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                   THE EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS
                        FROM ROME A.D. 63

                      BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION

        There are some problems of a special nature that confront
us about the so-called Epistle to the Ephesians.

                          THE AUTHORSHIP

        It is not admitted by all that Paul wrote it, though no
other adequate explanation of its origin has ever been given. So
far as subject matter and vocabulary and style are concerned, if
Colossians is Pauline, there is little or nothing to be said
against the Pauline authorship of this Epistle.

                      RELATION TO COLOSSIANS

        As we have seen, the two Epistles were sent at the same
time, but clearly Colossians was composed first. Ephesians bears
much the same relation to Colossians that Romans does to
Galatians, a fuller treatment of the same general theme in a more
detached and impersonal manner.

                         THE DESTINATION

        The oldest documents (Aleph and B) do not have the words
en Ephes(9369) (in Ephesus) in  Eph 1:1  (inserted by a later
hand). Origen did not have them in his copy. Marcion calls it the
Epistle to the Laodiceans. We have only to put here  Col 4:16 
"the letter from Laodicea" to find the probable explanation.
After writing the stirring Epistle to the Colossians Paul
dictated this so-called Epistle to the Ephesians as a general or
circular letter for the churches in Asia (Roman province).
Perhaps the original copy had no name in  Eph 1:1  as seen in
Aleph and B and Origen, but only a blank space. Marcion was
familiar with the copy in Laodicea. Basil in the fourth century
mentions some MSS. with no name in the address. Most MSS. were
copies from the one in Ephesus and so it came to be called the
Epistle to the Ephesians. The general nature of the letter
explains also the absence of names in it, though Paul lived three
years in Ephesus.

                             THE DATE

        The same date must be assigned as for Philemon and
Colossians, probably A.D. 63.

                       THE PLACE OF WRITING

        This would also be the same, that is Rome, though
Deissmann and Duncan argue for Ephesus itself as the place of
writing. Some scholars even suggest Caesarea.

                   THE CHARACTER OF THE EPISTLE

        The same Gnostic heresy is met as in Colossians, but with
this difference. In Colossians the emphasis is on the Dignity of
Christ as the Head of the Church, while in Ephesians chief stress
is placed upon the Dignity of the Church as the Body of Christ
the Head. Paul has written nothing more profound than chapters
 Eph 1-3  of Ephesians. Stalker termed them the profoundest thing
ever written. He sounds the depths of truth and reaches the
heights. Since Ephesians covers the same ground so largely as
Colossians, only the words in Ephesians that differ or are
additional will call for discussion.

                    SPECIAL BOOKS ON EPHESIANS

One may note Abbott (_Int. Crit. Comm_. 1897), Gross Alexander
(1910), Beet (1891), Belser (1908), Candlish (1895), Dale
(_Lectures on Ephesians_), Dibelius (_Handbuch_, 1912), Eadie
(1883), Ellicott (1884), Ewald (_Zahn Komm._, 2 Auf. 1910),
Findlay (1892), Gore (_Practical Exposition_, 1898), Haupt
(_Meyer Komm._, 8 Auf. 1902), Hitchcock (1913), Hort (_Intr_.
1895), Knabenbauer (1913), Krukenberg (1903), Lidgett (1915),
Lock (1929), Lueken (1906), Martin (_New Century Bible_), McPhail
(1893), McPherson (1892), Meinertz (1917), Moule (1900), Mullins
(1913), Murray (1915), Oltramare (1891), Robinson (1903), Salmond
(1903), E. F. Scott (_Moffatt Comm._, 1930), Stroeter (_The Glory
of the Body of Christ_, 1909), Von Soden (2 Aufl. 1893), F. B.
Westcott (1906), Wohlenberg (1895).

經文:

以弗所書 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 {Of Christ Jesus} (Christou I(8873)ou). So B D, though Aleph A
L have I(8873)ou Christou. Paul is named as the author and so he
is. Otherwise the Epistle is pseudepigraphic. {By the will of
God} (dia thel(886d)atos theou). As in  1Co 1:1  2Co 1:1  Ro 1:1 .
{At Ephesus} (en Ephes(9369)). In Aleph and B these words are
inserted by later hands, though both MSS. give the title Pros
Ephesious. Origen explains the words 	ois hagiois tois ousin
as meaning "the saints that are" (genuine saints), showing that
his MSS. did not have the words en Ephes(9369). The explanation of
the insertion of these words has already been given in the
remarks on "The Destination" as one copy of the general letter
that was preserved in Ephesus. It is perfectly proper to call it
the Epistle to the Ephesians if we understand the facts.

經文:

以弗所書 1:3-1:3

註釋:

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經文:

以弗所書 1:4-1:4

註釋:

 {Even as he chose us in him} (kath(9373) exelexato h(886d)(8373) en
aut(9369)). First aorist middle indicative of ekleg(935c), to pick out,
to choose. Definitive statement of God's elective grace
concerning believers in Christ. {Before the foundation of the
world} (pro katabol(8873) kosmou). Old word from kataball(935c), to
fling down, used of the deposit of seed, the laying of a
foundation. This very phrase with pro in the Prayer of Jesus
( Joh 17:24 ) of love of the Father toward the Son. It occurs
also in  1Pe 1:20 . Elsewhere we have apo (from) used with it
( Mt 25:34  Lu 11:50  Heb 4:3  9:26  Re 13:8  17:8 ). But Paul
uses neither phrase elsewhere, though he has apo t(936e) ai(936e)(936e)
(from the ages) in  Eph 3:9 . Here in  Eph 1:3-14 . Paul in
summary fashion gives an outline of his view of God's redemptive
plans for the race. {That we should be} (einai h(886d)(8373)).
Infinitive of purpose with the accusative of general reference
(h(886d)(8373)). See  Col 1:22  for the same two adjectives and also
katen(9370)ion autou.

經文:

以弗所書 1:5-1:5

註釋:

 {Having foreordained us} (Proorisas h(886d)(8373)). First aorist
active participle of prooriz(935c), late and rare compound to define
or decide beforehand. Already in  Ac 4:28  1Co 2:7  Ro 8:29 . See
also verse  11 . Only other N.T. example in verse  11 . To be
taken with exelexato either simultaneous or antecedent
(causal). {Unto adoption as sons} (eis huiothesian). For this
interesting word see  Ga 4:5  Ro 8:15  9:4 . {Unto himself} (eis
auton). Unto God. {According to the good pleasure of his will}
(kata t(886e) eudokian tou thel(886d)atos autou). Here eudokian means
{purpose} like oul(886e) in verse  11  rather than {benevolence}
(good pleasure). Note the preposition kata here for standard.

經文:

以弗所書 1:6-1:6

註釋:

 {To the praise} (eis epainon). Note the prepositions in
this sentence. {Which} (h(8873)). Genitive case of the relative
h(886e) (cognate accusative with echarit(9373)en (he freely
bestowed), late verb charito(935c) (from charis, grace), in N.T.
attracted to case of antecedent charitos only here and  Lu
1:28 . {In the Beloved} (en t(9369) (8867)ap(886d)en(9369)). Perfect passive
participle of agapa(935c). This phrase nowhere else in the N.T.
though in the Apostolic Fathers.

經文:

以弗所書 1:7-1:7

註釋:

 {In whom} (en h(9369)). Just like  Col 1:14  with
parapt(936d)at(936e) (trespasses) in place of hamarti(936e) (sins) and
with the addition of dia tou haimatos autou (through his blood)
as in  Col 1:20 . Clearly Paul makes the blood of Christ the cost
of redemption, the ransom money (lutron,  Mt 20:28  Mr 10:45 ;
antilutron,  1Ti 2:6 ). See  Col 1:9 .

經文:

以弗所書 1:8-1:8

註釋:

 {According to the riches of his grace} (kata to ploutos t(8873)
charitos autou). A thoroughly Pauline phrase, riches of kindness
( Ro 2:4 ), riches of glory ( Col 1:27  Eph 3:16  Php 4:19 ),
riches of fulness of understanding ( Col 2:7 ), riches of Christ
( Eph 3:8 ), and in  Eph 2:7  "the surpassing riches of grace."
{Which} (h(8873)). Genitive attracted again to case of antecedent
charitos.

經文:

以弗所書 1:9-1:9

註釋:

 {The mystery of his will} (	o must(8872)ion tou thel(886d)atos
autou). Once hidden, now revealed as in  Col 1:26  which see.
See also  Col 2:3 . {Which he purposed} (h(886e) proetheto). Second
aorist middle of protith(886d)i, old verb, for which see  Ro 1:13  3:25 .

經文:

以弗所書 1:10-1:10

註釋:

 {Unto a dispensation of the fulness of the times} (eis
oikonomian tou pl(8872)(936d)atos t(936e) kair(936e)). See  Col 1:25  for
oikonomian. In  Ga 4:4  "the fulness of the time" (	o pl(8872)(936d)a
tou chronou) the time before Christ is treated as a unit, here
as a series of epochs (kair(936e)). Cf.  Mr 1:15  Heb 1:1 . On
pl(8872)(936d)a see also  Ro 11:26  Eph 3:19  4:13 . {To sum up}
(anakephalai(9373)asthai). Purpose clause (amounting to result)
with first aorist middle infinitive of anakephalaio(935c), late
compound verb ana and kephalaio(935c) (from kephalaion,  Heb
8:1 , and that from kephal(885c), head), to head up all things in
Christ, a literary word. In N.T. only here and  Ro 13:9 . For the
headship of Christ in nature and grace see  Col 1:15-20 .

經文:

以弗所書 1:11-1:11

註釋:

 {In him} (en aut(9369)). Repeats the idea of en t(9369) Christ(9369)
of verse  10 . {We were made a heritage} (ekl(8872)(9374)h(886d)en). First
aorist passive of kl(8872)o(935c), an old word, to assign by lot
(kl(8872)os), to make a kl(8872)os or heritage. So in LXX and papyri.
Only time in N.T., though proskl(8872)o(935c) once also ( Ac 17:4 ).
{Purpose} (prothesin). Common substantive from protith(886d)i, a
setting before as in  Ac 11:23  27:13 .

經文:

以弗所書 1:12-1:12

註釋:

 {To the end that we should be} (eis to einai h(886d)(8373)). Final
clause with eis to and the infinitive einai (see the mere
infinitive einai in verse  4 ) and the accusative of general
reference. {Who had before hoped in Christ} (	ous pro(886c)pikotas
en t(9369) Christ(9369)). Articular perfect active participle of
proelpiz(935c), late and rare compound (here only in N.T.) and the
reference of pro not clear. Probably the reference is to those
who like Paul had once been Jews and had now found the Messiah in
Jesus, some of whom like Simeon and Anna had even looked for the
spiritual Messiah before his coming.

經文:

以弗所書 1:13-1:13

註釋:

 {Ye also} (kai humeis). Ye Gentiles (now Christians), in
contrast to h(886d)(8373) (we) in  12 . {In whom} (en h(9369)). Repeated
third time (once in verse  11 , twice in  13 ), and note ho or
hos in  14 . {Ye were sealed} (esphragisth(8874)e). First aorist
passive indicative of sphragiz(935c), old verb, to set a seal on one
as a mark or stamp, sometimes the marks of ownership or of
worship of deities like stigmata ( Ga 6:17 ). Marked and
authenticated as God's heritage as in  4:30 . See  2Co 1:22  for
the very use of the metaphor here applied to the Holy Spirit even
with the word arrab(936e) (earnest). {Spirit} (pneumati). In the
instrumental case.

經文:

以弗所書 1:14-1:14

註釋:

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經文:

以弗所書 1:15-1:15

註釋:

 {And which ye shew toward all the saints} (kai t(886e) eis
pantas tous hagious). The words "ye show" do not occur in the
Greek. The Textus Receptus has 	en agap(886e) (the love) before
	(886e) supported by D G K L Syr., Lat., Copt., but Aleph A B P
Origen do not have the word agap(886e). It could have been omitted,
but is probably not genuine. The use of the article referring to
pistin and the change from en to eis probably justifies the
translation "which ye shew toward."

經文:

以弗所書 1:16-1:16

註釋:

 {I do not cease} (ou pauomai). Singular present middle,
while in  Col 1:9  Paul uses the plural (literary, or including
Timothy), ou pauometha.

經文:

以弗所書 1:17-1:17

註釋:

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經文:

以弗所書 1:18-1:18

註釋:

 {Having the eyes of your heart enlightened} (peph(9374)ismenous
tous ophthalmous t(8873) kardias hum(936e)). A beautiful figure, the
heart regarded as having eyes looking out toward Christ. But the
grammar is difficult. There are three possible interpretations.
One is an anacoluthon, the case of peph(9374)ismenous being changed
from the dative humin (to you) to the accusative because of the
following infinitive like eklexamenous ( Ac 15:22 ) after
apostolois. Another way of explaining it is to regard it as a
tertiary predicate of d(9369)(885c), a loose expansion of pneuma. The
third way is to regard the construction as the accusative
absolute, a rare idiom possible in  Ac 26:3  1Co 16:3  1Ti 2:6 .
In this case, the participle merely agrees with 	ous
ophthalmous, not with humin, "the eyes of your heart having
been enlightened." Otherwise 	ous ophthalmous is the accusative
retained after the passive participle. {That ye may know} (eis
to eidenai). Final use of eis to and the infinitive (second
perfect of oida) as in verse  12 . Note three indirect
questions after eidenai (what the hope 	is h(8820)elpis, what the
riches 	is ho ploutos, and what the surpassing greatness kai
ti to huperballon megethos). When the Holy Spirit opens the eyes
of the heart, one will be able to see all these great truths. {In
the saints} (en tois hagiois). Our riches is in God, God's is
in his saints.

經文:

以弗所書 1:19-1:19

註釋:

 {The exceeding greatness of his power} (	o huperballon
megethos t(8873) duname(9373) autou). Megethos is an old word (from
megas), but here only in N.T. Huperballon, present active
participle of huperball(935c), reappears in  2:7  3:19  and seen
already in  2Co 3:10  9:14 . To enlightened eyes the greatness of
God's power is even more "surpassing."

經文:

以弗所書 1:20-1:20

註釋:

 {Which he wrought} (en(8872)g(886b)en). Reading of A B rather than
aorist en(8872)g(8873)en. Perfect active indicative, "which he has
wrought." H(886e) is cognate accusative of the relative referring
to energeian (energy) with en(8872)g(886b)en and note also kratous
(strength) and ischuos (might), three words trying to express
what surpasses (huperballon) expression or comprehension. {Made
him to sit} (kathisas). First aorist active participle of
kathiz(935c) in causative sense as in  1Co 6:4 . Metaphorical local
expression like dexi(8369) and en tois epour aniois.

經文:

以弗所書 1:21-1:21

註釋:

 {Far above all rule} (huperan(9320)pas(8873) arch(8873)). Late
compound adverbial preposition (huper, an(935c)) with the ablative
case. In N.T. only here and  Heb 9:5 . As in  Col 1:16 , so here
Paul claims primacy for Jesus Christ above all angels, aeons,
what not. These titles all were used in the Gnostic speculations
with a graduated angelic hierarchy. {World} (ai(936e)i). "Age." See
this identical expression in  Mt 12:32  for the present time
( Gal 1:4  1Ti 6:17 ) and the future life ( Eph 2:7  Lu 20:35 ).
Both combined in  Mr 10:30  Lu 18:30 .

經文:

以弗所書 1:22-1:22

註釋:

 {He put all things in subjection} (panta hupetaxen). First
aorist active indicative of hupotass(935c), quoted from  Ps 8:7  as
in  1Co 15:27 . {Gave him to be head} (auton ed(936b)en kephal(886e)).
{Gave} (ed(936b)en, first aorist active indicative of did(936d)i) to
the church (the universal spiritual church or kingdom as in  Col
1:18,24 ) Christ as Head (kephal(886e), predicate accusative). This
conception of ekkl(8873)ia runs all through Ephesians ( 3:10,21  5:23,24,25,27,29,32 ).

經文:

以弗所書 1:23-1:23

註釋:

 {Which} (h(8874)is). "Which in fact is," explanatory use of
h(8874)is rather than h(885c). {The fulness of him that filleth all in
all} (	o pl(8872)(936d)a tou ta panta en p(8373)in pl(8872)oumenou). This is
probably the correct translation of a much disputed phrase. This
view takes pl(8872)(936d)a in the passive sense (that which is filled,
as is usual,  Col 1:19 ) and pl(8872)oumenou as present middle
participle, not passive. All things are summed up in Christ
( 1:10 ), who is the pl(8872)(936d)a of God ( Col 1:19 ), and in
particular does Christ fill the church universal as his body.
Hence we see in Ephesians the Dignity of the Body of Christ which
is ultimately to be filled with the fulness (pl(8872)(936d)a) of God
( 3:19 ) when it grows up into the fulness (pl(8872)(936d)a) of Christ
( 4:13,16 ).

經文:

以弗所書 2:1-2:1

註釋:

 {And you did he quicken} (kai hum(8373)). The verb for {did he
quicken} does not occur till verse  5  and then with h(886d)(8373) (us)
instead of hum(8373) (you). There is a like ellipsis or anacoluthon
in  Col 1:21,22 , only there is no change from hum(8373) to
h(886d)(8373). {When ye were dead} (ontas nekrous). Present active
participle referring to their former state. Spiritually dead.
{Trespasses and sins} (parapt(936d)asin kai hamartiais). Both words
(locative case) though only one in verse  5 .

經文:

以弗所書 2:2-2:2

註釋:

 {According to the course of this world} (kata ton ai(936e)a tou
kosmou toutou). Curious combinations of ai(936e) (a period of
time), kosmos (the world in that period). See  1Co 1:20  for
"this age" and  1Co 3:9  for "this world." {The prince of the
power of the air} (	on archonta t(8873) exousias tou aeros). A(8872)
was used by the ancients for the lower and denser atmosphere and
aith(8872) for the higher and rarer. Satan is here pictured as
ruler of the demons and other agencies of evil. Jesus called him
"the prince of this world" (ho arch(936e) tou kosmou toutou,  Joh
16:11 ). {That now worketh} (	ou nun energountos). Those who
deny the existence of a personal devil cannot successfully deny
the vicious tendencies, the crime waves, in modern men. The power
of the devil in the lives of men does explain the evil at work
"in the sons of disobedience" (en tois huiois t(8873) apethias). In
 5:6  also. A Hebrew idiom found in the papyri like "sons of
light" ( 1Th 5:5 ).

經文:

以弗所書 2:3-2:3

註釋:

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經文:

以弗所書 2:4-2:4

註釋:

 {But God} (ho de theos). Change in the structure of the
sentence here, resuming verse  1  after the break. {Being rich in
mercy} (plousios (936e) en eleei). More than ele(886d)(936e) (being
merciful). {Wherewith} (h(886e)). Cognate accusative with
(8867)ap(8873)en (loved).

經文:

以弗所書 2:5-2:5

註釋:

 {Even when we were dead} (kai ontas h(886d)(8373) nekrous). Repeats
the beginning of verse  1 , but he changes hum(8373) (you Gentiles)
to h(886d)(8373) (us Jews). {Quickened us together with Christ}
(sunez(936f)poi(8873)en t(9369) Christ(9369)). First aorist active indicative
of the double compound verb sunz(936f)poie(935c) as in  Col 2:13  which
see. Associative instrumental case in Christ(9369). Literal
resurrection in the case of Jesus, spiritual in our case as
pictured in baptism. {By grace have ye been saved} (chariti este
ses(9373)menoi). Instrumental case of chariti and perfect passive
periphrastic indicative of s(937a)(935c). Parenthetical clause
interjected in the sentence. All of grace because we were dead.

經文:

以弗所書 2:6-2:6

註釋:

 {In Christ Jesus} (en Christ(9369) I(8873)ou). All the preceding
turns on this phrase. See  Col 3:1  for the word sun(8867)eiren.
{Made to sit with him} (sunekathisen). First aorist active
indicative of sunkathiz(935c), old causative verb, but in N.T. only
here and  Lu 22:55 .

經文:

以弗所書 2:7-2:7

註釋:

 {That he might shew} (hina endeix(8874)ai). Final clause with
hina and first aorist middle subjunctive of endeiknumi. See
 1:7  for "riches of grace" and  1:19  for "exceeding"
(huperballon). {In kindness toward us} (en chr(8873)tot(8874)i eph'
h(886d)(8373)). See  Ro 2:7  for this word from chr(8873)tos and that from
chraomai, here God's benignity toward us.

經文:

以弗所書 2:8-2:8

註釋:

 {For by grace} (	(8869) gar chariti). Explanatory reason. "By
the grace" already mentioned in verse  5  and so with the
article. {Through faith} (dia piste(9373)). This phrase he adds in
repeating what he said in verse  5  to make it plainer. "Grace"
is God's part, "faith" ours. {And that} (kai touto). Neuter,
not feminine 	aut(885c), and so refers not to pistis (feminine) or
to charis (feminine also), but to the act of being saved by
grace conditioned on faith on our part. Paul shows that salvation
does not have its source (ex hum(936e), out of you) in men, but
from God. Besides, it is God's gift (d(9372)on) and not the result
of our work.

經文:

以弗所書 2:9-2:9

註釋:

 {That no man should glory} (hina m(8820)tis kauch(8873)(8874)ai).
Negative final clause (hina m(885c)) with first aorist middle
subjunctive of kauchaomai. It is all of God's grace.

經文:

以弗所書 2:10-2:10

註釋:

 {Workmanship} (poi(886d)a). Old word from poie(935c) with the
ending -mat meaning result. In N.T. only here and  Re 1:20 .
{Created} (ktisthentes). First aorist passive participle of
ktiz(935c), not the original creation as in  Col 1:16  Eph 3:9 , but
the moral and spiritual renewal in Christ, the new birth, as in
 Eph 2:15  4:24 . {For good works} (epi ergois agathois).
Probably the true dative of purpose here with epi (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 605). Purpose of the new creation in Christ.
{Which} (hois). Attraction of the relative ha (accusative
after pro(8874)oimasen) to case of the antecedent ergois. {Afore
prepared} (pro(8874)oimasen). First aorist active indicative of
pro(8874)oimaz(935c), old verb to make ready beforehand. In N.T. only
here and  Ro 9:23 . Good works by us were included in the eternal
foreordination by God. {That we should walk in them} (hina en
autois peripat(8873)(936d)en). Expexegetic final clause explanatory of
the election to good works.

經文:

以弗所書 2:11-2:11

註釋:

 {Wherefore} (dio). This conjunction applies to the Gentile
Christians the arguments in  2:1-10 . {That aforetime ye} (hoti
pote humeis). No verb is expressed, but in verse  12  Paul
repeats hoti en t(9369) kair(9369) ekein(9369) (for pote) "that at that
time" and inserts (8874)e (ye were). {Uncircumcision}
(akrobustia), {circumcision} (peritom(8873)). The abstract words
are used to describe Gentiles and Jews as in  Ga 5:6  Rom 2:27 .
{Made by hands} (cheiropoi(8874)ou). Agreeing with peritom(8873).
Verbal ( Mr 14:58 ) from cheiropoie(935c) like acheiropoi(8874)os in
 Col 2:11 .

經文:

以弗所書 2:12-2:12

註釋:

 {Separate from Christ} (ch(9372)is Christou). Ablative case
with adverbial preposition ch(9372)is, describing their former
condition as heathen. {Alienated from the commonwealth of Israel}
(ap(886c)lotri(936d)enoi t(8873) politeias tou Isra(886c)). Perfect passive
participle of apallotrio(935c), for which see  Col 1:21 . Here
followed by ablative case politeias, old word from politeu(935c),
to be a citizen ( Php 1:27 ) from polit(8873) and that from polis
(city). Only twice in N.T., here as commonwealth (the spiritual
Israel or Kingdom of God) and  Ac 22:28  as citizenship.
{Strangers from the covenants of the promise} (xenoi t(936e)
diath(886b)(936e) t(8873) epaggelias). For xenos (Latin _hospes_), as
stranger see  Mt 25:35,38,43f. , as guest-friend see  Ro 16:23 .
Here it is followed by the ablative case diath(886b)(936e). {Having no
hope} (elpida m(8820)echontes). No hope of any kind. In  Ga 4:8 
ouk (strong negative) occurs with eidotes theon, but here
m(885c) gives a more subjective picture ( 1Th 4:5 ). {Without God}
(atheoi). Old Greek word, not in LXX, only here in N.T.
Atheists in the original sense of being without God and also in
the sense of hostility to God from failure to worship him. See
Paul's words in  Ro 1:18-32 . "In the world" (en t(9369) kosm(9369))
goes with both phrases. It is a terrible picture that Paul gives,
but a true one.

經文:

以弗所書 2:13-2:13

註釋:

 {But now} (
uni de). Strong contrast, as opposed to "at
that time." {Afar off} (makran). Adverb (accusative feminine
adjective with hodon understood). From the politeia and its
hope in God. {Are made nigh} (egen(8874)h(8874)e eggus). First aorist
passive indicative of ginomai, a sort of timeless aorist. Nigh
to the commonwealth of Israel in Christ. {In the blood of Christ}
(en t(9369) haimati tou Christou). Not a perfunctory addition, but
essential ( 1:7 ), particularly in view of the Gnostic denial of
Christ's real humanity.

經文:

以弗所書 2:14-2:14

註釋:

 {For he is our peace} (autos gar estin h(8820)eir(886e)(8820)h(886d)(936e)).
He himself, not just what he did (necessary as that was and is).
He is our peace with God and so with each other (Jews and
Gentiles). {Both one} (	a amphotera hen). "The both" (Jew and
Gentile). Jesus had said "other sheep I have which are not of
this fold" ( Joh 10:16 ). {One} (hen) is neuter singular
(oneness, unity, identity) as in  Ga 3:28 . Race and national
distinctions vanish in Christ. If all men were really in Christ,
war would disappear. {Brake down the middle wall of partition}
(	o mesotoichon tou phragmou lusas). "Having loosened (first
aorist active participle of lu(935c), see  Joh 2:19 ) the
middle-wall (late word, only here in N.T., and very rare
anywhere, one in papyri, and one inscription) of partition
(phragmou, old word, fence, from phrass(935c), to fence or hedge,
as in  Mt 21:33 )." In the temple courts a partition wall divided
the court of the Gentiles from the court of Israel with an
inscription forbidding a Gentile from going further (Josephus,
_Ant_. VIII. 3, 2). See the uproar when Paul was accused of
taking Trophimus beyond this wall ( Ac 21:28 ).

經文:

以弗所書 2:15-2:15

註釋:

 {Having abolished} (katarg(8873)as). First aorist active
participle of katarge(935c), to make null and void. {The enmity}
(	(886e) echthran). But it is very doubtful if 	(886e) echthran (old
word from echthros, hostile,  Lu 23:12 ) is the object of
katarg(8873)as. It looks as if it is in apposition with to
mesotoichon and so the further object of lusas. The enmity
between Jew and Gentile was the middle wall of partition. And
then it must be decided whether "in his flesh" (en t(8869) sarki
autou) should be taken with lusas and refer especially to the
Cross ( Col 1:22 ) or be taken with katarg(8873)as. Either makes
sense, but better sense with lusas. Certainly "the law of
commandments in ordinances (	on nomon t(936e) entol(936e) en dogmasin)
is governed by katarg(8873)as. {That he might create} (hina
ktis(8869)). Final clause with first aorist active subjunctive of
ktiz(935c). {The twain} (	ous duo). The two men (masculine here,
neuter in verse  14 ), Jew and Gentile. {One new man} (eis hena
kainon anthr(9370)on). Into one fresh man ( Col 3:9-11 ) "in
himself" (en haut(9369)). Thus alone is it possible. {Making peace}
(poi(936e) eir(886e)(886e)). Thus alone can it be done. Christ is the
peace-maker between men, nations, races, classes.

經文:

以弗所書 2:16-2:16

註釋:

 {And might reconcile} (kai apokatallax(8869)). Final clause
with hina understood of first aorist active subjunctive of
apokatallass(935c) for which see  Col 1:20,22 . {Them both} (	ous
amphoterous). "The both," "the two" (	ous duo), Jew and
Gentile. {In one body} (en heni s(936d)ati). The "one new man" of
verse  15  of which Christ is Head ( 1:23 ), the spiritual
church. Paul piles up metaphors to express his idea of the
Kingdom of God with Christ as King (the church, the body, the
commonwealth of Israel, oneness, one new man in Christ,
fellow-citizens, the family of God, the temple of God). {Thereby}
(en aut(9369)). On the Cross where he slew the enmity (repeated
here) between Jew and Gentile.

經文:

以弗所書 2:17-2:17

註釋:

 {Preached peace} (eu(8867)gelisato eir(886e)(886e)). First aorist
middle of euaggeliz(935c). "He gospelized peace" to both Jew and
Gentile, "to the far off ones" (	ois makran) and "to the nigh
ones" (	ois eggus). By the Cross and after the Cross Christ
could preach that message.

經文:

以弗所書 2:18-2:18

註釋:

 {Through him} (di' autou). Christ. {We both} (hoi
amphoteroi). "We the both" (Jew and Gentile). {Our access} (	(886e)
prosag(9367)(886e)). The approach, the introduction as in  Ro 5:2 . {In
one Spirit} (en heni pneumati). The Holy Spirit. {Unto the
Father} (pros ton patera). So the Trinity as in  1:13f . The
Three Persons all share in the work of redemption.

經文:

以弗所書 2:19-2:19

註釋:

 {So then} (ara oun). Two inferential particles
(accordingly therefore). {No more} (ouketi). No longer.
{Sojourners} (paroikoi). Old word for dweller by (near by, but
not in). So  Ac 7:6,29  1Pe 2:11  (only other N.T. examples).
Dwellers just outside the house or family of God.
{Fellow-citizens} (sunpolitai, old, but rare word, here only in
N.T.), members now of the politeia of Israel (verse  12 ), the
opposite of xenoi kai paroikoi. {Of the household of God}
(oikeioi tou theou). Old word from oikos (house, household),
but in N.T. only here,  Ga 6:10  1Ti 5:8 . Gentiles now in the
family of God ( Ro 8:29 ).

經文:

以弗所書 2:20-2:20

註釋:

 1Co
3:11 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
3' or engs='1Co
3'
經文:

以弗所書 2:21-2:21

註釋:

 {Each several building} (p(8373)a oikodom(885c)). So without
article Aleph B D G K L. Oikodom(885c) is a late word from oikos
and dem(935c), to build for building up (edification) as in  Eph
4:29 , then for the building itself as here ( Mr 13:1f. ).
Ordinary Greek idiom here calls for "every building," not for
"all the building" (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 772), though it is
not perfectly clear what that means. Each believer is called a

aos theou ( 1Co 3:16 ). One may note the plural in  Mr 13:1 
(oikodomai) of the various parts of the temple. Perhaps that is
the idea here without precise definition of each oikodom(885c). But
there are examples of p(8373) without the article where "all" is
the idea as in p(8373)(8873) ktise(9373) (all creation) in  Col 1:15 .
{Fitly framed together} (sunarmologoumen(885c)). Double compound
from sun and harmologos (binding, harmos, joint and
leg(935c)), apparently made by Paul and in N.T. only here and  Eph
4:16 . Architectural metaphor. {Into a holy temple} (eis naon
hagion). The whole structure with all the oikodomai. Another
metaphor for the Kingdom of God with which compare Peter's
"spiritual house" (oikos pneumatikos) in which each is a living
stone being built in ( 1Pe 2:5 ).

經文:

以弗所書 2:22-2:22

註釋:

 {Ye also are builded together} (kai humeis
sunoikodomeisthe). Ye Gentiles also. Present passive indicative
(continuous process) of common old verb sunoikodome(935c), to build
together with others or out of varied materials as here. Only
here in N.T. In  1Pe 2:5  Peter uses oikodomeisthe for the same
process. {For a habitation} (eis katoik(8874)(8872)ion). Late word
(LXX), in N.T. only here and  Re 18:2 . From katoike(935c), to
dwell, as  Eph 3:17 . Possibly each of us is meant here to be the
"habitation of God in the Spirit" and all together growing
(auxei) "into a holy temple in the Lord," a noble conception of
the brotherhood in Christ.

經文:

以弗所書 3:1-3:1

註釋:

 {For this cause} (	outou charin). Use of charin
(accusative of charis) as a preposition with the genitive and
referring to the preceding argument about God's elective grace.
It is possible that Paul started to make the prayer that comes in
verses  14-21  when he repeats 	outou charin. If so, he is
diverted by his own words "the prisoner of Christ Jesus in behalf
of you Gentiles" (ho desmios tou Christou I(8873)ou huper hum(936e) t(936e)
ethn(936e)) to set forth in a rich paragraph ( 1-13 ) God's use of
him for the Gentiles.

經文:

以弗所書 3:2-3:2

註釋:

 {If so be that ye have heard} (ei ge (886b)ousate). Condition
of first class with ei and first aorist active indicative and
with the intensive particle ge that gives a delicate touch to
it all. On oikonomian (stewardship, dispensation) see  1:9  3:9  Col 1:25 .

經文:

以弗所書 3:3-3:3

註釋:

 1Co
5:9 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
5' or engs='1Co
5'
經文:

以弗所書 3:4-3:4

註釋:

 {Whereby} (pros ho). "Looking to which," "according to
which." {When ye read} (anagin(9373)kontes). This Epistle will be
read in public. {My understanding in the mystery of Christ} (	(886e)
sunesin mou en t(9369) must(8872)i(9369) tou Christou). My "comprehension"
(sunesin,  Col 1:9  2:2 ). Every sermon reveals the preacher's
grasp of "the mystery of Christ." If he has no insight into
Christ, he has no call to preach.

經文:

以弗所書 3:5-3:5

註釋:

 {In other generations} (heterais geneais). Locative case of
time. He had already claimed this revelation for himself (verse
 3 ). Now he claims it for all the other apostles and prophets of
God.

經文:

以弗所書 3:6-3:6

註釋:

 {To wit}. Not in the Greek. But the infinitive (einai)
clause is epexegetical and gives the content of the revelation, a
common idiom in the N.T. Ta ethn(885c) is in the accusative of
general reference. Paul is fond of compounds with sun and here
uses three of them. {Fellow-heirs} (sunkl(8872)onoma). Late and
rare (Philo, inscriptions and papyri). See also  Ro 8:17 .
{Fellow-members of the body} (suns(936d)a). First found here and
only here save in later ecclesiastical writers. Preuschen argues
that it is equivalent to sundoulos in  Col 1:7  (s(936d)a in
sense of doulos). {Fellow-partakers} (sunmetocha). Another
late and rare word (Josephus). Only here in N.T. In one papyrus
in sense of joint possessor of a house.

經文:

以弗所書 3:7-3:7

註釋:

 For this verse see  Col 1:25  Eph 1:19f.  3:2 .

經文:

以弗所書 3:8-3:8

註釋:

 2Co
11:5 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
11' or engs='2Co
11'
經文:

以弗所書 3:9-3:9

註釋:

 {To make see} (ph(9374)isai). First aorist active infinitive of
photiz(935c), late verb, to turn the light on. With the eyes of the
heart enlightened ( Eph 1:18 ) one can then turn the light for
others to see. See  Col 1:26 .

經文:

以弗所書 3:10-3:10

註釋:

 {To the intent that} (hina). Final clause. {Might be made
known} (gn(9372)isth(8869)). First aorist passive subjunctive of
gn(9372)iz(935c) with hina. The mystery was made known to Paul ( 3:3 )
and now he wants it blazoned forth to all powers (Gnostic aeons
or what not). {Through the church} (dia t(8873) ekkl(8873)ias). The
wonderful body of Christ described in chapter  Eph 2 . {The
manifold wisdom of God} (h(8820)polupoikilos sophia tou theou). Old
and rare word, much-variegated, with many colours. Only here in
N.T. Poikilos (variegated) is more common ( Mt 4:24 ).

經文:

以弗所書 3:11-3:11

註釋:

 {According to the eternal purpose} (kata prothesin t(936e)
ai(936e)(936e)). "According to the purpose ( 1:11 ) of the ages." God's
purpose runs on through the ages. "Through the ages one eternal
purpose runs."

經文:

以弗所書 3:12-3:12

註釋:

 {In confidence} (en pepoith(8873)ei). Late and rare word from
pepoitha. See  2Co 1:15 . {Through our faith in him} (dia t(8873)
piste(9373) autou). Clearly objective genitive autou (in him).

經文:

以弗所書 3:13-3:13

註釋:

 2Co
4:1,16 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
4' or engs='2Co
4'
經文:

以弗所書 3:14-3:14

註釋:

 {I bow my knees} (kampt(9320)ta gonata mou). He now prays
whether he had at first intended to do so at  3:1  or not. Calvin
supposes that Paul knelt as he dictated this prayer, but this is
not necessary. This was a common attitude in prayer ( Lu 22:41  Ac 7:40  20:36  21:5 ), though standing is also frequent ( Mr
11:25  Lu 18:11,13 ).

經文:

以弗所書 3:15-3:15

註釋:

 {Every family} (p(8373)a patria). Old word (patra is the
usual form) from pat(8872), descent from a common ancestor as a
tribe or race. Some take it here as = patrot(8873), fatherhood, but
that is most unlikely. Paul seems to mean that all the various
classes of men on earth and of angels in heaven get the name of
family from God the Father of all.

經文:

以弗所書 3:16-3:16

註釋:

 {That he would grant you} (hina d(9369) humin). Sub-final
clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of
did(936d)i, to give. There are really five petitions in this
greatest of all Paul's prayers (one already in  1:16-23 ), two by
the infinitives after hina d(9369) (kratai(9374)h(886e)ai, katoik(8873)ai),
two infinitives after hina exischus(8874)e (katalabesthai,
gn(936e)ai), and the last clause hina pl(8872)(9374)h(8874)e. Nowhere does
Paul sound such depths of spiritual emotion or rise to such
heights of spiritual passion as here. The whole seems to be
coloured with "the riches of His glory." {That ye may be
strengthened} (kratai(9374)h(886e)ai). First aorist passive infinitive
of krataio(935c), late and rare (LXX, N.T.) from krataios, late
form from kratos (strength). See  Lu 1:80 . Paul adds dunamei
(with the Spirit). Instrumental case. {In the inward man} (eis
ton es(9320)anthr(9370)on). Same expression in  2Co 4:16  (in contrast
with the outward ex(935c), man) and in  Ro 7:22 .

經文:

以弗所書 3:17-3:17

註釋:

 {That Christ may dwell} (katoik(8873)ai ton Christon). Another
infinitive (first aorist active) after hina d(9369). Katoike(935c) is
an old verb to make one's home, to be at home. Christ (Christon
accusative of general reference) is asked to make his home in our
hearts. This is the ideal, but a deal of fixing would have to be
done in our hearts for Christ. {Being rooted and grounded in
love} (en agap(8869) erriz(936d)enoi kai tethemeli(936d)enoi). But it is
not certain whether en agap(8869) should go with these participles
or with the preceding infinitive katoik(8873)ai (dwell). Besides,
these two perfect passive participles (from 
izo(935c), old verb, in
N.T. only here and  Col 2:7 , and from 	hemelio(935c), see also  Col
1:23 ) are in the nominative case and are to be taken with hina
exischus(8874)e and are proleptically placed before hina. Verse
 18  should really begin with these participles. Paul piles up
metaphors (dwelling, rooted, grounded).

經文:

以弗所書 3:18-3:18

註釋:

 {That ye may be strong} (hina exischus(8874)e). Sub-final
clause again with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive
of exischu(935c), a late and rare compound (from ex, ischu(935c)) to
have full strength. Here only in N.T. {To apprehend}
(katalabesthai). Second aorist middle infinitive of
katalamban(935c), old and common verb, to lay hold of effectively
(kata-), here with the mind, to grasp ( Ac 25:25 ). {With all
the saints} (sun pasin tois hagiois). No isolated privilege.
Fellowship open to all. Paul gives a rectangular (four dimension)
measure of love (breadth platos, length m(886b)os, height
hupsos, depth athos, all common enough words).

經文:

以弗所書 3:19-3:19

註釋:

 {And to know} (gn(936e)ai te). Second aorist active infinitive
with exischus(8874)e. {Which passeth knowledge} (	(886e)
huperballousan t(8873) gn(9373)e(9373)). Ablative case gn(9373)e(9373) after
huperballousan (from huperball(935c)). All the same Paul dares to
scale this peak. {That ye may be filled with all the fulness of
God} (hina pl(8872)(9374)h(8874)e eis p(836e) to pl(8872)(936d)a tou theou). Final
clause again (third use of hina in the sentence) with first
aorist passive subjunctive of pl(8872)o(935c) and the use of eis after
it. One hesitates to comment on this sublime climax in Paul's
prayer, the ultimate goal for followers of Christ in harmony with
the injunction in  Mt 5:48  to be perfect (	eleioi) as our
heavenly Father is perfect. There is nothing that any one can add
to these words. One can turn to  Ro 8:29  again for our final
likeness to God in Christ.

經文:

以弗所書 3:20-3:20

註釋:

 1Th
3:10 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
3' or engs='1Th
3'
經文:

以弗所書 3:21-3:21

註釋:

 {In the church} (en t(8869) ekkl(8873)i(8369)). The general church,
the body of Christ. {And in Christ Jesus} (kai en Christ(9369)
I(8873)ou). The Head of the glorious church.

經文:

以弗所書 4:1-4:1

註釋:

 {Wherewith ye were called} (h(8873) ekl(8874)h(8874)e). Attraction of
the relative h(8873) to the genitive of the antecedent kl(8873)e(9373)
(calling) from the cognate accusative h(886e) with ekl(8874)h(8874)e
(first aorist passive indicative of kale(935c), to call. For the
list of virtues here see  Col 3:12 . To anechomenoi all(886c)(936e)
( Col 3:13 ) Paul here adds "in love" (en agap(8869)), singled out
in  Col 3:14 .

經文:

以弗所書 4:3-4:3

註釋:

 {The unity} (	(886e) henot(8874)a). Late and rare word (from
heis, one), in Aristotle and Plutarch, though in N.T. only here
and verse  13 . {In the bond of peace} (en t(9369) sundesm(9369) t(8873)
eir(886e)(8873)). In  Col 3:14  agap(885c) (love) is the sundesmos
(bond). But there is no peace without love (verse  2 ).

經文:

以弗所書 4:4-4:4

註釋:

 {One body} (hen s(936d)a). One mystical body of Christ (the
spiritual church or kingdom, cf.  1:23  2:16 ). {One Spirit}
(hen pneuma). One Holy Spirit, grammatical neuter gender (not
to be referred to by "it," but by "he"). {In one hope} (en mi(8369)
elpidi). The same hope as a result of their calling for both Jew
and Greek as shown in chapter  2 .

經文:

以弗所書 4:5-4:5

註釋:

 {One Lord} (heis Kurios). The Lord Jesus Christ and he
alone (no series of aeons). {One faith} (mia pistis). One act
of trust in Christ, the same for all (Jew or Gentile), one way of
being saved. {One baptism} (hen baptisma). The result of
baptizing (aptisma), while aptismos is the act. Only in the
N.T. (aptismos in Josephus) and ecclesiastical writers
naturally. See  Mr 10:38 . There is only one act of baptism for
all (Jews and Gentiles) who confess Christ by means of this
symbol, not that they are made disciples by this one act, but
merely so profess him, put Christ on publicly by this ordinance.

經文:

以弗所書 4:6-4:6

註釋:

 {One God and Father of all} (heis theos kai pat(8872) pant(936e)).
Not a separate God for each nation or religion. One God for all
men. See here the Trinity again (Father, Jesus, Holy Spirit).
{Who is over all} (ho epi pant(936e)), {and through all} (kai dia
pant(936e)), {and in all} (kai en p(8373)in). Thus by three
prepositions (epi, dia, en) Paul has endeavoured to express the
universal sweep and power of God in men's lives. The pronouns
(pant(936e), pant(936e), p(8373)in) can be all masculine, all neuter, or
part one or the other. The last "in all" is certainly masculine
and probably all are.

經文:

以弗所書 4:7-4:7

註釋:

 {According to the measure of the gifts of Christ} (kata to
metron t(8873) d(9372)eas tou Christou). Each gets the gift that Christ
has to bestow for his special case. See  1Co 12:4ff.  Ro 12:4-6 .

經文:

以弗所書 4:8-4:8

註釋:

 {Wherefore he saith} (dio legei). As a confirmation of what
Paul has said. No subject is expressed in the Greek and
commentators argue whether it should be ho theos (God) or h(880a)graph(885c) (Scripture). But it comes to God after all. See  Ac
2:17 . The quotation is from  Ps 68:18 , a Messianic Psalm of
victory which Paul adapts and interprets for Christ's triumph
over death. {He led captivity captive} ((8869)chmal(9374)eusen
aichmal(9373)ian). Cognate accusative of aichmal(9373)ian, late word,
in N.T. only here and  Re 13:10 . The verb also (aichmal(9374)eu(935c))
is from the old word aichmal(9374)os, captive in war (in N.T. only
in  Lu 4:18 ), in LXX and only here in N.T.

經文:

以弗所書 4:9-4:9

註釋:

 {Now this} (	o de). Paul picks out the verb anabas
(second aorist active participle of anabain(935c), to go up),
changes its form to aneb(885c) (second aorist indicative), and
points the article (	o) at it. Then he concludes that it
implied a previous katabas (coming down). {Into the lower parts
of the earth} (eis ta kat(9374)era t(8873) g(8873)). If the anabas is the
Ascension of Christ, then the katabas would be the Descent
(Incarnation) to earth and 	(8873) g(8873) would be the genitive of
apposition. What follows in verse  10  argues for this view.
Otherwise one must think of the death of Christ (the descent into
Hades of  Ac 2:31 ).

經文:

以弗所書 4:10-4:10

註釋:

 {Is the same also} (autos estin). Rather, "the one who
came down (ho katabas, the Incarnation) is himself also the one
who ascended (ho anabas, the Ascension)." {Far above}
(huperan(935c)). See  1:21 . {All the heavens} (pant(936e) t(936e)
ouran(936e)). Ablative case after huperan(935c). For the plural used of
Christ's ascent see  Heb 4:14  7:27 . Whether Paul has in mind
the Jewish notion of a graded heaven like the third heaven in
 2Co 12:2  or the seven heavens idea one does not know. {That he
might fill all things} (hina pl(8872)(9373)(8869) ta panta). This purpose
we can understand, the supremacy of Christ ( Col 2:9f. ).

經文:

以弗所書 4:11-4:11

註釋:

 {And he gave} (kai autos ed(936b)en). First aorist active
indicative of did(936d)i. In  1Co 12:28  Paul uses etheto (more
common verb, appointed), but here repeats ed(936b)en from the
quotation in verse  8 . There are four groups (	ous men, 	ous
de three times, as the direct object of ed(936b)en). The titles
are in the predicate accusative (apostolous, proph(8874)as, poimenas
kai didaskalous). Each of these words occurs in  1Co 12:28 
(which see for discussion) except poimenas (shepherds). This
word poim(886e) is from a root meaning to protect. Jesus said the
good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep ( Joh 10:11 ) and
called himself the Good Shepherd. In  Heb 13:20  Christ is the
Great Shepherd (cf.  1Pe 2:25 ). Only here are preachers termed
shepherds (Latin _pastores_) in the N.T. But the verb poimain(935c),
to shepherd, is employed by Jesus to Peter ( Joh 21:16 ), by
Peter to other ministers ( 1Pe 5:2 ), by Paul to the elders
(bishops) of Ephesus ( Ac 20:28 ). Here Paul groups "shepherds
and teachers" together. All these gifts can be found in one man,
though not always. Some have only one.

經文:

以弗所書 4:12-4:12

註釋:

 {For the perfecting} (pros ton katartismon). Late and rare
word (in Galen in medical sense, in papyri for house-furnishing),
only here in N.T., though katartisis in  2Co 13:9 , both from
katartiz(935c), to mend ( Mt 4:21  Ga 6:1 ). "For the mending
(repair) of the saints." {Unto the building up} (eis
oikodom(886e)). See  2:21 . This is the ultimate goal in all these
varied gifts, "building up."

經文:

以弗所書 4:13-4:13

註釋:

 {Till we all attain} (mechri katant(8873)(936d)en hoi pantes).
Temporal clause with purpose idea with mechri and the first
aorist active subjunctive of katanta(935c), late verb, to come down
to the goal ( Php 3:11 ). "The whole" including every individual.
Hence the need of so many gifts. {Unto the unity of the faith}
(eis t(886e) henot(8874)a t(8873) piste(9373)). "Unto oneness of faith" (of
trust) in Christ (verse  3 ) which the Gnostics were disturbing.
{And of the knowledge of the Son of God} (kai t(8873) epign(9373)e(9373) tou
huiou tou theou). Three genitives in a chain dependent also on
	(886e) henot(8874)a, "the oneness of full (epi-) knowledge of the
Son of God," in opposition to the Gnostic vagaries. {Unto a
full-grown man} (eis andra teleion). Same figure as in  2:15 
and 	eleios in sense of adult as opposed to 
(8870)ioi (infants)
in  14 . {Unto the measure of the stature} (eis metron
h(886c)ikias). So apparently h(886c)ikia here as in  Lu 2:52 , not age
( Joh 9:21 ). Boys rejoice in gaining the height of a man. But
Paul adds to this idea "the fulness of Christ" (	ou pl(8872)(936d)atos
tou Christou), like "the fulness of God" in  3:19 . And yet some
actually profess to be "perfect" with a standard like this to
measure by! No pastor has finished his work when the sheep fall
so far short of the goal.

經文:

以弗所書 4:14-4:14

註釋:

 {That we may be no longer children} (hina m(886b)eti (936d)en
n(8870)ioi). Negative final clause with present subjunctive. Some
Christians are quite content to remain "babes" in Christ and
never cut their eye-teeth ( Heb 5:11-14 ), the victims of every
charlatan who comes along. {Tossed to and fro}
(klud(936e)izomenoi). Present passive participle of klud(936e)izomai,
late verb from klud(936e) (wave,  Jas 1:6 ), to be agitated by the
waves, in LXX, only here in N.T. One example in Vettius Valens.
{Carried about} (peripheromenoi). Present passive participle of
peripher(935c), old verb, to carry round, whirled round "by every
wind (anem(9369), instrumental case) of teaching." In some it is
all wind, even like a hurricane or a tornado. If not anchored by
full knowledge of Christ, folks are at the mercy of these
squalls. {By the sleight} (en t(8869) kubi(8369)). "In the deceit," "in
the throw of the dice" (kubia, from kubos, cube), sometimes
cheating. {In craftiness} (en panourgi(8369)). Old word from
panourgos (pan, ergon, any deed, every deed), cleverness,
trickiness. {After the wiles of error} (pros t(886e) methodian t(8873)
plan(8873)). Methodia is from methodeu(935c) (meta, hodos) to
follow after or up, to practise deceit, and occurs nowhere else
( Eph 4:13  6:11 ) save in late papyri in the sense of method.
The word plan(8873) (wandering like our "planet") adds to the evil
idea in the word. Paul has covered the whole ground in this
picture of Gnostic error.

經文:

以弗所書 4:15-4:15

註釋:

 {In love} (en agap(8869)). If truth were always spoken only in
love! {May grow into him} (aux(8873)(936d)en eis auton). Supply hina
and then note the final use of the first aorist active
subjunctive. It is the metaphor of verse  13  (the full-grown
man). We are the body and Christ is the Head. We are to grow up
to his stature.

經文:

以弗所書 4:16-4:16

註釋:

 {From which} (ex hou). Out of which as the source of
energy and direction. {Fitly framed} (sunarmologoumenon). See
 2:21  for this verb. {Through that which every joint supplieth}
(dia pas(8873) haph(8873) t(8873) epichor(8867)ias). Literally, "through every
joint of the supply." See  Col 2:19  for haph(885c) and  Php 1:19 
for the late word epichor(8867)ia (only two examples in N.T.) from
epichor(8867)e(935c), to supply ( Col 2:19 ). {In due measure} (en
metr(9369)). Just "in measure" in the Greek, but the assumption is
that each part of the body functions properly in its own sphere.
{Unto the building up of itself} (eis oikodom(886e) heautou).
Modern knowledge of cell life in the human body greatly
strengthens the force of Paul's metaphor. This is the way the
body grows by cooperation under the control of the head and all
"in love" (en agap(8869)).

經文:

以弗所書 4:17-4:17

註釋:

 {That ye no longer walk} (m(886b)eti humas peripatein).
Infinitive (present active) in indirect command (not indirect
assertion) with accusative humas of general reference. {In
vanity of their mind} (en mataiot(8874)i tou noos aut(936e)). "In
emptiness (from mataios, late and rare word. See  Ro 8:20 ) of
their intellect (
oos, late form for earlier genitive 
ou,
from 
ous).

經文:

以弗所書 4:18-4:18

註釋:

 {Being darkened} (eskot(936d)enoi ontes). Periphrastic perfect
passive participle of skoto(935c), old verb from skotos
(darkness), in N.T. only here and  Re 9:2  16:10 . {In their
understanding} (	(8869) dianoi(8369)). Locative case. Probably
dianoia (dia, nous) includes the emotions as well as the
intellect (
ous). It is possible to take ontes with
ap(886c)lotri(936d)enoi (see  2:12 ) which would then be periphrastic
(instead of eskot(936d)enoi) perfect passive participle. {From the
life of God} (	(8873) z(9388)s tou theou). Ablative case z(9388)s after
ap(886c)lotri(936d)enoi ( 2:12 ). {Because of the ignorance} (dia t(886e)
agnoian). Old word from agnoe(935c), not to know. Rare in N.T. See
 Ac 3:17 . {Hardening} (p(9372)(9373)in). Late medical term
(Hippocrates) for callous hardening. Only other N.T. examples are
 Mr 3:5  Ro 11:25 .

經文:

以弗所書 4:19-4:19

註釋:

 {Being past feeling} (ap(886c)g(886b)otes). Perfect active
participle of apalge(935c), old word to cease to feel pain, only
here in N.T. {To lasciviousness} (	(8869) aselgei(8369)). Unbridled
lust as in  2Co 12:21  Ga 5:19 . {To work all uncleanness} (eis
ergasian akatharsias pas(8873)). Perhaps prostitution, "for a
trading (or work) in all uncleanness." Certainly Corinth and
Ephesus could qualify for this charge. {With greediness} (en
pleonexi(8369)). From pleonekt(8873), one who always wants more
whether money or sexual indulgence as here. The two vices are
often connected in the N.T.

經文:

以弗所書 4:20-4:20

註釋:

 {But ye did not so learn Christ} (Humeis de ouch hout(9373)
emathete ton Christon). In sharp contrast to pagan life
(hout(9373)). Second aorist active indicative of manthan(935c).

經文:

以弗所書 4:21-4:21

註釋:

 {If so be that} (ei ge). "If indeed." Condition of first
class with aorist indicatives here, assumed to be true ((886b)ousate
kai edidachth(8874)e). {Even as truth is in Jesus} (kath(9373) estin
al(8874)heia en t(9369) I(8873)ou). It is not clear what Paul's precise idea
is here. The Cerinthian Gnostics did distinguish between the man
Jesus and the aeon Christ. Paul here identifies Christ (verse
 20 ) and Jesus (verse  21 ). At any rate he flatly affirms that
there is "truth in Jesus" which is in direct opposition to the
heathen manner of life and which is further explained by the
epexegetical infinitives that follow (apothesthai, ananeousthai
de, kai endusasthai).

經文:

以弗所書 4:22-4:22

註釋:

 {That ye put away} (apothesthai). Second aorist middle
infinitive of apotith(886d)i with the metaphor of putting off
clothing or habits as apothesthe in  Col 3:8  (which see) with
the same addition of "the old man" (	on palaion anthr(9370)on) as
in  Col 3:9 . For anastroph(886e) (manner of life) see  Ga 1:13 .
{Which waxeth corrupt} (	on phtheiromenon). Either present
middle or passive participle of phtheir(935c), but it is a process
of corruption (worse and worse).

經文:

以弗所書 4:23-4:23

註釋:

 {That ye be renewed} (ananeousthai). Present passive
infinitive (epexegetical, like apothesthai, of al(8874)heia en t(9369)
I(8873)ou) and to be compared with anakainoumenon in  Col 3:10 .
It is an old verb, ananeo(935c), to make new (young) again; though
only here in N.T. {The spirit} (	(9369) pneumati). Not the Holy
Spirit, but the human spirit.

經文:

以弗所書 4:24-4:24

註釋:

 {Put on} (endusasthai). First aorist middle infinitive of
endu(935c) (-n(935c)), for which see  Col 3:10 . {The new man} (	on
kainon anthr(9370)on). "The brand-new (see  2:15 ) man," though 	on
neon in  Col 3:10 . {After God} (kata theon). After the
pattern God, the new birth, the new life in Christ, destined to
be like God in the end ( Ro 8:29 ).

經文:

以弗所書 4:25-4:25

註釋:

 {Wherefore} (dio). Because of putting off the old man, and
putting on the new man. {Putting away} (apothemenoi). Second
aorist middle participle of apotith(886d)i (verse  22 ). {Lying}
(pseudos), {truth} (al(8874)heian) in direct contrast. {Each one}
(hekastos). Partitive apposition with laleite. See  Col 3:8 
m(8820)pseudesthe.

經文:

以弗所書 4:26-4:26

註釋:

 {Be ye angry and sin not} (orgizesthe kai m(8820)hamartanete).
Permissive imperative, not a command to be angry. Prohibition
against sinning as the peril in anger. Quotation from  Ps 4:4 .
{Let not the sun go down upon your wrath} (ho h(886c)ios m(8820)epiduet(930a)epi parorgism(9369)). Danger in settled mood of anger. Parorgismos
(provocation), from parorgiz(935c), to exasperate to anger, occurs
only in LXX and here in N.T.

經文:

以弗所書 4:27-4:27

註釋:

 {Neither give place to the devil} (m(8864)e didote topon t(9369)
diabol(9369)). Present active imperative in prohibition, either stop
doing it or do not have the habit. See  Ro 12:19  for this idiom.

經文:

以弗所書 4:28-4:28

註釋:

 {Steal no more} (m(886b)eti kleptet(935c)). Clearly here, cease
stealing (present active imperative with m(886b)eti). {The thing
that is good} (	o agathon). "The good thing" opposed to his
stealing and "with his hands" (	ais chersin, instrumental case)
that did the stealing. See  2Th 3:10 . Even unemployment is no
excuse for stealing. {To give} (metadidonai). Present active
infinitive of metadid(936d)i, to share with one.

經文:

以弗所書 4:29-4:29

註釋:

 {Corrupt} (sapros). Rotten, putrid, like fruit ( Mt
7:17f. ), fish ( Mt 13:48 ), here the opposite of agathos
(good). {For edifying as the need may be} (pros oikodom(886e) t(8873)
chreias). "For the build-up of the need," "for supplying help
when there is need." Let no other words come out. {That it may
give} (hina d(9369)). For this elliptical use of hina see on
氤:33|.

經文:

以弗所書 4:30-4:30

註釋:

 {Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God} (m(8820)lupeite to pneuma
to hagion tou theou). "Cease grieving" or "do not have the habit
of grieving." Who of us has not sometimes grieved the Holy
Spirit? {In whom} (en h(9369)). Not "in which." {Ye were sealed}
(esphragisth(8874)e). See  1:13  for this verb, and  1:14  for
apolutr(9373)e(9373), the day when final redemption is realized.

經文:

以弗所書 4:31-4:31

註釋:

 {Bitterness} (pikria). Old word from pikros (bitter), in
N.T. only here and  Ac 8:23  Ro 3:14  Heb 12:15 . {Clamour}
(kraug(885c)). Old word for outcry ( Mt 25:6  Lu 1:42 ). See  Col
3:8  for the other words. {Be put away} (arth(8874)(935c)). First aorist
passive imperative of air(935c), old verb, to pick up and carry
away, to make a clean sweep.

經文:

以弗所書 4:32-4:32

註釋:

 1Pe
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3' or engs='1Pe
3'
經文:

以弗所書 5:1-5:1

註釋:

 {Imitators of God} (mim(8874)ai tou theou). This old word from
mimeomai Paul boldly uses. If we are to be like God, we must
imitate him.

經文:

以弗所書 5:2-5:2

註釋:

 {An offering and a sacrifice to God} (prosphoran kai thusian
t(9369) the(9369)). Accusative in apposition with heauton (himself).
Christ's death was an offering to God "in our behalf" (huper
h(886d)(936e)) not an offering to the devil (Anselm), a ransom
(lutron) as Christ himself said ( Mt 20:28 ), Christ's own view
of his atoning death. {For an odour of a sweet smell} (eis osm(886e)
eu(9364)ias). Same words in  Php 4:18  from  Le 4:31  (of the
expiatory offering). Paul often presents Christ's death as a
propitiation ( Ro 3:25 ) as in  1Jo 2:2 .

經文:

以弗所書 5:3-5:3

註釋:

 {Or covetousness} ((8820)pleonexia). In bad company surely.
Debasing like sensuality. {As becometh saints} (kath(9373) prepei
hagiois). It is "unbecoming" for a saint to be sensual or
covetous.

經文:

以弗所書 5:4-5:4

註釋:

 {Filthiness} (aischrot(8873)). Old word from aischros (base),
here alone in N.T. {Foolish talking} (m(9372)ologia). Late word
from m(9372)ologos (m(9372)os, logos), only here in N.T. {Jesting}
(eutrapelia). Old word from eutrapelos (eu, trep(935c), to turn)
nimbleness of wit, quickness in making repartee (so in Plato and
Plutarch), but in low sense as here ribaldry, scurrility, only
here in N.T. All of these disapproved vices are hapax legomena
in the N.T. {Which are not befitting} (ha ouk an(886b)en). Same
idiom (imperfect with word of propriety about the present) in
 Col 3:18 . Late MSS. read 	a ouk an(886b)onta like 	a m(880a)kath(886b)onta in  Ro 1:28 .

經文:

以弗所書 5:5-5:5

註釋:

 {Ye know of a surety} (iste gin(9373)kontes). The correct text
has iste, not este. It is the same form for present
indicative (second person plural) and imperative, probably
indicative here, "ye know." But why gin(9373)kontes added?
Probably, "ye know recognizing by your own experience." {No}
(p(8373)--ou). Common idiom in the N.T. like the Hebrew= _oudeis_
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 732). {Covetous man} (pleonekt(8873),
pleon ech(935c)). Old word, in N.T. only here and  1Co 5:10f.  6:10 .
{Which is} (ho estin). So Aleph B. A D K L have hos (who),
but ho is right. See  Col 3:14  for this use of ho (which
thing is). On eid(936c)olatr(8873) (idolater) see  1Co 5:10f . {In the
Kingdom of Christ and God} (en t(8869) basilei(8369) tou Christou kai
theou). Certainly the same kingdom and Paul may here mean to
affirm the deity of Christ by the use of the one article with
Christou kai theou. But Sharp's rule cannot be insisted on here
because 	heos is often definite without the article like a
proper name. Paul did teach the deity of Christ and may do it
here.

經文:

以弗所書 5:6-5:6

註釋:

 {With empty words} (kenois logois). Instrumental case.
Probably Paul has in mind the same Gnostic praters as in  Col
2:4f . See  2:2 .

經文:

以弗所書 5:7-5:7

註釋:

 {Partakers with them} (sunmetochoi aut(936e)). Late double
compound, only here in N.T., joint (sun) shares with
(metochoi) them (aut(936e)). These Gnostics.

經文:

以弗所書 5:8-5:8

註釋:

 {But now light} (
un de ph(9373)). Jesus called his disciples
the light of the world ( Mt 5:14 ).

經文:

以弗所書 5:9-5:9

註釋:

 {The fruit of light} (ho karpos tou ph(9374)os). Two metaphors
(fruit, light) combined. See  Ga 5:22  for "the fruit of the
Spirit." The late MSS. have "spirit" here in place of "light."
{Goodness} (agathosun(8869)). Late and rare word from agathos.
See  2Th 1:11  Ga 5:22 .

經文:

以弗所書 5:10-5:10

註釋:

 {Proving} (dokimazontes). Testing and so proving.

經文:

以弗所書 5:11-5:11

註釋:

 {Have no fellowship with} (m(8820)sunkoin(936e)eite). No
partnership with, present imperative with m(885c). Followed by
associative instrumental case ergois (works). {Unfruitful}
(akarpois). Same metaphor of verse  9  applied to darkness
(skotos). {Reprove} (elegchete). Convict by turning the light
on the darkness.

經文:

以弗所書 5:12-5:12

註釋:

 {In secret} (kruph(8869)). Old adverb, only here in N.T. Sin
loves the dark. {Even to speak of} (kai legein). And yet one
must sometimes speak out, turn on the light, even if to do so is
disgraceful (aischron, like  1Co 11:6 ).

經文:

以弗所書 5:13-5:13

註釋:

 {Are made manifest by the light} (hupo tou ph(9374)os
phaneroutai). Turn on the light. Often the preacher is the only
man brave enough to turn the light on the private sins of men and
women or even those of a community.

經文:

以弗所書 5:14-5:14

註釋:

 {Wherefore he saith} (dio legei). Apparently a free
adaptation of  Isa 26:19  60:1 . The form anasta for
anast(8874)hi (second person singular imperative second aorist
active of anist(886d)i) occurs in  Ac 12:7 . {Shall shine}
(epiphausei). Future active of epiphausk(935c), a form occurring
in Job ( Job 25:5  31:26 ), a variation of epiph(9373)k(935c). The last
line suggests the possibility that we have here the fragment of
an early Christian hymn like  1Ti 3:16 .

經文:

以弗所書 5:15-5:15

註釋:

 {Carefully} (akrib(9373)). Aleph B 17 put akrib(9373) before
p(9373) (how) instead of p(9373) akrib(9373) (how exactly ye walk) as the
Textus Receptus has it. On akrib(9373) (from akrib(8873)) see  Mt
2:8  Lu 1:3 . {Unwise} (asophoi). Old adjective, only here in
N.T.

經文:

以弗所書 5:16-5:16

註釋:

 {Redeeming the time} (exagorazomenoi ton kairon). As in
 Col 4:5  which see.

經文:

以弗所書 5:17-5:17

註釋:

 {Be ye not foolish} (m(8820)ginesthe aphrones). "Stop becoming
foolish."

經文:

以弗所書 5:18-5:18

註釋:

 {Be not drunken with wine} (m(8820)methuskesthe oin(9369)).
Present passive imperative of methusk(935c), old verb to intoxicate.
Forbidden as a habit and to stop it also if guilty. Instrumental
case oin(9369). {Riot} (as(9374)ia). Old word from as(9374)os (adverb
as(9374)(9373) in  Lu 15:13 ), in N.T. only here,  Tit 1:6  1Pe 4:4 .
{But be filled with the Spirit} (alla pl(8872)ousthe en pneumati).
In contrast to a state of intoxication with wine.

經文:

以弗所書 5:19-5:19

註釋:

 {To the Lord} (	(9369) Kuri(9369)). The Lord Jesus. In  Col 3:16 
we have 	(9369) the(9369) (to God) with all these varieties of praise,
another proof of the deity of Christ. See  Col 3:16  for
discussion.

經文:

以弗所書 5:20-5:20

註釋:

 {In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ} (en onomati tou
Kuriou h(886d)(936e) I(8873)ou Christou). Jesus had told the disciples to
use his name in prayer ( Joh 16:23f. ). {To God, even the Father}
(	(9369) the(9369) kai patri). Rather, "the God and Father."

經文:

以弗所書 5:21-5:21

註釋:

 {Subjecting yourselves to one another} (hupotassomenoi
all(886c)ois). Present middle participle of hupotass(935c), old
military figure to line up under ( Col 3:18 ). The construction
here is rather loose, coordinate with the preceding participles
of praise and prayer. It is possible to start a new paragraph
here and regard hupotassomenoi as an independent participle
like an imperative.

經文:

以弗所書 5:22-5:22

註釋:

 {Be in subjection}. Not in the Greek text of B and Jerome
knew of no MS. with it. K L and most MSS. have hupotassesthe
like  Col 3:18 , while Aleph A P have hupotassesth(9373)an (let
them be subject to). But the case of andrasin (dative) shows
that the verb is understood from verse  21  if not written
originally. Idiois (own) is genuine here, though not in  Col
3:18 . {As unto the Lord} (h(9373) t(9369) Kuri(9369)). So here instead of
h(9373) an(886b)en en Kuri(9369) of  Col 3:18 .

經文:

以弗所書 5:23-5:23

註釋:

 {For the husband is the head of the wife} (hoti an(8872) estin
kephal(8820)t(8873) gunaikos). "For a husband is head of the (his)
wife." No article with an(8872) or kephal(885c). {As Christ also is
the head of the church} (h(9373) kai ho Christos kephal(8820)t(8873)
ekkl(8873)ias). No article with kephal(885c), "as also Christ is head
of the church." This is the comparison, but with a tremendous
difference which Paul hastens to add either in an appositional
clause or as a separate sentence. {Himself the saviour of the
body} (autos s(9374)(8872) tou s(936d)atos). He means the church as the
body of which Christ is head and Saviour.

經文:

以弗所書 5:24-5:24

註釋:

 {But} (alla). Perhaps, "nevertheless," in spite of the
difference just noted. Once again the verb hupotass(935c) has to be
supplied in the principal clause before 	ois andrasin either as
indicative (hupotassontai) or as imperative
(hupotassesth(9373)an).

經文:

以弗所書 5:25-5:25

註釋:

 {Even as Christ also loved the church} (kath(9373) kai ho
Christos (8867)ap(8873)en t(886e) ekkl(8873)ian). This is the wonderful new
point not in  Col 3:19  that lifts this discussion of the
husband's love for his wife to the highest plane.

經文:

以弗所書 5:26-5:26

註釋:

 {That he might sanctify it} (hina aut(886e) hagias(8869)). Purpose
clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of
hagiaz(935c). Jesus stated this as his longing and his prayer ( Joh
17:17-19 ). This was the purpose of Christ's death (verse  25 ).
{Having cleansed it} (katharisas). First aorist active
participle of kathariz(935c), to cleanse, either simultaneous action
or antecedent. {By the washing of water} (	(9369) loutr(9369) tou
hudatos). If loutron only means bath or bathing-place ( =
loutron), then loutr(9369) is in the locative. If it can mean
bathing or washing, it is in the instrumental case. The usual
meaning from Homer to the papyri is the bath or bathing-place,
though some examples seem to mean bathing or washing. Salmond
doubts if there are any clear instances. The only other N.T.
example of loutron is in  Tit 3:5 . The reference here seems to
be to the baptismal bath (immersion) of water, "in the bath of
water." See  1Co 6:11  for the bringing together of
apelousasthe and h(8867)iasth(8874)e. Neither there nor here does
Paul mean that the cleansing or sanctification took place in the
bath save in a symbolic fashion as in  Ro 6:4-6 . Some think that
Paul has also a reference to the bath of the bride before
marriage. Still more difficult is the phrase "with the word" (en
r(886d)ati). In  Joh 17:17  Jesus connected "truth" with "sanctify."
That is possible here, though it may also be connected with
katharisas (having cleansed). Some take it to mean the
baptismal formula.

經文:

以弗所書 5:27-5:27

註釋:

 {That he might present} (hina parast(8873)(8869)). Final clause
with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of parist(886d)i
(see  Col 1:22  for parallel) as in  2Co 11:2  of presenting the
bride to the bridegroom. Note both autos (himself) and
heaut(9369) (to himself). {Glorious} (endoxon). Used of splendid
clothing in  Lu 7:25 . {Spot} (spilos). Late word, in N.T. only
here and  2Pe 2:13 , but spilo(935c), to defile in  Jas 3:6  Jude
1:23 . {Wrinkle} (
utida). Old word from 
u(935c), to contract,
only here in N.T. {But that it should be holy and without
blemish} (all' hina (8869) hagia kai am(936d)os). Christ's goal for the
church, his bride and his body, both negative purity and
positive.

經文:

以弗所書 5:28-5:28

註釋:

 {Even so ought} (hout(9373) opheilousin). As Christ loves the
church (his body). And yet some people actually say that Paul in
 1Co 7  gives a degrading view of marriage. How can one say that
after reading  Eph 5:22-33  where the noblest picture of marriage
ever drawn is given?

經文:

以弗所書 5:29-5:29

註釋:

 {Nourisheth} (ektrephei). Old compound with perfective
sense of ek (to nourish up to maturity and on). In N.T. only
here and  6:4 . {Cherisheth} (	halpei). Late and rare word,
once in a marriage contract in a papyrus. In N.T. only here and
 1Th 2:7 . Primarily it means to warm (Latin _foveo_), then to
foster with tender care as here. {Even as Christ also} (kath(9373)
kai ho Christos). Relative (correlative) adverb pointing back to
hout(9373) at the beginning of the sentence (verse  28 ) and
repeating the statement in verse  25 .

經文:

以弗所書 5:30-5:30

註釋:

 {Of his flesh and of his bones} (ek t(8873) sarkos autou kai ek
t(936e) oste(936e) autou). These words are in the Textus Receptus
(Authorized Version) supported by D G L P cursives Syriac, etc.,
though wanting in Aleph A B 17 Bohairic. Certainly not genuine.

經文:

以弗所書 5:31-5:31

註釋:

 {For this cause} (anti toutou). "Answering to this" =
heneken toutou of  Ge 2:24 , in the sense of anti seen in
anth' h(936e) ( Lu 12:3 ). This whole verse is a practical
quotation and application of the language to Paul's argument
here. In  Mt 19:5  Jesus quotes  Ge 2:24 . It seems absurd to
make Paul mean Christ here by anthr(9370)os (man) as some
commentators do.

經文:

以弗所書 5:32-5:32

註釋:

 {This mystery is great} (	o must(8872)ion touto mega estin).
For the word "mystery" see  1:9 . Clearly Paul means to say that
the comparison of marriage to the union of Christ and the church
is the mystery. He makes that plain by the next words. {But I
speak} (eg(9320)de leg(935c)). "Now I mean." Cf.  1Co 7:29  15:50 . {In
regard of Christ and of the church} (eis Christon kai [eis] t(886e)
ekkl(8873)ian). "With reference to Christ and the church." That is
all that eis here means.

經文:

以弗所書 5:33-5:33

註釋:

 {Nevertheless} (pl(886e)). "Howbeit," not to dwell unduly
(Abbott) on the matter of Christ and the church. {Do ye also
severally love} (kai humeis hoi kath' hena hekastos agap(8374)(935c)).
An unusual idiom. The verb agap(8374)(935c) (present active imperative)
agrees with hekastos and so is third singular instead of
agap(8374)e (second plural) like humeis. The use of hoi kath'
hena after humeis = " ye one by one " and then hekastos
takes up (individualizes) the "one" in partitive apposition and
in the third person. {Let the wife see that she fear} (h(8820)gun(880a)hina phob(8874)ai). There is no verb in the Greek for "let see"
(lepet(935c)). For this use of hina with the subjunctive as a
practical imperative without a principal verb (an elliptical
imperative) see  Mr 5:23  Mt 20:32  1Co 7:29  2Co 8:7  Eph 4:29  5:33  (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 994). "Fear" (phob(8874)ai, present
middle subjunctive) here is "reverence."


經文:

以弗所書 6:1-6:1

註釋:

 {Right} (dikaion). In  Col 3:20  it is euareston
(well-pleasing).

經文:

以弗所書 6:2-6:2

註釋:

 {Which} (h(8874)is). "Which very" = "for such is." {The first
commandment with promise} (entol(8820)pr(9374)(8820)en epaggeli(8369)). En
here means "accompanied by" (Alford). But why "with a promise"?
The second has a general promise, but the fifth alone ( Ex
20:12 ) has a specific promise. Perhaps that is the idea. Some
take it to be first because in the order of time it was taught
first to children, but the addition of en epaggeli(8369) here to
pr(9374)(885c) points to the other view.

經文:

以弗所書 6:3-6:3

註釋:

 {That it may be well with thee} (hina eu soi gen(8874)ai). From
 Ex 20:12 , "that it may happen to thee well." {And thou mayest
live long on the earth} (kai es(8869) makrochronios epi t(8873) g(8873)).
Here es(8869) (second person singular future middle) takes the
place of gen(8869) in the LXX (second person singular second aorist
middle subjunctive). Makrochronios is a late and rare compound
adjective, here only in N.T. (from LXX,  Ex 20:12 ).

經文:

以弗所書 6:4-6:4

註釋:

 {Provoke not to anger} (m(8820)parorgizete). Rare compound,
both N.T. examples (here and  Ro 10:19 ) are quotations from the
LXX. The active, as here, has a causative sense. Parallel in
sense with m(8820)erethizete in  Col 3:21 . Paul here touches the
common sin of fathers. {In the chastening and admonition of the
Lord} (en paidei(8369) kai nouthesi(8369) tou kuriou). En is the
sphere in which it all takes place. There are only three examples
in the N.T. of paideia, old Greek for training a pais (boy or
girl) and so for the general education and culture of the child.
Both papyri and inscriptions give examples of this original and
wider sense (Moulton and Milligan, _Vocabulary_). It is possible,
as Thayer gives it, that this is the meaning here in  Eph 6:4 .
In  2Ti 3:16  adults are included also in the use. In  Heb
12:5,7,11  the narrower sense of "chastening" appears which some
argue for here. At any rate 
outhesia (from 
ous, tith(886d)i),
common from Aristophanes on, does have the idea of correction. In
N.T. only here and  1Co 10:11  Tit 3:10 .

經文:

以弗所書 6:5-6:5

註釋:

 {With fear and trembling} (meta phobou kai tromou). This
addition to  Col 3:22 .

經文:

以弗所書 6:6-6:6

註釋:

 {But as servants of Christ} (all' h(9373) douloi Christou).
Better "slaves of Christ" as Paul rejoiced to call himself ( Php
1:1 ). {Doing the will of God} (poiountes to thel(886d)a tou
theou). Even while slaves of men.

經文:

以弗所書 6:7-6:7

註釋:

 {With good will} (met' eunoias). Not in Col. Old word from
eunoos, only here in N.T. as eunoe(935c) is in N.T. only in  Mt
5:25 .

經文:

以弗所書 6:8-6:8

註釋:

 {Whatsoever good thing each one doeth} (hekastos ean ti
poi(8873)(8869) agathon). Literally, "each one if he do anything good."
Condition of third class, undetermined, but with prospect. Note
use here of agathon rather than adikon (one doing wrong) in
 Col 3:25 . So it is a reward (komisetai) for good, not a
penalty for wrong, though both are true, "whether he be bond or
free" (eite doulos eite eleutheros).

經文:

以弗所書 6:9-6:9

註釋:

 {And forbear threatening} (anientes t(886e) apeil(886e)). Present
active participle of ani(886d)i, old verb, to loosen up, to relax.
"Letting up on threatening." Apeil(885c) is old word for threat, in
N.T. only here and  Ac 4:29  9:1 . {Both their Master and yours}
(kai aut(936e) kai hum(936e) ho kurios). He says to "the lords" (hoi
kurioi) of the slaves. Paul is not afraid of capital nor of
labour. {With him} (par' aut(9369)). "By the side of him (God)."

經文:

以弗所書 6:10-6:10

註釋:

 {Finally} (	ou loipou). Genitive case, "in respect of the
rest," like  Ga 6:17 . D G K L P have the accusative 	o loipon
(as for the rest) like  2Th 3:1  Php 3:1  4:8 . {Be strong in the
Lord} (endunamousthe en kuri(9369)). A late word in LXX and N.T.
( Ac 9:22  Ro 4:20  Php 4:13 ), present passive imperative of
endunamo(935c), from en and dunamis, to empower. See  1:10  for
"in the strength of his might." Not a hendiadys.

經文:

以弗所書 6:11-6:11

註釋:

 {Put on} (endusasthe). Like  3:12 . See also  4:24 . {The
whole armour} (	(886e) panoplian). Old word from panoplos (wholly
armed, from pan, hoplon). In N.T. only  Lu 11:22  Eph 6:11,13 .
Complete armour in this period included "shield, sword, lance,
helmet, greaves, and breastplate" (Thayer). Our "panoply."
Polybius gives this list of Thayer. Paul omits the lance (spear).
Our museums preserve specimens of this armour as well as the
medieval coat-of-mail. Paul adds girdle and shoes to the list of
Polybius, not armour but necessary for the soldier. Certainly
Paul could claim knowledge of the Roman soldier's armour, being
chained to one for some three years. {That ye may be able to
stand} (pros to dunasthai hum(8373) st(886e)ai). Purpose clause with
pros to and the infinitive (dunasthai) with the accusative of
general reference (hum(8373)) and the second aorist active
infinitive st(886e)ai (from hist(886d)i) dependent on dunasthai.
Against (pros). Facing. Another instance of pros meaning
"against" ( Col 2:23 ). {The wiles of the devil} (	as methodias
tou diabolou). See already  4:14  for this word. He is a crafty
foe and knows the weak spots in the Christian's armour.

經文:

以弗所書 6:12-6:12

註釋:

 {Our wrestling is not} (ouk estin h(886d)in h(8820)pal(885c)). "To us
the wrestling is not." Pal(885c) is an old word from pall(935c), to
throw, to swing (from Homer to the papyri, though here only in
N.T.), a contest between two till one hurls the other down and
holds him down (katech(935c)). Note pros again (five times) in
sense of "against," face to face conflict to the finish. {The
world-rulers of this darkness} (	ous kosmokratoras tou skotous
toutou). This phrase occurs here alone. In  Joh 14:30  Satan is
called "the ruler of this world" (ho arch(936e) tou kosmou toutou).
In  2Co 4:4  he is termed "the god of this age" (ho theos tou
ai(936e)os toutou). The word kosmokrat(9372) is found in the Orphic
Hymns of Satan, in Gnostic writings of the devil, in rabbinical
writings (transliterated) of the angel of death, in inscriptions
of the Emperor Caracalla. These "world-rulers" are limited to
"this darkness" here on earth. {The spiritual hosts of
wickedness} (	a pneumatika t(8873) pon(8872)ias). No word for "hosts"
in the Greek. Probably simply, "the spiritual things (or
elements) of wickedness." Pon(8872)ia (from pon(8872)os) is depravity
( Mt 22:18  1Co 5:8 ). {In the heavenly places} (en tois
epouraniois). Clearly so here. Our "wrestling" is with foes of
evil natural and supernatural. We sorely need "the panoply of
God" (furnished by God).

經文:

以弗所書 6:13-6:13

註釋:

 {Take up} (analabete). Second aorist active imperative of
analamban(935c), old word and used (analab(936e)) of "picking up" Mark
in  2Ti 4:11 . {That ye may be able to withstand} (hina
dun(8874)h(8874)e antist(886e)ai). Final clause with hina and first aorist
passive subjunctive of dunamai with antist(886e)ai (second aorist
active infinitive of anthist(886d)i, to stand face to face,
against). {And having done all to stand} (kai hapanta katergasa
menoi st(886e)ai). After the fight (wrestle) is over to stand
(st(886e)ai) as victor in the contest. Effective aorist here.

經文:

以弗所書 6:14-6:14

註釋:

 {Stand therefore} (st(8874)e oun). Second aorist active
imperative of hist(886d)i (intransitive like the others).
Ingressive aorist here, "Take your stand therefore" (in view of
the arguments made). {Having girded your loins with truth}
(periz(9373)amenoi t(886e) osphun hum(936e) en al(8874)hei(8369)). First aorist
middle participle (antecedent action) of periz(936e)nu(935c), old verb,
to gird around, direct middle (gird yourselves) in  Lu 12:37 ;
but indirect here with accusative of the thing, "having girded
your own loins." So endusamenoi (having put on) is indirect
middle participle. {The breast-plate of righteousness} (	on
th(9372)aka t(8873) dikaiosun(8873)). Old word for breast and then for
breastplate. Same metaphor of righteousness as breastplate in
 1Th 5:8 .

經文:

以弗所書 6:15-6:15

註釋:

 {Having shod} (hupod(8873)amenoi). "Having bound under"
(sandals). First aorist middle participle of hupode(935c), old word,
to bind under ( Mr 6:9  Ac 12:8 , only other N.T. example). {With
the preparation} (en hetoimasi(8369)). Late word from hetoimaz(935c),
to make ready, only here in N.T. Readiness of mind that comes
from the gospel whose message is peace.

經文:

以弗所書 6:16-6:16

註釋:

 {Taking up} (analabontes). See verse  13 . {The shield of
faith} (	on thureon t(8873) piste(9373)). Late word in this sense a
large stone against the door in Homer, from 	hura, door, large
and oblong (Latin _scutum_), aspis being smaller and circular,
only here in N.T. {To quench} (sbesai). First aorist active
infinitive of sbennumi, old word, to extinguish ( Mt 12:20 ).
{All the fiery darts} (panta ta bel(8820)ta pepur(936d)ena). Belos is
an old word for missile, dart (from all(935c), to throw), only here
in N.T. Pepur(936d)ena is perfect passive participle of puro(935c),
old verb, to set on fire, from pur (fire). These darts were
sometimes ablaze in order to set fire to the enemies' clothing or
camp or homes just as the American Indians used to shoot poisoned
arrows.

經文:

以弗所書 6:17-6:17

註釋:

 {The helmet of salvation} (	(886e) perikephalaian tou
s(9374)(8872)iou). Late word (peri, kephal(885c), head, around the head),
in Polybius, LXX,  1Th 5:8  Eph 6:17  alone in N.T. {Which is the
word of God} (ho estin to r(886d)a tou theou). Explanatory relative
(ho) referring to the sword (machairan). The sword given by
the Spirit to be wielded as offensive weapon (the others
defensive) by the Christian is the word of God. See  Heb 4:12 
where the word of God is called "sharper than any two-edged
sword."

經文:

以弗所書 6:18-6:18

註釋:

 {At all seasons} (en panti kair(9369)). "On every occasion."
Prayer is needed in this fight. The panoply of God is necessary,
but so is prayer.

        "Satan trembles when he sees
         The weakest saint upon his knees."

經文:

以弗所書 6:19-6:19

註釋:

 {That utterance may be given unto me} (hina moi doth(8869)
logos). Final clause with hina and first aorist passive
subjunctive of did(936d)i, to give. See a like request in  Col
4:3 . Paul wishes their prayer for courage for himself.

經文:

以弗所書 6:20-6:20

註釋:

 {For which I am an ambassador in chains} (huper hou
presbeu(9320)en halusei). "For which mystery" of the gospel (verse
 19 ). Presbeu(935c) is an old word for ambassador (from presbus,
an old man) in N.T. only here and  2Co 5:20 . Paul is now an old
man (presbut(8873),  Phm 1:9 ) and feels the dignity of his
position as Christ's ambassador though "in a chain" (en
halusei, old word halusis, from a privative and lu(935c), to
loosen). Paul will wear a chain at the close of his life in Rome
( 2Ti 1:16 ). {In it} (en aut(9369)). In the mystery of the gospel.
This is probably a second purpose (hina), the first for
utterance (hina doth(8869)), this for boldness (hina
parr(8873)ias(936d)ai, first aorist middle subjunctive, old word to
speak out boldly). See  1Th 2:2 . See  Col 4:4  for "as I ought."

經文:

以弗所書 6:21-6:21

註釋:

 {That ye also may know} (hina eid(8874)e kai humeis). Final
clause with hina and second perfect subjunctive active of
oida. For Tychicus, see  Col 4:7f .

經文:

以弗所書 6:22-6:22

註釋:

 {That ye may know} (hina gn(9374)e). Second aorist active
subjunctive of gin(9373)k(935c). Just as in  Col 4:8  he had not written
hina eid(8874)e in verse  21 . {Our state} (	a peri h(886d)(936e)). "The
things concerning us," practically the same as 	a kat' eme of
verse  21 . See both phrases in  Col 4:7,8 .

經文:

以弗所書 6:23-6:23

註釋:

 {Love and faith} (agap(8820)meta piste(9373)). Love of the
brotherhood accompanied by faith in Christ and as an expression
of it.

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