 3:28  Col 3:11 ) may be merely
the original form of en with recessive accent (Winer, Mayor) or
a shortened form of enesti. The use of eni en in  1Co 6:5 
argues for this view, as does the use of eine (einai) in
Modern Greek (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 313). {Variation}
(parallag(885c)). Old word from parallass(935c), to make things
alternate, here only in N.T. In Aristeas in sense of alternate
stones in pavements. Dio Cassius has parallaxis without
reference to the modern astronomical parallax, though James here
is comparing God (Father of the lights) to the sun ( Mal 4:2 ),
which does have periodic variations. {Shadow that is cast by
turning} (	rop(8873) aposkiasma). Trop(885c) is an old word for
"turning" (from 	rep(935c) to turn), here only in N.T. Aposkiasma
is a late and rare word (aposkiasmos in Plutarch) from
aposkiaz(935c) (apo, skia) a shade cast by one object on another.
It is not clear what the precise metaphor is, whether the shadow
thrown on the dial (aposkiaz(935c) in Plato) or the borrowed light
of the moon lost to us as it goes behind the earth. In fact, the
text is by no means certain, for Aleph B papyrus of fourth
century actually read h(8820)trop(8873) aposkiasmatos (the variation of
the turning of the shadow). Ropes argues strongly for this
reading, and rather convincingly. At any rate there is no such
periodic variation in God like that we see in the heavenly
bodies.

經文:

雅各書 1:18-1:18

註釋:

 {Of his own will} (oul(8874)heis). First aorist passive
participle of oulomai. Repeating the metaphor of birth in
verse  15 , but in good sense. God as Father acted deliberately
of set purpose. {He brought us forth} (apeku(8873)en). First aorist
active indicative of apokue(935c) (verse  15 ), only here of the
father (4 Macc. 15:17), not of the mother. Regeneration, not
birth of all men, though God is the Father in the sense of
creation of all men ( Ac 17:28f. ). {By the word of truth}
(log(9369) al(8874)heias). Instrumental case log(9369). The reference is
thus to the gospel message of salvation even without the article
( 2Co 6:7 ) as here, and certainly with the article ( Col 1:5  Eph 1:13  2Ti 2:15 ). The message marked by truth (genitive case
al(8874)heias). {That we should be} (eis to einai h(886d)(8373)). Purpose
clause eis to and the infinitive einai with the accusative of
general reference h(886d)(8373) (as to us). {A kind of first-fruits}
(aparch(886e) tina). "Some first-fruits" (old word from
aparchomai), of Christians of that age. See  Ro 16:5 .

經文:

雅各書 1:19-1:19

註釋:

 {Ye know this} (iste). Or "know this." Probably the
perfect active indicative (literary form as in  Eph 5:5  Heb
12:17 , unless both are imperative, while in  Jas 4:4  we have
oidate, the usual vernacular _Koin(825f) perfect indicative). The
imperative uses only iste and only the context can decide which
it is. Esto (let be) is imperative. {Swift to hear} (	achus
eis to akousai). For this use of eis to with the infinitive
after an adjective see  1Th 4:9 . For eis to after adjectives
see  Ro 16:19 . The picture points to listening to the word of
truth (verse  18 ) and is aimed against violent and disputatious
speech (chapter  3:1-12 ). The Greek moralists often urge a quick
and attentive ear. {Slow to speak} (radus eis to lal(8873)ai).
Same construction and same ingressive aorist active infinitive,
slow to begin speaking, not slow while speaking. {Slow to anger}
(radus eis org(886e)). He drops the infinitive here, but he
probably means that slowness to speak up when angry will tend to
curb the anger.

經文:

雅各書 1:20-1:20

註釋:

 {The wrath of man} (org(8820)andros). Here an(8872) (as opposed
to gun(885c) woman), not anthr(9370)os of verse  19  (inclusive of
both man and woman). If taken in this sense, it means that a
man's anger (settled indignation in contrast with 	humos,
boiling rage or fury) does not necessarily work God's
righteousness. There is such a thing as righteous indignation,
but one is not necessarily promoting the cause of God by his own
personal anger. See  Ac 10:35  for "working righteousness," and
 Jas 2:9  for "working sin" (ergazomai both times).

經文:

雅各書 1:21-1:21

註釋:

 {Wherefore} (dio). Because of this principle. See  Eph
4:25 . {Putting away} (apothemenoi). Second aorist middle
participle of apotith(886d)i, to put off, metaphor of removing
clothing as in  Ro 13:12  Col 3:8  Eph 4:22,25  1Pe 2:1 .
{Filthiness} (
uparian). Late word (Plutarch) from 
uparos,
dirty ( Jas 2:2 ), here only in N.T. Surely a dirty garment.
{Overflowing of wickedness} (perisseian kakias). Perisseia is
a late word (from perissos, abundant, exceeding), only four
times in N.T., in  2Co 8:2  with charas (of joy), in  Ro 5:17 
with charitos (of grace). Kakia (from kakos, evil) can be
either general like 
uparia (filthiness, naughtiness), or
special like "malice." But any of either sense is a
"superfluity." {With meekness} (en pra(9674)(8874)i). In docility. "The
contrast is with org(885c) rather than kakias" (Ropes). {The
implanted word} (	on emphuton logon). This old verbal adjective
(from emphu(935c) to implant, to grow in), only here in N.T.,
meaning properly ingrown, inborn, not emphuteuton (engrafted).
It is "the rooted word" (verse  18 ), sown in the heart as the
soil or garden of God ( Mt 13:3-23  15:13  1Co 3:6 ). {Able to
save} (dunamenon s(9373)ai). Cf.  1Pe 1:9  Jas 2:14  4:12  5:20  Ro
1:16 . Ultimate salvation (effective aorist active infinitive
s(9373)ai from s(937a)(935c)).

經文:

雅各書 1:22-1:22

註釋:

 {But be ye} (ginesthe de). Rather, "But keep on becoming"
(present middle imperative of ginomai). {Doers of the word}
(poi(8874)ai logou). Old word for agent (-t(8873)) from poie(935c) to do
as in  4:11  Ro 2:13 , but in  Ac 17:28  our "poet" (long
regarded as a "doer" or "maker"). {Hearers} (akroatai). Old
word for agent again from akroamai (to be a hearer), in N.T.
only here and  Ro 2:13 . {Deluding yourselves} (paralogizomenoi
heautous). Present middle (direct) participle of
paralogizomai, to reckon aside (para) and so wrong, to cheat,
to deceive. Redundant reflexive heautous with the middle. In
N.T. only here and  Col 2:4 . Such a man does not delude anyone
but himself.

經文:

雅各書 1:23-1:23

註釋:

 {And not a doer} (kai ou poi(8874)(8873)). Condition of first
class, assumed as true, and ou (rather than m(885c)) contrasts
poi(8874)(8873) with akroat(8873). {Unto a man beholding} (andri
katanoounti). Associative instrumental case after eoiken as in
 1:6 . Note andri as in  1:8  in contrast with gunaiki
(woman), not anthr(9370)(9369) (general term for man). Present active
participle of katanoe(935c) to put the mind down on (kata, nous),
to consider attentively, to take note of, as in verse  24 
(kateno(8873)en). {His natural face} (	o pros(9370)on t(8873) genese(9373)
autou). "The face of his birth" (origin, lineage, nativity). For
this use of genesis see  3:6  Mt 1:1,18  Lu 1:13 . {In a
mirror} (en esoptr(9369)). Old word (from eis, opt(935c)) in N.T. only
here and  1Co 13:12 . The mirrors of the ancients were not of
glass, but of polished metal (of silver or usually of copper and
tin). See katoptrizomai in  2Co 3:18 .

經文:

雅各書 1:24-1:24

註釋:

 {He beholdeth himself} (kateno(8873)en heauton). Usually
explained as gnomic aorist like those in  1:11 , but the ordinary
force of the tenses is best here. "He glanced at himself
(kateno(8873)en aorist) and off he has gone (apel(886c)uthen perfect
active) and straightway forgot (epelatheto, second aorist
middle indicative of epilanthanomai) what sort of a man he was"
(hopoios (886e), back in the picture, imperfect tense). The tenses
thus present a vivid and lifelike picture of the careless
listener to preaching (Christ's wayside hearer).

經文:

雅各書 1:25-1:25

註釋:

 {He that looketh into} (ho parakupsas). First aorist
active articular participle of parakupt(935c), old verb, to stoop
and look into ( Joh 20:5,11 ), to gaze carefully by the side of,
to peer into or to peep into ( 1Pe 1:12 ). Here the notion of
beside (para) or of stooping (kupt(935c)) is not strong.
Sometimes, as Hort shows, the word means only a cursory glance,
but the contrast with verse  24  seems to preclude that here.
{The perfect law} (
omon teleion). For 	eleion see  1:17 .
See  Ro 7:12  for Paul's idea of the law of God. James here
refers to the word of truth ( 1:18 ), the gospel of grace ( Ga
6:2  Ro 12:2 ). {The law of liberty} (	on t(8873) eleutherias).
"That of liberty," explaining why it is "perfect" ( 2:12  also),
rests on the work of Christ, whose truth sets us free ( Joh 8:32  2Co 3:16  Ro 8:2 ). {And so continueth} (kai parameinas). First
aorist active articular participle again of paramen(935c), parallel
with parakupsas. Paramen(935c) is to stay beside, and see  Php
1:25  for contrast with the simplex men(935c). {Being}
(genomenos). Rather, "having become" (second aorist middle
participle of ginomai to become). {Not a hearer that
forgetteth} (ouk akroat(8873) epil(8873)mon(8873)). "Not a hearer of
forgetfulness" (descriptive genitive, marked by forgetfulness).
Epil(8873)mon(885c) is a late and rare word (from epil(8873)m(936e),
forgetful, from epilanthomai, to forget, as in verse  24 ),
here only in N.T. {But a doer that worketh} (alla poi(8874)(8873)
ergou). "But a doer of work," a doer marked by work (descriptive
genitive ergou), not by mere listening or mere talk. {In his
doing} (en t(8869) poi(8873)ei autou). Another beatitude with
makarios as in  1:12 , like the Beatitudes in  Mt 5:3-12 .
Poi(8873)is is an old word (from poie(935c) for the act of doing),
only here in N.T.

經文:

雅各書 1:26-1:26

註釋:

 {Thinketh himself to be religious} (dokei thr(8873)kos einai).
Condition of first class (ei-dokei). Thr(8873)kos (of uncertain
etymology, perhaps from 	hreomai, to mutter forms of prayer) is
predicate nominative after einai, agreeing with the subject of
dokei (either "he seems" or "he thinks"). This source of
self-deception is in saying and doing. The word 	hr(8873)kos is
found nowhere else except in lexicons. Hatch (_Essays in Biblical
Greek_, pp. 55-57) shows that it refers to the external
observances of public worship, such as church attendance,
almsgiving, prayer, fasting ( Mt 6:1-18 ). It is the Pharisaic
element in Christian worship. {While he bridleth not his tongue}
(m(8820)chalinag(9367)(936e) gl(9373)san heautou). "Not bridling his own
tongue." A reference to verse  19  and the metaphor is repeated
in  3:12 . This is the earliest known example of the compound
chalinag(9367)e(935c) (chalinos, bridle ago, to lead). It occurs
also in Lucian. The picture is that of a man putting the bridle
in his own mouth, not in that of another. See the similar
metaphor of muzzling (phimo(935c)) one's mouth ( Mt 22:12 
ephim(9374)h(885c)). {Deceiveth} (apat(936e)). Present active participle
from apat(885c) (deceit). He plays a trick on himself. {Religion}
(	hr(8873)keia). Later form of 	hr(8873)ki(885c) (Herodotus) from
	hr(8873)kos above. It means religious worship in its external
observances, religious exercise or discipline, but not to the
exclusion of reverence. In the N.T. we have it also in  Ac 26:5 
of Judaism and in  Col 2:18  of worshipping angels. It is vain
(mataios, feminine form same as masculine) or empty. Comes to
nothing.

經文:

雅各書 1:27-1:27

註釋:

 {Pure religion and undefiled} (	hr(8873)keia kathara kai
amiantos). Numerous examples in papyri and inscriptions of
	hr(8873)keia for ritual and reverential worship in the Roman
Empire (Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_; Deissmann, _St.
Paul_, p. 251). As Hort shows, this is not a definition of
religion or religious worship, but only a pertinent illustration
of the right spirit of religion which leads to such acts. {Before
our God and Father} (para t(9369) the(9369) kai patri). By the side of
(para) and so from God's standpoint ( Mr 10:27 ). Amiantos
(compound verbal adjective, alpha privative, miain(935c) to defile),
puts in negative form (cf.  1:4,6 ) the idea in kathara (pure,
clean). This (haut(885c)). Feminine demonstrative pronoun in the
predicate agreeing with 	hr(8873)keia. {To visit}
(episkeptesthai). Epexegetic (explaining haut(885c)) present
middle infinitive of episkeptomai, common verb to go to see, to
inspect, present tense for habit of going to see. See  Mt
25:36,43  for visiting the sick. {The fatherless and widows}
(orphanous kai ch(8872)as). "The natural objects of charity in the
community" (Ropes). Orphanos is old word for bereft of father
or mother or both. In N.T. only here and  Joh 14:18 . Note order
(orphans before widows). {Unspotted} (aspilon). Old adjective
(alpha privative and spilos, spot), spotless. This the more
important of the two illustrations and the hardest to execute.
{To keep} (	(8872)ein). Present active infinitive, "to keep on
keeping oneself un-specked from the world" (a world, kosmos,
full of dirt and slime that bespatters the best of men).

經文:

雅各書 2:1-2:1

註釋:

 {My brethren} (adelphoi mou). Transition to a new topic as
in  1:19  2:5,14  3:1  5:7 . {Hold not} (m(8820)echete). Present
active imperative of ech(935c) with negative m(885c), exhortation to
stop holding or not to have the habit of holding in the fashion
condemned. {The faith of our Lord Jesus Christ} (	(886e) pistin tou
kuriou h(886d)(936e) I(8873)ou Christou). Clearly objective genitive, not
subjective (faith of), but "faith in our Lord Jesus Christ," like
echete pistin theou ( Mr 11:22 ), "have faith in God." See the
same objective genitive with pistis in  Ac 3:6  Ga 2:16  Ro
3:22  Re 14:12 . Note also the same combination as in  1:1  "our
Lord Jesus Christ" (there on a par with God). {The Lord of Glory}
(	(8873) dox(8873)). Simply "the Glory." No word for "Lord" (kuriou)
in the Greek text. T(8873) dox(8873) clearly in apposition with 	ou
kuriou I(8873)ou Christou. James thus terms "our Lord Jesus Christ"
the Shekinah Glory of God. See  Heb 9:5  for "the cherubim of
Glory." Other New Testament passages where Jesus is pictured as
the Glory are  Ro 9:4  2Co 4:6  Eph 1:17  Heb 1:3 . Cf.  2Co 8:9  Php 2:5-11 . {With respect of persons} (en pros(9370)ol(886d)psiais). A
Christian word, like pros(9370)ol(886d)pt(8873) ( Ac 10:34 ) and
pros(9370)ol(886d)pteite ( Jas 2:9 ), not in LXX or any previous Greek,
but made from pros(9370)on lambanein ( Lu 20:21  Ga 2:6 ), which is
a Hebrew idiom for _panim nasa_, "to lift up the face on a
person," to be favorable and so partial to him. See
pros(9370)ol(886d)psia in this sense of partiality (respect of persons)
in  Ro 2:11  Col 3:25  Eph 6:9  (nowhere else in N.T.). Do not
show partiality.

經文:

雅各書 2:2-2:2

註釋:

 {For} (gar). An illustration of the prohibition. {If there
come in} (ean eiselth(8869)). Condition of third class (supposable
case) with ean and second (ingressive) aorist active
subjunctive of eiserchomai. {Into your synagogue} (eis
sunag(9367)(886e) hum(936e)). The common word for the gathering of Jews for
worship ( Lu 12:11 ) and particularly for the building where they
met ( Lu 4:15,20,28 , etc.). Here the first is the probable
meaning as it clearly is in  Heb 10:25  (	(886e) episunag(9367)(886e)
heaut(936e)), where the longer compound occurs. It may seem a bit
odd for a Christian church (ekkl(8873)ia) to be termed sunag(9367)(885c),
but James is writing to Jewish Christians and this is another
incidental argument for the early date. Epiphanius (_Haer_. XXX.
18) states that the Ebionites call their church sunag(9367)(885c), not
ekkl(8873)ia. In the fourth century an inscription has sunag(9367)(885c)
for the meeting-house of certain Christians. {A man with a gold
ring} (an(8872) chrusodaktulios). "A gold-fingered man," "wearing a
gold ring." The word occurs nowhere else, but Lucian has
chrusocheir (gold-handed) and Epictetus has chrusous
daktulious (golden seal-rings). "Hannibal, after the battle of
Cannae, sent as a great trophy to Carthage, three bushels of
gold-rings from the fingers of Roman knights slain in battle"
(Vincent). {In fine clothing} (en esth(8874)i lampr(8369)). "In bright
(brilliant) clothing" as in  Lu 23:11  Ac 10:30  Re 18:41 . In
contrast with "vile clothing" (en rupar(8369) esth(8874)i), "new glossy
clothes and old shabby clothes" (Hort). Ruparos (late word from

upos, filth,  1Pe 3:21 ) means filthy, dirty. In N.T. only
here and  Re 22:11  (filthy). {Poor man} (pt(9363)hos). Beggarly
mendicant ( Mt 19:21 ), the opposite of plousios (rich).

經文:

雅各書 2:3-2:3

註釋:

 {And ye have regard to} (epibleps(8874)e de epi). First aorist
active subjunctive (still with ean of verse  2 ) of epiblep(935c),
followed by repeated preposition epi, to gaze upon, old
compound, in N.T. only here and  Lu 1:48  9:38 . {Weareth}
(phorounta). "Wearing," present active participle of the old
frequentative verb phore(935c) (from pher(935c)), to bear constantly,
to wear ( Mt 11:8 ). Note repeated article 	(886e) (the) with
esth(8874)a pointing to verse  2 . {And say} (kai eip(8874)e).
Continuing the third-class condition with ean and second aorist
active subjunctive of eipon. {Sit thou here in a good place}
(su kathou h(9364)e kal(9373)). Emphatic position of su, "Do thou sit
here in a good place." Present middle imperative of kath(886d)ai to
sit for the literary kath(8873)o. See  Mt 23:6  for the first seats
in the synagogue (places of honour). {And ye say to the poor man}
(kai t(9369) pt(9363)h(9369) eip(8874)e). Third class condition with ean
continued as before (eip(8874)e). Note article 	(9369) pointing to
verse  2 . {Stand thou there} (su st(8874)hi ekei). Second aorist
(intransitive) active imperative of hist(886d)i, to place.
Ingressive aorist, Take a stand. Su emphatic again. The MSS.
vary in the position of ekei (there). {Or sit under my
footstool} ((8820)kathou hupo to hupopodion mou). For this use of
hupo "down against" or "down beside" see  Ex 19:17  hupo to
oros ("at the foot of the mountain") and hupo se ("at thy
feet") ( De 33:3 ). Conquerors often placed their feet on the
necks of the victims ( Lu 20:43 ).

經文:

雅各書 2:4-2:4

註釋:

 {Are ye not divided in your own mind?} (ou diekrith(8874)e en
heautois;). First aorist (gnomic) passive indicative of
diakrin(935c), to separate, conclusion of the third-class condition
(future) in a rhetorical question in the gnomic aorist (as if
past) with ou expecting an affirmative answer. For this idiom
(gnomic aorist) in a conclusion of the third-class condition see
 1Co 7:28 . "Were ye not divided in (among) yourselves?" Cf.
 1:6  Mt 21:21 . {Judges with evil thoughts} (kritai dialogism(936e)
pon(8872)(936e)). Descriptive genitive as in  1:25 . Dialogismos is an
old word for reasoning ( Ro 1:21 ). Reasoning is not necessarily
evil, but see  Mt 15:19  (pon(8872)oi) and  Mr 7:21  (kakoi) for
evil reasonings, and  1Ti 2:8  without an adjective. See  Jas
1:8  4:8  for dipsuchos. They are guilty of partiality (a
divided mind) as between the two strangers.

經文:

雅各書 2:5-2:5

註釋:

 {Did not God choose?} (ouch ho theos exelexato;).
Affirmative answer expected. First aorist middle (indirect, God
chose for himself) indicative of ekleg(935c), the very form used by
Paul three times of God's choice in  1Co 1:27f . {As to the
world} (	(9369) kosm(9369)). The ethical dative of interest, as the
world looks at it as in  Ac 7:20  1Co 1:18  2Co 10:4  Jas 4:4 .
By the use of the article (the poor) James does not affirm that
God chose all the poor, but only that he did choose poor people
( Mt 10:23-26  1Co 1:26-28 ). {Rich in faith} (plousious en
pistei). Rich because of their faith. As he has shown in  1:9f .
{Which he promised} (h(8873) epeggeilato). Genitive of the
accusative relative h(886e) attracted to the case of the antecedent
asileias (the Messianic kingdom), the same verb and idea
already in  1:12  (ep(8867)geilato). Cf. the beatitude of Jesus in
 Mt 5:3  for the poor in spirit.

經文:

雅各書 2:6-2:6

註釋:

 {But ye have dishonoured the poor man} (humeis de (8874)imasate
ton pt(9363)hon). First aorist active indicative of atimaz(935c), old
verb from atimos, dishonoured ( Mt 13:57 ). In the act of
partiality pictured in  2:3 . {Oppress you} (katadunasteuousin
hum(936e)). Not very common compound (katadunasteu(935c), present
active indicative, from kata and dunast(8873), potentate,  Lu
1:52 ), used of the devil in  Ac 10:38  (only other N.T.
example). Examples in papyri of harsh treatment by men in
authority. Already poor Christians are feeling pressure from rich
Jews as overlords. {Drag you} (helkousin humas). Old and
vigorous word for violent treatment, as of Paul in  Ac 16:19  21:30 . Cf. such violence in  Lu 12:58  Ac 8:3 . {Before the
judgment-seats} (eis krit(8872)ia). "To courts of justice" as in
 1Co 6:2,4  (only other N.T. examples). Common in the papyri in
this sense. From krin(935c) to judge, krit(8873) (judge), place where
judgment is given.

經文:

雅各書 2:7-2:7

註釋:

 {Blaspheme} (lasph(886d)ousin). Present active indicative of
common verb lasph(886d)e(935c) (from lasph(886d)os, speaking evil,
lax or lapt(935c) and ph(886d)(885c)), as in  Lu 22:65 . {The
honourable name} (	o kalon onoma). "The beautiful name." {By
the which ye were called} (	o epikl(8874)hen eph' hum(8373)). "The one
called upon you" (first aorist passive articular participle of
epikale(935c), to put a name upon, to give a surname to, as  Ac
10:18 ). What name is that? Almost certainly the name of Christ
as we see it in  Ac 11:26  26:28  1Pe 4:14,16 . It was blasphemy
to speak against Christ as some Jews and Gentiles were doing ( Ac
13:45  18:6  26:11  1Co 12:3  1Ti 1:13 ). Cf.  Ac 15:17 .

經文:

雅各書 2:8-2:8

註釋:

 {Howbeit} (mentoi). Probably not adversative here, but
simply confirmatory, "if now," "if indeed," "if really." Common
in Xenophon in this sense. See the contrast (de) in verse  9 .
{If ye fulfil} (ei teleite). Condition of first class, assumed
as true with ei and present active indicative of 	ele(935c), old
verb, to bring to completion, occurring in  Ro 2:27  also with

omos (law). Jesus used pl(8872)o(935c) in  Mt 4:17 . James has
	(8872)e(935c) in  2:10 . {The royal law} (
omon basilikon). Old
adjective for royal, regal (from asileus king), as of an
officer ( Joh 4:46 ). But why applied to 
omos? The Romans had
a phrase, _lex regia_, which came from the king when they had
kings. The absence of the article is common with 
omos
( 4:11 ). It can mean a law fit to guide a king, or such as a
king would choose, or even the king of laws. Jesus had said that
on the law of love hang all the law and the prophets ( Mt
22:40 ), and he had given the Golden Rule as the substance of the
Law and the prophets ( Mt 7:12 ). This is probably the royal law
which is violated by partiality ( Jas 2:3 ). It is in accord with
the Scripture quoted here ( Le 19:18 ) and ratified by Jesus ( Lu
10:28 ).

經文:

雅各書 2:9-2:9

註釋:

 {But if ye have respect of persons} (ei de
pros(9370)ol(886d)pteite). Condition of first class by contrast with
that in verse  8 . For this verb (present active indicative),
formed from pros(9370)on lamban(935c), here alone in the N.T., see in
 2:1 . A direct reference to the partiality there pictured. {Ye
commit sin} (hamartian ergazesthe). "Ye work a sin." A serious
charge, apparently, for what was regarded as a trifling fault.
See  Mt 7:23 , hoi ergazomenoi t(886e) anomian (ye that work
iniquity), an apparent reminiscence of the words of Jesus there
(from  Ps 6:8 ). {Being convicted} (elegchomenoi). Present
passive participle of elegch(935c), to convict by proof of guilt
( Joh 3:20  8:9,46  1Co 14:24 ). {As transgressors} (h(9373)
parabatai). For this word from parabain(935c), to step across, to
transgress, see  Ga 2:18  Ro 2:25,27 . See this very sin of
partiality condemned in  Le 19:15  De 1:17  16:19 . To the law
and to the testimony.

經文:

雅各書 2:10-2:10

註釋:

 {Whosoever shall keep} (hostis t(8872)(8873)(8869)). Indefinite
relative clause with hostis and aorist active subjunctive of
	(8872)e(935c), old verb, to guard (from 	(8872)os guarding), as in  Mt
27:36 , without an (though often used, but only one example of
modal ean=an in James, viz.,  4:4 ). This modal an (ean)
merely interprets the sentence as either more indefinite or more
definite (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 957f.). {And yet stumble in
one point} (ptais(8869) de en heni). First aorist active
subjunctive also of ptai(935c), old verb, to trip, as in  3:2  Ro
11:11 . "It is incipient falling" (Hort). {He is become}
(gegonen). Second perfect indicative of ginomai, "he has
become" by that one stumble. {Guilty of all} (pant(936e) enochos).
Genitive of the crime with enochos, old adjective from enech(935c)
(to hold on or in), held in, as in  Mr 3:29 . This is law. To be
a lawbreaker one does not have to violate all the laws, but he
must keep all the law (holon ton nomon) to be a law-abiding
citizen, even laws that one does not like. See  Mt 5:18f.  for
this same principle. There is Talmudic parallel: "If a man do
all, but omit one, he is guilty for all and each." This is a
pertinent principle also for those who try to save themselves.
But James is urging obedience to all God's laws.

經文:

雅各書 2:11-2:11

註釋:

 {He that said} (ho eip(936e)) {--said also} (eipen kai). The
unity of the law lies in the Lawgiver who spoke both prohibitions
(m(885c) and the aorist active subjunctive in each one,
moicheus(8869)s, phoneus(8869)s). The order here is that of B in  Ex
20  ( Lu 18:20  Ro 13:9 ), but not in  Mt 5:21,27  (with ou and
future indicative). {Now if thou dost not commit adultery, but
killest} (ei de ou moicheueis, phoneueis de). Condition of
first class with ou (not m(885c)) because of the contrast with
de, whereas ei m(885c) would mean "unless," a different idea. So
ou in  1:23 . {A transgressor of the law} (parabat(8873) nomou)
as in verse  9 . Murder springs out of anger ( Mt 5:21-26 ).
People free from fleshly sins have often "made their condemnation
of fleshly sins an excuse for indulgence towards spiritual sins"
(Hort).

經文:

雅各書 2:12-2:12

註釋:

 {So speak ye, and so do} (hout(9373) laleite kai hout(9373)
poieite). Present active imperatives as a habit. For the
combination see  1:19-21  contrasted with  1:22-25 , and  1:26 
with  1:27 . {By a law of liberty} (dia nomou eleutherias). The
law pictured in  1:25 , but law, after all, not individual
caprice of "personal liberty." See  Ro 2:12  for this same use of
dia with krin(935c) in the sense of accompaniment as in  Ro 2:27  4:11  14:20 . "Under the law of liberty."

經文:

雅各書 2:13-2:13

註釋:

 {Without mercy} (aneleos). Found here only save a doubtful
papyrus example (anele(9373)) for the vernacular anile(9373) and the
Attic an(886c)e(8873). For this principle of requital see  Mt 5:7  6:14  7:1f.  18:33 . {Glorieth against} (katakauch(8374)ai).
Present middle indicative of the old compound verb
katakauchaomai, to exult over (down), in N.T. only here,  3:14  Ro 11:18 . Only mercy can triumph over justice with God and men.
"Mercy is clothed with the divine glory and stands by the throne
of God" (Chrysostom). See  Ro 8:31-39  Mt 9:13  12:7 .

經文:

雅各書 2:14-2:14

註釋:

 {What doth it profit?} (	i ophelos;). Rhetorical question,
almost of impatience. Old word from ophell(935c), to increase, in
N.T. only here, verse  16  1Co 15:32 . "Ti ophelos was a common
expression in the vivacious style of a moral diatribe" (Ropes).
{If a man say} (ean leg(8869) tis). Condition of third class with
ean and the present active subjunctive of leg(935c), "if one keep
on saying." {He hath faith} (pistin echein). Infinitive in
indirect assertion after leg(8869). {But have not works} (erga de
m(8820)ech(8869)). Third-class condition continued, "but keeps on not
having (m(885c) and present active subjunctive ech(8869)) works." It
is the spurious claim to faith that James here condemns. {Can
that faith save him?} (m(8820)dunatai h(8820)pistis s(9373)ai auton;).
Negative answer expected (m(885c)). Effective aorist active
infinitive s(9373)ai (from s(937a)(935c)). The article h(885c) here is almost
demonstrative in force as it is in origin, referring to the claim
of faith without works just made.

經文:

雅各書 2:15-2:15

註釋:

 {If a brother or sister be naked} (ean adelphos (8820)adelph(880a)gumnoi huparch(9373)in). Condition again of third class (supposable
case) with ean and present active subjunctive of huparch(935c), to
exist, in the plural though (885c) (or) is used and not kai (and).
Hence gumnoi is masculine plural in the predicate nominative.
It does not here mean absolutely naked, but without sufficient
clothing as in  Mt 25:36ff.  Joh 21:7  Ac 19:16 . {In lack of
daily food} (leipomenoi t(8873) eph(886d)erou troph(8873)). Present passive
participle of leip(935c) and ablative case 	roph(8873) like leipetai
sophias ( 1:5 ). The old adjective eph(886d)eros (ho epi h(886d)eran
(936e), that which is for a day) occurs here only in the N.T.,
though eph(886d)eria (daily routine) is found in  Lu 1:5,8 . This
phrase occurs in Diodorus, but not in LXX.

經文:

雅各書 2:16-2:16

註釋:

 {And one of you say unto them} (eip(8869) de tis autois ex
hum(936e)). Third-class condition again continued from verse  15 
with second aorist active subjunctive eip(8869). {Go in peace}
(hupagete en eir(886e)(8869)). Present active imperative of hupag(935c).
Common Jewish farewell ( Jud 18:6  1Sa 1:17  20:42  2Sa 15:9 ).
Used by Jesus ( Mr 5:34  Lu 7:50 ). {Be ye warmed and filled}
(	hermainesthe kai chortazesthe). Present imperative either
middle (direct) or passive. We have 	hermainomai as a direct
middle in  Joh 18:18  (were warming themselves) and that makes
good sense here: "Warm yourselves." Chortaz(935c) was originally
used for pasturing cattle, but came to be used of men also as
here. "Feed yourselves" (if middle, as is likely). Instead of
warm clothes and satisfying food they get only empty words to
look out for themselves. {And yet ye give not} (m(8820)d(9374)e de).
Third-class condition with de (and yet) and m(885c) and the second
aorist active subjunctive of did(936d)i, to give, cold deeds with
warm words. {The things needful to the body} (	a epit(8864)eia tou
s(936d)atos). "The necessities of the body" (the necessaries of
life). Old adjective from adverb epit(8864)es (enough), only here
in N.T. {What doth it profit?} (	i ophelos;). As in verse  14 
and here the conclusion (apodosis) of the long condition begun in
verse  15 .

經文:

雅各書 2:17-2:17

註釋:

 {If it have not works} (ean m(8820)ech(8869) erga). Another
condition of the third class with ean and m(885c) and the present
active subjunctive of ech(935c), "if it keep on not having works."
{In itself} (kath' heaut(886e)). In and of itself (according to
itself), inwardly and outwardly dead (
ekra). Same idiom in  Ac
28:16  Ro 14:22 . It is a dead faith.

經文:

雅各書 2:18-2:18

註釋:

 {Yea, a man will say} (all' erei tis). Future active of
eipon. But all' here is almost certainly adversative (But
some one will say), not confirmatory. James introduces an
imaginary objector who speaks one sentence: "Thou hast faith and
I have works" (Su pistin echeis kag(9320)erga ech(935c)). Then James
answers this objector. The objector can be regarded as asking a
short question: "Hast thou faith?" In that case James replies: "I
have works also." {Show me thy faith apart from thy works}
(deixon moi t(886e) pistin sou ch(9372)is t(936e) erg(936e)). This is the reply
of James to the objector. First aorist active imperative of
deiknumi, tense of urgency. The point lies in ch(9372)is, which
means not "without," but "apart from," as in  Heb 11:6  (with the
ablative case), "the works that properly belong to it and should
characterise it" (Hort). James challenges the objector to do
this. {And I by my works will shew thee my faith} (kag(9320)soi
deix(9320)ek t(936e) erg(936e) mou t(886e) pistin). It is not faith _or_ works,
but proof of real faith (live faith _vs_. dead faith). The mere
profession of faith with no works or profession of faith shown to
be alive by works. This is the alternative clearly stated. Note
pistin (faith) in both cases. James is not here discussing
"works" (ceremonial works) as a means of salvation as Paul in  Ga
3  Ro 4 , but works as proof of faith.

經文:

雅各書 2:19-2:19

註釋:

 {Thou believest that God is one} (su pisteueis hoti heis
theos estin). James goes on with his reply and takes up mere
creed apart from works, belief that God exists (there is one
God), a fundamental doctrine, but that is not belief or trust in
God. It may be mere creed. {Thou doest well} (kal(9373) poieis).
That is good as far as it goes, which is not far. {The demons
also believe} (kai ta daimonia pisteuousin). They go that far
(the same verb pisteu(935c)). They never doubt the fact of God's
existence. {And shudder} (kai phrissousin). Present active
indicative of phriss(935c), old onomatopoetic verb to bristle up, to
shudder, only here in N.T. Like Latin _horreo_ (horror, standing
of the hair on end with terror). The demons do more than believe
a fact. They shudder at it.

經文:

雅各書 2:20-2:20

註釋:

 {But wilt thou know?} (	heleis de gn(936e)ai?). "But dost thou
wish to know?" Ingressive aorist active infinitive of ginosk(935c)
(come to know). James here introduces a new argument like  Ro
13:3 . {O vain man} ((9320)anthr(9370)e kene). Goes on with the
singular objector and demolishes him. For "empty" (deficient)
Paul uses aphr(936e) (fool) in  1Co 15:36  and just anthr(9370)e in
 Ro 2:1  9:20 . {Barren} (arge). See  2Pe 1:8  (not idle nor
unfruitful) and  Mt 12:36 , but Hort urges "inactive" as the idea
here, like money with no interest and land with no crops.

經文:

雅各書 2:21-2:21

註釋:

 {Justified by works} (ex erg(936e) edikai(9374)h(885c)). First aorist
passive indicative of dikaio(935c) (see Galatians and Romans for
this verb, to declare righteous, to set right) in a question with
ouk expecting an affirmative answer. This is the phrase that is
often held to be flatly opposed to Paul's statement in  Ro
4:1-5 , where Paul pointedly says that it was the faith of
Abraham ( Ro 4:9 ) that was reckoned to Abraham for
righteousness, not his works. But Paul is talking about the faith
of Abraham before his circumcision ( 4:10 ) as the basis of his
being set right with God, which faith is symbolized in the
circumcision. James makes plain his meaning also. {In that he
offered up Isaac his son upon the altar} (anenegkas Isaak ton
huion autou epi to thusiast(8872)ion). They use the same words, but
they are talking of different acts. James points to the offering
(anenegkas second aorist--with first aorist ending--active
participle of anapher(935c)) of Isaac on the altar ( Ge 22:16f. ) as
_proof_ of the faith that Abraham already had. Paul discusses
Abraham's faith as the basis of his justification, that and not
his circumcision. There is no contradiction at all between James
and Paul. Neither is answering the other. Paul may or may not
have seen the Epistle of James, who stood by him loyally in the
Conference in Jerusalem ( Ac 15  Ga 2 ).

經文:

雅各書 2:22-2:22

註釋:

 {Thou seest} (lepeis). Obvious enough with any eyes to
see. This may be a question, seest thou? {Wrought with}
(sun(8872)gei). Imperfect active of sunerge(935c), old verb for which
see  Ro 8:28 . Followed by associative-instrumental case
ergois. Faith cooperated with the deed of offering up Isaac.
{Was made perfect} (etelei(9374)h(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative of 	eleio(935c), to carry to the end, to complete like
love in  1Jo 4:18 . See  Jas 1:4  for 	eleion ergon.

經文:

雅各書 2:23-2:23

註釋:

 {Was fulfilled} (epl(8872)(9374)h(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative of pl(8872)o(935c), the usual verb for fulfilling Scripture.
So James quotes  Ge 15:6  as proving his point in verse  21  that
Abraham had works with his faith, the very same passage that Paul
quotes in  Ro 4:3  to show that Abraham's faith preceded his
circumcision and was the basis of his justification. And both
James and Paul are right, each to illustrate a different point.
{And he was called the friend of God} (kai philos theou
ekl(8874)h(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of kal(886f). Not a part
of the Scripture quoted. Philo calls Abraham the friend of God
and see _Jubilees_ 19:9; 30:20. The Arabs today speak of Abraham
as God's friend. It was evidently a common description before
James used it, as in  Isa 41:8  2Ch 20:7 .

經文:

雅各書 2:24-2:24

註釋:

 {Ye see} (hor(8374)e). Present indicative active of hora(935c).
Now he uses the plural again as in  2:14 . {Is justified}
(dikaioutai). Present passive indicative of dikaio(935c), here not
"is made righteous," but "is shown to be righteous." James is
discussing the proof of faith, not the initial act of being set
right with God (Paul's idea in  Ro 4:1-10 ). {And not only by
faith} (kai ouk ek piste(9373) monon). This phrase clears up the
meaning of James. Faith (live faith) is what we must all have
( 2:18 ), only it must shew itself also in deeds as Abraham's
did.

經文:

雅各書 2:25-2:25

註釋:

 {Rahab the harlot} (Raab h(8820)porn(885c)). Her vicious life she
left behind, but the name clung to her always. For our purposes
the argument of James may seem stronger without the example of
Rahab ( Jos 2:1-21  6:17  22-25  Mt 1:5  Heb 11:31 ). It is even
said in Jewish Midrash that Rahab married Joshua and became an
ancestor of Jeremiah and Ezekiel. {In that she received}
(hupodexamen(885c)). First aorist middle participle of
hupodechomai, to welcome. {The messengers} (	ous aggelous).
Original meaning of aggelos ( Mt 11:10 ). In  Heb 11:31  we
have kataskopous (spies, scouts). {Sent out} (ekbalousa).
Second aorist active participle of ekball(935c), to hurl out.
{Another way} (heter(8369) hod(9369)). "By another way" (instrumental
case), by a window instead of a door ( Jos 2:15f. ).

經文:

雅各書 2:26-2:26

註釋:

 {Apart from the spirit} (ch(9372)is pneumatos). "Apart from
breath" (the breath of life). It is not easy to tell when one is
dead, but the absence of a sign of breath on a glass before the
mouth and nose is proof of death. Startling picture of dead faith
in our churches and church members with only a name to live ( Re
3:2 ).

經文:

雅各書 3:1-3:1

註釋:

 {Be not many teachers} (m(8820)polloi didaskaloi ginesthe).
Prohibition with m(885c) and present middle imperative of ginomai.
"Stop becoming many teachers" (so many of you). There is thus a
clear complaint that too many of the Jewish Christians were
attempting to teach what they did not clearly comprehend. There
was a call for wise teachers (verses  13f. ), not for foolish
ones. This soon became an acute question, as one can see in I
Cor. 12 to 14. They were not all teachers ( 1Co 12:28f.  14:26 ).
The teacher is here treated as the wise man ( 3:13-18 ) as he
ought to be. The rabbi was the teacher ( Mt 23:7f.  Joh 1:38  3:10  20:16 ). Teachers occupied an honourable position among the
Christians ( Eph 4:11  Ac 13:1 ). James counts himself a teacher
(we shall receive,  3:1 ) and this discussion is linked on with
 1:19-27 . Teachers are necessary, but incompetent and unworthy
ones do much harm. {Heavier judgment} (meizon krima). "Greater
sentence." See  Mr 12:40  Lu 20:47  for perrisoteron krima (the
sentence from the judge,  Ro 13:2 ). The reason is obvious. The
pretence of knowledge adds to the teacher's responsibility and
condemnation.

經文:

雅各書 3:2-3:2

註釋:

 {In many things} (polla). Accusative neuter plural either
cognate with ptaiomen or accusative of general reference. On
ptaiomen (stumble) see on 氧:10|. James includes himself in
this list of stumblers. {If not} (ei-ou). Condition of first
class with ou (not m(885c)) negativing the verb ptaiei. {In
word} (en log(9369)). In speech. The teacher uses his tongue
constantly and so is in particular peril on this score. {The
same} (houtos). "This one" (not ho autos the same). {A
perfect man} (	eleios an(8872)). "A perfect husband" also, for
an(8872) is husband as well as man in distinction from woman
(gun(885c)). The wife is at liberty to test her husband by this rule
of the tongue. {To bridle the whole body also} (chalinag(9367)(8873)ai
kai holon to s(936d)a). See  1:26  for this rare verb applied to the
tongue (gl(9373)san). Here the same metaphor is used and shown to
apply to the whole body as horses are led by the mouth. The man
follows his own mouth whether he controls the bridle therein
( 1:26 ) or someone else holds the reins. James apparently means
that the man who bridles his tongue does not stumble in speech
and is able also to control his whole body with all its passions.
See  Tit 1:11  about stopping people's mouths (epistomiz(935c)).

經文:

雅各書 3:3-3:3

註釋:

 {If we put} (ei ballomen). Condition of the first class
assumed as true. {The horses' bridles} (	(936e) hipp(936e) tous
chalinous). Hipp(936e) (genitive plural of hippos, horse, old
word, in N.T. only here except in the Apocalypse), put first
because the first of the several illustrations of the power and
the peril of the tongue. This is the only N.T. example of
chalinos, old word for bridle (from chala(935c) to slacken, let
down), except  Re 14:20 . {That they may obey us} (eis to
peithesthai autous h(886d)in). Present middle infinitive of peith(935c)
with eis to as a purpose clause with the dative h(886d)in after
peithesthai and autous the accusative of general reference.
{We turn about} (metagomen). Present active indicative of
metag(935c), late compound to change the direction (meta, ag(935c)),
to guide, in N.T. only here and verse  4 . The body of the horse
follows his mouth, guided by the bridle.

經文:

雅各書 3:4-3:4

註釋:

 {The ships also} (kai ta ploia). Old word from ple(935c), to
sail ( Mt 4:21 ). Another metaphor like "horses" (hippoi).
"There is more imagery drawn from mere natural phenomena in the
one short Epistle of James than in all St. Paul's epistles put
together" (Howson). {Though they are so great} (	(886c)ikauta
onta). Concessive participle of eimi. The quantitative pronoun
	(886c)ikoutos occurs in the N.T. only here,  2Co 1:10  Heb 2:3  Re
16:18 . If James had only seen the modern mammoth ships. But the
ship on which Paul went to Malta carried 276 persons ( Ac
27:37 ). {And are driven} (kai elaunomena). Present passive
participle of elaun(935c), old verb, in this sense ( 2Pe 2:17 ) for
rowing ( Mr 6:48  Joh 6:19 ). {Rough} (skl(8872)on). Old adjective
(from skell(935c), to dry up), harsh, stiff, hard ( Mt 25:24 ). {Are
yet turned} (metagetai). Present passive indicative of the same
verb, metag(935c), in verse  3 . James is fond of repeating words
( 1:13f.  2:14,16  2:21,25 ). {By a very small rudder} (hupo
elachistou p(8864)aliou). For the use of hupo (under) with things
see  Lu 8:14  2Pe 2:7 . There is possibly personification in the
use of hupo for agency in  Jas 1:14  2:9  Col 2:18 . P(8864)aliou
(from p(8864)on, the blade of an oar) is an old word, in N.T. only
here and  Ac 27:40 . Elachistou is the elative superlative as
in  1Co 4:3  (from the Epic elachus for mikros). {The
impulse} (h(8820)horm(885c)). Old word for rapid, violent motion, here
of the hand that worked the rudder, in N.T. only here and  Ac
14:5  (rush or onset of the people). {Of the steersman} (	ou
euthunontos). Present active genitive articular participle of
euthun(935c), old verb, to make straight (from euthus, straight,
level,  Mr 1:3 ), in N.T. only here and  Joh 1:23 . Used also of
the shepherd, the charioteer, and today it would apply to the
chauffeur. "The twin figure of the control of horse and of ship
are frequently found together in later Greek writers" (Ropes). As
in Plutarch and Philo. {Willeth} (ouletai). Present middle
indicative of oulomai, common verb to will. Here intention of
the steersman lies back of the impact of the hand on the rudder.

經文:

雅各書 3:5-3:5

註釋:

 {A little member} (mikron melos). Melos is old and common
word for members of the human body ( 1Co 12:12, etc.  Ro 6:13 ,
etc.). {Boasteth great things} (megala auchei). Present active
indicative of auche(935c), old verb, here only in N.T. The best MSS.
here separate megala from auche(935c), though megalauche(935c) does
occur in Aeschylus, Plato, etc. Megala is in contrast with
mikron. {How much--how small} (h(886c)ikon--h(886c)ik(886e)). The same
relative form for two indirect questions together, "What-sized
fire kindles what-sized forest?" For double interrogatives see
 Mr 15:24 . The verb anaptei is present active indicative of
anapt(935c), to set fire to, to kindle ( Lu 12:49 , only other N.T.
example except some MSS. in  Ac 28:2 ). Hul(886e) is accusative
case, object of anaptei, and occurs here only in N.T., though
old word for forest, wood. Forest fires were common in ancient
times as now, and were usually caused by small sparks carelessly
thrown.

經文:

雅各書 3:6-3:6

註釋:

 {The tongue is a fire} (h(8820)gl(9373)sa pur). So necessarily
since there is no article with pur (apparently same word as
German _feuer_, Latin _purus_, English _pure, fire_). This
metaphor of fire is applied to the tongue in  Pr 16:27  26:18-22 ; Sirach 28:22. {The world of iniquity} (ho kosmos t(8873)
adikias). A difficult phrase, impossible to understand according
to Ropes as it stands. If the comma is put after pur instead of
after adikias, then the phrase may be the predicate with
kathistatai (present passive indicative of kathist(886d)i, "is
constituted," or the present middle "presents itself"). Even so,
kosmos remains a difficulty, whether it means the "ornament"
( 1Pe 3:3 ) or "evil world" ( Jas 1:27 ) or just "world" in the
sense of widespread power for evil. The genitive adikias is
probably descriptive (or qualitative). Clearly James means to say
that the tongue can play havoc in the members of the human body.
{Which defileth the whole body} (h(8820)spilousa holon to s(936d)a).
Present active participle of spilo(935c) late _Koin(825f), verb, to
stain from spilos (spot, also late word, in N.T. only in  Eph
5:27  2Pe 2:13 ), in N.T. only here and  Jud 1:23 . Cf.  1:27 
aspilon (unspotted). {Setteth on fire} (phlogizousa). Present
active participle of phlogiz(935c), old verb, to set on fire, to
ignite, from phlox (flame), in N.T. only in this verse. See
anaptei (verse  5 ). {The wheel of nature} (	on trochon
genese(9373)). Old word for wheel (from 	rech(935c), to run), only here
in N.T. "One of the hardest passages in the Bible" (Hort). To
what does 	rochon refer? For genese(9373) see  1:23  apparently
in the same sense. Vincent suggests "the wheel of birth" (cf.  Mt
1:1,18 ). The ancient writers often use this same phrase (or
kuklos, cycle, in place of 	rochos), but either in a
physiological or a philosophical sense. James may have caught the
metaphor from the current use, but certainly he has no such
Orphic or Pythagorean doctrine of the transmigration of souls,
"the unending round of death and rebirth" (Ropes). The wheel of
life may be considered either in motion or standing still, though
setting on fire implies motion. There is no reference to the
zodiac. {And is set on fire by hell} (kai phlogizomen(8820)hupo
gehenn(8873)). Present passive participle of phlogiz(935c), giving the
continual source of the fire in the tongue. For the metaphor of
fire with gehenna see  Mt 5:22 .

經文:

雅各書 3:7-3:7

註釋:

 {Kind} (phusis). Old word from phu(935c), order of nature ( Ro
1:26 ), here of all animals and man, in  2Pe 1:4  of God and
redeemed men. {Of beasts} (	h(8872)i(936e)). Old word diminutive from
	h(8872) and so "little beasts" originally, then wild animals in
general ( Mr 1:13 ), or quadrupeds as here. These four classes of
animals come from  Ge 9:2f . {Birds} (petein(936e)). Old word for
flying animals (from petomai, to word from herp(935c), to crawl
(Latin _serpo_), hence serpents. {Things in the sea} (enali(936e)).
Old adjective (en, hals, sea, salt) in the sea, here only in
N.T. The four groups are put in two pairs here by the use of 	e
kai with the first two and the second two. See a different
classification in  Ac 10:12  11:6 . {Is tamed} (damazetai).
Present passive indicative of damaz(935c), old verb kin to Latin
_dominus_ and English tame, in N.T. only in this passage and  Mr
5:4 . The present tense gives the general picture of the
continuous process through the ages of man's lordship over the
animals as stated in  Ge 1:28 . {Hath been tamed} (dedamastai).
Perfect passive indicative of the same verb, repeated to present
the state of conquest in some cases (domestic animals, for
instance). {By mankind} (	(8869) phusei t(8869) anthr(9370)in(8869)).
Instrumental case with repeated article and repetition also of
phusis, "by the nature the human." For anthr(9370)inos see  Ac
17:25 .

經文:

雅各書 3:8-3:8

註釋:

 {No one} (oudeis). Especially his own tongue and by
himself, but one has the help of the Holy Spirit. {A restless
evil} (akatastaton kakon). Correct reading, not akatascheton,
for which see  1:8 . The tongue is evil when set on fire by hell,
not evil necessarily. {Full of deadly poison} (mest(8820)iou
thanat(8870)horou). Feminine adjective agreeing with gl(9373)sa, not
with kakon (neuter). Iou (poison here, as in  Ro 3:13 , but
rust in  5:3 , only N.T. examples), old word. Genitive case after
mest(885c) (full of). Thanat(8870)horou, old compound adjective (from
	hanatos, death, pher(935c), to bear or bring), death-bringing.
Here only in N.T. Like the restless death-bringing tongue of the
asp before it strikes.

經文:

雅各書 3:9-3:9

註釋:

 {Therewith} (en aut(8869)). This instrumental use of en is
not merely Hebraistic, but appears in late _Koin(825f) writers
(Moulton, _Prol._, pp. 11f., 61f.). See also  Ro 15:6 . {We
bless} (eulogoumen). Present active indicative of euloge(935c),
old verb from eulogos (a good word, eu, logos), as in  Lu
1:64  of God. "This is the highest function of speech" (Hort).
{The Lord and Father} (	on kurion kai patera). Both terms
applied to God. {Curse we} (katar(936d)etha). Present middle
indicative of the old compound verb kataraomai, to curse (from
katara a curse), as in  Lu 6:28 . {Which are made after the
likeness of God} (	ous kath' homoi(9373)in theou gegonotas). Second
perfect articular participle of ginomai and homoi(9373)is, old
word from homoio(935c) (to make like), making like, here only in
N.T. (from  Ge 1:26  9:6 ), the usual word being homoi(936d)a,
resemblance ( Php 2:7 ). It is this image of God which sets man
above the beasts. Cf.  2Co 3:18 .

經文:

雅各書 3:10-3:10

註釋:

 {Ought not} (ou chr(885c)). The only use of this old impersonal
verb (from chra(935c)) in the N.T. It is more like prepei (it is
appropriate) than dei (it is necessary). It is a moral
incongruity for blessing and cursing to come out of the same
mouth. {So to be} (hout(9373) ginesthai). "So to keep on
happening," not just "to be," present middle infinitive of
ginomai.

經文:

雅各書 3:11-3:11

註釋:

 {The fountain} (h(8820)p(8867)(885c)). Old word for spring ( Joh
4:14 ). {Opening} (op(8873)). Old word for fissure in the earth, in
N.T. only here and  Heb 11:38  (caves). {Send forth} (ruei).
Present active indicative of ru(935c), old verb, to bubble up, to
gush forth, here only in N.T. The use of m(8874)i shows that a
negative answer is expected in this rhetorical question. {The
sweet and the bitter} (	o gluku kai to pikron). Cognate
accusatives with ruei. Separate articles to distinguish
sharply the two things. The neuter singular articular adjective
is a common way of presenting a quality. Glukus is an old
adjective (in N.T. only here and  Re 10:9f. ), the opposite of
pikron (from old root, to cut, to prick), in N.T. only here and
verse  14  (sharp, harsh).

經文:

雅各書 3:12-3:12

註釋:

 {Can?} (m(8820)dunatai;). Negative answer expected. See the
same metaphor in  Mt 7:16f . {Fig-tree} (suk(885c)). Old and common
word ( Mt 21:19f. ). {Figs} (suka). Ripe fruit of h(8820)suk(885c).
{Olives} (elaias). Elsewhere in the N.T. for olive-trees as  Mt
21:1 . {Vine} (ampelos). Old word ( Mt 26:29 ). {Salt water}
(halukon). Old adjective from hals (halas salt), here only
in N.T.

經文:

雅各書 3:13-3:13

註釋:

 Zac 9:9 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Zac' or engs='Zac'
經文:

雅各書 3:14-3:14

註釋:

 {Bitter jealousy} (z(886c)on pikron). Z(886c)os occurs in N.T.
in good sense ( Joh 2:17 ) and bad sense ( Ac 5:17 ). Pride of
knowledge is evil ( 1Co 8:1 ) and leaves a bitter taste. See
"root of bitterness" in  Heb 12:14  (cf.  Eph 4:31 ). This is a
condition of the first class. {Faction} (erithian). Late word,
from erithos (hireling, from eritheu(935c) to spin wool), a
pushing forward for personal ends, partisanship, as in  Php
1:16 . {In your heart} (en t(8869) kardi(8369) hum(936e)). The real
fountain (p(8867)(885c), verse  11 ). {Glory not} (m(8820)katakauch(8373)the).
Present middle imperative of katakauchaomai, for which see
 2:13 . Wisdom is essential for the teacher. Boasting arrogance
disproves the possession of wisdom. {Lie not against the truth}
(pseudesthe kata t(8873) al(8874)heias). Present middle imperative of
pseudomai, old verb, to play false, with m(885c) carried over.
Lying against the truth is futile. By your conduct do not belie
the truth which you teach; a solemn and needed lesson. Cf.  Ro
1:18f., 2:18,20 .

經文:

雅各書 3:15-3:15

註釋:

 {This wisdom} (haut(8820)h(8820)sophia). All talk and disproved by
the life, counterfeit wisdom, not real wisdom ( 1:5  3:17 ).
{Coming down from above} (katerchomen(8820)an(9374)hen). As in
 1:5,17 . All true wisdom comes from God. {Earthly} (epigeios).
Old adjective, on earth (epi, g(885c)), as in  Joh 3:12 , then with
earthly limitations ( Php 3:19 ), as here. {Sensual}
(psuchik(885c)). Old adjective, belonging to the psuch(885c), the
sensuous or animal life ( 1Co 2:14  and here). {Devilish}
(daimoni(9364)(8873)). Late adjective from daimonion (demon) and so
demoniacal or demon-like, here only in N.T.

經文:

雅各書 3:16-3:16

註釋:

 {Confusion} (akatastasia). Late word (from akatastatos),
 1:8  3:8 ), a state of disorder ( 1Co 14:33 ). {Vile}
(phaulon). Kin to German _faul_, first slight, ordinary, then
bad. The steps are cheap, paltry, evil. Opposed to agatha
(good) in  Joh 5:39 .

經文:

雅各書 3:17-3:17

註釋:

 {First pure} (pr(9374)on men hagn(885c)). First in rank and time.
Hagnos is from the same root as hagios (holy), old adjective,
pure from fault, not half-good and half-bad, like that above.
{Then peaceable} (epeita eir(886e)ik(885c)). Old adjective from eir(886e)(885c)
(peace), loving peace here, bringing peace in  Heb 12:11  (only
N.T. examples). But clearly great as peace is, purity
(righteousness) comes before peace and peace at any price is not
worth the having. Hence Jesus spurned the devil's peace of
surrender. {Gentle} (epieik(8873)). Old adjective (from eikos,
reasonable, fair), equitable ( Php 4:5  1Pe 2:18 ). No English
word renders it clearly. {Easy to be entreated} (eupeith(8873)).
Old adjective (eu, peithomai), compliant, approachable. Only
here in N.T. {Mercy} (eleous). Practical help ( 2:13,16 ).
{Good fruits} (karp(936e) agath(936e)). Kaloi karpoi in  Mt 7:17f .
Good deeds the fruit of righteousness ( Php 1:11 ). {Without
variance} (adiakritos). Late verbal adjective (from alpha
privative and diakrin(935c), to distinguish). "Unhesitating," not
doubting (diakrinomenos) like the man in  1:6 . Here only in
N.T. This wisdom does not put a premium on doubt. {Without
hypocrisy} (anupokritos). Late and rare verbal adjective (alpha
privative and hupokrin(935c)). Not hypocritical, sincere, unfeigned
( Ro 12:9 ).

經文:

雅各書 3:18-3:18

註釋:

 {Is sown in peace} (en eir(886e)(8869) speiretai). Present passive
indicative of speir(935c), to sow. The seed which bears the fruit is
sown, but James catches up the metaphor of karpos (fruit) from
verse  17 . Only in peace is the fruit of righteousness found.
{For them that make peace} (	ois poiousin eir(886e)(886e)). Dative case
of the articular participle of poie(935c). See  Eph 2:15  for this
phrase (doing peace), and  Col 1:20  for eir(886e)opoie(935c), of
Christ, and  Mt 5:9  for eir(886e)opoioi (peacemakers). Only those
who act peaceably are entitled to peace.

經文:

雅各書 4:1-4:1

註釋:

 {Whence} (pothen). This old interrogative adverb (here
twice) asks for the origin of wars and fights. James is full of
interrogatives, like all diatribes. {Wars} (polemoi)
{--fightings} (machai). {War} (polemos, old word,  Mt 24:6 )
pictures the chronic state or campaign, while mach(885c) (also old
word,  2Co 7:5 ) presents the separate conflicts or battles in
the war. So James covers the whole ground by using both words.
The origin of a war or of any quarrel is sometimes hard to find,
but James touches the sore spot here. {Of your pleasures} (ek
t(936e) h(8864)on(936e) hum(936e)). Old word from h(8864)omai. Ablative case here
after ek, "out of your sinful, sensual lusts," the desire to
get what one does not have and greatly desires. {That war} (	(936e)
strateuomen(936e)). Present middle articular participle (ablative
case agreeing with h(8864)on(936e)) of strateu(935c), to carry on a
campaign, here as in  1Pe 2:11  of the passions in the human
body. James seems to be addressing nominal Christians, "among
you" (en humin). Modern church disturbances are old enough in
practice.

經文:

雅各書 4:2-4:2

註釋:

 {Ye lust} (epithumeite). Present active indicative of
epithume(935c), old word (from epi, thumos, yearning passion for),
not necessarily evil as clearly not in  Lu 22:15  of Christ, but
usually so in the N.T., as here. Coveting what a man or nation
does not have is the cause of war according to James. {Ye kill
and covet} (phoneuete kai z(886c)oute). Present active indicatives
of phoneu(935c) (old verb from phoneus, murderer) and z(886c)o(935c), to
desire hotly to possess ( 1Co 12:31 ). It is possible (perhaps
probable) that a full stop should come after phoneuete (ye
kill) as the result of lusting and not having. Then we have the
second situation: "Ye covet and cannot obtain (epituchein,
second aorist active infinitive of epitugchan(935c)), and (as a
result) ye fight and war." This punctuation makes better sense
than any other and is in harmony with verse  1 . Thus also the
anticlimax in phoneuete and z(886c)oute is avoided. Mayor makes
the words a hendiadys, "ye murderously envy." {Ye have not,
because ye ask not} (ouk echete dia to m(8820)aiteisthai humas).
James refers again to ouk echete (ye do not have) in verse  2 .
Such sinful lusting will not obtain. "Make the service of God
your supreme end, and then your desires will be such as God can
fulfil in answer to your prayer" (Ropes). Cf.  Mt 6:31-33 . The
reason here is expressed by dia and the accusative of the
articular present middle infinitive of aite(935c), used here of
prayer to God as in  Mt 7:7f . Hum(8373) (you) is the accusative of
general reference. Note the middle voice here as in aiteisthe
in  3 . Mayor argues that the middle here, in contrast with the
active, carries more the spirit of prayer, but Moulton (_Prol_.,
p. 160) regards the distinction between aite(935c) and aiteomai
often "an extinct subtlety."

經文:

雅各書 4:3-4:3

註釋:

 {Because ye ask amiss} (dioti kak(9373) aiteisthe). Here the
indirect middle does make sense, "ye ask for yourselves" and that
is "evilly" or amiss (kak(9373)), as James explains. {That ye may
spend it in your pleasures} (hina en tais h(8864)onais hum(936e)
dapan(8873)(8874)e). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist
subjunctive of dapana(935c), old verb from dapan(885c), cost ( Lu
14:28  only in N.T.), to squander ( Lu 15:14 ). God does not hear
prayers like this.

經文:

雅各書 4:4-4:4

註釋:

 {Ye adulteresses} (moichalides). Moichoi kai (ye
adulterers) is spurious (Syrian text only). The feminine form
here is a common late word from the masculine moichoi. It is
not clear whether the word is to be taken literally here as in
 Ro 7:3 , or figuratively for all unfaithful followers of Christ
(like an unfaithful bride), as in  2Co 11:1f.  Eph 5:24-28  (the
Bride of Christ). Either view makes sense in this context,
probably the literal view being more in harmony with the language
of verses  2f . In that case James may include more than
Christians in his view, though Paul talks plainly to church
members about unchastity ( Eph 5:3-5 ). {Enmity with God}
(echthra tou theou). Objective genitive 	heou with echthra
(predicate and so without article), old word from echthros,
enemy ( Ro 5:10 ), with eis theon (below and  Ro 8:7 ).
{Whosoever therefore would be} (hos ean oun boul(8874)h(8869)).
Indefinite relative clause with hos and modal ean and the
first aorist passive (deponent) subjunctive of oulomai, to
will (purpose). {A friend of the world} (philos tou kosmou).
Predicate nominative with infinitive einai agreeing with hos.
See  2:23  for philos theou (friend of God). {Maketh himself}
(kathistatai). Present passive (not middle) indicative as in
 3:6 , "is constituted," "is rendered." {An enemy of God}
(echthros tou theou). Predicate nominative and anarthrous and
objective genitive (	heou).

經文:

雅各書 4:5-4:5

註釋:

 {The Scripture} (h(8820)graph(885c)). Personification as in  Ga 3:8  Jas 2:23 . But no O.T. passage is precisely like this, though it
is "a poetical rendering" (Ropes) of  Ex 20:5 . The general
thought occurs also in  Ge 6:3-5  Isa 63:8-16 , etc. Paul has the
same idea also ( Ga 5:17,21  Ro 8:6,8 ). It is possible that the
reference is really to the quotation in verse  6  from  Pr 3:34 
and treating all before as a parenthesis. There is no way to
decide positively. {In vain} (ken(9373)). Old adverb (Aristotle)
from ken(9373) ( 2:20 ), here alone in N.T. "Emptily," not meaning
what it says. {Made to dwell} (kat(9369)kisen). First aorist active
of katoikiz(935c), old verb, to give a dwelling to, only here in
N.T. {Long unto envying} (pros phthonon epipothei). A difficult
phrase. Some even take pros phthonon with legei rather than
with epipothei, as it naturally does go, meaning "jealously."
But even so, with God presented as a jealous lover, does 	o
pneuma refer to the Holy Spirit as the subject of epipothei or
to man's spirit as the object of epipothei? Probably the former
and epipothei then means to yearn after in the good sense as in
 Php 1:8 .

經文:

雅各書 4:6-4:6

註釋:

 {More grace} (meizona charin). "Greater grace." Greater
than what? "Greater grace in view of the greater requirement"
(Ropes), like  Ro 5:20f . God does this. {Wherefore} (dio). To
prove this point James quotes  Pr 3:34 . {God resisteth the
proud} (ho theos huper(8870)hanois antitassetai). Present middle
(direct) indicative of antitass(935c), old military term, to range
in battle against, with dative case ( Ro 13:2 ) as in  5:6 .
Huper(8870)hanois (huper, phainomai) is like our vernacular
"stuck-up folks" ( Ro 1:30 ), "haughty persons." {But giveth
grace to the humble} (	apeinois de did(9373)in charin). Anarthrous
adjective again, "to humble or lowly persons," for which word see
 1:9f . Cf.  2:5-7  5:1-6 .

經文:

雅各書 4:7-4:7

註釋:

 1Pe
2:23 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Pe
2' or engs='1Pe
2'
經文:

雅各書 4:8-4:8

註釋:

 {Draw nigh to God} (eggisate t(9369) the(9369)). First aorist
active imperative of eggiz(935c), late verb from eggus (near) as
in  Mt 3:2 . With dative case again of personal relation. The
priests in the sanctuary drew nigh to God ( Ex 19:22 ), as we
should now. {Cleanse your hands} (katharisate cheiras). First
aorist active imperative of kathariz(935c), to cleanse, from dirt in
a ritual sense ( Ex 30:19-21  Mr 7:3,19 ). Here it is figurative,
as in  Ho 1:16  Ps 24:4 . If we always had clean (from sin) hands
and hearts? {Ye sinners} (hamart(936c)oi). A sharp term to strike
the conscience, "a reproach meant to startle and sting" (Ropes).
{Purify your hearts} (hagnisate kardias). First aorist active
imperative of hagniz(935c), old verb from hagnos ( Jas 3:17 ),
ceremonially ( Ac 21:24,26 ), but here morally as in  1Pe 1:22  1Jo 3:3 . Anarthrous use of kardias as of cheiras (wash
hands, purify hearts). {Ye double-minded} (dipsuchoi). As in
 1:8 .

經文:

雅各書 4:9-4:9

註釋:

 2Co
7:10 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
7' or engs='2Co
7'
經文:

雅各書 4:10-4:10

註釋:

 {Humble yourselves} (	apein(9374)h(8874)e). First aorist passive
imperative of 	apeino(935c), old verb from 	apeinos ( 1:9 ), as in
 Mt 18:4 . The passive here has almost the middle or reflexive
sense. The middle voice was already giving way to the passive.
See  1Pe 5:6  for this same form with the same promise of
exaltation. {He shall exalt you} (hups(9373)ei humas). Future
active indicative of hupso(935c), common verb from hupsos
(height), used by Jesus in contrast with 	apeino(935c) as here ( Mt
23:12  Lu 14:11  18:14 ).

經文:

雅各書 4:11-4:11

註釋:

 {Speak not one against another} (m(8820)katalaleite all(886c)(936e)).
Prohibition against such a habit or a command to quit doing it,
with m(885c) and the present imperative of katalale(935c), old compound
usually with the accusative in ancient Greek, in N.T. only with
the genitive (here,  1Pe 2:12  3:16 ). Often harsh words about
the absent. James returns to the subject of the tongue as he does
again in  5:12  (twice before,  1:26  3:1-12 ). {Judgeth}
(krin(936e)). In the sense of harsh judgment as in  Mt 7:1  Lu
6:37  (explained by katadikaz(935c)). {Not a doer of the law, but a
judge} (ouk poi(8874)(8873) nomou, alla krit(8873)). This tone of
superiority to law is here sharply condemned. James has in mind
God's law, of course, but the point is the same for all laws
under which we live. We cannot select the laws which we will obey
unless some contravene God's law, and so our own conscience ( Ac
4:20 ). Then we are willing to give our lives for our rebellion
if need be.

經文:

雅各書 4:12-4:12

註釋:

 {One only} (heis). No "only" in the Greek, but heis here
excludes all others but God. {The lawgiver} (ho nomothet(8873)).
Old compound (from 
omos, tith(886d)i), only here in N.T. In  Ps
9:20 . Cf. 
omothete(935c) in  Heb 7:11  8:6 . {To save} (s(9373)ai,
first aorist active infinitive of s(937a)(935c)) {and to destroy} (kai
apolesai, first aorist active infinitive of apollumi to
destroy). Cf. the picture of God's power in  Mt 10:28 , a common
idea in the O.T. ( De 32:39  1Sa 2:16  2Ki 5:7 ). {But who art
thou?} (su de tis ei;). Proleptic and emphatic position of su
(thou) in this rhetorical question as in  Ro 9:20  14:4 . {Thy
neighbour} (	on pl(8873)ion). "The neighbour" as in  Jas 2:8 .

經文:

雅各書 4:13-4:13

註釋:

 {Go to now} (age nun). Interjectional use of age (from
ag(935c)) as in  5:1  (only N.T. instances) with a plural verb (hoi
legontes, present active articular participle, ye that say) as
is common in ancient Greek like ide nun (886b)ousate ( Mt 26:65 ).
{Today or tomorrow} (s(886d)eron (8820)aurion). Correct text (Aleph B),
not kai (and). {Into this city} (eis t(886e)de t(886e) polin). Old
demonstrative hode, rare in N.T. ( Lu 10:39 ) save in neuter
plural 	ade (these things  Ac 21:11 ). One would point out the
city on the map (Mayor) as he made the proposal (we will go,
poreusometha). {And spend a year there} (kai poi(8873)omen ekei
eniauton). Another future (active of poie(935c)). "We will do a
year there." {And trade} (kai emporeusometha). Future middle of
emporeuomai (en, poreuomai, to go in), old verb from
emporos (a merchant or trader, a drummer, one going in and
getting the trade,  Mt 13:45 ), a vivid picture of the Jewish
merchants of the time. {And get gain} (kai kerd(8873)omen). Future
(Ionic form) active of kerdain(935c), old verb from kerdos (gain,
 Php 1:21 ), as in  Mt 16:26 .

經文:

雅各書 4:14-4:14

註釋:

 {Whereas ye know not} (hoitines ouk epistasthe). The
longer relative hostis defines here more precisely (like Latin
_qui_) hoi legontes (ye who say) of verse  13  in a causal
sense, as in  Ac 10:47 , "who indeed do not know" (present middle
indicative of epistamai). {What shall be on the morrow} (	(8873)
aurion). Supply h(886d)eras (day) after aurion. This is the
reading of B (Westcott) "on the morrow" (genitive of time), but
Aleph K L cursives have 	o t(8873) aurion ("the matter of
tomorrow"), while A P cursives have 	a t(8873) aurion ("the things
of tomorrow"). The sense is practically the same, though 	o t(8873)
aurion is likely correct. {What is your life?} (poia h(8820)z(9388)
hum(936e)). Thus Westcott and Hort punctuate it as an indirect
question, not direct. Poia is a qualitative interrogative (of
what character). {As vapour} (atmis). This is the answer. Old
word for mist (like atmos, from which our "atmosphere"), in
N.T. only here and  Ac 2:19  with kapnou (vapour of smoke (from
 Joe 2:30 ). {For a little time} (pros oligon). See same phrase
in  1Ti 4:8 , pros kairon in  Lu 8:13 , pros h(9372)an in  Joh
5:35 . {That appeareth and then vanisheth away} (phainomen(880a)epeita kai aphanizomen(885c)). Present middle participles agreeing
with atmis, "appearing, then also disappearing," with play on
the two verbs (phainomai, aphaniz(935c) as in  Mt 6:19 , from
aphan(8873) hidden  Heb 4:13 ) with the same root phan (phain(932c)
a-phan-(8873)).

經文:

雅各書 4:15-4:15

註釋:

 {For that ye ought to say} (anti tou legein hum(8373)).
"Instead of the saying as to you" (genitive of the articular
infinitive with the preposition anti and the accusative of
general reference with legein), "instead of your saying." {If
the Lord will} (ean ho kurios thel(8869)). Condition of the third
class with ean and the present active subjunctive (or first
aorist active 	heles(8869) in some MSS). The proper attitude of
mind ( Ac 18:21  1Co 4:19  16:7  Ro 1:19  Php 2:19,24  Heb 6:3 ),
not to be uttered always in words like a charm. This Hellenistic
formula was common among the ancient heathen, as today among
modern Arabs like the Latin _deo volente_. {This or that} (	outo
(8820)ekeino). Applicable to every act.

經文:

雅各書 4:16-4:16

註釋:

 {In your vauntings} (en tais alazoniais hum(936e)). Old word
for braggart talk (from alazoneuomai, to act the alaz(936e) empty
boaster  Ro 1:30 ), common in Aristophanes, in N.T. only here and
 1Jo 2:16 . {Glorying} (kauch(8873)is). Act of glorying, late word
from kauchaomai, good if for Christ ( 1Th 2:19 ), bad if for
self as here.

經文:

雅各書 4:17-4:17

註釋:

 {To him that knoweth} (eidoti). Dative case of second
perfect participle eid(9373) (from oida), and with the infinitive
to know how, "to one knowing how." {To do good} (kalon poiein).
"To do a good deed." {And doeth it not} (kai m(8820)poiounti).
Dative again of the present active participle of poie(935c), "and to
one not doing it." Cf. "not a doer" ( 1:23 ) and  Mt 7:26 . {Sin}
(hamartia). Unused knowledge of one's duty is sin, the sin of
omission. Cf.  Mt 23:23 .

經文:

雅各書 5:1-5:1

註釋:

 {Come now, ye rich} (age nun hoi plousioi). Exclamatory
interjection as in  4:13 . Direct address to the rich as a class
as in  1Ti 6:17 . Apparently here James has in mind the rich as a
class, whether believer, as in  1:10f. , or unbeliever, as in
 2:1f.,6 . The plea here is not directly for reform, but a
warning of certain judgment ( 5:1-6 ) and for Christians "a
certain grim comfort in the hardships of poverty" (Ropes) in
 5:7-11 . {Weep and howl} (klausate ololuzontes). "Burst into
weeping (ingressive aorist active imperative of klai(935c) as in
 4:9 ), howling with grief" (present active participle of the old
onomatopoetic verb ololuz(935c), here only in N.T., like Latin
_ululare_, with which compare alalaz(935c) in  Mt 5:38 . {For your
miseries} (epi tais talaip(9372)iais hum(936e)). Old word from
	alaip(9372)os ( Ro 7:24 ) and like 	alaip(9372)e(935c) in  Jas 4:9  (from
	la(935c) to endure and p(9372)os a callus). {That are coming upon
you} (	ais eperchomenais). Present middle participle of the old
compound eperchomai to come upon, used here in futuristic
prophetic sense.

經文:

雅各書 5:2-5:2

註釋:

 {Riches} (ho ploutos). Masculine singular, but occasionally
neuter 	o ploutos in nominative and accusative ( 2Co 8:2 ).
Apparently pleotos fulness (from pleos full, pimpl(886d)i to
fill). "Wealth." {Are corrupted} (ses(8870)en). Second perfect
active indicative of s(8870)(935c) (root sap as in sapros, rotten),
to corrupt, to destroy, here intransitive "has rotted." Only here
in N.T. On the worthlessness of mere wealth see  Mt 6:19,24 .
{Were moth-eaten} (s(8874)obr(9374)a gegonen). "Have become (second
perfect indicative of ginomai, singular number, though
himatia, neuter plural, treated collectively) moth-eaten"
(s(8874)obr(9374)a, late and rare compound from s(8873), moth,  Mt
6:19f.  and r(9374)os, verbal adjective of ibr(9373)k(935c) to eat  Joh
6:13 . This compound found only here,  Job 13:28 , Sibyll. Orac.
_Proem_. 64). Rich robes as heirlooms, but moth-eaten. Vivid
picture. Witness the 250 "lost millionaires" in the United States
in 1931 as compared with 1929. Riches have wings.

經文:

雅各書 5:3-5:3

註釋:

 {Are rusted} (kati(9374)ai). Perfect passive indicative
(singular for chrusos and arguros are grouped as one) of
katio(935c), late verb (from ios, rust) with perfective sense of
kata, to rust through (down to the bottom), found only here,
Sir. 12:11, Epictetus (_Diss_. 4, 6, 14). {Rust} (ios). Poison
in  Jas 3:8  Ro 3:13  (only N.T. examples of old word). Silver
does corrode and gold will tarnish. Dioscorides (V.91) tells
about gold being rusted by chemicals. Modern chemists can even
transmute metals as the alchemists claimed. {For a testimony}
(eis marturion). Common idiom as in  Mt 8:4  (use of eis with
accusative in predicate). {Against you} (humin). Dative of
disadvantage as in  Mr 6:11  (eis marturion autois) where in
the parallel passage ( Lu 9:5 ) we have eis marturion ep'
autous. "To you" will make sense, as in  Mt 8:4  10:18 , but
"against" is the idea here as in  Lu 21:13 . {Shall eat}
(phagetai). Future middle (late form from ephagon) of
defective verb esthi(935c), to eat. {Your flesh} (	as sarkas). The
plural is used for the fleshy parts of the body like pieces of
flesh ( Re 17:16  19:18,21 ). Rust eats like a canker, like
cancer in the body. {As fire} (h(9373) pur). Editors differ here
whether to connect this phrase with phagetai, just before (as
Mayor), for fire eats up more rapidly than rust, or with the
following, as Westcott and Hort and Ropes, that is the eternal
fire of Gehenna which awaits them ( Mt 25:41  Mr 9:44 ). This
interpretation makes a more vivid picture for eth(8873)aurisate (ye
have laid up, first aorist active indicative of 	h(8873)auriz(935c),  Mt
6:19  and see  Pr 16:27 ), but it is more natural to take it with
phagetai.

經文:

雅各書 5:4-5:4

註釋:

 {The hire} (ho misthos). Old word for wages ( Mt 20:8 ).
{Labourers} (ergat(936e)). Any one who works (ergazomai),
especially agricultural workers ( Mt 9:37 ). {Who mowed} (	(936e)
am(8873)ant(936e)). Genitive plural of the articular first aorist active
participle of ama(935c) (from hama, together), old verb, to gather
together, to reap, here only in N.T. {Fields} (ch(9372)as). Estates
or farms ( Lu 12:16 ). {Which is of you kept back by fraud} (ho
aphuster(886d)enos aph' hum(936e)). Perfect passive articular participle
of aphustere(935c), late compound (simplex hustere(935c) common as  Mt
19:20 ), to be behindhand from, to fail of, to cause to withdraw,
to defraud. Pitiful picture of earned wages kept back by rich
Jews, old problem of capital and labour that is with us yet in
acute form. {The cries} (hai boai). Old word from which oa(935c)
comes ( Mt 3:3 ), here only in N.T. The stolen money "cries out"
(krazei), the workers cry out for vengeance. {That reaped}
(	(936e) therisant(936e)). Genitive plural of the articular participle
first aorist active of 	heriz(935c) (old verb from 	heros, summer,
 Mt 24:32 ), to reap, to harvest while summer allows ( Mt 6:26 ).
{Have entered} (eisel(886c)uthan). Perfect active third person
plural indicative of eiserchomai, old and common compound, to
go or come into. This late form is by analogy of the aorist for
the usual form in -asi. {Of the Lord of Sabaoth} (Kuriou
Saba(9374)h). "Of the Lord of Hosts," quotation from  Isa 5:9  as in
 Ro 9:29 , transliterating the Hebrew word for "Hosts," an
expression for the omnipotence of God like Pantokrat(9372) ( Re
4:8 ). God hears the cries of the oppressed workmen even if the
employers are deaf.

經文:

雅各書 5:5-5:5

註釋:

 {Ye have lived delicately} (etruph(8873)ate). First aorist
(constative, summary) active indicative of 	rupha(935c), old verb
from 	ruph(885c) (luxurious living as in  Lu 7:25 , from 	hrupt(935c),
to break down, to enervate), to lead a soft life, only here in
N.T. {Taken your pleasure} (espatal(8873)ate). First aorist
(constative) active indicative of spatala(935c), late and rare verb
to live voluptuously or wantonly (from spatal(885c), riotous living,
wantonness, once as bracelet), in N.T. only here and  1Ti 5:6 .
{Ye have nourished} (ethrepsate). First aorist (constative)
active indicative of 	reph(935c), old verb, to feed, to fatten ( Mt
6:26 ). They are fattening themselves like sheep or oxen all
unconscious of "the day of slaughter" (en h(886d)er(8369) sphag(8873),
definite without the article) ahead of them. For this use of
sphag(8873) see  Ro 8:36  (probata sphag(8873), sheep for the
slaughter, sphag(885c) from sphaz(935c), to slay), consummate sarcasm
on the folly of sinful rich people.

經文:

雅各書 5:6-5:6

註釋:

 {Ye have condemned} (katedikasate). First aorist active
indicative of katadikaz(935c), old verb (from katadik(885c),
condemnation,  Ac 25:15 ). The rich controlled the courts of
justice. {Ye have killed the righteous one} (ephoneusate ton
dikaion). First aorist active indicative of phoneu(935c) ( 2:11  4:2 ). "The righteous one" (	(936e) dikaion) is the generic use of
the singular with article for the class. There is probably no
direct reference to one individual, though it does picture well
the death of Christ and also the coming death of James himself,
who was called the Just (Eus. _H.E_. ii. 23). Stephen ( Ac 7:52 )
directly accuses the Sanhedrin with being betrayers and murderers
(prodotai kai phoneis) of the righteous one (	ou dikaiou).
{He doth not resist you} (ouk antitassetai humin). It is
possible to treat this as a question. Present middle indicative
of antitass(935c), for which see  Jas 4:6 . Without a question the
unresisting end of the victim (	on dikaion) is pictured. With a
question (ouk, expecting an affirmative answer) God or Lord is
the subject, with the final judgment in view. There is no way to
decide definitely.

經文:

雅各書 5:7-5:7

註釋:

 1Th
2:19 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
2' or engs='1Th
2'
經文:

雅各書 5:8-5:8

註釋:

 {Ye also} (kai humeis). As well as the farmers. {Stablish}
(st(8872)ixate). First aorist active imperative of st(8872)iz(935c), old
verb, (from st(8872)igx, a support) to make stable, as in  Lu
22:32  1Th 3:13 . {Is at hand} ((8867)giken). Present perfect
active indicative of eggiz(935c), common verb, to draw near (from
eggus), in  Jas 4:8 , for drawing near. Same form used by John
in his preaching ( Mt 3:2 ). In  1Pe 4:7  the same word appears
to have an eschatological sense as apparently here. How "near" or
"nigh" did James mean? Clearly, it could only be a hope, for
Jesus had distinctly said that no one knew when he would return.

經文:

雅各書 5:9-5:9

註釋:

 {Murmur not} (m(8820)stenazete). Prohibition with m(885c) and the
present active imperative of stenaz(935c), old verb, to groan. "Stop
groaning against one another," as some were already doing in view
of their troubles. In view of the hope of the Second Coming lift
up your heads. {That ye be not judged} (hina m(8820)krith(8874)e).
Negative purpose clause with hina m(885c) and the first aorist
passive subjunctive of krin(935c). As already indicated ( 2:12f.  4:12 ) and repeated in  5:12 . Reminiscence of the words of Jesus
in  Mt 7:1f . {Standeth before the doors} (pro t(936e) thur(936e)
hest(886b)en). Perfect active indicative of hist(886d)i, "is standing
now." Again like the language of Jesus in  Mt 24:33  (epi
thurais) and  Mr 13:29 . Jesus the Judge is pictured as ready to
enter for the judgment.

經文:

雅各書 5:10-5:10

註釋:

 {For an example} (hupodeigma). Late word for the old
paradeigma, from hupodeiknumi, to copy under, to teach ( Lu
6:47 ), here for copy to be imitated as in  Joh 13:15 , as a
warning ( Heb 4:11 ). Here predicate accusative with 	ous
proph(8874)as (the prophets) as the direct object of labete
(second aorist active imperative of lamban(935c)). {Of suffering}
(	(8873) kakopathias). Old word from kakopath(8873) (suffering evil,
kakopathe(935c) in verse  13  2Ti 2:3,9 ), here only in N.T. {Of
patience} (makrothumias). Like makrothume(935c) in  5:7 . See both
makrothumia and hupomon(885c) in  2Co 4:6  Col 1:11  (the one
restraint from retaliating, the other not easily succumbing). {In
the name of} (en t(9369) onomati). As in  Jer 20:9 . With the
authority of the Lord (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 198).

經文:

雅各書 5:11-5:11

註釋:

 {We call blessed} (makarizomen). Old word (present active
indicative of makariz(935c)), from makarios (happy), in N.T. only
here and  Lu 1:48 . "We felicitate." As in  1:3,12  Da 12:12 .
{Ye have heard} ((886b)ousate). First aorist (constative) active
indicative of akou(935c). As in  Mt 5:21,27,33,38,43 . Ropes
suggests in the synagogues. {Of Job} (I(9362)). Job did complain,
but he refused to renounce God ( Job 1:21  2:10  13:15  16:19  19:25f. ). He had become a stock illustration of loyal endurance.
{Ye have seen} (eidete). Second aorist (constative) active
indicative of hora(935c). In Job's case. {The end of the Lord} (	o
telos kuriou). The conclusion wrought by the Lord in Job's case
( Job 42:12 ). {Full of pity} (polusplagchnos). Late and rare
compound (polus, splagchnon), only here in N.T. It occurs also
in Hermas (_Sim_. v. 7. 4; _Mand_. iv, 3). "Very kind."
{Merciful} (oiktirm(936e)). Late and rare adjective (from
oikteir(935c) to pity), in N.T. only here and  Lu 6:36 .

經文:

雅各書 5:12-5:12

註釋:

 1Co
16:22 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
16' or engs='1Co
16'
經文:

雅各書 5:13-5:13

註釋:

 2Ti
2:3,9 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ti
2' or engs='2Ti
2'
經文:

雅各書 5:14-5:14

註釋:

 {Is any among you sick?} (asthenei tis en humin;). Present
active indicative of asthene(935c), old verb, to be weak (without
strength), often in N.T. ( Mt 10:8 ). {Let him call for}
(proskalesasth(935c)). First aorist (ingressive) middle imperative
of proskale(935c). Note change of tense (aorist) and middle
(indirect) voice. Care for the sick is urged in  1Th 5:14  ("help
the sick"). Note the plural here, "elders of the church, as in
 Ac 20:17  15:6,22  21:18  Php 1:1  (bishops). {Let them pray
over him} (proseuxasth(9373)an ep' auton). First aorist middle
imperative of proseuchomai. Prayer for the sick is clearly
enjoined. {Anointing him with oil} (aleipsantes elai(9369)). First
aorist active participle of aleiph(935c), old verb, to anoint, and
the instrumental case of elaion (oil). The aorist participle
can be either simultaneous or antecedent with proseuxasth(9373)an
(pray). See the same use of aleiph(9320)elai(9369) in  Mr 6:13 . The
use of olive oil was one of the best remedial agencies known to
the ancients. They used it internally and externally. Some
physicians prescribe it today. It is clear both in  Mr 6:13  and
here that medicinal value is attached to the use of the oil and
emphasis is placed on the worth of prayer. There is nothing here
of the pagan magic or of the later practice of "extreme unction"
(after the eighth century). It is by no means certain that
aleiph(935c) here and in  Mr 6:13  means "anoint" in a ceremonial
fashion rather than "rub" as it commonly does in medical
treatises. Trench (N.T. Synonyms) says: "Aleiphein is the
mundane and profane, chriein the sacred and religious, word."
At bottom in James we have God and medicine, God and the doctor,
and that is precisely where we are today. The best physicians
believe in God and want the help of prayer.

經文:

雅各書 5:15-5:15

註釋:

 {The prayer of faith} (h(8820)euch(8820)t(8873) piste(9373)). Cf.  1:6 
for prayer marked by faith. {Shall save} (s(9373)ei). Future active
of s(937a)(935c), to make well. As in  Mt 9:21f.  Mr 6:56 . No reference
here to salvation of the soul. The medicine does not heal the
sick, but it helps nature (God) do it. The doctor cooperates with
God in nature. {The sick} (	on kamnonta). Present active
articular participle of kamn(935c), old verb, to grow weary ( Heb
12:3 ), to be sick (here), only N.T. examples. {The Lord shall
raise him up} (egerei auton ho kurios). Future active of
egeir(935c). Precious promise, but not for a professional
"faith-healer" who scoffs at medicine and makes merchandise out
of prayer. {And if he have committed sins} (kan hamartias (8869)
pepoi(886b)(9373)). Periphrastic perfect active subjunctive (unusual
idiom) with kai ean (crasis kan) in condition of third class.
Supposing that he has committed sins as many sick people have
( Mr 2:5ff.  Joh 5:14  9:2f.  1Co 11:30 ). {It shall be forgiven
him} (apheth(8873)etai aut(9369)). Future passive of aphi(886d)i
(impersonal passive as in  Mt 7:2,7  Ro 10:10 ). Not in any
magical way, not because his sickness has been healed, not
without change of heart and turning to God through Christ. Much
is assumed here that is not expressed.

經文:

雅各書 5:16-5:16

註釋:

 2Th
2:7 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Th
2' or engs='2Th
2'
經文:

雅各書 5:17-5:17

註釋:

 {Of like passions with us} (homoiopath(8873) h(886d)in).
Associative-instrumental case h(886d)in as with homoios. This old
compound adjective (homoios, pasch(935c)), suffering the like with
another, in N.T. only here and  Ac 14:15 . {He prayed fervently}
(proseuch(8869) pros(8875)xato). First aorist middle indicative of
proseuchomai and the instrumental case proseuch(8869) (cognate
substantive), after idiom for intensity in classical Greek, like
pheugein phug(8869), to flee with all speed (_figura etymologica_),
but particularly frequent in the LXX ( Ge 2:17  31:30 ) in
imitation of the Hebrew infinitive absolute. So  Lu 22:15  Joh
3:29  Ac 4:17 . {That it might not rain} (	ou m(8820)brexai).
Genitive of the articular infinitive (rexai, first aorist
active of rech(935c), old verb, to moisten,  Lu 7:38 , to rain,  Mt
5:45 ) with negative m(885c) used either for direct purpose, for an
object clause as here and  Ac 3:12  15:20 , or even for result.
{For three years and six months} (eniautous treis kai m(886e)as
hex). Accusative of extent of time.

經文:

雅各書 5:18-5:18

註釋:

 {Gave rain} (hueton ed(936b)en). This idiom is in the LXX of
God as here of heaven ( 1Sa 12:17  1Ki 18:1 ) and also in  Ac
14:17  instead of ebrexen of verse  17 . Hueton is old word
for rain (from hu(935c), to rain), genuine here, but not in verse
 7 . {Brought forth} (eblast(8873)en). First aorist active of
lastan(935c), old verb, to sprout (intransitive as  Mr 4:27 ), here
as occasionally in later Greek transitive with accusative
karpon.

經文:

雅各書 5:19-5:19

註釋:

 {If any one among you do err} (ean tis en humin
plan(8874)h(8869)). Third-class condition (supposed case) with ean and
the first aorist passive subjunctive of plana(935c), old verb, to go
astray, to wander ( Mt 18:12 ), figuratively ( Heb 5:2 ). {From
the truth} (apo t(8873) al(8874)heias). For truth see  1:18  3:14  Joh
8:32  1Jo 1:6  3:18f . It was easy then, and is now, to be led
astray from Christ, who is the Truth. {And one convert him} (kai
epistreps(8869) tis auton). Continuation of the third-class
condition with the first aorist active subjunctive of
epistreph(935c), old verb, to turn (transitive here as in  Lu
1:16f. , but intransitive often as  Ac 9:35 ).

經文:

雅各書 41:22-41:22

註釋:

 and Plutarch (_De adulat._, p. 64A). ] Cf.  Heb 4:16 . {And
it shall be given him} (kai doth(8873)etai aut(9369)). First future
passive of did(936d)i, a blessed promise in accord with the words
of Jesus ( Mt 7:7,11  Lu 11:13 ), meaning here not only "wisdom,"
but all good gifts, including the Holy Spirit. There are frequent
reminiscences of the words of Jesus in this Epistle.

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