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                   THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS
                   PROBABLE DATE A.D. 56 OR 57

                      BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION

        It is a pity that we are not able to visualize more
clearly the time and place of writing this powerful polemic
against the Judaizers who were trying to draw away from the
evangelical gospel the churches of Galatia. The data are not
clear as in the Thessalonian and Corinthian Epistles. There are
many things that can be said, but few are decisive. One is that
the Epistle was written about seventeen years after Paul's
conversion, adding the three years of  Ga 1:18  and the fourteen
of  2:1 , though not insisting on the full number in either case.
Unfortunately we do not know the precise year of his conversion.
It was somewhere between A.D. 31 and 36. Another thing that is
clear is that the Epistle was written after the Conference in
Jerusalem over the Judaizing controversy to which Paul refers in
 Ga 2:1-10  and after the subsequent visit of Peter to Antioch
( Ga 2:11-14 ). The natural interpretation of  Ac 15:1-33  is to
understand it as the historical narrative of the public meetings
of which Paul gives an inside view in  Gal 2:1-10 . Not all
scholars agree to this view, but the weight of the argument is
for it. If so, that rules out the contention of Ramsay and others
that Galatians is the earliest of Paul's Epistles. It was written
then after that Conference which took place about A.D. 49. It
seems clear also that it was written after the Epistles to the
Thessalonians (A.D. 50-51) which were sent from Corinth.

        Did Paul mean by Galatia the Roman province as he usually
does or does he make an ethnographic use of the term and mean the
real Celts of North Galatia? Luke uses geographical terms in
either sense. Certainly Paul preached in South Galatia in his
first mission tour. See  Ac 16:6  for the discussion about the
language there as bearing on his going into North Galatia. By
"the churches of Galatia" Paul can mean the whole of Galatia or
either South or North Galatia. The various items mentioned, like
the illness that led to his preaching ( Ga 4:13 ), "the first
time" or "formerly" ( 4:13 ), "so quickly" ( 1:6 ), are not
conclusive as to time or place. If Paul means only the South
Galatian Churches (Pisidia, Lycaonia, Phrygia), then the Epistle,
even if two visits had been made, could come some time after the
second tour of  Ac 16:1ff . The place could be Philippi, Corinth,
Ephesus, Antioch. Even so room must be made for the seventeen
years after his conversion plus the interval thereafter (some
twenty years in all). If Paul includes North Galatia, the time
would be more easily handled (the twenty years required from A.D.
31 to 36 to A.D. 51 to 57) and the place could be Ephesus,
Philippi, or Corinth. Special treatises on the date of Galatians
have been written by Askwith (1899), Round (1906), Steinmann
(1908), Weber (1900)

        Lightfoot held that the similarity of Galatians to Romans
(written from Corinth spring of A.D. 56 or 57) naturally argues
for the same general period and place. It is a possible
hypothesis that, when Paul reached Corinth late autumn or early
winter of A.D. 55 or 56 ( Ac 20:1f. ), he received alarming
reports of the damage wrought by the Judaizers in Galatia. He had
won his fight against them in Corinth (I and II Corinthians). So
now he hurls this thunderbolt at them from Corinth and later, in
a calmer mood, sends the fuller discussion to the church in Rome.
This hypothesis is adopted here, but with full recognition of the
fact that it is only hypothesis. The language and the topics and
the treatment are the same that we find in Romans. Galatians thus
fits in precisely between II Corinthians and Romans. It is a
flaming torch in the Judaizing controversy. This Epistle was the
battlecry of Martin Luther in the Reformation. Today it has
served as a bulwark against the wild criticism that has sought to
remove the Pauline Epistles from the realm of historical study.
Paul is all ablaze in this Epistle with indignation as he faces
the men who are undermining his work in Galatia.

                        SOME COMMENTARIES
                (Only a few out of a vast number)

Adeney (1911), Bacon (1909), Beet (1885), Bousset (1907), Baljon
(1889), Burton (1920), Ellicott (new ed. 1884), Emmet (1912),
Findlay (1888), Girdlestone (1913), Hovey (1887), Lagrange
(1918), Lietzmann (1910), Lightfoot (eleventh ed., 1905), Lipsius
(1902), Martin Luther (1535; tr. 1575), MacGregor (1914),
Mackenzie (1912), Ramsay (1900), Rendall (1903), Sieffert (Meyer
Komm., 9 ed. 1899), Watkins (1914), Williams (1910), Windisch (2
aufl. 1926), Wood (1887), Zahn (2 aufl. 1907).

經文:

加拉太書 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 {Not from men, neither through men} (ouk ap' anthr(9370)(936e) oude
di' anthr(9370)ou). The bluntness of Paul's denial is due to the
charge made by the Judaizers that Paul was not a genuine apostle
because not one of the twelve. This charge had been made in
Corinth and called forth the keenest irony of Paul ( 2Co 10-12 ).
In  Ga 1  2  Paul proves his independence of the twelve and his
equality with them as recognized by them. Paul denies that his
apostleship had a human source (ouk ap' anthr(9370)(936e)) and that it
had come to him through (di' anthr(9370)ou) a human channel
(Burton). {But through Jesus Christ and God the Father} (alla
dia I(8873)ou Christou kai theou patros). The call to be an apostle
came to Paul through Jesus Christ as he claimed in  1Co 9:1  and
as told in  Ac 9:4-6  22:7ff.  26:16ff . He is apostle also by
the will of God. {Who raised him from the dead} (	ou egeirantos
auton ek nekr(936e)). And therefore Paul was qualified to be an
apostle since he had seen the Risen Christ ( 1Co 9:1  15:8f. ).
This verb egeir(935c) is often used in N.T. for raising from the
sleep of death, to wake up the dead.

經文:

加拉太書 1:2-1:2

註釋:

 {All the brethren which are with me} (hoi sun emoi pantes
adelphoi). The same phrase in  Php 4:21  in distinction from the
saints in verse  22 . Probably the small company of travelling
companions. {Unto the churches of Galatia} (	ais ekkl(8873)iais t(8873)
Galatias). A circular letter therefore to all the churches in
the province (both South Galatia and North Galatia if he really
laboured there).

經文:

加拉太書 1:3-1:3

註釋:

 {Grace to you and peace} (charis humin kai eir(886e)(885c)). As in I
Thess., II Thess., I Cor., II Cor. (already written) and in all
the later Epistles save that in I and II Timothy "mercy" is
added. But this customary salutation (see on 氣Th 1:1|) is not a
perfunctory thing with Paul. He uses it here even when he has so
much fault to find just as he did in I and II Corinthians.

經文:

加拉太書 1:4-1:4

註釋:

 1Co
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15' or engs='1Co
15'
經文:

加拉太書 1:5-1:5

註釋:

 1Ti
1:17 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ti
1' or engs='1Ti
1'
經文:

加拉太書 1:6-1:6

註釋:

 {Ye are so quickly removing} (hout(9373) tache(9373)
metatithesthe). The present middle indicative of metatith(886d)i,
to change places, to transfer. "You are transferring yourselves"
and doing it "so quickly" either from the time of their
conversion or most likely from the time when the Judaizers came
and tempted them. So easily some of them are falling victims to
these perverters of the gospel. That is a continuous amazement
(	haumaz(935c)) to Paul and to men today that so many are so silly
and so gullible to modern as to ancient charlatans. {Unto a
different gospel} (eis heteron euaggelion). See on 氧Co 11:4|
for distinction between allo and heteron as here. It is not
here or there a mere difference in emphasis or spirit as in 烈hp
1:18| so long as Christ is preached. These men as in  2Co 11:4 
preach "another Jesus" and a "different gospel" and so have
fallen away from grace and have done away with Christ ( Ga 5:4 ).
Hence the vehemence of Paul's words.

經文:

加拉太書 1:7-1:7

註釋:

 {Which is not another} (ho ouk estin allo). It is no
"gospel" (good news) at all, but a yoke of bondage to the law and
the abolition of grace. There is but one gospel and that is of
grace, not works. The relative ho (which) refers to heteron
euaggelion (a different gospel) "taken as a single term and
designating the erroneous teachings of the Judaizers" (Burton).
{Only} (ei m(885c)). Literally, "except," that is, "Except in this
sense," "in that it is an attempt to pervert the one true gospel"
(Lightfoot). {Who disturb you} (hoi tarassontes). The
disturbers. This very verb 	arass(935c) is used in  Ac 17:8  of the
Jews in Thessalonica who "disturbed" the politarchs and the
people about Paul. {Would pervert} (	helontes metastrepsai).
"Wish to turn about," change completely as in  Ac 2:20  Jas 4:9 .
The very existence of the gospel of Christ was at stake.

經文:

加拉太書 1:8-1:8

註釋:

 {If we} (ean h(886d)eis). Condition of third class (ean and
aorist middle subjunctive euaggelis(8874)ai). Suppose I (literary
plural) should turn renegade and preach "other than" (par' ho),
"contrary to that which we preached." Preachers have turned away
from Christ, alas, and preached "humanism" or some other
new-fangled notion. The Jews termed Paul a renegade for leaving
Judaism for Christianity. But it was before Paul had seen Christ
that he clung to the law. Paul is dogmatic and positive here, for
he knows that he is standing upon solid ground, the fact of
Christ dying for us and rising again. He had seen the Risen Jesus
Christ. No angel can change Paul now. {Let him be anathema}
(anathema est(935c)). See on 氣Co 12:3| for this word.

經文:

加拉太書 1:9-1:9

註釋:

 {So say I now again} (kai arti palin leg(935c)). Paul knows that
he has just made what some will consider an extreme statement.
But it is a deliberate one and not mere excitement. He will stand
by it to the end. He calls down a curse on any one who proclaims
a gospel to them contrary to that which they had received from
him.

經文:

加拉太書 1:10-1:10

註釋:

 Eph. 6:6 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Eph.' or engs='Eph.'
經文:

加拉太書 1:11-1:11

註釋:

 1Co
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3' or engs='1Co
3'
經文:

加拉太書 1:12-1:12

註釋:

 {Nor was I taught it} (oute edidachth(886e)). He did not
receive it "from man" (para anthr(9370)(936e), which shuts out both
apo and dia of verse  1 ), whether Peter or any other
apostle, nor was he taught it in the school of Gamaliel in
Jerusalem or at the University of Tarsus. He "received" his
gospel in one way, "through revelation of Jesus Christ" (di'
apokalupse(9373) I(8873)ou Christou). He used parelabon in  1Co 15:3 
about the reception of his message from Christ. It is not
necessary to say that he had only one (because of the aorist
active parelabon, from paralamban(935c), for it can very well be
constative aorist) revelation (unveiling) from Christ. In fact,
we know that he had numerous visions of Christ and in  1Co 11:23 
he expressly says concerning the origin of the Lord's Supper: "I
received (parelabon, again) from the Lord." The Lord Jesus
revealed his will to Paul.

經文:

加拉太書 1:13-1:13

註釋:

 1Pe
1:15 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Pe
1' or engs='1Pe
1'
經文:

加拉太書 1:14-1:14

註釋:

 {I advanced} (proekopton). Imperfect active again of
prokopt(935c), old verb, to cut forward (as in a forest), to blaze a
way, to go ahead. In N.T. only here,  Ro 13:12  2Ti 2:16  3:9,13 . Paul was a brilliant pupil under Gamaliel. See  Php
3:4-6 . He was in the lead of the persecution also. {Beyond many
of mine own age} (huper pollous sun(886c)iki(9374)as). Later compound
form for the Attic h(886c)iki(9374)(8873) which occurs in Dion Hal. and
inscriptions (from sun, with, and h(886c)ikia, age). Paul
modestly claims that he went "beyond" (huper) his
fellow-students in his progress in Judaism. {More exceedingly
zealous} (perissoter(9373) z(886c)ot(8873)). Literally, "more exceedingly a
zealot." See on 涉c 1:13; 21:20; 1Co 14:12|. Like Simon Zelotes.
{For the traditions of my fathers} (	(936e) patrik(936e) mou
paradose(936e)). Objective genitive after z(886c)ot(8873). Patrik(936e) only
here in N.T., though old word from pat(8872) (father), paternal,
descending from one's father. For patr(9369)os see  Ac 22:3,14 .
Tradition (paradosis) played a large part in the teaching and
life of the Pharisees ( Mr 7:1-23 ). Paul now taught the
Christian tradition ( 2Th 2:15 ).

經文:

加拉太書 1:15-1:15

註釋:

 {It was the good pleasure of God} (eudok(8873)en ho theos).
Paul had no doubt about God's purpose in him ( 1Th 2:8 ). {Who
separated me} (ho aphorisas me). Aphoriz(935c) is old word (from
apo and horos) to mark off from a boundary or line. The
Pharisees were the separatists who held themselves off from
others. Paul conceives himself as a spiritual Pharisee "separated
unto the gospel of God" ( Ro 1:1 , the same word aph(9372)ismenos).
Before his birth God had his plans for him and called him.

經文:

加拉太書 1:16-1:16

註釋:

 {To reveal his Son in me} (apokalupsai ton huion autou en
emoi). By "in me" (en emoi) Paul can mean to lay emphasis on
his inward experience of grace or he may refer objectively to the
vision of Christ on the way to Damascus, "in my case." Paul uses
en emoi in this sense (in my case) several times (verse  24  2Co 13:3  Php 1:30  1Ti 1:16 ). Once ( 1Co 14:11 ) en emoi is
almost equivalent to the dative (to me). On the whole Lightfoot
seems correct here in taking it to mean "in my case," though the
following words suit either idea. Certainly Paul could not preach
Christ among the Gentiles without the rich inward experience and
in the objective vision he was called to that task. {I conferred
not with flesh and blood} (ou prosanethem(886e) sarki kai haimati).
Second aorist middle indicative of prosanatith(886d)i, old verb,
double compound (pros, ana), to lay upon oneself in addition,
to betake oneself to another, to confer with, dative case as
here. In N.T. only here and  2:6 .

經文:

加拉太書 1:17-1:17

註釋:

 {Before me} (pro emou). The Jerusalem apostles were
genuine apostles, but so is Paul. His call did not come from them
nor did he receive confirmation by them. {Into Arabia} (eis
Arabian). This visit to Arabia has to come between the two
visits to Damascus which are not distinguished in  Ac 9:22f . In
verse  23  Luke does speak of "considerable days" and so we must
place the visit to Arabia between verses  22,23 .

經文:

加拉太書 1:18-1:18

註釋:

 {Then after three years} (epeita meta tria et(885c)). A round
number to cover the period from his departure from Jerusalem for
Damascus to his return to Jerusalem. This stay in Damascus was an
important episode in Paul's theological readjustment to his new
experience. {To visit Cephas} (histor(8873)ai K(8870)h(836e)). First aorist
infinitive of histore(935c), old verb (from hist(9372), one who knows
by inquiry), to gain knowledge by visiting. Only here in N.T. If
we turn to  Ac 9:26-30 , we shall see that the visit of two weeks
to Peter came after Barnabas endorsed Paul to the suspicious
disciples in Jerusalem and probably while he was preaching in the
city. It was a delightful experience, but Peter did not start
Paul upon his apostleship. He visited him as an equal. Peter no
doubt had much to say to Paul.

經文:

加拉太書 1:19-1:19

註釋:

 {Except James the brother of the Lord} (ei m(8820)Iak(9362)on ton
adelphon tou Kuriou). James the son of Zebedee was still living
at that time. The rest of the twelve were probably away preaching
and James, brother of the Lord, is here termed an apostle, though
not one of the twelve as Barnabas is later so called. Paul is
showing his independence of and equality with the twelve in
answer to the attacks of the Judaizers.

經文:

加拉太書 1:20-1:20

註釋:

 {I lie not} (ou pseudomai). So important does he deem the
point that he takes solemn oath about it.

經文:

加拉太書 1:21-1:21

註釋:

 {Into the region of Syria and Cilicia} (eis ta klimata t(8873)
Syrias kai t(8873) Kilikias). This statement agrees with the record
in  Ac 9:30 . On klimata, see  2Co 11:10 . Paul was not idle,
but at work in Tarsus and the surrounding country.

經文:

加拉太書 1:22-1:22

註釋:

 {And I was still unknown} ((886d)(886e) de agnoumenos).
Periphrastic imperfect passive of agnoe(935c), not to know. {By
face} (	(9369) pros(9370)(9369)). Associative instrumental case. {Of Judea}
(	(8873) Ioudaias). As distinct from Jerusalem, for he had once
scattered the church there and had revisited them before coming
to Tarsus ( Ac 9:26-30 ). In  Ac 9:31  the singular of ekkl(8873)ia
is used, but in a geographic sense for Judea, Samaria, and
Galilee.

經文:

加拉太書 1:23-1:23

註釋:

 {They only heard} (monon akouontes (8873)an). Periphrastic
imperfect, "They were only hearing from time to time." {That once
persecuted us} (ho di(936b)(936e) h(886d)as pote). Present active articular
participle, a sort of participle of antecedent time suggested by
pote, "the one who used to persecute us once upon a time." {The
faith} (	(886e) pistin). Here used in the sense of "the gospel" as
in  Ac 6:7 .

經文:

加拉太書 1:24-1:24

註釋:

 {They glorified} (edoxazon). Imperfect, kept on doing it.
{In me} (en emoi). In my case as in  1:16 .

經文:

加拉太書 2:1-2:1

註釋:

 {Then after the space of fourteen years I went up again}
(epeita dia dekatessar(936e) et(936e) palin aneb(886e)) This use of dia
for interval between is common enough. Paul is not giving a
recital of his visits to Jerusalem, but of his points of contact
with the apostles in Jerusalem. As already observed, he here
refers to the Jerusalem Conference given by Luke in  Ac 15  when
Paul and Barnabas were endorsed by the apostles and elders and
the church over the protest of the Judaizers who had attacked
them in Antioch ( Ac 15:1f. ). But Paul passes by another visit
to Jerusalem, that in  Ac 11:30  when Barnabas and Saul brought
alms from Antioch to Jerusalem and delivered them to "the elders"
with no mention of the apostles who were probably out of the city
since the events in  Ac 12  apparently preceded that visit and
Peter had left for another place ( Ac 12:17 ). Paul here gives
the inside view of this private conference in Jerusalem that came
in between the two public meetings ( Ac 15:4,6-29 ). {With
Barnabas} (meta Barnab(835c)). As in  Ac 15:2 . {Taking Titus also
with me} (sunparalab(936e) kai Titon). Second aorist active
participle of sunparalamban(935c) the very verb used in  Ac 15:37f. 
of the disagreement between Paul and Barnabas about Mark. Titus
is not mentioned in Acts 15 nor anywhere else in Acts for some
reason, possibly because he was Luke's own brother. But his very
presence was a challenge to the Judaizers, since he was a Greek
Christian.

經文:

加拉太書 2:2-2:2

註釋:

 1Th
3:5 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
3' or engs='1Th
3'
經文:

加拉太書 2:3-2:3

註釋:

 {Being a Greek} (Hell(886e) (936e)). Concessive participle, though
he was a Greek. {Was compelled to be circumcised} ((886e)agkasth(880a)peritm(8874)h(886e)ai). First aorist passive indicative of anagkaz(935c)
and first aorist passive infinitive of peritemn(935c). Curiously
enough some scholars interpret this language to mean that Paul
voluntarily had Titus circumcised, instead of being compelled to
do it, an impossible view in my opinion in the light of verse  5 
and wholly inconsistent with the whole context. Paul means that
he stood his ground against compulsion and all force.

經文:

加拉太書 2:4-2:4

註釋:

 {But because of the false brethren privately brought in}
(dia de tous pareisaktous pseudadelphous). Late verbal
adjective pareisaktos from the double compound verb
pareisag(935c), found in papyri in the sense of brought in by the
side or on the sly as here. Evidently some of the Judaizers or
sympathizers whom Paul had not invited had come in as often
happens. Paul terms them "false brethren" like "the false
apostles" in  2Co 11:13  of the Judaizers in Corinth. {Who came
in privily} (hoitines pareis(886c)thon). Repetition of the charge
of their slipping in unwanted (pareiserchomai, late double
compound, in Plutarch, in N.T. only here and  Ro 5:20 ). {To spy
out} (kataskop(8873)ai). First aorist active infinitive of
kataskope(935c), old Greek verb from kataskopos, a spy, to
reconnoitre, to make a treacherous investigation. {That they
might bring us into bondage} (hina h(886d)as katadoul(9373)ousin).
Future active indicative of this old compound, to enslave
completely (kata-) as in  2Co 11:20 . Nowhere else in N.T. This
was their purpose (hina and future active indicative of this
causative verb). It was as serious a conflict as this. Spiritual
liberty or spiritual bondage, which?

經文:

加拉太書 2:5-2:5

註釋:

 {No, not for an hour} (oude pros h(9372)an). Pointed denial
that he and Barnabas yielded at all "in the way of subjection"
(	(8869) hupotag(8869), in the subjection demanded of them). The
compromisers pleaded for the circumcision of Titus "because of
the false brethren" in order to have peace. The old verb eik(935c),
to yield, occurs here alone in the N.T. See  2Co 9:13  for
hupotag(885c). {The truth of the gospel} (h(8820)al(8874)heia tou
euaggeliou). It was a grave crisis to call for such language.
The whole problem of Gentile Christianity was involved in the
case of Titus, whether Christianity was to be merely a modified
brand of legalistic Judaism or a spiritual religion, the true
Judaism (the children of Abraham by faith). The case of Timothy
later was utterly different, for he had a Jewish mother and a
Greek father. Titus was pure Greek.

經文:

加拉太書 2:6-2:6

註釋:

 {Somewhat} (	i). Something, not somebody. Paul refers to
the Big Three (Cephas, James, and John). He seems a bit
embarrassed in the reference. He means no disrespect, but he
asserts his independence sharply in a tangled sentence with two
parentheses (dashes in Westcott and Hort). {Whatsoever they were}
(hopoioi pote (8873)an). Literally, "What sort they once were."
{Hopoioi} is a qualitative word ( 1Th 1:9  1Co 3:13  Jas 1:24 ).
Lightfoot thinks that these three leaders were the ones who
suggested the compromise about Titus. That is a possible, but not
the natural, interpretation of this involved sentence. The use of
de (but) in verse  6  seems to make a contrast between the
three leaders and the pleaders for compromise in verses  4f .
{They, I say, imparted nothing to me} (emoi gar ouden
prosanethento). He starts over again after the two parentheses
and drops the construction apo t(936e) dokount(936e) and changes the
construction (anacoluthon) to hoi dokountes (nominative case),
the men of reputation and influences whom he names in verses
 8f . See the same verb in  1:16 . They added nothing in the
conference to me. The compromisers tried to win them, but they
finally came over to my view. Paul won his point, when he
persuaded Peter, James, and John to agree with him and Barnabas
in their contention for freedom for the Gentile Christians from
the bondage of the Mosaic ceremonial law.

經文:

加拉太書 2:7-2:7

註釋:

 {But contrariwise} (alla tounantion). But on the contrary
(accusative of general reference, 	o enantion). So far from the
three championing the cause of the Judaizers as some hoped or
even the position of the compromisers in verses  4f. , they came
boldly to Paul's side after hearing the case argued in the
private conference. This is the obvious interpretation rather
than the view that Peter, James, and John first proposed the
circumcision of Titus and afterwards surrendered to Paul's bold
stand. {When they saw} (idontes). After seeing, after they
heard our side of the matter. {That I had been intrusted with the
gospel of the uncircumcision} (hoti pepisteumai to euaggelion
t(8873) akrobustias). Perfect passive indicative of pisteu(935c), to
intrust, which retains the accusative of the thing (	o
euaggelion) in the passive voice. This clear-cut agreement
between the leaders "denotes a distinction of sphere, and not a
difference of type" (Lightfoot). Both divisions in the work
preach the same "gospel" (not like  1:6f. , the Judaizers). It
seems hardly fair to the Three to suggest that they at first
championed the cause of the Judaizers in the face of Paul's
strong language in verse  5 .

經文:

加拉太書 2:8-2:8

註釋:

 1Co
9:2 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
9' or engs='1Co
9'
經文:

加拉太書 2:9-2:9

註釋:

 {They who were reputed to be pillars} (hoi dokountes stuloi
einai). They had that reputation (dokountes) and Paul accepts
them as such. Stuloi, old word for pillars, columns, as of fire
( Re 10:1 ). So of the church ( 1Ti 3:15 ). These were the Pillar
Apostles. {Gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship}
(dexias ed(936b)an emoi kai Barnab(8369) koin(936e)ias). Dramatic and
concluding act of the pact for cooperation and coordinate,
independent spheres of activity. The compromisers and the
Judaizers were brushed to one side when these five men shook
hands as equals in the work of Christ's Kingdom.

經文:

加拉太書 2:10-2:10

註釋:

 {Only} (monon). One item was emphasized. {We should
remember} (mn(886d)oneu(936d)en). Present active subjunctive, "that we
should keep on remembering." {Which very thing} (ho--auto
touto). Repetition of relative and demonstrative, tautology,
"which this very thing." In fact Barnabas and Saul had done it
before ( Ac 11:30 ). It was complete victory for Paul and
Barnabas. Paul passes by the second public meeting and the
letters to Antioch ( Ac 15:6-29 ) and passes on to Peter's
conduct in Antioch.

經文:

加拉太書 2:11-2:11

註釋:

 1Jo
3:20f 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
3' or engs='1Jo
3'
經文:

加拉太書 2:12-2:12

註釋:

 {For before that certain came from James} (pro tou gar
elthein tinas apo Iak(9362)ou). The reason (gar) for Paul's
condemnation of Peter. Articular infinitive in the genitive after
pro with the accusative of general reference (	inas), "for
before the coming as to some from James." Does Paul mean to say
that these "certain" ones had been sent by James to Antioch to
inspect the conduct of Peter and the other Jewish brethren? Some
scholars think so. No doubt these brethren let the idea get out
that they were emissaries "from James." But that idea is
inconsistent with the position of James as president of the
conference and the author of the resolution securing liberty to
the Gentile Christians. No doubt these brethren threatened Peter
to tell James and the church about his conduct and they reminded
Peter of his previous arraignment before the Jerusalem Church on
this very charge ( Ac 11:1-18 ). As a matter of fact the
Jerusalem Conference did not discuss the matter of social
relations between Jews and Gentiles though that was the charge
made against Peter ( Ac 11:1ff. ). {He did eat with the Gentiles}
(meta t(936e) ethn(936e) sun(8873)thien). It was his habit (imperfect
tense). {He drew back} (hupestellen). Imperfect tense,
inchoative action, "he began to draw himself (heauton) back."
Old word hupostell(935c). See middle voice to dissemble ( Ac
20:20,27 ), to shrink ( Heb 10:38 ). {Separated himself}
(aph(9372)izen heauton). Inchoative imperfect again, "began to
separate himself" just like a Pharisee (see on 氣:15|) and as if
afraid of the Judaizers in the Jerusalem Church, perhaps half
afraid that James might not endorse what he had been doing.
{Fearing them that were of the circumcision} (phoboumenos tous
ek peritom(8873)). This was the real reason for Peter's cowardice.
See  Ac 11:2  for "hoi ek peritom(8873)" (they of the
circumcision), the very phrase here. It was not that Peter had
changed his views from the Jerusalem resolutions. It was pure
fear of trouble to himself as in the denials at the trial of
Christ.

經文:

加拉太書 2:13-2:13

註釋:

 {Dissembled likewise with him} (sunupekrith(8873)an aut(9369)
kai). First aorist passive indicative of the double compound
verb sunupokrinomai, a late word often in Polybius, only here
in N.T. One example in Polybius means to pretend to act a part
with. That idea here would help the case of the rest of the Jews,
but does not accord with Paul's presentation. {Insomuch that even
Barnabas} (h(9373)te kai Barnabas). Actual result expressed by
h(9373)te and the indicative and kai clearly means "even." {Was
carried away with their dissimulation} (sunap(8863)hth(8820)aut(936e) t(8869)
hupokrisei). First aorist passive indicative of sunapag(935c), old
verb, in N.T. only here and  2Pe 3:17 . Hupokrisei is in the
instrumental case and can only mean hypocrisy in the bad sense
( Mt 23:28 ), not merely acting a part. It was a solemn moment
when Paul saw the Jerusalem victory vanish and even Barnabas
desert him as they followed the timid cowardice of Peter. It was
_Paulus contra mundum_ in the cause of spiritual freedom in
Christ.

經文:

加拉太書 2:14-2:14

註釋:

 {But when I saw} (All' hote eidon). Paul did see and saw
it in time to speak. {That they walked not uprightly} (hoti
orthopodousin). Present active indicative retained in indirect
discourse, "they are not walking straight." Orthopode(935c)
(orthos, straight, pous, foot). Found only here and in later
ecclesiastical writers, though orthopodes bainontes does occur.
{According to the truth of the gospel} (pros t(886e) al(8874)heian tou
euaggeliou). Just as in  2:5 . Paul brought them to face
(pros) that. {I said unto Cephas before them all} (eipon t(9369)
K(8870)h(8369) emprosthen pant(936e)). {Being a Jew} (Ioudaios huparch(936e),
though being a Jew). Condition of first class, assumed as true.
It was not a private quarrel, but a matter of public policy. One
is a bit curious to know what those who consider Peter the first
pope will do with this open rebuke by Paul, who was in no sense
afraid of Peter or of all the rest. {As do the Gentiles}
(ethnik(9373)). Late adverb, here only in N.T. Like Gentiles. {As
do the Jews} (Ioudaik(9373)). Only here in N.T., but in Josephus.
{To live as do the Jews} (Iouda(8b7a)ein). Late verb, only here in
the N.T. From Ioudaios, Jew. Really Paul charges Peter with
trying to compel (conative present, anagkazeis) the Gentiles to
live all like Jews, to Judaize the Gentile Christians, the very
point at issue in the Jerusalem Conference when Peter so loyally
supported Paul. It was a bold thrust that allowed no reply. But
Paul won Peter back and Barnabas also. If II Peter is genuine, as
is still possible, he shows it in  2Pe 3:15 . Paul and Barnabas
remained friends ( Ac 15:39f.  1Co 9:6 ), though they soon
separated over John Mark.

經文:

加拉太書 2:15-2:15

註釋:

 {Not sinners of the Gentiles} (ouk ex ethn(936e) hamart(936c)oi).
The Jews regarded all Gentiles as "sinners" in contrast with
themselves (cf.  Mt 26:45  "sinners" and  Lu 18:32  "Gentiles").
It is not clear whether verses  15-21  were spoken by Paul to
Peter or whether Paul is now simply addressing the Galatians in
the light of the controversy with Peter. Burton thinks that he is
"mentally addressing Peter, if not quoting from what he said to
him."

經文:

加拉太書 2:16-2:16

註釋:

 {Is not justified} (ou dikaioutai). Present passive
indicative of dikaio(935c), an old causative verb from dikaios,
righteous (from dike, right), to make righteous, to declare
righteous. It is made like axio(935c), to deem worthy, and koino(935c),
to consider common. It is one of the great Pauline words along
with dikaiosun(885c), righteousness. The two ways of getting right
with God are here set forth: by faith in Christ Jesus (objective
genitive), by the works of the law (by keeping all the law in the
most minute fashion, the way of the Pharisees). Paul knew them
both (see  Ro 7 ). In his first recorded sermon the same contrast
is made that we have here ( Ac 13:39 ) with the same word
dikaio(935c), employed. It is the heart of his message in all his
Epistles. The terms faith (pistis), righteousness
(dikaiosun(885c)), law (
omos), works (erga) occur more
frequently in Galatians and Romans because Paul is dealing
directly with the problem in opposition to the Judaizers who
contended that Gentiles had to become Jews to be saved. The whole
issue is here in an acute form. {Save} (ean m(885c)). Except. {Even
we} (kai h(886d)eis). We Jews believed, had to believe, were not
saved or justified till we did believe. This very point Peter had
made at the Jerusalem Conference ( Ac 15:10f. ). He quotes  Ps
143:2 . Paul uses dikaiosun(885c) in two senses (1) Justification,
on the basis of what Christ has done and obtained by faith. Thus
we are set right with God.  Ro 1-5 . (2) Sanctification. Actual
goodness as the result of living with and for Christ.  Ro 6-8 .
The same plan exists for Jew and Gentile.

經文:

加拉太書 2:17-2:17

註釋:

 {We ourselves were found sinners} (heureth(886d)en kai autoi
hamart(936c)oi). Like the Gentiles, Jews who thought they were not
sinners, when brought close to Christ, found that they were. Paul
felt like the chief of sinners. {A minister of sin} (hamartias
diakonos). Objective genitive, a minister to sin. An illogical
inference. We were sinners already in spite of being Jews. Christ
simply revealed to us our sin. {God forbid} (m(8820)genoito).
Literally, "May it not happen." Wish about the future (m(885c) and
the optative).

經文:

加拉太書 2:18-2:18

註釋:

 {A transgressor} (parabat(886e)). Peter, by his shifts had
contradicted himself helplessly as Paul shows by this condition.
When he lived like a Gentile, he tore down the ceremonial law.
When he lived like a Jew, he tore down salvation by grace.

經文:

加拉太書 2:19-2:19

註釋:

 {I through the law died to the law} (eg(9320)dia nomou nom(9369)
apethanon). Paradoxical, but true. See  Rom 7:4,6  for picture
of how the law waked Paul up to his real death to the law through
Christ.

經文:

加拉太書 2:20-2:20

註釋:

 {I have been crucified with Christ} (Christ(9369)
sunestaur(936d)ai). One of Paul's greatest mystical sayings. Perfect
passive indicative of sustauro(935c) with the associative
instrumental case (Christ(9369)). Paul uses the same word in  Ro
6:6  for the same idea. In the Gospels it occurs of literal
crucifixion about the robbers and Christ ( Mt 27:44  Mr 15:32  Joh 19:32 ). Paul died to the law and was crucified with Christ.
He uses often the idea of dying with Christ ( Ga 5:24  6:14  Ro
6:8  Col 2:20 ) and burial with Christ also ( Ro 6:4  Col 2:12 ).
{No longer I} (ouketi eg(935c)). So complete has become Paul's
identification with Christ that his separate personality is
merged into that of Christ. This language helps one to understand
the victorious cry in  Ro 7:25 . It is the union of the vine and
the branch ( Joh 15:1-6 ). {Which is in the Son of God} (	(8869) tou
huiou tou theou). The objective genitive, not the faith of the
Son of God. {For me} (huper emou). Paul has the closest
personal feeling toward Christ. "He appropriates to himself, as
Chrysostom observes, the love which belongs equally to the whole
world. For Christ is indeed the personal friend of each man
individually" (Lightfoot).

經文:

加拉太書 2:21-2:21

註釋:

 {I do not make void the grace of God} (ouk athet(9320)t(886e)
charin tou theou). Common word in LXX and Polybius and on, to
make ineffective (a privative and 	ith(886d)i, to place or put).
Some critic would charge him with that after his claim to such a
close mystic union with Christ. {Then Christ died for nought}
(ara Christos d(9372)ean apethanen). Condition of first class,
assumed as true. If one man apart from grace can win his own
righteousness, any man can and should. Hence (ara, accordingly)
Christ died gratuitously (d(9372)ean), unnecessarily. Adverbial
accusative of d(9372)ea, a gift. This verse is a complete answer to
those who say that the heathen (or any mere moralist) are saved
by doing the best that they know and can. No one, apart from
Jesus, ever did the best that he knew or could. To be saved by
law (dia nomou) one has to keep all the law that he knows. That
no one ever did.

經文:

加拉太書 3:1-3:1

註釋:

 {Who did bewitch you?} (	is humas ebaskanen?). Somebody
"fascinated" you. Some aggressive Judaizer ( 5:7 ), some one man
(or woman). First aorist active indicative of askain(935c), old
word kin to phask(935c) (ask(935c)), to speak, then to bring evil on
one by feigned praise or the evil eye (hoodoo), to lead astray by
evil arts. Only here in the N.T. This popular belief in the evil
eye is old ( De 28:54 ) and persistent. The papyri give several
examples of the adjective abaskanta, the adverb abaskant(9373)
(unharmed by the evil eye), the substantive askania
(witchcraft). {Before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set
forth crucified} (hois kat' ophthalmous I(8873)ous Christos
proegraph(8820)estaur(936d)enos). Literally, "to whom before your very
eyes Jesus Christ was portrayed as crucified." Second aorist
passive indicative of prograph(935c), old verb to write beforehand,
to set forth by public proclamation, to placard, to post up. This
last idea is found in several papyri (Moulton and Milligan's
_Vocabulary_) as in the case of a father who posted a
proclamation that he would no longer be responsible for his son's
debts. Graph(935c) was sometimes used in the sense of painting, but
no example of prograph(935c) with this meaning has been found unless
this is one. With that idea it would be to portray, to picture
forth, a rendering not very different from placarding. The
foolish Galatians were without excuse when they fell under the
spell of the Judaizer. Estaur(936d)enos is perfect passive
participle of stauro(935c), the common verb to crucify (from
stauros, stake, cross), to put on the cross ( Mt 20:19 ), same
form as in  1Co 2:2 .

經文:

加拉太書 3:2-3:2

註釋:

 {This only} (	outo monon). Paul strikes at the heart of the
problem. He will show their error by the point that the gifts of
the Spirit came by the hearing of faith, not by works of the law.

經文:

加拉太書 3:3-3:3

註釋:

 {Are ye now perfected in the flesh?} (
un sarki
epiteleisthe?). Rather middle voice as in  1Pe 5:9 , finishing
of yourselves. There is a double contrast, between enarxamenoi
(having begun) and epiteleisthe (finishing) as in  2Co 8:6  Php
1:6 , and also between "Spirit" (pneumati) and flesh (sarki).
There is keen irony in this thrust.

經文:

加拉太書 3:4-3:4

註釋:

 {Did ye suffer?} (epathete?). Second aorist active
indicative of pasch(935c), to experience good or ill. But alone, as
here, it often means to suffer ill (	osauta, so many things).
In North Galatia we have no record of persecutions, but we do
have records for South Galatia ( Ac 14:2,5,19,22 ). {If it be
indeed in vain} (ei ge kai eik(8869)). On eik(8869) see  1Co 15:2  Ga
4:11 . Paul clings to hope about them with alternative fears.

經文:

加拉太書 3:5-3:5

註釋:

 1Th
2:13 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
2' or engs='1Th
2'
經文:

加拉太書 3:6-3:6

註釋:

 {It was reckoned unto him for righteousness} (elogisth(8820)eis
dikaiosun(886e)). First aorist passive indicative of logizomai.
See on 氣Co 13:5| for this old word. He quotes  Ge 15:6  and uses
it at length in  Ro 4:3ff.  to prove that the faith of Abraham
was reckoned "for" (eis, good _Koin(825f) idiom though more common
in LXX because of the Hebrew) righteousness before he was
circumcised. James ( Jas 2:23 ) quotes the same passage as proof
of Abraham's obedience to God in offering up Isaac (beginning to
offer him). Paul and James are discussing different episodes in
the life of Abraham. Both are correct.

經文:

加拉太書 3:7-3:7

註釋:

 {The same are sons of Abraham} (houtoi huioi eisin
Abraham). "These are." This is Paul's astounding doctrine to
Jews that the real sons of Abraham are those who believe as he
did, "they which be of faith" (hoi ek piste(9373)), a common idiom
with Paul for this idea (verse  9  Ro 3:26  4:16  14:23 ), those
whose spiritual sonship springs out of (ek) faith, not out of
blood. John the Baptist denounced the Pharisees and Sadducees as
vipers though descendants of Abraham ( Mt 3:7  Lu 3:7 ) and Jesus
termed the Pharisees children of the devil and not spiritual
children of Abraham (not children of God) in  Joh 8:37-44 .

經文:

加拉太書 3:8-3:8

註釋:

 {Foreseeing} (proidousa). Second aorist active participle
of proora(935c). The Scripture is here personified. Alone in this
sense of "sight," but common with legei or eipen (says, said)
and really in verse  22  "hath shut up" (sunekleisen). {Would
justify} (dikaioi). Present active indicative, "does justify."
{Preached the gospel beforehand} (proeu(8867)gelisato). First
aorist middle indicative of proeuaggelizomai with augment on
a though both pro and eu before it in composition. Only
instance in N.T. It occurs in Philo. and Schol. Soph. This
Scripture announced beforehand the gospel on this point of
justification by faith. He quotes the promise to Abraham in  Ge
12:3  18:18 , putting panta ta ethn(885c) (all the nations) in
 18:18  for p(8373)ai hai phulai (all the tribes) of the earth. It
is a crucial passage for Paul's point, showing that the promise
to Abraham included all the nations of the earth. The verb
eneuloge(935c) (future passive here) occurs in the LXX and here only
in N.T. (not  Ac 3:25  in correct text). {In thee} (en soi).
"As their spiritual progenitor" (Lightfoot).

經文:

加拉太書 3:9-3:9

註釋:

 {With} (sun). Along with, in fellowship with. {The
faithful} (	(9369) pist(9369)). Rather, "the believing" (cf. verse
 6 ).

經文:

加拉太書 3:10-3:10

註釋:

 {Under a curse} (hupo kataran). Picture of the curse
hanging over them like a Damocles' blade. Cf.  Ro 3:9  "under
sin" (huph' hamartian). The word for "curse" (katara) is an
old one (kata, down, ara, imprecation), often in LXX, in N.T.
only here and  13  Jas 3:10  2Pe 2:14 . Paul quotes  De 27:26 ,
the close of the curses on Mt. Ebal. He makes a slight
explanatory modification of the LXX changing logois to
gegrammenois en t(9369) bibli(9369). The idea is made clearer by the
participle (gegrammenois) and ibli(9369) (book). The curse
becomes effective only when the law is violated. {Cursed}
(epikataratos). Verbal adjective from epikataraomai, to
imprecate curses, late word, common in LXX. In N.T. only here and
verse  13 , but in inscriptions also (Deissmann, _Light from the
Ancient East_, p. 96). The emphasis is on "continueth"
(emmenei) and "all" (p(8373)in).

經文:

加拉太書 3:11-3:11

註釋:

 {In the sight of God} (para t(9369) the(9369)). By the side of
(para) God, as God looks at it, for the simple reason that no
one except Jesus has ever kept _all_ the law, God's perfect law.

經文:

加拉太書 3:12-3:12

註釋:

 {The law is not of faith} (ho nomos ouk estin ek piste(9373)).
Law demands complete obedience and rests not on mercy, faith,
grace.

經文:

加拉太書 3:13-3:13

註釋:

 1Co
6:20 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
6' or engs='1Co
6'
經文:

加拉太書 3:14-3:14

註釋:

 {That upon the Gentiles} (hina eis ta ethn(885c)). Final clause
(hina and gen(8874)ai, aorist middle subjunctive). {That we might
receive} (hina lab(936d)en). Second final clause coordinate with
the first as in  2Co 9:3 . So in Christ we all (Gentile and Jew)
obtain the promise of blessing made to Abraham, through faith.

經文:

加拉太書 3:15-3:15

註釋:

 {After the manner of men} (kata anthr(9370)on). After the
custom and practice of men, an illustration from life. {Though it
be but a man's covenant, yet when it hath been confirmed} (hom(9373)
anthr(9370)ou kekur(936d)en(886e) diath(886b)(886e)). Literally, "Yet a man's
covenant ratified." On Diath(886b)(885c) as both covenant and will see
on 烘t 26:28; 1Co 11:25; 2Co 3:6; Heb 9:16f|. On kuro(935c), to
ratify, to make valid, see on 氧Co 2:8|. Perfect passive
participle here, state of completion, authoritative confirmation.
{Maketh it void} (athetei). See on 氧:21| for this verb. Both
parties can by agreement cancel a contract, but not otherwise.
{Addeth thereto} (epidiatassetai). Present middle indicative of
the double compound verb epidiatassomai, a word found nowhere
else as yet. But inscriptions use diatassomai, diataxis,
diatag(882c) diatagma with the specialized meaning to "determine by
testamentary disposition" (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient
East_, p. 90). It was unlawful to add (epi) fresh clauses or
specifications (diataxeis).

經文:

加拉太書 3:16-3:16

註釋:

 {But as of one} (all' h(9373) eph' henos). But as in the case
of one. {Which is Christ} (hos estin Christos). Masculine
relative agreeing with Christos though sperma is neuter. But
the promise to Abraham uses sperma as a collective substantive
and applies to all believers (both Jews and Gentiles) as Paul has
shown in verses  7-14 , and as of course he knew full well Here
Paul uses a rabbinical refinement which is yet intelligible. The
people of Israel were a type of the Messiah and he gathers up the
promise in its special application to Christ. He does not say
that Christ is specifically referred to in  Ge 13:15  or  17:7f .

經文:

加拉太書 3:17-3:17

註釋:

 {Now this I say} (	outo de leg(935c)). Now I mean this. He
comes back to his main point and is not carried afield by the
special application of sperma to Christ. {Confirmed beforehand
by God} (prokekur(936d)en(886e) hupo tou theou). Perfect passive
participle of prokuro(935c), in Byzantine writers and earliest use
here. Nowhere else in N.T. The point is in pro and hupo tou
theou (by God) and in meta (after) as Burton shows. {Four
hundred and thirty years after} (meta tetrakosia kai triakonta
et(885c)). Literally, "after four hundred and thirty years." This is
the date in  Ex 12:40  for the sojourn in Egypt (cf.  Ge 15:13 ).
But the LXX adds words to include the time of the patriarchs in
Canaan in this number of years which would cut the time in Egypt
in two. Cf.  Ac 7:6 . It is immaterial to Paul's argument which
chronology is adopted except that "the longer the covenant had
been in force the more impressive is his statement" (Burton).
{Doth not disannul} (ouk akuroi). Late verb akuro(935c), in N.T.
only here and  Mt 15:6  Mr 7:13  (from a privative and kuros,
authority). On katarg(8873)ai see  1Co 1:28  2:6  15:24,26 .

經文:

加拉太書 3:18-3:18

註釋:

 {The inheritance} (h(8820)kl(8872)onomia). Old word from
kl(8872)onomos, heir (kleros, lot, 
emomai, to distribute). See
on 烘t 21:38; Ac 7:5|. This came to Israel by the promise to
Abraham, not by the Mosaic law. So with us, Paul argues. {Hath
granted} (kecharistai). Perfect middle indicative of
charizomai. It still holds good after the law came.

經文:

加拉太書 3:19-3:19

註釋:

 {What then is the law?} (	i oun ho nomos?). Or, why then
the law? A pertinent question if the Abrahamic promise antedates
it and holds on afterwards. {It was added because of
transgressions} (	(936e) parabase(936e) charin proseteth(885c)). First
aorist passive of prostith(886d)i, old verb to add to. It is only
in apparent contradiction to verses  15ff. , because in Paul's
mind the law is no part of the covenant, but a thing apart "in no
way modifying its provisions" (Burton). Charin is the adverbial
accusative of charis which was used as a preposition with the
genitive as early as Homer, in favour of, for the sake of. Except
in  1Jo 3:12  it is post-positive in the N.T. as in ancient
Greek. It may be causal ( Lu 7:47  1Jo 3:12 ) or telic ( Tit
1:5,11  Jude 1:16 ). It is probably also telic here, not in order
to create transgressions, but rather "to make transgressions
palpable" (Ellicott), "thereby pronouncing them to be from that
time forward transgressions of the law" (Rendall). Parabasis,
from parabain(935c), is in this sense a late word (Plutarch on),
originally a slight deviation, then a wilful disregarding of
known regulations or prohibitions as in  Ro 2:23 . {Till the seed
should come} (achris an elth(8869) to sperma). Future time with
achris an and aorist subjunctive (usual construction). Christ
he means by 	o sperma as in verse  16 . {The promise hath been
made} (ep(8867)geltai). Probably impersonal perfect passive rather
than middle of epaggellomai as in II Macc. 4:27. {Ordained
through angels} (diatageis di' aggel(936e)). Second aorist passive
participle of diatass(935c) (see on 烘t 11:1|). About angels and the
giving of the law see on  De 33:2  (LXX);  Ac 7:38,52  Heb 2:2 ;
Josephus (_Ant_. XV. 5. 3). {By the hand of a mediator} (en
cheiri mesitou). En cheiri is a manifest Aramaism or Hebraism
and only here in the N.T. It is common in the LXX. Mesit(8873),
from mesos is middle or midst, is a late word (Polybius,
Diodorus, Philo, Josephus) and common in the papyri in legal
transactions for arbiter, surety, etc. Here of Moses, but also of
Christ ( 1Ti 2:5  Heb 8:6  9:15  12:24 ).

經文:

加拉太書 3:20-3:20

註釋:

 {Is not a mediator of one} (henos ouk estin). That is, a
middleman comes in between two. The law is in the nature of a
contract between God and the Jewish people with Moses as the
mediator or middleman. {But God is one} (ho de theos heis
estin). There was no middleman between God and Abraham. He made
the promise directly to Abraham. Over 400 interpretations of this
verse have been made!

經文:

加拉太書 3:21-3:21

註釋:

 {Against the promises} (kata t(936e) epaggeli(936e)). A pertinent
question again. Far from it (m(8820)genoito). {Which could make
alive} (ho dunamenos z(936f)poi(8873)ai). First aorist active
infinitive of z(936f)poie(935c), late compound (z(936f)s, alive, poie(935c),
to make) verb for which see  1Co 15:22 . Spiritual life, he
means, here and hereafter. {Verily} (ont(9373)). "Really" (cf.  Mr
11:32  Lu 24:34 ). Condition and conclusion (an (886e)) of second
class, determined as unfulfilled. He had already said that Christ
died to no purpose in that case ( 2:21 ).

經文:

加拉太書 3:22-3:22

註釋:

 {Hath shut up} (sunekleisen). Did shut together. First
aorist active indicative of sunklei(935c), old verb to shut
together, on all sides, completely as a shoal of fish in a net
( Lu 5:6 ). So verse  23  Ro 11:32 . {Under sin} (hupo
hamartian). See hupo kataran in verse  10 . As if the lid
closed in on us over a massive chest that we could not open or as
prisoners in a dungeon. He uses 	a panta (the all things), the
totality of everything. See  Ro 3:10-19  11:32 . {That} (hina).
God's purpose, personifying scripture again. {Might be given}
(doth(8869)). First aorist passive subjunctive of did(936d)i with
hina.

經文:

加拉太書 3:23-3:23

註釋:

 {Before faith came} (pro tou elthein t(886e) pistin). "Before
the coming (second aorist active infinitive of erchomai,
definite event) as to the Faith" (note article, meaning the faith
in verse  22  made possible by the historic coming of Christ the
Redeemer), the faith in Christ as Saviour (verse  22 ). {We were
kept in ward under the law} (huper nomon ephrouroumetha).
Imperfect passive of phroure(935c), to guard (from phrouros, a
guard). See on 涉c 9:24; 2Co 11:32|. It was a long progressive
imprisonment. {Unto the faith which should afterwards be
revealed} (eis t(886e) mellousan pistin apokaluphth(886e)ai). "Unto the
faith (verse  22  again) about to be revealed." Mell(935c) and the
first aorist passive infinitive (regular idiom).

經文:

加拉太書 3:24-3:24

註釋:

 {Our tutor unto Christ} (paidag(9367)os hum(936e) eis Christon).
See  1Co 4:15  for the only other N.T. example of this old and
common word for the slave employed in Greek and Roman families of
the better class in charge of the boy from about six to sixteen.
The paedagogue watched his behaviour at home and attended him
when he went away from home as to school. Christ is our
Schoolmaster and the law as paedagogue kept watch over us till we
came to Christ. {That we might be justified by faith} (hina ek
piste(9373) dikai(9374)h(936d)en). This is the ultimate purpose of the law
as paedagogue. {Now that faith is come} (elthous(8873) t(8873)
piste(9373)). Genitive absolute, "the faith (the time of the faith
spoken of in verse  23 ) having come." {Under a tutor} (hupo
paidag(9367)on). The pedagogue is dismissed. We are in the school of
the Master.

經文:

加拉太書 3:26-3:26

註釋:

 {For ye are all sons of God} (pantes gar huioi theou
este). Both Jews and Gentiles ( 3:14 ) and in the same way
"through faith in Christ Jesus" (dia t(8873) piste(9373) en Christ(9369)
I(8873)ou). There is no other way to become "sons of God" in the
full ethical and spiritual sense that Paul means, not mere
physical descendants of Abraham, but "sons of Abraham," "those by
faith" (verse  7 ). The Jews are called by Jesus "the sons of the
Kingdom" ( Mt 8:12 ) in privilege, but not in fact. God is the
Father of all men as Creator, but the spiritual Father only of
those who by faith in Christ Jesus receive "adoption"
(huiothesia) into his family (verse  5  Ro 8:15,23 ). Those led
by the Spirit are sons of God ( Ro 8:14 ).

經文:

加拉太書 3:27-3:27

註釋:

 {Were baptized into Christ} (eis Christon ebaptisth(8874)e).
First aorist passive indicative of aptiz(935c). Better, "were
baptized unto Christ" in reference to Christ. {Did put on Christ}
(Christon enedusasthe). First aorist middle indicative of
endu(935c) (-n(935c)). As a badge or uniform of service like that of
the soldier. This verb is common in the sense of putting on
garments (literally and metaphorically as here). See further in
Paul ( Ro 13:14  Col 3:9f.  Eph 4:22-24  6:11,14 ). In  1Th 5:8 
Paul speaks of "putting on the breastplate of righteousness." He
does not here mean that one enters into Christ and so is saved by
means of baptism after the teaching of the mystery religions, but
just the opposite. We are justified by faith in Christ, not by
circumcision or by baptism. But baptism was the public profession
and pledge, the soldier's _sacramentum_, oath of fealty to
Christ, taking one's stand with Christ, the symbolic picture of
the change wrought by faith already ( Ro 6:4-6 ).

經文:

加拉太書 3:28-3:28

註釋:

 {There can be neither} (ouk eni). Not a shortened form of
enesti, but the old lengthened form of en with recessive
accent. So ouk eni means "there is not" rather than "there
cannot be," a statement of a fact rather than a possibility, as
Burton rightly shows against Lightfoot. {One man} (heis). No
word for "man" in the Greek, and yet heis is masculine, not
neuter hen. "One moral personality" (Vincent). The point is
that "in Christ Jesus" race or national distinctions ("neither
Jew nor Greek") do not exist, class differences ("neither bond
nor free," no proletarianism and no capitalism) vanish, sex
rivalry ("no male and female") disappears. This radical statement
marks out the path along which Christianity was to come in the
sphere (en) and spirit and power of Christ. Candour compels one
to confess that this goal has not yet been fully attained. But we
are on the road and there is no hope on any way than on "the
Jesus Road."

經文:

加拉太書 3:29-3:29

註釋:

 {If ye are Christ's} (ei de humeis Christou). This is the
test, not the accident of blood, pride of race or nation,
habiliments or environment of dress or family, whether man or
woman. Thus one comes to belong to the seed of Abraham and to be
an heir according to promise.

經文:

加拉太書 4:1-4:1

註釋:

 {So long as} (eph' hoson chronon). "For how long a time,"
incorporation of the antecedent (chronon) into the relative
clause. {The heir} (ho kl(8872)onomos). Old word (kl(8872)os, lot,

emomai, to possess). Illustration from the law of inheritance
carrying on the last thought in  3:29 . {A child} (
(8870)ios). One
that does not talk (
(882c) epos, word). That is a minor, an
infant, immature intellectually and morally in contrast with
	eleioi, full grown ( 1Co 3:1  14:20  Php 3:15  Eph 4:13 ).
{From a bondservant} (doulou). Slave. Ablative case of
comparison after diapherei for which verb see on 烘t 6:26|.
{Though he is lord of all} (Kurios pant(936e) (936e)). Concessive
participle (936e), "being legally owner of all" (one who has the
power, ho ech(936e) kuros).

經文:

加拉太書 4:2-4:2

註釋:

 {Under guardians} (hupo epitropous). Old word from
epitrep(935c), to commit, to intrust. So either an overseer ( Mt
20:8 ) or one in charge of children as here. It is common as the
guardian of an orphan minor. Frequent in the papyri as guardian
of minors. {Stewards} (oikonomous). Old word for manager of a
household whether freeborn or slave. See  Lu 12:42  1Co 4:2 .
Papyri show it as manager of an estate and also as treasurer like
 Ro 16:23 . No example is known where this word is used of one in
charge of a minor and no other where both occur together. {Until
the time appointed of the father} (achri t(8873) prothesmias tou
patros). Supply h(886d)eras (day), for prothesmios is an old
adjective "appointed beforehand" (pro, thesmos, from
	ith(886d)i). Under Roman law the _tutor_ had charge of the child
till he was fourteen when the curator took charge of him till he
was twenty-five. Ramsay notes that in Graeco-Phrygia cities the
same law existed except that the father in Syria appointed both
tutor and curator whereas the Roman father appointed only the
tutor. Burton argues plausibly that no such legal distinction is
meant by Paul, but that the terms here designate two functions of
one person. The point does not disturb Paul's illustration at
all.

經文:

加拉太書 4:3-4:3

註釋:

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經文:

加拉太書 4:4-4:4

註釋:

 {The fulness of the time} (	o pl(8872)(936d)a tou chronou). Old
word from pl(8872)o(935c), to fill. Here the complement of the preceding
time as in  Eph 1:10 . Some examples in the papyri in the sense
of complement, to accompany. God sent forth his preexisting Son
( Php 2:6 ) when the time for his purpose had come like the
prothesmia of verse  2 . {Born of a woman} (genomenon ek
gunaikos). As all men are and so true humanity, "coming from a
woman." There is, of course, no direct reference here to the
Virgin Birth of Jesus, but his deity had just been affirmed by
the words "his Son" (	on huion autou), so that both his deity
and humanity are here stated as in  Ro 1:3 . Whatever view one
holds about Paul's knowledge of the Virgin Birth of Christ one
must admit that Paul believed in his actual personal preexistence
with God ( 2Co 8:9  Php 2:5-11 ), not a mere existence in idea.
The fact of the Virgin Birth agrees perfectly with the language
here. {Born under the law} (genomenon hupo nomon). He not only
became a man, but a Jew. The purpose (hina) of God thus was
plainly to redeem (exagoras(8869), as in  3:13 ) those under the
law, and so under the curse. The further purpose (hina) was
that we (Jew and Gentile) might receive (apolab(936d)en, second
aorist active subjunctive of apolamban(935c)), not get back ( Lu
15:27 ), but get from (apo) God the adoption (	(886e)
huiothesian). Late word common in the inscriptions (Deissmann,
_Bible Studies_, p. 239) and occurs in the papyri also and in
Diogenes Laertes, though not in LXX. Paul adopts this current
term to express his idea (he alone in the N.T.) as to how God
takes into his spiritual family both Jews and Gentiles who
believe. See also  Ro 8:15,23  9:4  Eph 1:5 . The Vulgate uses
_adoptio filiorum_. It is a metaphor like the others above, but a
very expressive one.

經文:

加拉太書 4:6-4:6

註釋:

 {Because ye are sons} (hoti este huioi). This is the reason
for sending forth the Son ( 4:4  and here). We were "sons" in
God's elective purpose and love. Hoti is causal ( 1Co 12:15  Ro
9:7 ). {The Spirit of his Son} (	o pneuma tou huioi autou). The
Holy Spirit, called the Spirit of Christ ( Ro 8:9f. ), the Spirit
of Jesus Christ ( Php 1:19 ). The Holy Spirit proceeds from the
Father and from the Son ( Joh 15:26 ). {Crying, Abba, Father}
(krazon Abba ho pat(8872)). The participle agrees with pneuma
neuter (grammatical gender), not neuter in fact. An old, though
rare in present as here, onomatopoetic word to croak as a raven
(Theophrastus, like Poe's _The Raven_), any inarticulate cry like
"the unuttered groanings" of  Ro 8:26  which God understands.
This cry comes from the Spirit of Christ in our hearts. Abba is
the Aramaic word for father with the article and ho pat(8872)
translates it. The articular form occurs in the vocative as in
 Joh 20:28 . It is possible that the repetition here and in  Ro
8:15  may be "a sort of affectionate fondness for the very term
that Jesus himself used" (Burton) in the Garden of Gethsemane
( Mr 14:36 ). The rabbis preserve similar parallels. Most of the
Jews knew both Greek and Aramaic. But there remains the question
why Jesus used both in his prayer. Was it not natural for both
words to come to him in his hour of agony as in his childhood?
The same thing may be true here in Paul's case.

經文:

加拉太書 4:7-4:7

註釋:

 {No longer a bondservant} (ouketi doulos). Slave. He
changes to the singular to drive the point home to each one. The
spiritual experience ( 3:2 ) has set each one free. Each is now a
son and heir.

經文:

加拉太書 4:8-4:8

註釋:

 {To them which by nature are not gods} (	ois phusei m(8820)ousi
theois). In  1Co 10:20  he terms them "demons," the "so-called
gods" ( 1Co 8:5 ), worshipping images made by hands ( Ac 17:29 ).

經文:

加拉太書 4:9-4:9

註釋:

 {Now that ye have come to know God} (
un de gnontes). Fine
example of the ingressive second aorist active participle of
gin(9373)k(935c), come to know by experience through faith in Christ.
{Rather to be known of God} (mallon de gn(9373)thentes hupo theou).
First aorist passive participle of the same verb. He quickly
turns it round to the standpoint of God's elective grace reaching
them (verse  6 ). {How} (p(9373)). "A question full of wonder"
(Bengel). See  1:6 . {Turn ye back again?} (epistrephete
palin?). Present active indicative, "Are ye turning again?" See
metatithesthe in  1:6 . {The weak and beggarly rudiments} (	a
asthen(8820)kai pt(9363)ha stoicheia). The same stoicheia in verse  3 
from which they had been delivered, "weak and beggarly," still in
their utter impotence from the Pharisaic legalism and the
philosophical and religious legalism and the philosophical and
religious quests of the heathen as shown by Angus's _The
Religious Quests of the Graeco-Roman World_. These were eagerly
pursued by many, but they were shadows when caught. It is pitiful
today to see some men and women leave Christ for will o' the
wisps of false philosophy. {Over again} (palin an(9374)hen). Old
word, from above (an(935c)) as in  Mt 27:51 , from the first ( Lu
1:3 ), then "over again" as here, back to where they were before
(in slavery to rites and rules).

經文:

加拉太書 4:10-4:10

註釋:

 {Ye observe} (parat(8872)eisthe). Present middle indicative of
old verb to stand beside and watch carefully, sometimes with evil
intent as in  Lu 6:7 , but often with scrupulous care as here (so
in Dio Cassius and Josephus). The meticulous observance of the
Pharisees Paul knew to a nicety. It hurt him to the quick after
his own merciful deliverance to see these Gentile Christians
drawn into this spider-web of Judaizing Christians, once set
free, now enslaved again. Paul does not itemize the "days"
(Sabbaths, fast-days, feast-days, new moons) nor the "months"
( Isa 66:23 ) which were particularly observed in the exile nor
the "seasons" (passover, pentecost, tabernacles, etc.) nor the
"years" (sabbatical years every seventh year and the Year of
Jubilee). Paul does not object to these observances for he kept
them himself as a Jew. He objected to Gentiles taking to them as
a means of salvation.

經文:

加拉太書 4:11-4:11

註釋:

 {I am afraid of you} (phoboumai humas). He shudders to
think of it. {Lest by any means I have bestowed labour upon you
in vain} (m(8820)p(9373) eik(8869) kekopiaka eis humas). Usual construction
after a verb of fearing about what has actually happened (m(880a)p(9373) and the perfect active indicative of kopia(935c), to toil
wearily). A fear about the future would be expressed by the
subjunctive. Paul fears that the worst has happened.

經文:

加拉太書 4:12-4:12

註釋:

 {Be as I am} (ginesthe h(9373) eg(935c)). Present middle
imperative, "Keep on becoming as I am." He will not give them
over, afraid though he is.

經文:

加拉太書 4:13-4:13

註釋:

 {Because of an infirmity of the flesh} (di' astheneian t(8873)
sarkos). All that we can get from this statement is the fact
that Paul's preaching to the Galatians "the first time" or "the
former time" (	o proteron, adverbial accusative) was due to
sickness of some kind whether it was eye trouble ( 4:15 ) which
was a trial to them or to the thorn in the flesh ( 2Co 12:7 ) we
do not know. It can be interpreted as applying to North Galatia
or to South Galatia if he had an attack of malaria on coming up
from Perga. But the narrative in  Ac 13  14  does not read as if
Paul had planned to pass by Pisidia and by Lycaonia but for the
attack of illness. The Galatians understood the allusion for Paul
says "Ye know" (oidate).

經文:

加拉太書 4:14-4:14

註釋:

 {A temptation to you in my flesh} (	on peirasmon hum(936e) en
t(8869) sarki mou). "Your temptation (or trial) in my flesh."
Peirasmon can be either as we see in  Jas 1:2,12ff . If trial
here, it was a severe one. {Nor rejected} (oude exeptusate).
First aorist active indicative of ekptu(935c), old word to spit out
(Homer), to spurn, to loathe. Here only in N.T. Clemen
(_Primitive Christianity_, p. 342) thinks it should be taken
literally here since people spat out as a prophylactic custom at
the sight of invalids especially epileptics. But Plutarch uses it
of mere rejection. {As an angel of God} (h(9373) aggelon theou),
{as Christ Jesus} (h(9373) Christon I(8873)oun). In spite of his
illness and repulsive appearance, whatever it was. Not a mere
"messenger" of God, but a very angel, even as Christ Jesus. We
know that at Lystra Paul was at first welcomed as Hermes the god
of oratory ( Ac 14:12f. ). But that narrative hardly applies to
these words, for they turned against Paul and Barnabas then and
there at the instigation of Jews from Antioch in Pisidia and
Iconium.

經文:

加拉太書 4:15-4:15

註釋:

 {That gratulation of yourselves} (ho makarismos hum(936e)).
"Your felicitation." Rare word from makariz(935c), to pronounce
happy, in Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch. See also  Ro 4:6,9 . You no
longer felicitate yourselves on my presence with you. {Ye would
have plucked out your eves and given them to me} (	ous
ophthalmous hum(936e) exoruxantes ed(936b)ate moi). This is the
conclusion of a condition of the second class without an
expressed which would have made it clearer. But see  Joh
16:22,24  Ro 7:7  for similar examples where the context makes it
plain without an. It is strong language and is saved from
hyperbole by "if possible" (ei dunaton). Did Paul not have at
this time serious eye trouble?

經文:

加拉太書 4:16-4:16

註釋:

 {Your enemy} (echthros hum(936e)). Active sense of echthros,
hater with objective genitive. They looked on Paul now as an
enemy to them. So the Pharisees and Judaizers generally now
regarded him. {Because I tell you the truth} (al(8874)heu(936e) humin).
Present active participle of al(8874)heu(935c), old verb from al(8874)h(8873),
true. In N.T. only here and  Eph 4:15 . "Speaking the truth." It
is always a risky business to speak the truth, the whole truth.
It may hit and hurt.

經文:

加拉太書 4:17-4:17

註釋:

 {They zealously seek you} (z(886c)ousin humas). Z(886c)o(935c) is an
old and a good word from z(886c)os (zeal, jealousy), but one can
pay court with good motives or evil. So here in contrast with
Paul's plain speech the Judaizers bring their fawning flattery.
{To shut you out} (ekkleisai humas). From Christ as he will
show ( 5:4 ). {That ye may seek them} (hina autous z(886c)oute).
Probably present active indicative with hina as in
phusiousthe ( 1Co 4:6 ) and gin(9373)komen ( 1Jo 5:20 ). The
contraction -o(8874)e would be -(9374)e, not -oute (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 325).

經文:

加拉太書 4:18-4:18

註釋:

 {To be zealously sought in a good matter} (z(886c)ousthai en
kal(9369)). Present passive infinitive. It is only in an evil matter
that it is bad as here (ou kalos). {When I am present} (en t(9369)
pareinai me). "In the being present as to me."

經文:

加拉太書 4:19-4:19

註釋:

 {I am in travail} ((9364)in(935c)). I am in birth pangs. Old word
for this powerful picture of pain. In N.T. only here, verse  27  Re 12:2 . {Until Christ be formed in you} (mechris hou
morph(9374)h(8869) Christos en humin). Future temporal clause with
mechris hou (until which time) and the first aorist passive
subjunctive of morpho(935c), late and rare verb, in Plutarch, not in
LXX, not in papyri, only here in N.T. This figure is the embryo
developing into the child. Paul boldly represents himself as
again the mother with birth pangs over them. This is better than
to suppose that the Galatians are pregnant mothers (Burton) by a
reversal of the picture as in  1Th 2:7 .

經文:

加拉太書 4:20-4:20

註釋:

 {I could with} ((8874)helon). Imperfect active, I was wishing
like Agrippa's use of eboulom(886e) in  Ac 25:22 , "I was just
wishing. I was longing to be present with you just now (arti)."
{To change my voice} (allaxai t(886e) ph(936e)(886e) mou). Paul could put
his heart into his voice. The pen stands between them. He knew
the power of his voice on their hearts. He had tried it before.
{I am perplexed} (aporoumai). I am at a loss and know not what
to do. Apore(935c) is from a privative and poros, way. I am lost
at this distance from you. {About you} (en humin). In your
cases. For this use of en see  2Co 7:16  Ga 1:24 .

經文:

加拉太書 4:21-4:21

註釋:

 {That desire to be under the law} (hoi hupo nomon thelontes
einai). "Under law" (no article), as in  3:23  4:4 , legalistic
system. Paul views them as on the point of surrender to legalism,
as "wanting" (	helontes) to do it ( 1:6  3:3  4:11,17 ). Paul
makes direct reference to these so disposed to "hear the law." He
makes a surprising turn, but a legitimate one for the legalists
by an allegorical use of Scripture.

經文:

加拉太書 4:22-4:22

註釋:

 {By the handmaid} (ek t(8873) paidisk(8873)). From  Ge 16:1 .
Feminine diminutive of pais, boy or slave. Common word for
damsel which came to be used for female slave or maidservant ( Lu
12:45 ) or doorkeeper like  Mt 26:29 . So in the papyri.

經文:

加拉太書 4:23-4:23

註釋:

 {Is born} (gegenn(8874)ai). Perfect passive indicative of
genna(935c), stand on record so. {Through promise} (di'
epaggelias). In addition to being "after the flesh" (kata
sarka).

經文:

加拉太書 4:24-4:24

註釋:

 {Which things contain an allegory} (hatina estin
all(8867)oroumena). Literally, "Which things are allegorized"
(periphrastic present passive indicative of all(8867)ore(935c)). Late
word (Strabo, Plutarch, Philo, Josephus, ecclesiastical writers),
only here in N.T. The ancient writers used ainittomai to speak
in riddles. It is compounded of allo, another, and agoreu(935c),
to speak, and so means speaking something else than what the
language means, what Philo, the past-master in the use of
allegory, calls the deeper spiritual sense. Paul does not deny
the actual historical narrative, but he simply uses it in an
allegorical sense to illustrate his point for the benefit of his
readers who are tempted to go under the burden of the law. He
puts a secondary meaning on the narrative just as he uses
	upik(9373) in  1Co 10:11  of the narrative. We need not press
unduly the difference between allegory and type, for each is used
in a variety of ways. The allegory in one sense is a speaking
parable like Bunyan's _Pilgrim's Progress_, the Prodigal Son in
 Lu 15 , the Good Shepherd in  Joh 10 . But allegory was also
used by Philo and by Paul here for a secret meaning not obvious
at first, one not in the mind of the writer, like our
illustration which throws light on the point. Paul was familiar
with this rabbinical method of exegesis (Rabbi Akiba, for
instance, who found a mystical sense in every hook and crook of
the Hebrew letters) and makes skilful use of that knowledge here.
Christian preachers in Alexandria early fell victims to Philo's
allegorical method and carried it to excess without regard to the
plain sense of the narrative. That startling style of preaching
survives yet to the discredit of sound preaching. Please observe
that Paul says here that he is using allegory, not ordinary
interpretation. It is not necessary to say that Paul intended his
readers to believe that this allegory was designed by the
narrative. He illustrates his point by it. {For these are}
(hautai gar eisin). Allegorically interpreted, he means. {From
Mount Sinai} (apo orous Sin(835c)). Spoken from Mount Sinai.
{Bearing} (genn(9373)a). Present active participle of genna(935c), to
beget of the male ( Mt 1:1-16 ), more rarely as here to bear of
the female ( Lu 1:13,57 ). {Which is Hagar} (h(8874)is estin
Hagar). Allegorically interpreted.

經文:

加拉太書 4:25-4:25

註釋:

 {This Hagar} (	o Hagar). Neuter article and so referring
to the word Hagar (not to the woman, h(885c) Hagar) as applied to
the mountain. There is great variety in the MSS. here. The
Arabians are descendants of Abraham and Hagar (her name meaning
wanderer or fugitive). {Answereth to} (suntoichei). Late word
in Polybius for keeping step in line (military term) and in
papyri in figurative sense as here. Lightfoot refers to the
Pythagorean parallels of opposing principles (sunstoichiai) as
shown here by Paul (Hagar and Sarah, Ishmael and Isaac, the old
covenant and the new covenant, the earthly Jerusalem and the
heavenly Jerusalem). That is true, and there is a correlative
correspondence as the line is carried on.

經文:

加拉太書 4:26-4:26

註釋:

 {The Jerusalem that is above} (h(8820)an(9320)Ierousal(886d)). Paul
uses the rabbinical idea that the heavenly Jerusalem corresponds
to the one here to illustrate his point without endorsing their
ideas. See also  Re 21:2 . He uses the city of Jerusalem to
represent the whole Jewish race (Vincent).

經文:

加拉太書 4:27-4:27

註釋:

 {Which is our mother} (h(8874)is estin m(8874)(8872) h(886d)(936e)). The
mother of us Christians, apply the allegory of Hagar and Sarah to
us. The Jerusalem above is the picture of the Kingdom of God.
Paul illustrates the allegory by quoting  Isa 54:1 , a song of
triumph looking for deliverance from a foreign yoke. {Rejoice}
(euphranth(8874)i). First aorist passive imperative of euphrain(935c).
{Break forth} (
(8878)on). First aorist active imperative of

(8867)numi, to rend, to burst asunder. Supply euphrosun(886e) (joy)
as in  Isa 49:13 . {The desolate} (	(8873) er(886d)ou). The prophet
refers to Sarah's prolonged barrenness and Paul uses this fact as
a figure for the progress and glory of Christianity (the new
Jerusalem of freedom) in contrast with the old Jerusalem of
bondage (the current Judaism). His thought has moved rapidly, but
he does not lose his line.

經文:

加拉太書 4:28-4:28

註釋:

 {Now we} (h(886d)eis de). Some MSS. have humeis de (now ye).
In either case Paul means that Christians (Jews and Gentiles) are
children of the promise as Isaac was (kata Isaak, after the
manner of Isaac).

經文:

加拉太書 4:29-4:29

註釋:

 {Persecuted} (edi(936b)en). Imperfect active of di(936b)(935c), to
pursue, to persecute.  Ge 21:9  has in Hebrew "laughing," but the
LXX has "mocking." The Jewish tradition represents Ishmael as
shooting arrows at Isaac. {So now} (houtos kai nun) the Jews
were persecuting Paul and all Christians ( 1Th 2:15f. ).

經文:

加拉太書 4:30-4:30

註釋:

 {Cast out} (ekbale). Second aorist active imperative of
ekball(935c). Quotation from  Ge 21:10  (Sarah to Abraham) and
confirmed in  21:12  by God's command to Abraham. Paul gives
allegorical warning thus to the persecuting Jews and Judaizers.
{Shall not inherit} (ou m(8820)kl(8872)onom(8873)ei). Strong negative (ou
m(885c) and future indicative). "The law and the gospel cannot
co-exist. The law must disappear before the gospel" (Lightfoot).
See  3:18,29  for the word "inherit."

經文:

加拉太書 4:31-4:31

註釋:

 {But of the freewoman} (alla t(8873) eleutheras). We are
children of Abraham by faith ( 3:7 ).

經文:

加拉太書 5:1-5:1

註釋:

 {With freedom} (	(8869) eleutheri(8369)). Rather dative case
instead of instrumental, "for freedom," "for the (article)
freedom that belongs to us children of the freewoman" ( 4:31 ).
{Did Christ set us free} (h(886d)as Christos (886c)euther(9373)en).
Effective aorist active indicative of eleuthero(935c) (from
erchomai, to go, go free). {Stand fast therefore} (st(886b)ete
oun). See on  Mr 3:31  1Co 16:13  for this late word from
perfect stem of hist(886d)i, "keep on standing therefore," "stay
free since Christ set you free." {Be not entangled again} (m(880a)palin enechesthe). "Stop being held in by a yoke of bondage."
Common word for ensnare by trap. The Judaizers were trying to
lasso the Galatians for the old yoke of Judaism.

經文:

加拉太書 5:2-5:2

註釋:

 {I Paul} (eg(9320)Paulos). Asserts all his personal and
apostolic authority. For both words see also  1Th 2:16  2Co 10:1  Col 1:23  Eph 3:1 . {If ye receive circumcision} (ean
peritemn(8873)the). Condition of third class and present passive
subjunctive, a supposable case, but with terrible consequences,
for they will make circumcision a condition of salvation. In that
case Christ will help them not at all.

經文:

加拉太書 5:3-5:3

註釋:

 {A debtor} (opheilet(8873)). Common word from opheil(935c), to owe
for one who has assumed an obligation. See on 烘t 6:12|. See  Ga
3:10 . He takes the curse on himself.

經文:

加拉太書 5:4-5:4

註釋:

 {Ye are severed from Christ} (kat(8872)g(8874)h(8874)e apo Christou).
First aorist passive of katarge(935c), to make null and void as in
 Ro 7:2,6 . {Who would be justified by the law} (hoitines en
nom(9369) dikaiousthe). Present passive conative indicative, "ye who
are trying to be justified in the law." {Ye are fallen away from
grace} (	(8873) charitos exepesate). Second aorist active
indicative of ekpipt(935c) (with a variable vowel of the first
aorist) and followed by the ablative case. "Ye did fall out of
grace," "ye left the sphere of grace in Christ and took your
stand in the sphere of law" as your hope of salvation. Paul does
not mince words and carries the logic to the end of the course.
He is not, of course, speaking of occasional sins, but he has in
mind a far more serious matter, that of substituting law for
Christ as the agent in salvation.

經文:

加拉太書 5:5-5:5

註釋:

 {For we} (h(886d)eis gar). We Christians as opposed to the
legalists. {Through the Spirit by faith} (pneumati ek piste(9373)).
By the Spirit (Holy Spirit) out of faith (not law). Clear-cut
repetition to make it plain.

經文:

加拉太書 5:6-5:6

註釋:

 {Availeth anything} (ischuei ti). Old word to have strength
(isch(9673)). See on 烘t 5:13|. Neither Jew nor Greek has any
recommendation in his state. See  3:28 . All stand on a level in
Christ. {Faith working through love} (pistis di' agap(8873)
energoumen(885c)). Middle voice of energe(935c) and "through love," "the
moral dynamic" (Burton) of Paul's conception of freedom from law.

經文:

加拉太書 5:7-5:7

註釋:

 Who did hinder you? (	is humas enekopsen?). First aorist
active indicative of enkopt(935c), to cut in on one, for all the
world like our use of one cutting in on us at the telephone. For
this late verb see on 涉c 24:4; 1Th 2:18|. Note the singular
	is. There was some ringleader in the business. Some one "cut
in" on the Galatians as they were running the Christian race and
tried to trip them or to turn them.

經文:

加拉太書 5:8-5:8

註釋:

 {This persuasion} (h(8820)peismon(885c)). "The art of persuasion,"
the effort of the Judaizers to persuade you. Only here and in
ecclesiastical writers.

經文:

加拉太書 5:9-5:9

註釋:

 This proverb Paul has in  1Co 5:6 . It is merely the
pervasive power of leaven that is involved in the proverb as in
 Mt 13:33 , not the use of leaven as a symbol of evil.

經文:

加拉太書 5:10-5:10

註釋:

 {Whosoever he be} (hostis ean (8869)). Indefinite relative
clause with ean and subjunctive. It seems unlikely that Paul
knew precisely who the leader was. In  1:6  he uses the plural of
the same verb 	arass(935c) and see also anastatountes in verse
 12 .

經文:

加拉太書 5:11-5:11

註釋:

 {Why am I still persecuted?} (	i eti di(936b)omai?). Some of
the Judaizers even circulated the slander that Paul preached
circumcision in order to ruin his influence.

經文:

加拉太書 5:12-5:12

註釋:

 {I would} (ophelon). Would that, used as conjunction in
wishes. See on 氣Co 4:2; 2Co 11:1|. Here a wish about the future
with future indicative. {They which unsettle you} (hoi
anastatountes humas). Late verb from anastatos, driven from
one's abode, and in papyri in this sense as well as in sense of
upsetting or disturbing one's mind (boy's letter) as here. In  Ac
17:6  21:38  we have it in sense of making a commotion. {Cut
themselves off} (apokopsontai). Future middle of apokopt(935c),
old word to cut off as in  Ac 27:32 , here to mutilate.

經文:

加拉太書 5:13-5:13

註釋:

 {Ye were called for freedom} (ep' eleutheri(8369) ekl(8874)h(8874)e).
The same point as in  5:1  made plainer by the use of ep' (on
the basis of, for the purpose of). See  1Th 4:7  for this use of
epi. {Only use not} (monon m(885c)). No word for "use" in the
Greek. Probably supply 	repete or strephete, "turn not your
liberty into an occasion for the flesh" (eis aphorm(886e) t(8869)
sarki), as a spring board for license. On aphorm(885c), see on 氧Co
5:12|. Liberty so easily turns to license.

經文:

加拉太書 5:14-5:14

註釋:

 {Even in this} (en t(9369)). Just the article with en, "in
the," but it points at the quotation from  Le 19:18 . Jews ( Lu
10:29 ) confined "neighbour" (pl(8873)ion) to Jews. Paul uses here
a striking paradox by urging obedience to the law against which
he has been arguing, but this is the moral law as proof of the
new love and life. See also  Ro 13:8 , precisely as Jesus did
( Mt 22:40 ).

經文:

加拉太書 5:15-5:15

註釋:

 {If ye bite and devour one another} (ei all(886c)ous daknete
kai katesthiete). Condition of first class assumed as true. Two
common and old verbs often used together of wild animals, or like
cats and dogs. {That ye be not consumed one of another} (m(8820)hup'
all(886c)(936e) anal(9374)h(8874)e). Negative final clause with first aorist
passive subjunctive of analisk(935c), old word to consume or spend.
In N.T. only here and  Lu 9:54 . There is a famous story of two
snakes that grabbed each other by the tail and each swallowed the
other.

經文:

加拉太書 5:16-5:16

註釋:

 {Ye shall not fulfil} (ou m(8820)teles(8874)e). Rather, "Ye will
not fulfil." Strong double negative with aorist active
subjunctive. {The lust of the flesh} (epithumian sarkos). Bad
sense here as usual in Paul, but not so in  1Th 2:17  Php 1:23 .
The word is just craving or longing (from epi, thumos, yearning
after).

經文:

加拉太書 5:17-5:17

註釋:

 {Lusteth against} (epithumei kata). Like a tug of war.
This use of sarx as opposed to the Spirit (Holy Spirit)
personifies sarx. Lightfoot argues that epithumei cannot be
used with the Spirit and so some other verb must be supplied for
it. But that is wholly needless, for the verb, like epithumia,
does not mean evil desire, but simply to long for. Christ and
Satan long for the possession of the city of Man Soul as Bunyan
shows. {Are contrary the one to the other} (all(886c)ois
antikeitai). Are lined up in conflict, face to face (anti-), a
spiritual duel (cf. Christ's temptations), with dative case of
personal interest (all(886c)ois). {That ye may not do} (hina m(880a)poi(8874)e). "That ye may not keep on doing" (present active
subjunctive of poie(935c)). {That ye would} (ha ean thel(8874)e).
"Whatever ye wish" (indefinite relative with ean and present
subjunctive).

經文:

加拉太書 5:18-5:18

註釋:

 {Under the law} (hupo nomon). Instead of "under the flesh"
as one might expect. See  Ga 3:2-6  for contrast between law and
spirit. The flesh made the law weak ( Rom 8:3  Heb 9:10,13 ).
They are one and the same in result. See same idea in  Ro 8:14 .
Note present tense of agesthe (if you are continually led by
the Spirit). See verse  23 .

經文:

加拉太書 5:19-5:19

註釋:

 {Manifest} (phanera). Opposed to "hidden" (krupta).
Ancient writers were fond of lists of vices and virtues. Cf.
Stalker's sermons on _The Seven Cardinal Virtues_ and _The Seven
Deadly Sins_. There are more than seven in this deadly list in
verses  19-21 . He makes the two lists in explanation of the
conflict in verse  17  to emphasize the command in verses  13f .
There are four groups in Paul's list of manifest vices: (I)
Sensual sins like fornication (porneia, prostitution,
harlotry), uncleanness (akatharsia, moral impurity),
lasciviousness (aselgeia, wantonness), sexual vice of all kinds
prevailed in heathenism. (2) Idolatry (eid(936c)atreia, worship of
idols) and witchcraft (pharmakeia from pharmakon, a drug, the
ministering of drugs), but the sorcerers monopolized the word for
a while in their magical arts and used it in connection with
idolatry. In N.T. only here and  Re 18:23 . See  Ac 19:19 
perierga, curious arts. (3) Personal relations expressed by
eight words, all old words, sins of the spirit, like enmities
(exthrai, personal animosities), strife (eris, rivalry,
discord), jealousies (z(886c)os or z(886c)oi, MSS. vary, our very
word), wraths (	humoi, stirring emotions, then explosions),
factions (eritheiai, from erithos, day labourer for hire,
worker in wool, party spirit), divisions (dichostasiai, splits
in two, dicha and stasis), heresies (haireseis, the very
word, but really choosings from haireomai, preferences),
envyings (phthonoi, feelings of ill-will). Surely a lively
list. (4) {Drunkenness} (methai, old word and plural, drunken
excesses, in N.T. only here and  Lu 21:34  Ro 13:13 ), revellings
(k(936d)oi, old word also for drinking parties like those in honour
of Bacchus, in N.T. only here and  Ro 13:13  1Pe 4:3 ). {And such
like} (kai ta homoia toutois). And the things like these
(associative instrumental 	outois after homoia, like). It is
not meant to be exhaustive, but it is representative.

經文:

加拉太書 5:21-5:21

註釋:

 {Forewarn} (proleg(935c)) {--did forewarn} (proeipon). Paul
repeats his warning given while with them. He did his duty then.
Gentile churches were peculiarly subject to these sins. But who
is not in danger from them? {Practise} (prassontes). Prass(935c)
is the verb for habitual practice (our very word, in fact), not
poie(935c) for occasional doing. The {habit} of these sins is proof
that one is not in the Kingdom of God and will not inherit it.

經文:

加拉太書 5:22-5:22

註釋:

 {The fruit of the Spirit} (ho karpos tou pneumatos). Paul
changes the figure from {works} (erga) in verse  19  to fruit
as the normal out-cropping of the Holy Spirit in us. It is a
beautiful tree of fruit that Paul pictures here with nine
luscious fruits on it: {Love} (agap(885c)). Late, almost Biblical
word. First as in  1Co 13 , which see for discussion as superior
to philia and er(9373). {Joy} (chara). Old word. See on 氣Th
1:6|. {Peace} (eir(886e)(885c)). See on 氣Th 1:1|. {Long-suffering}
(makrothumia). See on 氧Co 6:6|. {Kindness} (chr(8873)tot(8873)). See
on 氧Co 6:6|. {Goodness} (agath(9373)un(885c)). See on 氧Th 1:11|.
{Faithfulness} (pistis). Same word as "faith." See on 烘t
23:33; 1Co 13:7,13|. {Meekness} (praut(8873)). See on 氣Co 4:21;
2Co 10:1|. {Temperance} (egkrateia). See on 涉c 24:25|. Old
word from egkrat(8873), one holding control or holding in. In N.T.
only in these passages and  2Pe 1:6 . Paul has a better list than
the four cardinal virtues of the Stoics (temperance, prudence,
fortitude, justice), though they are included with better notes
struck. Temperance is alike, but kindness is better than justice,
long-suffering than fortitude, love than prudence.

經文:

加拉太書 5:24-5:24

註釋:

 {Crucified the flesh} (	(886e) sarka estaur(9373)an). Definite
event, first aorist active indicative of stauro(935c) as in  2:19 
(mystical union with Christ). Paul uses sarx here in the same
sense as in verses  16,17,19 , "the force in men that makes for
evil" (Burton). {With} (sun). "Together with," emphasizing "the
completeness of the extermination of this evil force" and the
guarantee of victory over one's passions and dispositions toward
evil.

經文:

加拉太書 5:25-5:25

註釋:

 {By the Spirit let us also walk} (pneumati kai
stoich(936d)en). Present subjunctive (volitive) of stoiche(935c), "Let
us also go on walking by the Spirit." Let us make our steps by
the help and guidance of the Spirit.

經文:

加拉太書 5:26-5:26

註釋:

 {Let us not be} (m(8820)gin(936d)etha). Present middle subjunctive
(volitive), "Let us cease becoming vainglorious" (kenodoxoi),
late word only here in N.T. (kenos, doxa). Once in Epictetus in
same sense. {Provoking one another} (all(886c)ous prokaloumenoi).
Old word prokale(935c), to call forth, to challenge to combat. Only
here in N.T. and in bad sense. The word for "provoke" in  Heb
10:24  is paroxusmon (our "paroxysm"). {Envying}
(phthonountes). Old verb from phthonos. Only here in N.T.


經文:

加拉太書 6:1-6:1

註釋:

 {If a man be overtaken} (ean kai prol(886d)phth(8869) anthr(9370)os).
Condition of third class, first aorist passive subjunctive of
prolamban(935c), old verb to take beforehand, to surprise, to
detect. {Trespass} (parapt(936d)ati). Literally, a falling aside, a
slip or lapse in the papyri rather than a wilful sin. In Polybius
and Diodorus. _Koin(825f) word. {Ye which are spiritual} (hoi
pneumatikoi). See on 氣Co 3:1|. The spiritually led ( 5:18 ),
the spiritual experts in mending souls. {Restore}
(katartizete). Present active imperative of katartiz(935c), the
very word used in  Mt 4:21  of mending nets, old word to make
artios, fit, to equip thoroughly. {Looking to thyself} (skop(936e)
seauton). Keeping an eye on as in  2Co 4:18  like a runner on
the goal. {Lest thou also be tempted} (m(8820)kai su peirasth(8869)s).
Negative purpose with first aorist passive subjunctive. Spiritual
experts (preachers in particular) need this caution. Satan loves
a shining mark.

經文:

加拉太書 6:2-6:2

註釋:

 {Bear ye one another's burdens} (all(886c)(936e) ta bar(880a)bastazete). Keep on bearing (present active imperative of
astaz(935c), old word, used of Jesus bearing his Cross in  Joh
19:17 . Baros means weight as in  Mt 20:12  2Co 4:17 . It is
when one's load (phortion, verse  5 ) is about to press one
down. Then give help in carrying it. {Fulfil} (anapl(8872)(9373)ate).
First aorist active imperative of anapl(8872)o(935c), to fill up, old
word, and see on 烘t 23:32; 1Th 2:16; 1Co 14:16|. Some MSS. have
future indicative (anapl(8872)(9373)ete).

經文:

加拉太書 6:3-6:3

註釋:

 {Something when he is nothing} (	i m(8864)en (936e)). Thinks he is
a big number being nothing at all (neuter singular pronouns). He
is really zero. {He deceiveth himself} (phrenapat(8369) heauton).
Late compound word (phr(886e), mind, apata(935c), lead astray), leads
his own mind astray. Here for first time. Afterwards in Galen,
ecclesiastical and Byzantine writers. He deceives no one else.

經文:

加拉太書 6:5-6:5

註釋:

 {Each shall bear his own burden} (	o idion phortion
bastasei). Phortion is old word for ship's cargo ( Ac 27:10 ).
Christ calls his phortion light, though he terms those of the
Pharisees heavy ( Mt 23:4 ), meant for other people. The terms
are thus not always kept distinct, though Paul does make a
distinction here from the ar(885c) in verse  2 .

經文:

加拉太書 6:6-6:6

註釋:

 1Co
12:28 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
12' or engs='1Co
12'
經文:

加拉太書 6:7-6:7

註釋:

 {Be not deceived} (m(8820)plan(8373)the). Present passive
imperative with m(885c), "stop being led astray" (plana(935c), common
verb to wander, to lead astray as in  Mt 24:4f. ). {God is not
mocked} (ou mukt(8872)izetai). This rare verb (common in LXX)
occurs in Lysias. It comes from mukt(8872) (nose) and means to turn
the nose up at one. That is done towards God, but never without
punishment, Paul means to say. In particular, he means "an
evasion of his laws which men think to accomplish, but, in fact,
cannot" (Burton). {Whatsoever a man soweth} (ho ean speir(8869)
anthr(9370)os). Indefinite relative clause with ean and the active
subjunctive (either aorist or present, form same here). One of
the most frequent of ancient proverbs ( Job 4:8 ; Arist., _Rhet_.
iii. 3). Already in  2Co 9:6 . Same point in  Mt 7:16  Mr 4:26f .
{That} (	outo). That very thing, not something different.
{Reap} (	herisei). See on 烘t 6:26| for this old verb.

經文:

加拉太書 6:8-6:8

註釋:

 {Corruption} (phthoran). For this old word from phtheir(935c),
see on 氣Co 15:42|. The precise meaning turns on the context,
here plainly the physical and moral decay or rottenness that
follows sins of the flesh as all men know. Nature writes in one's
body the penalty of sin as every doctor knows. {Eternal life}
(z(9388)n ai(936e)ion). See on 烘t 25:46| for this interesting phrase
so common in the Johannine writings. Plato used ai(936e)ios for
perpetual. See also  2Th 1:9 . It comes as nearly meaning
"eternal" as the Greek can express that idea.

經文:

加拉太書 6:9-6:9

註釋:

 {Let us not be weary in well-doing} (	o kalon poiountes m(880a)enkak(936d)en). Volitive present active subjunctive of enkake(935c) on
which see  Lu 18:1  2Th 3:13  2Co 4:1,16  (en, kakos, evil).
Literally, "Let us not keep on giving in to evil while doing the
good." It is curious how prone we are to give in and to give out
in doing the good which somehow becomes prosy or insipid to us.
{In due season} (kair(9369) idi(9369)). Locative case, "at its proper
season" (harvest time). Cf.  1Ti 2:6  6:15  (plural). {If we
faint not} (m(8820)ekluomenoi). Present passive participle
(conditional) with m(885c). Cf. eklu(935c), old verb to loosen out.
Literally, "not loosened out," relaxed, exhausted as a result of
giving in to evil (enkak(936d)en).

經文:

加拉太書 6:10-6:10

註釋:

 {As we have opportunity} (h(9373) kairon ech(936d)en). Indefinite
comparative clause (present subjunctive without an). "As we
have occasion at any time." {Let us work that which is good}
(ergaz(936d)etha to agathon). Volitive present middle subjunctive
of ergazomai, "Let us keep on working the good deed." {Of the
household of faith} (	ous oikeious t(8873) piste(9373)). For the
obvious reason that they belong to the same family with necessary
responsibility.

經文:

加拉太書 6:11-6:11

註釋:

 {With how large letters} (p(886c)ikois grammasin). Paul now
takes the pen from the amanuensis (cf.  Ro 16:22 ) and writes the
rest of the Epistle (verses  11-18 ) himself instead of the mere
farewell greeting ( 2Th 3:17  1Co 16:21  Col 4:18 ). But what
does he mean by "with how large letters"? Certainly not "how
large a letter." It has been suggested that he employed large
letters because of defective eyesight or because he could only
write ill-formed letters because of his poor handwriting (like
the print letters of children) or because he wished to call
particular attention to this closing paragraph by placarding it
in big letters (Ramsay). This latter is the most likely reason.
Deissmann, (_St. Paul_, p. 51) argues that artisans write clumsy
letters, yes, and scholars also. Milligan (_Documents_, p. 24;
_Vocabulary_, etc.) suggests the contrast seen in papyri often
between the neat hand of the scribe and the big sprawling hand of
the signature. {I have written} (egrapsa). Epistolary aorist.
{With mine own hand} (	(8869) em(8869) cheiri). Instrumental case as in
 1Co 16:21 .

經文:

加拉太書 6:12-6:12

註釋:

 {To make a fair show} (eupros(9370)(8873)ai). First aorist active
infinitive of eupros(9370)e(935c), late verb from eupros(9370)os, fair of
face (eu, pros(9370)on). Here only in N.T., but one example in
papyri (Tebt. I. 19 12 B.C. 114) which shows what may happen to
any of our N.T. words not yet found elsewhere. It is in
Chrysostom and later writers. {They compel} (anagkazousin).
Conative present active indicative, "they try to compel." {For
the cross of Christ} (	(9369) staur(9369) tou Christou). Instrumental
case (causal use, Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 532). Cf.  2Co 2:13 .
"For professing the cross of Christ" (Lightfoot).

經文:

加拉太書 6:13-6:13

註釋:

 {They who receive circumcision} (hoi peritemnomenoi).
Present causative middle of peritemn(935c), those who are having
themselves circumcised. Some MSS. read hoi peritetm(886d)enoi),
"they who have been circumcised" (perfect passive participle).
Probably the present (peritemnomenoi) is correct as the harder
reading.

經文:

加拉太書 6:14-6:14

註釋:

 1Co
1:23f. 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
1' or engs='1Co
1'
經文:

加拉太書 6:15-6:15

註釋:

 {A new creature} (kain(8820)ktisis). For this phrase see on
氧Co 5:17|.

經文:

加拉太書 6:16-6:16

註釋:

 {By this rule} (	(9369) kanoni tout(9369)). For kan(936e), see on
氧Co 10:13,15f|.

經文:

加拉太書 6:17-6:17

註釋:

 {From henceforth} (	ou loipou). Usually 	o loipon, the
accusative of general reference, "as for the rest" ( Php 3:1  4:8 ). The genitive case (as here and  Eph 6:10 ) means "in
respect of the remaining time." {The marks of Jesus} (	a
stigmata tou I(8873)ou). Old word from stiz(935c), to prick, to stick,
to sting. Slaves had the names or stamp of their owners on their
bodies. It was sometimes done for soldiers also. There were
devotees also who stamped upon their bodies the names of the gods
whom they worshipped. Today in a round-up cattle are given the
owner's mark. Paul gloried in being the slave of Jesus Christ.
This is probably the image in Paul's mind since he bore in his
body brandmarks of suffering for Christ received in many places
( 2Co 6:4-6  11:23ff. ), probably actual scars from the
scourgings (thirty-nine lashes at a time). If for no other
reason, listen to me by reason of these scars for Christ and "let
no one keep on furnishing trouble to me."

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