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                     THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES
                      BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION

        But for the Acts we should know nothing of the early
apostolic period save what is told in the Epistles. There are
various apocryphal "Acts," but they are without historical worth.
Hence the importance of this book.

                         LUKE THE AUTHOR

        It ought to be possible to assume this as a fact since
the work of Ramsay and Harnack on various phases of the problems
concerning the Acts. Harnack, in particular, has covered the
ground with his accustomed thoroughness and care in his two
volumes (_The Acts of the Apostles_, English Translation by Rev.
J. R. Wilkinson, 1909; _The Date of the Acts and the Synoptic
Gospels_, English Translation by Rev. J. R. Wilkinson, 1911).
Ramsay's view may be found in Chapter I of _St. Paul the
Traveller and the Roman Citizen_, Chapter XII of _Pauline and
Other Studies_. A good summary of the matter appears in Part V of
_The Synoptic Gospels and the Book of Acts_ by Dr. D. A. Hayes,
in Robertson's _Luke the Historian in the Light of Research_, and
in the introduction to the various commentaries by Knowling,
Rackham, Furneaux, Rendall, Hackett, Meyer-Wendt, Zahn, Blass,
Campbell-Morgan, Stokes. In Part I of _The Acts of the Apostles_,
Vol. II of _The Beginnings of Christianity_, edited by
Foakes-Jackson and Kirsopp Lake both sides are ably presented:
_The Case for the Tradition_ by C. W. Emmet, _The Case against
the Tradition_ by H. Windisch. _The Internal Evidence of Acts_ is
discussed by the Editors, Foakes-Jackson and Lake, with an
adverse conclusion against Luke. Henry J. Cadbury surveys _The
Tradition_ (the external evidence) and draws a negative
conclusion likewise on the ground that the early writers who
ascribe Acts to Luke were not critical scholars. A similar
position is taken by Cadbury in his more recent volume, _The
Making of Luke--Acts_ (1927). But all the same the traditional
view that Luke is the author of the Acts holds the field with
those who are not prejudiced against it. The view of Baur that
Acts is a _Tendenz_ writing for the purpose of healing the breach
between Peter and Paul and showing that the two factions came
together had great influence for a while. In fact both Ramsay and
Harnack at first held it. Ramsay broke away first and he was
followed by Harnack. Both were influenced to change their views
by the accumulation of evidence to the effect that the author of
both the Gospel and Acts is Luke the Physician and Friend of
Paul. Part of this evidence has already been given in the
Introduction to the Gospel according to Luke.

                  THE AUTHOR OF THE GOSPEL ALSO

        The author of the Acts expressly states that he wrote
"the first treatise (	on pr(9374)on logon) concerning all things, O
Theophilus, that Jesus began both to do and to teach until which
day he gave command through the Holy Spirit to the apostles whom
he had chosen and was received up" ( Ac 1:1f. ). There is no room
for dispute that the reference is directly to the Gospel
according to Luke as we have it now. Like the Gospel the book is
dedicated to Theophilus. And, what is even more important, the
same style appears in both Gospel and Acts. This fact Harnack has
shown with great pains and conclusiveness. There is the same
interest in medical matters and even Cadbury, who denies by
implication the Lukan authorship, admits identity of authorship
for both books.

                      THE UNITY OF THE ACTS

        There are some scholars who are willing to admit the
Lukan authorship of the "we" sections when the author uses "we"
and "us" as in chapter  16:10-40  20:6-28:31 . It has been argued
that Luke wrote a travel-document or diary for these sections,
but that this material was used by the editor or redactor of the
whole book. But, unfortunately for that view, the very same style
appears in the Acts as a whole and in the Gospel also as Harnack
has proven. The man who said "we" and "us" in the "we" sections
wrote "I" in  1:1  and refers to the Gospel as his work. The
effort to disprove the unity of the Acts has failed. It stands as
the work of the same author as a whole and the same author who
wrote the Gospel.

                       SOURCES OF THE ACTS

        Beyond a doubt Luke employed a variety of sources for
this great history as he did for the Gospel ( Lu 1:1-4 ). In
fact, Cadbury argues that this Prologue was meant to apply to the
Acts also as Volume II whether he intended to write a third
volume or not. Certainly we are entitled to say that Luke used
the same historical method for Acts. Some of these sources are
easy to see. Luke had his own personal experience for the "we"
sections. Then he had the benefit of Paul's own notes or
suggestions for all that portion where Paul figures from chapters
8 to 28, since Luke was apparently with Paul in Rome when he
finished the Book. This would include Paul's sermons and
addresses which Luke gives unless one wishes to say, as some do,
that Luke followed the style of Thucydides and composed the kind
of addresses that he thought Paul would make. I see no evidence
of that for each address differs from the others and suits
precisely the occasion when it was delivered. The ancients
frequently employed shorthand and Paul may have preserved notes
of his addresses. Prof. C. C. Torrey, of Yale University, argues
in his _Composition and Date of Acts_ (1916) that Luke used an
Aramaic document for the first fifteen chapters of the Acts.
There is an Aramaic element in certain portions of these
chapters, but nothing like so pronounced as in Luke 1 and 2 after
 Lu 1:1-4 . It cannot be said that Torrey has made out his case
for such a single document. Luke may have had several such
documents besides access to others familiar with the early days
of the work in Jerusalem. There was Simon Peter whom Paul visited
for two weeks in Jerusalem ( Ga 1:18 ) besides other points of
contact with him in Jerusalem and Antioch ( Ac 15  and  Ga 2 ).
There was also Barnabas who was early Paul's friend ( Ac 9:27 )
and who knew the beginnings as few did ( Ac 4:36f. ). Besides
many others it is to be observed that Paul with Luke made a
special visit to Caesarea where he spent a week with the gifted
Philip and his daughters with the gift of prophecy ( Ac 21:8f. ).
But with all the inevitable variety of sources for the
information needed to cover the wide field of the Book of Acts
the same mind has manifestly worked through it and it is the same
style all through that appears in the "we" sections where the
writer is confessedly a companion of Paul. No other companion of
Paul carries this claim for the authorship and no other was a
physician and no author has the external evidence from early
writers.

                             THE DATE

        There are three views about the date of the Acts. Baur
and his Tubingen School held the second century to be the date of
this late pamphlet as they termed it after the fashion of the
Clementine Homilies. But that view is now practically abandoned
save by the few who still strangely oppose the Lukan authorship.
Probably the majority of those who accept the Lukan authorship
place it in the latter part of the first century for two reasons.
One is that the Gospel according to Luke is dated by them after
the destruction of Jerusalem because of the prophecy by Jesus of
the encompassing of the city by armies. Predictive prophecy that
would be and so it is considered a prophecy _post eventum_. The
other reason is the alleged use of the _Antiquities_ of Josephus
by Luke. Josephus finished this work A.D. 93 so that, if Luke did
use it, he must have written the Acts after that date. Usually
this argument is made to show that Luke could not have written it
at all, but some hold that he may have lived to an age that would
allow it. But it cannot be assumed that Luke used Josephus
because of his mention of Theudas and Judas the Galilean. They
differ so widely ( Ac 5:36f . and Josephus, _Ant_. XX. v, 1, 2)
that Von Dobschutz (_Dictionary of the Apostolic Church_, art.
Josephus) argues that the two accounts are entirely independent
of each other. So Luke ( Lu 13:1f. ) alludes to a Galilean revolt
not mentioned by Josephus and Josephus records three revolts
under Pilate not referred to by Luke. A comparison of the
accounts of the death of Agrippa I in  Ac 12:20-23  and _Ant_.
XIX. viii, 2 redounds to the credit of Luke. The Josephus phase
of the argument may be brushed to one side. The third view, held
by Harnack and adopted here, is that Luke wrote the Acts while
with Paul in Rome and finished the book before Paul's release,
that is by A.D. 63. This is the obvious and natural way to take
the language of Luke at the close of Acts. Events had gone no
farther and so he ends the narrative right there. It is argued
against this that Luke contemplated a third volume and for this
reason closed with the arrival of Paul in Rome. But the use of
pr(9374)on (first) in  Ac 1:1  is a common _Koin(825f) idiom and does
not imply three volumes any more than first and second stories
with us means that the house has three. Of course this date for
the Acts puts the date of the Gospel further back either in
Caesarea (57 to 59) or in Rome (60 to 62). And that means that
Mark's Gospel is still earlier since Luke used it for his Gospel
and the Logia (Q) earlier still. But all these dates are probable
in the light of all the known facts.

                       THE HISTORICAL VALUE

        It was once a fad with a certain school of critics to
decry Luke in the Acts as wholly untrustworthy, not above the
legendary stage. But the spade has done well by Luke for
inscriptions and papyri have brought remarkable confirmation for
scores of points where Luke once stood all alone and was
discounted because he stood alone. These will be duly noted in
the proper places as they occur. Ramsay has done most in this
restoration of the rank of Luke as a credible historian, as shown
in particular in his _St. Paul the Traveller and the Roman
Citizen_ and in _The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the
Trustworthiness of the New Testament_. In every instance where
discoveries have been made they have confirmed the testimony of
Luke as concerning _politarchs_ in Thessalonica, _proconsul_ in
Cyprus, etc. The result is that the balance of evidence is now in
favour of Luke even when he still stands alone or seems to be
opposed by Josephus. Luke, as it stands today, is a more credible
historian than Josephus. Ramsay dares to call Luke, all things
considered, the greatest of all historians, even above
Thucydides. An interesting book on this phase of the subject is
Chase's _The Credibility of the Acts of the Apostles_ (1902).

                     THE PURPOSE OF THE ACTS

        It is not easy to say in a word precisely the object of
Luke in writing this book. It is not the Acts of all the
apostles. Outside of Peter and John little is told of any of them
after chapter 3. And all the acts of Peter and John are not given
for Peter disappears from the narrative after chapter 15, though
he has been the central figure through chapter 11. Paul is not
one of the twelve apostles, but Luke follows Paul's career mainly
after chapter 8. Stephen and Barnabas come in also. Still (_St.
Paul on Trial_, 1923) argues that Luke meant the book as an
apology to be used in Paul's trial at Rome or at any rate to put
Paul in the right light with the Jews in Rome. Hence the full
account of Paul's series of defences in Jerusalem, Caesarea,
Rome. There may be an element of truth in this idea, but it
clearly does not cover the whole purpose of Luke. Others hold
that Luke had a dramatic plan to get Paul to Rome as the climax
of his campaign to win the Roman Empire to Christ. The book is
not a history of all early Christianity. Peter and Paul dominate
the atmosphere of the book with Paul as the great hero of Luke.
But one can easily see that the work is done with consummate
skill. The author is a man of culture, of Christian grace, of
literary power. The book pulses with life today.

                       THE TEXT OF THE ACTS

        A special problem arises concerning the text of Acts
inasmuch as the Codex Bezae (D) with some other Western support
presents a great many additions to the Neutral-Alexandrian text
of Aleph A B C. Blass has even proposed the idea that Luke
himself issued two editions of the book, an attractive hypothesis
that is not generally accepted. J. M. Wilson has published _The
Acts of the Apostles from Codex Bezae_. The whole subject is
elaborately treated by J. H. Ropes in Vol. III, _The Text of
Acts_ in Part I of _The Beginnings of Christianity_. Besides
thorough discussion of all the problems of text involved Ropes
gives the text of the Vatican Codex (B) on the left page and that
of Codex Bezae (D) on the right, making comparison easy. Blass's
ideas appear in his _Acta Apostolorum_.

經文:

使徒行傳 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 _The Title_ is simply _Acts_ (Praxeis) in Aleph, Origen,
Tertullian, Didymus, Hilary, Eusebius, Epiphanius. _The Acts of
the Apostles_ (Praxeis apostol(936e)) is the reading of B D (Aleph
in subscription) Athanasius, Origen, Tertullian, Cyprian,
Eusebius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Theodoret, Hilary. _The Acts of the
Holy Apostles_ (Praxeis t(936e) hagi(936e) apostol(936e)) is read by A2 E G
H A K Chrysostom. It is possible that the book was given no title
at all by Luke, for it is plain that usage varied greatly even in
the same writers. The long title as found in the Textus Receptus
(Authorized Version) is undoubtedly wrong with the adjective
"Holy." The reading of B D, "_The Acts of the Apostles_," may be
accepted as probably correct.

{The former treatise} (	on men pr(9374)on). Literally, the first
treatise. The use of the superlative is common enough and by no
means implies, though it allows, a third volume. This use of
pr(9374)os where only two are compared is seen between the Baptist
and Jesus ( Joh 1:15 ), John and Peter ( Joh 20:4 ). The idiom is
common in the papyri (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 662, 669). The
use of men solitarium here, as Hackett notes, is common in
Acts. It is by no means true that men requires a following de
by contrast. The word is merely a weakened form of m(886e)=surely,
indeed. The reference is to the "first treatise" and merely
emphasizes that. The use of logos (word) for treatise or
historical narrative is common in ancient Greek as in Herodotus 6
and 9. Plato (_Phaedo_, p. 61 B) makes a contrast between
muthos and logos. {I made} (epoi(8873)am(886e)). Aorist middle
indicative, the middle being the usual construction for mental
acts with poie(935c). {O Theophilus} (O Theophile). The
interjection O here as is common, though not in  Lu 1:3 . But
the adjective kratiste (most excellent) is wanting here. See
remarks on Theophilus on 烊u 1:3|. Hackett thinks that he lived
at Rome because of the way Acts ends. He was a man of rank. He
may have defrayed the expense of publishing both Luke and Acts.
Perhaps by this time Luke may have reached a less ceremonious
acquaintance with Theophilus. {Which Jesus began} (h(936e) (8872)xato
I(8873)ous). The relative is attracted from the accusative ha to
the genitive h(936e) because of the antecedent pant(936e) (all). The
language of Luke here is not merely pleonastic as Winer held.
Jesus "began" "both to do and to teach" (poiein te kai
didaskein). Note present infinitives, linear action, still going
on, and the use of 	e--kai binds together the life and
teachings of Jesus, as if to say that Jesus is still carrying on
from heaven the work and teaching of the disciples which he
started while on earth before his ascension. The record which
Luke now records is really the Acts of Jesus as much as the Acts
of the Apostles. Dr. A. T. Pierson called it "The Acts of the
Holy Spirit," and that is true also. The Acts, according to Luke,
is a continuation of the doings and teachings of Jesus. "The
following writings appear intended to give us, and do, in fact,
profess to give us, that which Jesus _continued_ to do and teach
after the day in which he was taken up" (Bernard, _Progress of
Doctrine in the N.T._).

經文:

使徒行傳 1:2-1:2

註釋:

 1Co
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15' or engs='1Co
15'
經文:

使徒行傳 1:3-1:3

註釋:

 {To whom also} (hois kai). He chose them and then also
manifested himself to these very same men that they might have
personal witness to give. {Shewed himself alive} (parest(8873)en
heauton z(936e)ta). To the disciples the first Sunday evening ( Mr
16:14  Lu 24:36-43  Joh 20:19-25 ), the second Sunday evening
( Joh 20:26-29 ), at the Sea of Tiberias ( Joh 21:1-23 ), on the
mountain in Galilee ( Mt 28:16-20  Mr 16:15-18  1Co 15:6 ), to
the disciples in Jerusalem and Olivet ( Lu 24:44-53  Mr 16-19f.  Ac 1:1-11 ). Luke uses this verb parist(886d)i 13 times in the Acts
both transitively and intransitively. It is rendered by various
English words (present, furnish, provide, assist, commend). The
early disciples including Paul never doubted the fact of the
Resurrection, once they were convinced by personal experience. At
first some doubted like Thomas ( Mr 16:14  Lu 24:41  Joh 20:24f.  Mt 28:17 ). But after that they never wavered in their testimony
to their own experience with the Risen Christ, "whereof we are
witnesses" Peter said ( Ac 3:15 ). They doubted at first, that we
may believe, but at last they risked life itself in defence of
this firm faith. {After his passion} (meta to pathein auton).
Neat Greek idiom, meta with the articular infinitive (second
aorist active of pasch(935c)) and the accusative of general
reference, "after the suffering as to him." For pathein used
absolutely of Christ's suffering see also  Ac 17:3  26:23 . {By
many proofs} (en pollois tekm(8872)iois). Literally, "in many
proofs." Tekm(8872)ion is only here in the N.T., though an old and
common word in ancient Greek and occurring in the _Koin(825f)
(papyri, etc.). The verb 	ekmair(935c), to prove by sure signs, is
from 	ekmar, a sign. Luke does not hesitate to apply the
definite word "proofs" to the evidence for the Resurrection of
Christ after full investigation on the part of this scientific
historian. Aristotle makes a distinction between 	ekm(8872)ion
(proof) and s(886d)eion (sign) as does Galen the medical writer.
{Appearing} (optanomenos). Present middle participle from late
verb optan(935c), late _Koin(825f) verb from root opt(935c) seen in
opsomai, (9370)hth(886e). In LXX, papyri of second century B.C.
(Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 83). Only here in
the N.T. For optasia for vision see  Ac 26:19  Lu 1:22  24:23 .
{By the space of forty days} (di' h(886d)er(936e) tesserakonta). At
intervals (dia, between) during the forty days, ten appearances
being known to us. Jesus was not with them continually now in
bodily presence. The period of forty days is given here alone.
The Ascension was thus ten days before Pentecost when the Holy
Spirit came. Moses was in the mount forty days ( Ex 24:18 ) and
Jesus fasted forty days ( Mt 4:2 ). In the Gospel of Luke 24 this
separation of forty days between the Resurrection and the
Ascension is not drawn. {The things concerning the Kingdom of
God} (	a peri t(8873) basileias tou theou). This phrase appears 33
times in Luke's Gospel, 15 times in Mark, 4 times in Matthew who
elsewhere has "the kingdom of heaven," once in John, and 6 times
in Acts. No essential distinction is to be drawn between the two
for the Jews often used "heaven" rather than "God" to avoid using
the Tetragrammaton. But it is noticeable how the word kingdom
drops out of Acts. Other words like gospel (euaggelion) take
the place of "kingdom." Jesus was fond of the word "kingdom" and
Luke is fond of the idiom "the things concerning" (	a peri).
Certainly with Jesus the term "kingdom" applies to the present
and the future and covers so much that it is not strange that the
disciples with their notions of a political Messianic kingdom
( Ac 1:6 ) were slow to comprehend the spiritual nature of the
reign of God.

經文:

使徒行傳 1:4-1:4

註釋:

 {Being assembled together with them} (sunalizomenos).
Present passive participle from sunaliz(935c), an old verb in
Herodotus, Xenophon, etc., from sun, with, and haliz(935c), from
hal(8873), crowded. The margin of both the Authorized and the
Revised Versions has "eating with them" as if from sun and
hals (salt). Salt was the mark of hospitality. There is the
verb halisth(8874)e en aut(9369) used by Ignatius _Ad Magnes_. X, "Be
ye salted in him." But it is more than doubtful if that is the
idea here though the Vulgate does have _convescens illis_ "eating
with them," as if that was the common habit of Jesus during the
forty days (Wendt, Feine, etc.). Jesus did on occasion eat with
the disciples ( Lu 24:41-43  Mr 16:14 ). {To wait for the promise
of the Father} (perimenein t(886e) epaggelian tou patros). Note
present active infinitive, to keep on waiting for (around,
peri). In the Great Commission on the mountain in Galilee this
item was not given ( Mt 28:16-20 ). It is the subjective
genitive, the promise given by the Father (note this Johannine
use of the word), that is the Holy Spirit ("the promise of the
Holy Spirit," objective genitive). {Which ye heard from me} (h(886e)
(886b)ousate mou). Change from indirect discourse (command),
infinitives ch(9372)izesthai and perimenein after par(8867)geilen
to direct discourse without any eph(885c) (said he) as the English
(Italics). Luke often does this (_oratior ariata_). Note also the
ablative case of mou (from me). Luke continues in verse  5 
with the direct discourse giving the words of Jesus.

經文:

使徒行傳 1:5-1:5

註釋:

 {Baptized with water} (ebaptisen hudati) {and with the Holy
Ghost} (en pneumati baptisth(8873)esthe hagi(9369)). The margin has "in
the Holy Ghost" (Spirit, it should be). The American Standard
Version renders "in" both with "water" and "Holy Spirit" as do
Goodspeed (American Translation) and Mrs. Montgomery (Centenary
Translation). John's own words ( Mt 3:11 ) to which Jesus
apparently refers use en (in) both with water and Spirit. There
is a so-called instrumental use of en where we in English have
to say "with" ( Re 13:10  en machair(8869), like machair(8869),  Ac
12:2 ). That is to say en with the locative presents the act as
located in a certain instrument like a sword (Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 589f.). But the instrumental case is more common
without en (the locative and instrumental cases having the same
form). So it is often a matter of indifference which idiom is
used as in  Joh 21:8  we have 	(9369) ploiari(9369) (locative without
en). They came {in} (locative case without en) the boat. So
in  Joh 1:31  en hudati baptiz(936e) baptizing in water. No
distinction therefore can be insisted on here between the
construction hudati and en pneumati (both being in the
locative case, one without, one with en). Note unusual position
of the verb aptisth(8873)esthe (future passive indicative) between
pneumati and hagi(9369). This baptism of the Holy Spirit was
predicted by John ( Mt 3:11 ) as the characteristic of the
Messiah's work. Now the Messiah himself in his last message
before his Ascension proclaims that in a few days the fulfilment
of that prophecy will come to pass. The Codex Bezae adds here
"which ye are about to receive" and "until the Pentecost" to
verse  5 . {Not many days hence} (ou meta pollas tautas
h(886d)eras). A neat Greek idiom difficult to render smoothly into
English: "Not after many days these." The litotes (not many=few)
is common in Luke ( Lu 7:6  15:13  Ac 17:27  19:11  20:12  21:39  28:14  28:2 ). The predicate use of 	autas (without article) is
to be noted. "These" really means as a starting point, "from
these" (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 702). It was ten days hence.
This idiom occurs several times in Luke ( Lu 24:21  Ac 24:21 ),
as elsewhere ( Joh 4:18  2Pe 3:1 ). In  Lu 2:12  the copula is
easily supplied as it exists in  Lu 1:36  2:2 .

經文:

使徒行傳 1:6-1:6

註釋:

 {They therefore} (hoi men oun). Demonstrative use of hoi
with men oun without any corresponding de just as in  1:1 
men occurs alone. The combination men oun is common in Acts
(27 times). Cf.  Lu 3:18 . The oun is resumptive and refers to
the introductory verses ( 1:1-5 ), which served to connect the
Acts with the preceding Gospel. The narrative now begins. {Asked}
((8872)(9374)(936e)). Imperfect active, repeatedly asked before Jesus
answered. {Lord} (kurie). Here not in the sense of "sir" ( Mt
21:30 ), but to Jesus as Lord and Master as often in Acts
( 19:5,10 , etc.) and in prayer to Jesus ( 7:59 ). {Dost thou
restore} (ei apokathistaneis). The use of ei in an indirect
question is common. We have already seen its use in direct
questions ( Mt 12:10  Lu 13:23  which see for discussion),
possibly in imitation of the Hebrew (frequent in the LXX) or as a
partial condition without conclusion. See also  Ac 7:1  19:2  21:37  22:25 . The form of the verb apokathistan(935c) is late (also
apokathista(935c)) omega form for the old and common
apokathist(886d)i, double compound, to restore to its former state.
As a matter of fact the Messianic kingdom for which they are
asking is a political kingdom that would throw off the hated
Roman yoke. It is a futuristic present and they are uneasy that
Jesus may yet fail to fulfil their hopes. Surely here is proof
that the eleven apostles needed the promise of the Father before
they began to spread the message of the Risen Christ. They still
yearn for a political kingdom for Israel even after faith and
hope have come back. They need the enlightenment of the Holy
Spirit ( Joh 14-16 ) and the power of the Holy Spirit ( Ac
1:4f. ).

經文:

使徒行傳 1:7-1:7

註釋:

 {Times or seasons} (chronous (8820)kairous). "Periods" and
"points" of time sometimes and probably so here, but such a
distinction is not always maintained. See  Ac 17:26  for
kairous in the same sense as chronous for long periods of
time. But here some distinction seems to be called for. It is
curious how eager people have always been to fix definite dates
about the second coming of Christ as the apostles were about the
political Messianic kingdom which they were expecting. {Hath set}
(etheto). Second aorist middle indicative, emphasizing the
sovereignty of the Father in keeping all such matters to himself,
a gentle hint to people today about the limits of curiosity. Note
also "his own" (idi(8369)) "authority" (exousi(8369)).

經文:

使徒行傳 1:8-1:8

註釋:

 {Power} (dunamin). Not the "power" about which they were
concerned (political organization and equipments for empire on
the order of Rome). Their very question was ample proof of their
need of this new "power" (dunamin), to enable them (from
dunamai, to be able), to grapple with the spread of the gospel
in the world. {When the Holy Ghost is come upon you}
(epelthontos tou hagiou pneumatos eph' humas). Genitive
absolute and is simultaneous in time with the preceding verb
"shall receive" (l(886d)psesthe). The Holy Spirit will give them
the "power" as he comes upon them. This is the baptism of the
Holy Spirit referred to in verse  5 . {My witnesses} (mou
martures). Correct text. "Royal words of magnificent and Divine
assurance" (Furneaux). Our word martyrs is this word martures.
In  Lu 24:48  Jesus calls the disciples "witnesses to these
things" (martures tout(936e), objective genitive). In  Ac 1:22  an
apostle has to be a "witness to the Resurrection" of Christ and
in  10:39  to the life and work of Jesus. Hence there could be no
"apostles" in this sense after the first generation. But here the
apostles are called "my witnesses." "His by a direct personal
relationship" (Knowling). The expanding sphere of their witness
when the Holy Spirit comes upon them is "unto the uttermost part
of the earth" (he(9373) eschatou t(8873) g(8873)). Once they had been
commanded to avoid Samaria ( Mt 10:5 ), but now it is included in
the world program as already outlined on the mountain in Galilee
( Mt 28:19  Mr 16:15 ). Jesus is on Olivet as he points to
Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria, the uttermost (last, eschatou) part
of the earth. The program still beckons us on to world conquest
for Christ. "The Acts themselves form the best commentary on
these words, and the words themselves might be given as the best
summary of the Acts" (Page). The events follow this outline
(Jerusalem till the end of chapter 7, with the martyrdom of
Stephen, the scattering of the saints through Judea and Samaria
in chapter 8, the conversion of Saul, chapter 9, the spread of
the gospel to Romans in Caesarea by Peter (chapter 10), to Greeks
in Antioch (chapter 11), finally Paul's world tours and arrest
and arrival in Rome (chapters 11 to 28).

經文:

使徒行傳 1:9-1:9

註釋:

 1Ti
3:16 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ti
3' or engs='1Ti
3'
經文:

使徒行傳 1:10-1:10

註釋:

 {Were looking steadfastly} (atenizontes (8873)an).
Periphrastic imperfect active of ateniz(935c), a late intensive verb
(intensive a and 	ein(935c), to stretch). Common in Acts and also
in  Lu 4:20  22:56  as well as  Ac 10:4 , which see. {As he went}
(poreuomenou autou). Genitive absolute of present middle
participle. They saw him slipping away from their eyes as the
cloud bore him away. {Stood by them} (pareist(886b)eisan autois).
Past perfect active indicative of parist(886d)i and intransitive
(note i in B instead of ei for augment, mere itacism).

經文:

使徒行傳 1:11-1:11

註釋:

 {Who also} (hoi kai). Common use of kai pleonastic to
show that the two events were parallel. This is the simplest way
from Homer on to narrate two parallel events. {Why?} (	i).
Jesus had told them of his coming Ascension ( Joh 6:62  20:17 )
so that they should have been prepared. {This Jesus} (houtos ho
I(8873)ous). _Qui vobis fuit eritque semper Jesus, id est, Salvator_
(Corn. a Lapide). The personal name assures them that Jesus will
always be in heaven a personal friend and divine Saviour
(Knowling). {So in like manner} (hout(9373) hon tropon). Same idea
twice. "So in which manner" (incorporation of antecedent and
accusative of general reference). The fact of his second coming
and the manner of it also described by this emphatic repetition.

經文:

使徒行傳 1:12-1:12

註釋:

 {Olivet} (Elai(936e)os). Genitive singular. Vulgate
_Olivetum_. Made like ampel(936e). Here only in the N.T., usually
	o oros t(936e) Elai(936e) (the Mount of Olives), though some MSS. have
Olivet in  Lu 19:29  21:37 . Josephus (_Ant_. VII. 9, 2) has it
also and the papyri (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p.
170). {A sabbath day's journey off} (Sabbatou ech(936e) hodon).
Luke only says here that Olivet is a Sabbath day's journey from
Jerusalem, not that Jesus was precisely that distance when he
ascended. In the Gospel Luke ( 24:50 ) states that Jesus led them
"over against" (he(9373) pros) Bethany (about two miles or fifteen
furlongs). The top of Olivet is six furlongs or three-fourths of
a mile. The Greek idiom here is "having a journey of a Sabbath"
after "which is nigh unto Jerusalem" (ho estin eggus
Ierousal(886d)), note the periphrastic construction. Why Luke
mentions this item for Gentile readers in this form is not known,
unless it was in his Jewish source. See  Ex 16:29  Nu 35:5  Jos
3:4 . But it does not contradict what he says in  Lu 24:50 ,
where he does not say that Jesus led them all the way to Bethany.

經文:

使徒行傳 1:13-1:13

註釋:

 {Into the upper chamber} (eis to huper(9369)on). The upstairs
or upper room (huper is upper or over, the adjective
huper(9369)os), the room upstairs where the women staid in Homer,
then a room up under the flat roof for retirement or prayer ( Ac
9:37,39 ), sometimes a large third story room suitable for
gatherings ( Ac 20:9 ). It is possible, even probable, that this
is the "large upper room" (an(9367)eon mega) of  Mr 14:15  Lu
22:12 . The Vulgate has _coenaculum_ for both words. The word is
used in the N.T. only in Acts. It was in a private house as in
 Lu 22:11  and not in the temple as  Lu 24:53  might imply,
"continually" (dia pantos) these words probably meaning on
proper occasions. {They were abiding} ((8873)an katamenontes).
Periphrastic imperfect active. Perfective use of kata, to abide
permanently. It is possible that this is the house of Mary the
mother of John Mark where the disciples later met for prayer ( Ac
12:12 ). Here alone in the N.T., though old compound. Some MSS.
here read paramenontes. This could mean constant residence, but
most likely frequent resort for prayer during these days, some
being on hand all the time as they came and went. {Simon the
Zealot} (Simon ho Z(886c)(9374)(8873)). Called Simon the Cananaean (ho
Cananaios) in Mt 10:4, Mr 3:18, but Zealot in  Lu 6:16  as
here giving the Greek equivalent of the Aramaic word because Luke
has Gentiles in mind. The epithet (member of the party of
Zealots) clung to him after he became an apostle and
distinguishes him from Simon Peter. See Vol. I on the Gospel of
Matthew for discussion of the four lists of the apostles. {Judas
the son of James} (Joudas Iak(9362)ou). Literally, Judas of James,
whether son or brother (cf.  Jude 1:1 ) we do not really know.
"Of James" is added to distinguish him from Judas Iscariot ( Joh
14:22 ). However we take it, he must be identified with the
Thaddaeus (=Lebbaeus) of Mark and Matthew to make the list in the
third group identical. No name appears in Acts for that of Judas
Iscariot.

經文:

使徒行傳 1:14-1:14

註釋:

 {With one accord} (homothumadon). Old adverb in -don
from adjective homothumos and that from homos, same, and
	humos, mind or spirit, with the same mind or spirit. Common in
ancient Greek and papyri. In the N.T. eleven times in Acts and
nowhere else save  Ro 15:6 . See  Mt 18:19 . {Continued} ((8873)an
proskarterountes). Periphrastic imperfect active of
proskartere(935c), old verb from pros (perfective use) and
kartere(935c) from karteros, strong, steadfast, like the English
"carry on." Already in  Mr 3:9  which see and several times in
Acts and Paul's Epistles. They "stuck to" the praying (	(8869)
proseuch(8869), note article) for the promise of the Father till the
answer came. {With the women} (sun gunaixin). Associative
instrumental case plural of gun(885c) after sun. As one would
expect when praying was the chief work on hand. More women
certainly included than in  Lu 8:2  Mr 15:40f.  Mt 27:55f.  Lu
23:49  Mr 15:47  Mt 27:61  Lu 23:55f.  Mr 16:1  Mt 28:1  Lu
24:1f.  Joh 20:1, 11-18  Mt 28:9f . There were probably other
women also whose testimony was no longer scouted as it had been
at first. Codex Bezae adds here "and children." {And Mary the
mother of Jesus} (kai Mariam t(8869) m(8874)ri tou I(8873)ou). A delicate
touch by Luke that shows Mary with her crown of glory at last.
She had come out of the shadow of death with the song in her
heart and with the realization of the angel's promise and the
prophecy of Simeon. It was a blessed time for Mary. {With his
brethren} (sun tois adelphois autou). With his brothers, it
should be translated. They had once disbelieved in him ( Joh
7:5 ). Jesus had appeared to James ( 1Co 15:7 ) and now it is a
happy family of believers including the mother and brothers
(half-brothers, literally) of Jesus. They continue in prayer for
the power from on high.

經文:

使徒行傳 1:15-1:15

註釋:

 1Co
11:20 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
11' or engs='1Co
11'
經文:

使徒行傳 1:16-1:16

註釋:

 2Pe
1:21 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Pe
1' or engs='2Pe
1'
經文:

使徒行傳 1:17-1:17

註釋:

 {Was numbered} (kat(8872)ithmenos (886e)). Periphrastic past
perfect passive indicative of katarithme(935c), old verb, but here
only in the N.T. (perfective use of kata). {Received his
portion} (elachen ton kl(8872)on). Second aorist active indicative
of lagchan(935c), old verb, to obtain by lot as in  Lu 1:9  Joh
19:24 , especially by divine appointment as here and  2Pe 2:1 .
Kl(8872)os also means lot, an object used in casting lots ( Ac
1:26 ), or what is obtained by lot as here and  8:21 , of eternal
salvation ( Ac 26:18  Col 1:12 ), of persons chosen by divine
appointment ( 1Pe 5:3 ). From this latter usage the Latin
_cleros, clericus_, our clergy, one chosen by divine lot. So
Peter says that Judas "obtained by lot the lot of this ministry"
(diakonias) which he had when he betrayed Jesus. The Master
chose him and gave him his opportunity.

經文:

使徒行傳 1:18-1:18

註釋:

 {Now this man} (Houtos men oun). Note men oun again
without a corresponding de as in  1:6 . Verses  18,19  are a
long parenthesis of Luke by way of explanation of the fate of
Judas. In verse  20  Peter resumes and quotes the scripture to
which he referred in verse  16 . {Obtained} (ekt(8873)ato). First
aorist middle indicative of ktaomai, to acquire, only in the
middle, to get for oneself. With the covenant money for the
betrayal, acquired it indirectly apparently according to  Mt
26:14-16  27:3-8  which see. {Falling headlong} (pr(886e)(8873)
genomenos). Attic form usually pran(8873). The word means, not
"headlong," but "flat on the face" as opposed to huptios on the
back (Hackett). Hackett observes that the place suits admirably
the idea that Judas hung himself ( Mt 27:5 ) and, the rope
breaking, fell flat on his face and {burst asunder in the midst}
(elak(8873)en mesos). First aorist active indicative of lask(935c) old
verb (here only in the N.T.), to clang, to crack, to crash, like
a falling tree. Aristophanes uses it of crashing bones. Mesos
is predicate nominative referring to Judas. {Gushed out}
(exechuth(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of ekche(935c), to
pour out.

經文:

使徒行傳 1:19-1:19

註釋:

 {Language} (dialekt(9369)). Not a dialect of the Greek, but a
different language, the Aramaic. So also in  2:6  21:40 .
Dialektos is from dialegomai, to converse, to speak between
two (dia). {Akeldama} (Hakeldamach). This Aramaic word Peter
explains as "the field of blood." Two traditions are preserved:
one in  Mt 27:7  which explains that the priests purchased this
potter's field with the money which Judas flung down as the price
of the blood of Jesus. The other in Acts describes it as the
field of blood because Judas poured out his blood there. Hackett
and Knowling argue that both views can be true. "The ill-omened
name could be used with a double emphasis" (Hackett).

經文:

使徒行傳 1:20-1:20

註釋:

 {For it is written} (gegraptai gar). Luke here returns to
the address of Peter interrupted by verses  18,19 . Perfect
passive indicative, the usual idiom in quoting scripture, stands
written.  Ps 69  is often quoted as Messianic in Matthew and
John. {His habitation} (h(8820)epaulis autou). Only here in the
N.T., a country house, cottage, cabin. {His office} (	(886e)
episkop(886e) autou). Our word bishopric (Authorized Version) is
from this word, office of bishop (episcopos). Only that is not
the idea here, but over-seership (epi, skope(935c)) or office as in
 1Pe 2:12 . It means to visit and to inspect, to look over. The
ecclesiastical sense comes later ( 1Ti 3:1 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 1:21-1:21

註釋:

 {Must} (dei). Present necessity corresponding to the old
necessity (edei) about Judas (verse  16 ). This sentence in
verses  21,22  begins with dei. {That} (h(9369)). Locative case
of the relative attracted to the case of the antecedent. {Went in
and went out} (eis(886c)then kai ex(886c)then). Constative aorist
active. {With us} (eph' h(886d)as). {Over us}, the margin has it.
But the full phrase would be eph' h(886d)as kai aph' h(886d)(936e). He came
to us and went from us (Knowling).

經文:

使徒行傳 1:22-1:22

註釋:

 {Beginning} (arxamenos). Aorist middle participle of
arch(935c), agreeing (nominative) with ho kurios I(8873)ous (the Lord
Jesus). The ministry of Jesus began with the ministry of John.
Strictly speaking arxamenos should be the accusative and agree
with martura (witness) in verse  22 , but the construction is a
bit free. The ministry of Jesus began with the baptism of John
and lasted until the Ascension. {A witness with us of his
resurrection} (martura t(8873) anastase(9373) autou sun h(886d)in). This
Peter considers the essential thing in a successor to Judas. The
one chosen should be a personal witness who can speak from his
own experience of the ministry, resurrection, and ascension of
the Lord Jesus. One can easily see that this qualification will
soon put an end to those who bear such personal testimony.

經文:

使徒行傳 1:23-1:23

註釋:

 {They put forward two} (est(8873)an duo). First aorist active
indicative (transitive) of hist(886d)i (not intransitive second
aorist, though same form in the third person plural). Somebody
nominated two names, Justus and Matthias.

經文:

使徒行傳 1:24-1:24

註釋:

 {Show us the one whom thou hast chosen} (anadeixon hon
exelex(935c)). First aorist active imperative of anadeiknumi, to
show up, make plain. First aorist middle indicative second person
singular of ekleg(935c), to pick out, choose, select. In this prayer
they assume that God has made a choice. They only wish to know
his will. They call God the {heart-searcher} or {heart-knower}
(kardiogn(9373)ta, vocative singular), a late word, here and  Ac
15:8  only in the N.T. Modern physicians have delicate apparatus
for studying the human heart.

經文:

使徒行傳 1:25-1:25

註釋:

 {Apostleship} (apostol(8873)). Jesus had called the twelve
apostles. An old word for sending away, then for a release, then
the office and dignity of an apostle ( Ac 1:25  Ro 1:5  1Co 9:2  Gal 2:8 ). {To his own place} (eis ton topon ton idion). A bold
and picturesque description of the destiny of Judas worthy of
Dante's _Inferno_. There is no doubt in Peter's mind of the
destiny of Judas nor of his own guilt. He made ready his own
berth and went to it.

經文:

使徒行傳 1:26-1:26

註釋:

 {He was numbered} (sunkateps(8870)histh(885c)). To the Jews the lot
did not suggest gambling, but "the O.T. method of learning the
will of Jehovah" (Furneaux). The two nominations made a decision
necessary and they appealed to God in this way. This double
compound sunkataps(8870)hiz(935c) occurs here alone in the N.T. and
elsewhere only in Plutarch (_Them_. 21) in the middle voice for
condemning with others. Sunps(8870)hiz(935c) occurs in the middle voice
in  Ac 19:19  for counting up money and also in Aristophanes.
Ps(8870)hiz(935c) with dapan(886e) occurs in  Lu 14:28  for counting the
cost and in  Re 13:18  for "counting" the number of the beast.
The ancients used pebbles (ps(8870)hoi) in voting, black for
condemning, white ( Re 2:17 ) in acquitting. Here it is used in
much the same sense as katarithme(935c) in verse  17 .

經文:

使徒行傳 2:1-2:1

註釋:

 {Was now come} (en t(9369) sunpl(8872)ousthai). Luke's favourite
idiom of en with the articular present infinitive passive and
the accusative of general reference, "in the being fulfilled
completely (perfective use of sun-) as to the day of
Pentecost." Common verb, but only in Luke in N.T. In literal
sense of filling a boat in  Lu 8:23 , about days in  Lu 9:51  as
here. Whether the disciples expected the coming of the Holy
Spirit on this day we do not know. Blass holds that the present
tense shows that the day had not yet come. It is a Hebrew idiom
( Ex 7:25 ) and Luke may mean that the day of Pentecost was not
yet over, was still going on, though Hackett takes it for the
interval (fifty days) between Passover and Pentecost. Apparently
this day of Pentecost fell on the Jewish Sabbath (our Saturday).
It was the feast of first fruits. {All together in one place}
(pantes homou epi to auto). All together in the same place.
Note homou here (correct text), not homothumadon as in
 1:14 , and so a bit of tautology.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:2-2:2

註釋:

 {Suddenly} (aphn(935c)). Old adverb, but in the N.T. only in
Acts ( 2:2  16:26  28:6 ). Kin to exaiphn(8873) ( Ac 22:61 ). {A
sound} ((8863)hos). Our echo. Old word, already in  Lu 4:37  for
rumour and  Lu 21:25  for the roar of the sea. It was not wind,
but a roar or reverberation "as of the rushing of a mighty wind"
(h(9373)per pheromen(8873) pno(8873) biaias). This is not a strict
translation nor is it the genitive absolute. It was "an echoing
sound as of a mighty wind borne violently" (or rushing along like
the whirr of a tornado). Pno(885c) (wind) is used here (in the N.T.
only here and  17:25  though old word) probably because of the
use of pneuma in verse  4  of the Holy Spirit. In  Joh 3:5-8 
pneuma occurs for both wind and Spirit. {Filled} (epl(8872)(9373)en).
"As a bath is filled with water, that they might be baptized with
the Holy Ghost, in fulfilment of  Ac 1:5 " (Canon Cook). {They
were sitting} ((8873)an kath(886d)enoi). Periphrastic imperfect middle
of kath(886d)ai.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:3-2:3

註釋:

 {Parting asunder} (diamerizomenai). Present middle (or
passive) participle of diameriz(935c), old verb, to cleave asunder,
to cut in pieces as a butcher does meat (aorist passive in  Lu
11:17f. ). So middle here would mean, parting themselves asunder
or distributing themselves. The passive voice would be "being
distributed." The middle is probably correct and means that "the
fire-like appearance presented itself at first, as it were, in a
single body, and then suddenly parted in this direction and that;
so that a portion of it rested on each of those present"
(Hackett). The idea is not that each tongue was cloven, but each
separate tongue looked like fire, not real fire, but looking like
(h(9373)ei, as if) fire. The audible sign is followed by a visible
one (Knowling). "Fire had always been, with the Jews, the symbol
of the Divine presence (cf.  Ex 3:2  De 5:4 ). No symbol could be
more fitting to express the Spirit's purifying energy and
refining energy" (Furneaux). The Baptist had predicted a
baptizing by the Messiah in the Holy Spirit and in fire ( Mt
3:11 ). {It sat} (ekathisen). Singular verb here, though plural
(9370)th(8873)an with tongues (gl(9373)sai). A tongue that looked like
fire sat upon each one.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:4-2:4

註釋:

 1Co
14:1-33 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
14' or engs='1Co
14'
經文:

使徒行傳 2:5-2:5

註釋:

 {Were dwelling} ((8873)an katoikountes). Periphrastic imperfect
active indicative. Usually katoike(935c) means residence in a place
( 4:16  7:24  9:22,32 ) as in verse  14  ( Luke 13:4 ). Perhaps
some had come to Jerusalem to live while others were here only
temporarily, for the same word occurs in verse  9  of those who
dwell in Mesopotamia, etc. {Devout} (eulabeis). Reverent (eu,
well, lamban(935c), to take). See on 烊u 2:25| like Simeon waiting
for the consolation of Israel or hoping to die and be buried in
the Holy City and also  Ac 8:2 .

經文:

使徒行傳 2:6-2:6

註釋:

 1Co
14:7,8,10 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
14' or engs='1Co
14'
經文:

使徒行傳 2:7-2:7

註釋:

 {Were amazed} (existanto). Imperfect middle of exist(886d)i,
to stand out of themselves, wide-open astonishment. {Marvelled}
(ethaumazon). Imperfect active. The wonder grew and grew.
{Galileans} (Galilaioi). There were few followers of Jesus as
yet from Jerusalem. The Galileans spoke a rude Aramaic ( Mr
14:70 ) and probably crude Greek vernacular also. They were not
strong on language and yet these are the very people who now show
such remarkable linguistic powers. These people who have come
together are all Jews and therefore know Aramaic and the
vernacular _Koin(825f), but there were various local tongues "wherein
we were born" (en h(8869) egenn(8874)h(886d)en). An example is the
Lycaonian ( Ac 14:11 ). These Galilean Christians are now heard
speaking these various local tongues. The lists in verses  9-11 
are not linguistic, but geographical and merely illustrate how
widespread the Dispersion (Diaspora) of the Jews was as
represented on this occasion. Jews were everywhere, these "Jews
among the nations" ( Ac 21:21 ). Page notes four main divisions
here: (I) The Eastern or Babylonian, like the Parthians, Medes,
Elamites, Mesopotamians. (2) The Syrian like Judea, Cappadocia,
Pontus, Asia, Phrygia, Pamphylia. (3) The Egyptian like Egypt,
Libya, Cyrene. (4) The Roman. {Jews and proselytes}
(pros(886c)utoi). These last from proserchomai, to come to, to
join, Gentile converts to Judaism (circumcision, baptism,
sacrifice). This proselyte baptism was immersion as is shown by
I. Abrahams (_Studies in Pharisaism and the Gospels_, p. 38).
Many remained uncircumcised and were called proselytes of the
gate.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:11-2:11

註釋:

 {Cretes and Arabians}. These two groups "seem to have been
added to the list as an afterthought" (Knowling). Crete is an
island to itself and Arabia was separate also though near Judea
and full of Jews. The point is not that each one of these groups
of Jews spoke a different language, but that wherever there was a
local tongue they heard men speaking in it. {We do hear them
speaking} (akouomen lalount(936e) aut(936e)). Genitive case aut(936e)
with akou(935c) the participle lalount(936e) agreeing with aut(936e), a
sort of participial idiom of indirect discourse (Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 1040ff.). {The mighty works} (	a megaleia). Old
adjective for magnificent. In LXX, but only here (not genuine in
 Lu 1:49 ) in the N.T. Cf.  2Pe 1:16  for megaleiot(8873)
(majesty).

經文:

使徒行傳 2:12-2:12

註釋:

 {Were perplexed} (di(8870)orounto). Imperfect middle of
diapore(935c) (dia, a privative, poros) to be wholly at a
loss. Old verb, but in N.T. only in Luke and Acts. They continued
amazed (existanto) and puzzled. {What meaneth this?} (Ti
thelei touto einai). Literally, what does this wish to be?

經文:

使徒行傳 2:13-2:13

註釋:

 {Mocking} (diachleuazontes). Old verb, but only here in
the N.T., though the simple verb (without dia) in  17:32 .
Chleu(885c) means a joke. {With new wine} (gleukous). Sweet wine,
but intoxicating. Sweet wine kept a year was very intoxicating.
Genitive case here after memest(936d)enoi eisin (periphrastic
perfect passive indicative), old verb mesto(935c), only here in the
N.T. Tanked up with new wine, state of fulness.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:14-2:14

註釋:

 {Standing up with the eleven} (statheis sun tois hendeka).
Took his stand with the eleven including Matthias, who also rose
up with them, and spoke as their spokesman, a formal and
impressive beginning. The Codex Bezae has "ten apostles." Luke is
fond of this pictorial use of statheis (first aorist passive
participle of hist(886d)i) as seen nowhere else in the N.T. ( Lu
18:11,40  19:8  Ac 5:20  17:22  27:21 ). {Lifted up his voice}
(ep(8872)en t(886e) ph(936e)(886e) autou). This phrase only in Luke in the N.T.
( Lu 11:29  Ac 2:14  14:11  22:22 ), but is common in the old
writers. First aorist active indicative of epair(935c). The large
crowd and the confusion of tongues demanded loud speaking. "This
most solemn, earnest, yet sober speech" (Bengel). Codex Bezae
adds "first" after "voice." Peter did it to win and hold
attention. {Give ear unto my words} (en(9374)isasthe ta rh(886d)ata
mou). Late verb in LXX and only here in the N.T. First aorist
middle from en(9374)izomai (en, ous, ear) to give ear to, receive
into the ear. People's ears differ greatly, but in public speech
they have to be reached through the ear. That puts an obligation
on the speaker and also on the auditors who should sit where they
can hear with the ears which they have, an obligation often
overlooked.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:15-2:15

註釋:

 {As ye suppose} (h(9373) humeis hupolambanete). Note use of
humeis (ye) for decided emphasis. {The third hour} (h(9372)a
trit(885c)). Three o'clock in the day Jewish time, nine Roman.
Drunkenness belongs to the night ( 1Th 5:7 ). It was a quick,
common sense reply, and complete answer to their suspicion.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:16-2:16

註釋:

 {This is that which hath been spoken by the prophet Joel}
(	outo estin to eir(886d)enon dia tou proph(8874)ou I(9388)l). Positive
interpretation of the supernatural phenomena in the light of the
Messianic prophecy of  Joe 2:28-32 . Peter's mind is now opened
by the Holy Spirit to understand the Messianic prophecy and the
fulfilment right before their eyes. Peter now has spiritual
insight and moral courage. The {power} (dunamis) of the Holy
Spirit has come upon him as he proceeds to give the first
interpretation of the life and work of Jesus Christ since his
Ascension. It is also the first formal apology for Christianity
to a public audience. Peter rises to the height of his powers in
this remarkable sermon. Jesus had foretold that he would be a
Rock and now he is no longer shale, but a solid force for
aggressive Christianity. He follows here in verses  17-21 
closely the LXX text of Joel and then applies the passage to the
present emergency ( 22-24 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 2:17-2:17

註釋:

 {In the last days} (en tais eschatais h(886d)erais). Joel does
not have precisely these words, but he defines "those days" as
being "the day of the Lord" (cf.  Isa 2:2  Mic 4:1 ). {I will
pour forth} (ekche(935c)). Future active indicative of ekche(935c).
This future like edomai and piomai is without tense sign,
probably like the present in the futuristic sense (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 354). Westcott and Hort put a different accent on
the future, but the old Greek had no accent. The old Greek had
ekcheus(935c). This verb means to pour out. {Of my Spirit} (apo tou
pneumatos). This use of apo (of) is either because of the
variety in the manifestations of the Spirit ( 1Co 12 ) or because
the Spirit in his entirety remains with God (Holtzmann, Wendt).
But the Hebrew has it: "I will pour out my Spirit" without the
partitive idea in the LXX. {And your daughters} (kai hai
thugateres h(966d)(936e)). Anna is called a prophetess in  Lu 2:36  and
the daughters of Philip prophesy ( Ac 21:9 ) and verse  18 
(handmaidens). See also  1Co 11:5  (proph(8874)ousa). {Visions}
(horaseis). Late word for the more common horama, both from
hora(935c), to see. In  Re 4:3  it means appearance, but in  Re
9:17  as here an ecstatic revelation or vision. {Dream dreams}
(enupniois enupniasth(8873)ontai). Shall dream with (instrumental
case) dreams. First future passive of enupniaz(935c) from enupnios
(en and hupnos, in sleep), a common late word. Only here in
the N.T. (this from Joel as all these verses  17-21  are) and
 Jude 1:8 . {Yea and} (kai ge). Intensive particle ge added
to kai (and), an emphatic addition (=Hebrew _vegam_).
{Servants} (doulous), {handmaidens} (doulas). Slaves, actual
slaves of men. The humblest classes will receive the Spirit of
God (cf.  1Co 1:26-31 ). But the word "prophesy" here is not in
the LXX (or the Hebrew).

經文:

使徒行傳 2:19-2:19

註釋:

 {Wonders} (	erata). Apparently akin to the verb 	(8872)e(935c),
to watch like a wonder in the sky, {miracle} (miraculum),
marvel, portent. In the New Testament the word occurs only in the
plural and only in connection with s(886d)eia (signs) as here and
in verse  43 . But {signs} (s(886d)eia) here is not in the LXX. See
on  Mt 11:20 . In verse  22  all three words occur together:
powers, wonders, signs (dunamesi, terasi, s(886d)eiois). {As above}
(an(935c)). This word is not in the LXX nor is "beneath" (kat(935c)),
both probably being added to make clearer the contrast between
heaven and earth. {Blood and fire and vapour of smoke} (haima
kai pur kai atmida kapnou). A chiasm as these words illustrate
bloodshed and destruction by fire as signs here on earth.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:20-2:20

註釋:

 1Ti
6:14 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ti
6' or engs='1Ti
6'
經文:

使徒行傳 2:21-2:21

註釋:

 {Shall call on} (epikales(8874)ai). First aorist middle
subjunctive of epikale(935c), common verb, to call to, middle voice
for oneself in need. Indefinite relative clause with ean and so
subjunctive, punctiliar idea, in any single case, and so aorist.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:22-2:22

註釋:

 {Hear these words} (akousate tous logous toutous). Do it
now (aorist tense). With unerring aim Peter has found the
solution for the phenomena. He has found the key to God's work on
this day in his words through Joel. {as ye yourselves know}
(kath(9373) autoi oidate). Note autoi for emphasis. Peter calls
the audience to witness that his statements are true concerning
"Jesus the Nazarene." He wrought his miracles by the power of God
in the midst of these very people here present.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:23-2:23

註釋:

 {Him} (	outon). "This one," resumptive and emphatic object
of "did crucify and slay." {Being delivered up} (ekdoton).
Verbal adjective from ekdid(936d)i, to give out or over. Old word,
but here only in the N.T. Delivered up by Judas, Peter means. {By
the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God} (	(8869)
h(9372)ismen(8869) boul(8869) kai progn(9373)(8869) tou theou). Instrumental case.
Note both purpose (oul(885c)) and foreknowledge (progn(9373)is) of
God and "determined" (h(9372)ismen(885c), perfect passive participle,
state of completion). God had willed the death of Jesus ( Joh
3:16 ) and the death of Judas ( Ac 1:16 ), but that fact did not
absolve Judas from his responsibility and guilt ( Lu 22:22 ). He
acted as a free moral agent. {By the hand} (dia cheiros). Luke
is fond of these figures (hand, face, etc.) very much like the
Hebrew though the vernacular of all languages uses them. {Lawless
men} (anom(936e)). Men without law, who recognize no law for their
conduct, like men in high and low stations today who defy the
laws of God and man. Old word, very common in the LXX. {Ye did
crucify} (prosp(8878)antes). First aorist active participle of
prosp(8867)numi, rare compound word in Dio Cassius and here only in
the N.T. One must supply 	(9369) staur(9369) and so it means "fastened
to the cross," a graphic picture like Paul's "nailed to the
cross" (pros(886c)(9373)as t(9369) staur(9369)) in  Col 2:14 . {Did slay}
(aneilate). Second aorist active indicative with first aorist
vowel a instead of o as is common in the _Koin(825f). This verb
anaire(935c), to take up, is often used for kill as in  Ac 12:2 .
Note Peter's boldness now under the power of the Holy Spirit. He
charges the people to their faces with the death of Christ.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:24-2:24

註釋:

 {God raised up} (ho theos anest(8873)en). _Est hoc summum
orationis_ (Blass). Apparently this is the first public
proclamation to others than believers of the fact of the
Resurrection of Jesus. "At a time it was still possible to test
the statement, to examine witnesses, to expose fraud, the Apostle
openly proclaimed the Resurrection as a fact, needing no
evidence, but known to his hearers" (Furneaux). {The pangs of
death} (	as (9364)inas tou thanatou). Codex Bezae has "Hades"
instead of death. The LXX has (9364)inas thanatou in  Ps 18:4 , but
the Hebrew original means "snares" or "traps" or "cords" of death
where sheol and death are personified as hunters laying snares
for prey. How Peter or Luke came to use the old Greek word
(9364)inas (birth pangs) we do not know. Early Christian writers
interpreted the Resurrection of Christ as a birth out of death.
"Loosing" (lusas) suits better the notion of "snares" held a
prisoner by death, but birth pangs do bring deliverance to the
mother also. {Because} (kathoti). This old conjunction (kata,
hoti) occurs in the N.T. only in Luke's writings. {That he
should be holden} (krateisthai auton). Infinitive present
passive with accusative of general reference and subject of (886e)
adunaton. The figure goes with "loosed" (lusas) above.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:25-2:25

註釋:

 {Concerning him} (eis auton). Peter interprets  Ps
16:8-11  as written by David and with reference to the Messiah.
There is but one speaker in this Psalm and both Peter here and
Paul in  Ac 13:36  make it the Messiah. David is giving his own
experience which is typical of the Messiah (Knowling). {I beheld}
(proor(936d)(886e)). Imperfect middle without augment of proora(935c),
common verb, but only twice in the N.T., to see beforehand ( Ac
21:29 ) or to see right before one as here. This idea of pro-
is made plainer by "before my face" (en(9370)ion mou). {On my right
hand} (ek dexi(936e) mou). The Lord Jehovah like a defender or
advocate stands at David's right hand as in trials in court ( Ps
109:31 ). {That} (hina) here is almost result. {Moved}
(saleuth(935c)). First aorist passive subjunctive of saleu(935c), to
shake like an earthquake.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:26-2:26

註釋:

 {Was glad} ((8875)phranth(885c)). First aorist (timeless here like
the Hebrew perfect) passive indicative of euphrain(935c) (cf.  Lu
15:32 ). Timeless also is "rejoiced" ((8867)alliasato). {Shall
dwell} (katask(886e)(9373)ei). Shall tabernacle, pitch a tent, make
one's abode (cf.  Mt 13:32 ). See on 烘t 8:20| about
katask(886e)(9373)eis (nests) {In hope} (ep' elpidi). On hope, the
hope of the resurrection.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:27-2:27

註釋:

 {In Hades} (eis H(8369)d(886e)). Hades is the unseen world, Hebrew
Sheol, but here it is viewed as death itself "considered as a
rapacious destroyer" (Hackett). It does not mean the place of
punishment, though both heaven and the place of torment are in
Hades ( Lu 16:23 ). "Death and Hades are strictly parallel terms:
he who is dead is in Hades" (Page). The use of eis here=en is
common enough. The Textus Receptus here reads eis H(8369)dou
(genitive case) like the Attic idiom with domon (abode)
understood. "Hades" in English is not translation, but
transliteration. The phrase in the Apostles' Creed, "descended
into hell" is from this passage in Acts (Hades, not Gehenna). The
English word "hell" is Anglo-Saxon from helan, to hide, and was
used in the Authorized Version to translate both Hades as here
and Gehenna as in  Mt 5:22 . {Thy Holy One} (	on hosion sou).
Peter applies these words to the Messiah. {Corruption}
(diaphthoran). The word can mean destruction or putrefaction
from diaphtheir(935c), old word, but in N.T. only here and  Ac
13:34-37 . The Hebrew word in  Ps 16  can mean also the pit or
the deep.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:28-2:28

註釋:

 {The ways of life} (hodous z(9388)s). Though dead God will
show him the ways back to life.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:29-2:29

註釋:

 {I may say} (exon eipein). Supply estin before exon,
periphrastic present indicative of exeimi, to allow, permit.
The Authorized Version has "Let me speak," supplying esto
present imperative. {Freely} (meta parr(8873)ias). Telling it all
(pan, rh(8873)ia from eipon, to speak), with fulness, with
boldness. Luke is fond of the phrase (as in  4:13 ). It is a new
start for Simon Peter, full of boldness and courage. {The
patriarch} (	ou patriarchou). Transliteration of the word, from
patria, family, and arch(935c), to rule, the founder of a family.
Late word in LXX. Used of Abraham ( Heb 7:4 ), of the twelve sons
of Jacob as founders of the several tribes ( Ac 7:8 ), and here
of David as head of the family from whom the Messiah comes. {Was
buried} (etaph(885c)). Second aorist passive indicative of 	hapt(935c).
His tomb was on Mt. Zion where most of the kings were buried. The
tomb was said to have fallen into ruins in the time of the
Emperor Hadrian. Josephus (_Ant_. XVI. 7, 1) attributes most of
the misfortunes of Herod's family to the fact that he tried to
rifle the tomb of David.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:31-2:31

註釋:

 {Foreseeing} (proid(936e)). Second aorist active participle.
Did it as a prophet. {Of the Christ} (	ou Christou). Of the
Messiah. See under verse  32 . This is a definite statement by
Peter that David knew that in  Ps 16  he was describing the
resurrection of the Messiah.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:32-2:32

註釋:

 {This Jesus} (	outon ton I(8873)oun). Many of the name
"Jesus," but he means the one already called "the Nazarene"
(verse  22 ) and foretold as the Messiah in  Ps 16  and raised
from the dead by God in proof that he is the Messiah ( 2:24,32 ),
"this Jesus whom ye crucified" (verse  36 ). Other terms used of
him in the Acts are the Messiah, verse  31 , the one whom God
"anointed" ( Ac 10:38 ), as in  Joh 1:41 , Jesus Christ ( 9:34 ).
In  2:36  God made this Jesus Messiah, in  3:20  the Messiah
Jesus, in  17:3  Jesus is the Messiah, in  18:5  the Messiah is
Jesus, in  24:24  Christ Jesus. {Whereof} (hou). Or "of whom."
Either makes sense and both are true. Peter claims the whole 120
as personal witnesses to the fact of the Resurrection of Jesus
from the dead and they are all present as Peter calls them to
witness on the point. In Galilee over 500 had seen the Risen
Christ at one time ( 1Co 15:6 ) most of whom were still living
when Paul wrote. Thus the direct evidence for the resurrection of
Jesus piles up in cumulative force.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:33-2:33

註釋:

 {By the right hand of God} (	(8869) dexi(8369) tou theou). This
translation makes it the instrumental case. The margin has it
"at" instead of "by," that is the locative case. And it will make
sense in the true dative case, "to the right hand of God." These
three cases came to have the same form in Greek.  Ro 8:24 
furnishes another illustration of like ambiguity (	(8869) elpidi),
saved by hope, in hope, or for hope. Usually it is quite easy to
tell the case when the form is identical. {Exalted}
(hups(9374)heis). First aorist passive participle of hupso(935c), to
lift up. Here both the literal and tropical sense occurs. Cf.
 Joh 12:32 . {The promise of the Holy Spirit} (	(886e) epaggelian
tou pneumatos tou hagiou). The promise mentioned in  1:4  and
now come true, consisting in the Holy Spirit "from the Father"
(para tou patros), sent by the Father and by the Son ( Joh
15:26  16:7 ). See also  Ga 3:14 . {He hath poured forth}
(execheen). Aorist active indicative of ekche(935c) the verb used
by Joel and quoted by Peter already in verses  17,18 . Jesus has
fulfilled his promise. {This which ye see and hear} (	outo ho
humeis kai blepete kai akouete). This includes the sound like
the rushing wind, the tongues like fire on each of them, the
different languages spoken by the 120. "The proof was before
their eyes in this new energy from heaven" (Furneaux), a
culminating demonstration that Jesus was the Messiah.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:34-2:34

註釋:

 {Ascended not} (ou--aneb(885c)). It is more emphatic than that:
For not David ascended into the heavens. Peter quotes  Ps 110:1 
as proof. No passage in the O.T. is so constantly quoted as
Messianic as this. "St. Peter does not demand belief upon his own
assertion, but he again appeals to the Scriptures, and to words
which could not have received a fulfilment in the case of David"
(Knowling). {Sit thou} (kathou). Late _Koin(825f) form for earlier
kath(8873)o, present middle imperative second singular of
kath(886d)ai.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:35-2:35

註釋:

 {Till I make} (he(9373) an th(935c)). Second aorist active
subjunctive of 	ith(886d)i with an after he(9373) for the future, a
common Greek idiom. This dominion of Christ as Mediator will last
till the plan of the kingdom is carried out ( 1Co 15:23-28 ).
Complete subjugation will come, perhaps referring to the custom
of victorious kings placing their feet upon the necks of their
enemies ( Jos 10:24 ). {Therefore assuredly} (Asphal(9373) oun).
Assuredly therefore, without any slip or trip (asphal(8873) from
a privative and sphall(935c), to trip, to slip. Peter draws a
powerfully pungent conclusion by the use of the adverb asphal(9373)
and the inferential conjunction oun. Peter's closing sentence
drives home the point of his sermon: "This very Jesus whom ye
crucified (note humeis, strongly emphatic {ye}), him God made
both Lord and Messiah" (kai kurion kai Christon), as David
foretold in  Ps 110  and as the events of this day have
confirmed. The critics are disturbed over how Luke could have
gotten the substance of this masterful address spoken on the spur
of the moment with passion and power. They even say that Luke
composed it for Peter and put the words in his mouth. If so, he
made a good job of it. But Peter could have written out the notes
of the address afterwards. Luke had plenty of chances to get hold
of it from Peter or from others.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:37-2:37

註釋:

 {They were pricked in their heart} (katenug(8873)an t(886e)
kardian). Second aorist indicative of katanuss(935c), a rare verb
(LXX) to pierce, to sting sharply, to stun, to smite. Homer used
it of horses dinting the earth with their hoofs. The substantive
katanuxis occurs in  Ro 11:8 . Here only in the N.T. It is
followed here by the accusative of the part affected, the heart.
{What shall we do?} (Ti poi(8873)(936d)en). Deliberative subjunctive
first aorist active. The sermon went home, they felt the sting of
Peter's words, compunction (compungo). Codex Bezae adds: "Show
us."

經文:

使徒行傳 2:38-2:38

註釋:

 {Repent ye} (metano(8873)ate). First aorist (ingressive)
active imperative. Change your mind and your life. Turn right
about and do it now. You _crucified_ this Jesus. Now _crown_ him
in your hearts as Lord and Christ. This first. {And be baptized
every one of you} (kai baptisth(8874)(9320)hekastos h(966d)(936e)). Rather,
"And let each one of you be baptized." Change of number from
plural to singular and of person from second to third. This
change marks a break in the thought here that the English
translation does not preserve. The first thing to do is make a
radical and complete change of heart and life. Then let each one
be baptized after this change has taken place, and the act of
baptism be performed "in the name of Jesus Christ" (en t(9369)
onomati I(8873)ou Christou). In accordance with the command of Jesus
in  Mt 28:19  (eis to onoma). No distinction is to be insisted
on between eis to onoma and en t(9369) onomati with aptiz(935c)
since eis and en are really the same word in origin. In  Ac
10:48  en t(9369) onomati I(8873)ou Christou occurs, but eis to
onoma in  8:16  19:5 . The use of onoma means in the name or
with the authority of one as eis onoma proph(8874)ou ( Mt 10:41 )
as a prophet, in the name of a prophet. In the Acts the full name
of the Trinity does not occur in baptism as in  Mt 28:19 , but
this does not show that it was not used. The name of Jesus Christ
is the distinctive one in Christian baptism and really involves
the Father and the Spirit. See on 烘t 28:19| for discussion of
this point. "Luke does not give the form of words used in baptism
by the Apostles, but merely states the fact that they baptized
those who acknowledged Jesus as Messiah or as Lord" (Page). {Unto
the remission of your sins} (eis aphesin t(936e) hamarti(936e) h(966d)(936e)).
This phrase is the subject of endless controversy as men look at
it from the standpoint of sacramental or of evangelical theology.
In themselves the words can express aim or purpose for that use
of eis does exist as in  1Co 2:7  eis doxan h(886d)(936e) (for our
glory). But then another usage exists which is just as good Greek
as the use of eis for aim or purpose. It is seen in  Mt 10:41 
in three examples eis onoma proph(8874)ou, dikaiou, math(8874)ou where
it cannot be purpose or aim, but rather the basis or ground, on
the basis of the name of prophet, righteous man, disciple,
because one is, etc. It is seen again in  Mt 12:41  about the
preaching of Jonah (eis to k(8872)ugma I(936e)a). They repented because
of (or at) the preaching of Jonah. The illustrations of both
usages are numerous in the N.T. and the _Koin(825f) generally
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 592). One will decide the use here
according as he believes that baptism is essential to the
remission of sins or not. My view is decidedly against the idea
that Peter, Paul, or any one in the New Testament taught baptism
as essential to the remission of sins or the means of securing
such remission. So I understand Peter to be urging baptism on
each of them who had already turned (repented) and for it to be
done in the name of Jesus Christ on the basis of the forgiveness
of sins which they had already received. {The gift of the Holy
Ghost} (	(886e) d(9372)ean tou hagiou pneumatos). The gift consists
( Ac 8:17 ) in the Holy Spirit (genitive of identification).

經文:

使徒行傳 2:39-2:39

註釋:

 {The promise} (h(8820)epaggelia). The promise made by Jesus
( 1:4 ) and foretold by Joel (verse  18 ). {To you} (humin).
You Jews. To your descendants, sons and daughters of verse  17 .
{To all that are afar off} (p(8373)in tois eis makran. The horizon
widens and includes the Gentiles. Those "afar off" from the Jews
were the heathen ( Isa 49:1  57:19  Eph 2:13,17 ). The rabbis so
used it. {Shall call} (an proskales(8874)ai). First aorist middle
subjunctive with an in an indefinite relative clause, a
perfectly regular construction. The Lord God calls men of every
nation anywhere whether Jews or Gentiles. It may be doubted how
clearly Peter grasped the significance of these words for he will
have trouble over this very matter on the housetop in Joppa and
in Caesarea, but he will see before long the full sweep of the
great truth that he here proclaims under the impulse of the Holy
Spirit. It was a great moment that Peter here reaches.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:40-2:40

註釋:

 {With many other words} (heterois logois pleiosin).
Instrumental case. Not necessarily "different" (heterois), but
"further," showing that Luke does not pretend to give all that
Peter said. This idea is also brought out clearly by pleiosin
("more," not "many"), more than these given by Luke. {He
testified} (diemarturato). First aorist middle of
diamarturomai, old verb, to make solemn attestation or call to
witness (perfective use of dia), while marture(935c) is to bear
witness. Page insists that here it should be translated
"protested solemnly" to the Jews as it seems to mean in  Lu
16:28  Ac 20:23  1Ti 5:21  2Ti 2:14  4:1 . {And exhorted} (kai
parekalei). Imperfect active, kept on exhorting. {Save
yourselves} (s(9374)h(8874)e). First aorist passive of s(937a)(935c).
Literally, Be ye saved. {Crooked} (skolias). Old word, opposite
of orthos, straight. _Pravus_ the opposite of _rectus_, a
perversity for turning off from the truth. Cf.  Lu 9:41  Php
2:15 .

經文:

使徒行傳 2:41-2:41

註釋:

 {They then} (Hoi men oun). A common phrase in Acts either
without antithesis as in  1:6  5:41  8:4,25  9:31  11:19  16:5 ;
or with it as here,  8:25  13:4  14:3  17:17  23:31  25:4 . Oun
connects with what precedes as the result of Peter's sermon while
men points forward to what is to follow. {Were baptized}
(ebaptisth(8873)an). First aorist passive indicative, constative
aorist. Note that only those who had already received the word
and were converted were baptized. {There were added}
(proseteth(8873)an). First aorist passive indicative of
prostith(886d)i, old verb to add, to join to. Luke means that the
3,000 were added to the 120 already enlisted. It is not stated
they were all baptized by Peter or the twelve or all on the same
day, though that is the natural implication of the language. The
numerous pools in Jerusalem afforded ample opportunity for such
wholesale baptizing and Hackett notes that the habit of orientals
would place no obstacle in the way of the use of the public
reservoirs. Furneaux warns us that all the 3,000 may not have
been genuine converts and that many of them were pilgrims at the
passover who returned home. {Souls} (psuchai). Persons as in
verse  43 .

經文:

使徒行傳 2:42-2:42

註釋:

 {They continued steadfastly} ((8873)an proskarturountes).
Periphrastic active imperfect of proskarture(935c) as in  Ac 1:14 
(same participle in verse  46 ). {Fellowship} (koin(936e)i(8369)). Old
word from koin(936e)os (partner, sharer in common interest) and
this from koinos what is common to all. This partnership
involves participation in, as the blood of Christ ( Php 2:1 ) or
co-operation in the work of the gospel ( Php 1:5 ) or
contribution for those in need ( 2Co 8:4  9:13 ). Hence there is
wide diversity of opinion concerning the precise meaning of
koin(936e)ia in this verse. It may refer to the distribution of
funds in verse  44  or to the oneness of spirit in the community
of believers or to the Lord's Supper (as in  1Co 10:16 ) in the
sense of communion or to the fellowship in the common meals or
agapae (love-feasts). {The breaking of bread} (	(8869) klasei tou
artou). The word klasis is an old word, but used only by Luke
in the N.T. ( Lu 24:35  Ac 2:42 ), though the verb kla(935c) occurs
in other parts of the N.T. as in verse  46 . The problem here is
whether Luke refers to the ordinary meal as in  Lu 24:35  or to
the Lord's Supper. The same verb kla(935c) is used of breaking bread
at the ordinary meal ( Lu 24:30 ) or the Lord's Supper ( Lu
22:19 ). It is generally supposed that the early disciples
attached so much significance to the breaking of bread at the
ordinary meals, more than our saying grace, that they followed
the meal with the Lord's Supper at first, a combination called
agapai or love-feasts. "There can be no doubt that the
Eucharist at this period was preceded uniformly by a common
repast, as was the case when the ordinance was instituted"
(Hackett). This led to some abuses as in  1Co 11:20 . Hence it is
possible that what is referred to here is the Lord's Supper
following the ordinary meal. "To simply explain 	(8869) klasei tou
artou as='The Holy Communion' is to pervert the plain meaning of
words, and to mar the picture of family life, which the text
places before us as the ideal of the early believers" (Page). But
in  Ac 20:7  they seem to have come together especially for the
observance of the Lord's Supper. Perhaps there is no way to
settle the point conclusively here. {The prayers} (	ais
proseuchais). Services where they prayed as in  1:14 , in the
temple ( Ac 3:1 ), in their homes ( 4:23 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 2:43-2:43

註釋:

 {Came} (egineto). Imperfect middle, kept on coming. {Were
done} (egineto). Same tense. Awe kept on coming on all and
signs and wonders kept on coming through the apostles. The two
things went on pari passu, the more wonders the more fear.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:44-2:44

註釋:

 {Were together} ((8873)an epi to auto). Some MSS. (8873)an kai
(were and). But they were together in the same place as in  2:1 .
{And had} (kai eichon). Imperfect active, kept on having, a
habit in the present emergency. {Common} (koina). It was not
actual communism, but they held all their property ready for use
for the common good as it was needed ( 4:32 ). This situation
appears nowhere else except in Jerusalem and was evidently due to
special conditions there which did not survive permanently. Later
Paul will take a special collection for the poor saints in
Jerusalem.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:45-2:45

註釋:

 {Sold} (epipraskon). Imperfect active, a habit or custom
from time to time. Old and common verb, piprask(935c). {Parted}
(diemerizon). Imperfect again of diameriz(935c), old verb for
dividing or distributing between (dia) people. {According as
any man had need} (kathoti an tis chreian eichen). Regular
Greek idiom for comparative clause with an and imperfect
indicative corresponding precisely with the three preceding
imperfects (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 967).

經文:

使徒行傳 2:46-2:46

註釋:

 {With one accord in the temple} (homothumadon en t(9369)
hier(9369)). See on 氣:14| for homothumadon. They were still
worshipping in the temple for no breach had yet come between
Christians and Jews. Daily they were here and daily breaking
bread at home (kat' oikon) which looks like the regular meal.
{They did take their food} (metelambanon troph(8873)). Imperfect
tense again and clearly referring to the regular meals at home.
Does it refer also to the possible agapai or to the Lord's
Supper afterwards as they had common meals "from house to house"
(kat' oikon)? We know there were local churches in the homes
where they had "worship rooms," the church in the house. At any
rate it was "with singleness" (aphelot(8874)i) of heart. The word
occurs only here in the N.T., though a late _Koin(825f) word
(papyri). It comes from aphel(8873), free from rock (phelleus is
stony ground), smooth. The old form was apheleia.

經文:

使徒行傳 2:47-2:47

註釋:

 {Having favor} (echontes charin). Cf.  Lu 2:52  of the Boy
Jesus. {Added} (prosetithei). Imperfect active, kept on adding.
If the Lord only always "added" those who join our churches. Note
verse  41  where same verb is used of the 3,000. {To them} (epi
to auto). Literally, "together." Why not leave it so? "To the
church" (	(8869) ekkl(8873)i(8369)) is not genuine. Codex Bezae has "in the
church." {Those that were being saved} (	ous s(937a)omenous).
Present passive participle. Probably for repetition like the
imperfect prosetithei. Better translate it "those saved from
time to time." It was a continuous revival, day by day. S(937a)(935c)
like s(9374)(8872)ia is used for "save" in three senses (beginning,
process, conclusion), but here repetition is clearly the point of
the present tense.

經文:

使徒行傳 3:1-3:1

註釋:

 {Were going up} (anebainon). Descriptive imperfect active.
They were ascending the terraces to the temple courts. {The
ninth} (	(886e) enat(886e)). Our three o'clock in the afternoon, the
time of the evening sacrifice. Peter and John like Paul later
kept up the Jewish worship, but not as a means of sacramental
redemption. There were three hours of prayer (third, sixth,
ninth).

經文:

使徒行傳 3:2-3:2

註釋:

 {Was carried} (ebastazeto). Imperfect passive, picturing
the process as in verse  1 . {Laid daily} (etithoun kath'
h(886d)eran). Imperfect again describing their custom with this man.
{Beautiful} (H(9372)aian). This gate is not so called elsewhere. It
may have been the Gate of Nicanor on the east side looking
towards Kidron described by Josephus (_Ant_. XV. 11, 3; _War_ V.
5, 3) as composed chiefly of Corinthian brass and very
magnificent.

經文:

使徒行傳 3:3-3:3

註釋:

 {Asked} ((8872)(9374)(835c)). Began to ask, inchoative imperfect. It was
his chance.

經文:

使徒行傳 3:4-3:4

註釋:

 {Fastening his eyes} (atenisas). First aorist (ingressive)
active participle of ateniz(935c). For this verb see on  Lu 4:20  Ac
1:10 . Peter fixed his eyes on the beggar and invited him to look
(lepson) on them.

經文:

使徒行傳 3:5-3:5

註釋:

 {Gave heed unto them} (epeichen autois). Imperfect active
of epech(935c), to hold to. For the idiom with 	on noun understood
see  7:14  1Ti 4:16 . He held his eyes right on Peter and John
with great eagerness "expecting to receive something" (prosdok(936e)
ti labein). He took Peter's invitation as a promise of a large
gift.

經文:

使徒行傳 3:6-3:6

註釋:

 {In the name} (en t(9369) onomati). The healing power is in
that name (Page) and Peter says so. Cf.  Lu 9:49  10:17  Ac
4:7,10  19:27  16:18 . {Walk} (peripatei). Present imperative,
inchoative idea, begin to walk and then go on walking. But the
beggar does not budge. He knows that he cannot walk.

經文:

使徒行傳 3:7-3:7

註釋:

 {Took him by the right hand} (piasas auton t(8873) dexi(8373)
cheiros). Doric form piaz(935c) for piez(935c). Genitive of the part
affected. Peter had to pull him up on his feet before he would
try to walk.

經文:

使徒行傳 3:8-3:8

註釋:

 {Leaping up} (exallomenos). Present middle participle,
leaping out repeatedly after Peter pulled him up. Only here in
the N.T. {He stood} (est(885c)). Second aorist active. {Walked}
(periepatei). Went on walking, imperfect active. He came into
the temple repeating these new exercises (walking, leaping,
praising God).

經文:

使徒行傳 3:10-3:10

註釋:

 {They took knowledge of him} (epegin(9373)kon). Imperfect
active, inchoative, began to perceive. {Were filled}
(epl(8873)th(8873)an). Effective first aorist passive. {At that which
had happened} (	(9369) sumbeb(886b)oti). Perfect active participle of
sumbain(935c).

經文:

使徒行傳 3:11-3:11

註釋:

 The Codex Bezae adds "as Peter and John went out." {As he
held} (kratountos autou). Genitive absolute of krate(935c), to
hold fast, with accusative rather than genitive to get hold of
( Ac 27:13 ). Old and common verb from kratos (strength,
force). Perhaps out of gratitude and partly from fear ( Lu
8:38 ). {In the porch that is called Solomon's} (epi t(8869) sto(8369)
t(8869) kaloumen(8869) Solom(936e)tos). The adjective Stoic (stoikos) is
from this word stoa (porch). It was on the east side of the
court of the Gentiles (Josephus, _Ant_. XX. 9, 7) and was so
called because it was built on a remnant of the foundations of
the ancient temple. Jesus had once taught here ( Joh 10:23 ).
{Greatly wondering} (ekthamboi). Wondering out of (ek)
measure, already filled with wonder (	hambous, verse  10 ).
Late adjective. Construction according to sense (plural, though
laos singular) as in  5:16  6:7  11:1 , etc.

經文:

使徒行傳 3:12-3:12

註釋:

 {Answered} (apekrinato). First aorist middle indicative.
The people looked their amazement and Peter answered that. {Ye
men of Israel} (Andres Isra(886c)eitai). Covenant name and so
conciliatory, the stock of Israel ( Php 3:5 ). {At this man}
(epi tout(9369)). Probably so, though it could be "at this thing."
{Fasten you your eyes} (atenizete). The very verb used about
Peter in verse  4 . {On us} (h(886d)in). Dative case, emphatic
proleptical position before 	i atenizete. {On us why do ye
fasten your eyes? As though} (h(9373)). H(9373) with the participle
gives the alleged reason, not always the true one. {Power}
(dunamei). Instrumental case, _causa effectiva_. {Godliness}
(eusebei(8369)). _Causa meritoria_. {Had made} (pepoi(886b)osin).
Perfect active participle of poie(935c). {To walk} (	ou
peripatein). Articular infinitive in the genitive case of
result, purpose easily shading off into result (ecbatic
infinitive) as here as is true also of hina.

經文:

使徒行傳 3:13-3:13

註釋:

 {His servant Jesus} (	on paida I(8873)oun). This phrase occurs
in  Isa 42:1  52:13  about the Messiah except the name "Jesus"
which Peter adds, the first part of the quotation is from  Ex
3:6  5:30 . The LXX translated the Hebrew _ebhedh_ by pais, the
servant of Jehovah being a Messianic designation. But the phrase
"servant of God" (pais theou) is applied also to Israel ( Lu
1:54 ) and to David ( Lu 1:69  Ac 4:25 ). Paul terms himself
doulos theou ( Tit 1:1 ). Pais is just child (boy or girl),
and it was also used of a slave ( Mt 8:6,8,13 ). But it is not
here huios (son) that Peter uses, but pais. Luke quotes Peter
as using it again in this Messianic sense in  Ac 3:26  4:27,30 .
{Whom ye delivered up} (hon humeis men pared(936b)ate). Note
emphatic use of humeis (ye). No de to correspond to men.
First aorist active (k aorist) plural indicative of
paradid(936d)i (usual form paredote, second aorist). {When he}
(ekeinou). Emphatic pronoun, that one, in contrast with "ye"
(humeis), genitive absolute with krinantos, here the nearest
word (Pilate), the latter.

經文:

使徒行傳 3:14-3:14

註釋:

 {But ye} (humeis de). In contrast with Pilate (ekeinou).
{Murderer} (andra phonea). A man a murderer. In contrast with
"the Holy and Righteous One." {To be granted} (charisth(886e)ai).
As a favour (charis). First aorist passive infinitive of
charizomai; So also  25:11  27:24 .

經文:

使徒行傳 3:15-3:15

註釋:

 {But the Prince of life ye killed} (	on de arch(8867)on t(8873)
z(9388)s apekteinate). "The magnificent antithesis" (Bengel) Peter
here draws between their asking for a murderer and killing the
Prince (or Author) of life. Peter pictures Jesus as the source of
all life as is done in  Joh 1:1-18  Col 1:14-20  Heb 1:2f .
Arch(8867)os (arch(885c), beginning, ag(935c), to lead) is an adjective
"furnishing the first cause or occasion" in Euripides, Plato.
Thence substantive, the originator, the leader, the pioneer as of
Jesus both Beginner and Finisher ( Heb 12:2 ). See also  Heb
2:10  Ac 5:31  where it is applied to Jesus as "Prince and
Saviour." But God raised him from the dead in contrast to what
they had done. {Whereof we are witnesses} (hou h(886d)eis martures
esmen). Of which fact (the resurrection) or of whom as risen,
hou having the same form in the genitive singular for masculine
or neuter. Peter had boldly claimed that all the 120 have seen
the Risen Christ. There is no denial of that claim.

經文:

使徒行傳 3:16-3:16

註釋:

 {By faith in his name} (	(8869) pistei tou onomatos autou).
Instrumental case of pistei (Aleph and B do not have epi) and
objective genitive of onomatos. {His name} (	o onoma autou).
Repeats the word name to make the point clear. Cf. verse  6 
where Peter uses "the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth" when he
healed the man. {Made strong} (estere(9373)en). Same verb used in
verse  7  (and  16:5 ). Nowhere else in the N.T. Old verb from
stereos, firm, solid. {Through him} (di' autou). Through
Jesus, the object of faith and the source of it. {Perfect
soundness} (holokl(8872)ian). Perfect in all its parts, complete,
whole (from holos, whole, kl(8872)os, allotment). Late word
(Plutarch) once in LXX ( Isa 1:6 ) and here alone in the N.T.,
but adjective holokl(8872)os, old and common ( Jas 1:4  1Th 5:23 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 3:17-3:17

註釋:

 {And now} (kai nun). Luke is fond of these particles of
transition ( 7:34  10:5  20:25  22:16 ) and also kai ta nun
( 4:29  5:38  22:32  27:22 ), and even kai nun idou ( 13:11  20:22 ). {I wot} (oida). Old English for "I know." {In
ignorance} (kata agnoian). This use of kata occurs in the
_Koin(825f). See also  Phm 1:14 . One may see  Lu 23:34  for the
words of the Saviour on the Cross. "They had sinned, but their
sin was not of so deep a dye that it could not have been still
more heinous" (Hackett). If they had known what they were doing,
they would not knowingly have crucified the Messiah ( 1Co 2:8 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 3:18-3:18

註釋:

 {Foreshewed} (prokat(8867)geilen). First aorist active
indicative of prokataggell(935c), late compound to announce fully
beforehand. Only twice in the N.T. in the critical text ( Ac
3:18  7:52 ). {That his Christ should suffer} (pathein ton
Christon autou). Accusative of general reference with the aorist
active infinitive (pathein of pasch(935c)) in indirect discourse
(predictive purpose of God). Their crime, though real, was
carrying out God's purpose ( 2:23  Joh 3:16 ). See the same idea
in  Ac 17:3  26:23 . This "immense paradox" (Page) was a
stumbling block to these Jews as it is yet ( 1Co 1:23 ). Peter
discusses the sufferings of Christ in  1Pe 4:13  5:1 .

經文:

使徒行傳 3:19-3:19

註釋:

 {Repent therefore} (metano(8873)ate oun). Peter repeats to
this new crowd the command made in  Ac 2:38  which see. God's
purpose and patience call for instant change of attitude on their
part. Their guilt does not shut them out if they will turn. {And
turn again} (kai epistrepsate). Definitely turn to God in
conduct as well as in mind. {That your sins may be blotted out}
(pros to exaliphth(886e)ai hum(936e) tas hamartias). Articular
infinitive (first aorist passive of exaleiph(935c), to wipe out, rub
off, erase, smear out, old verb, but in the N.T. only here and
 Col 2:14 ) with the accusative of general reference and with
pros and the accusative to express purpose. {That so} (hop(9373)
an). Final particle with an and the aorist active subjunctive
elth(9373)in (come) and not "when" as the Authorized Version has
it. Some editors put this clause in verse  20  (Westcott and
Hort, for instance). {Seasons of refreshing} (kairoi
anapsuxe(9373)). The word anapsuxis (from anapsuch(935c), to cool
again or refresh,  2Ti 1:16 ) is a late word (LXX) and occurs
here alone in the N.T. Surely repentance will bring "seasons of
refreshing from the presence of the Lord."

經文:

使徒行傳 3:20-3:20

註釋:

 {And that he may send the Christ who hath been appointed for
you, even Jesus} (kai aposteil(8869) ton prokecheirismenon humin
Christon I(8873)oun). First aorist active subjunctive with hop(9373)
an as in  15:17  and  Lu 2:35 . There is little real difference
in idea between hop(9373) an and hina an. There is a conditional
element in all purpose clauses. The reference is naturally to the
second coming of Christ as verse  21  shows. Knowling admits
"that there is a spiritual presence of the enthroned Jesus which
believers enjoy as a foretaste of the visible and glorious
Presence of the Parousia." Jesus did promise to be with the
disciples all the days ( Mt 28:20 ), and certainly repentance
with accompanying seasons of refreshing help get the world ready
for the coming of the King. The word prokecheirismenon (perfect
passive participle of procheiriz(935c), from procheiros, at hand,
to take into one's hands, to choose) is the correct text here,
not prokek(8872)ugmenon. In the N.T. only here and  Ac 22:14  26:16 . It is not "Jesus Christ" here nor "Christ Jesus," but
"the Messiah, Jesus," identifying Jesus with the Messiah. See the
Second Epiphany of Jesus foretold also in  1Ti 6:15  and the
First Epiphany described in  1Pe 1:20 .

經文:

使徒行傳 3:21-3:21

註釋:

 {Restoration} (apokatastase(9373)). Double compound (apo,
kata, hist(886d)i), here only in the N.T., though common in late
writers. In papyri and inscriptions for repairs to temples and
this phrase occurs in Jewish apocalyptic writings, something like
the new heaven and the new earth of  Re 21:1 . Paul has a
mystical allusion also to the agony of nature in  Ro 8:20-22 .
The verb apokathist(886d)i is used by Jesus of the spiritual and
moral restoration wrought by the Baptist as Elijah ( Mt 17:11  Mr
9:12 ) and by the disciples to Jesus in  Ac 1:6 . Josephus uses
the word of the return from captivity and Philo of the
restitution of inheritances in the year of jubilee. As a
technical medical term it means complete restoration to health.
See a like idea in palingenesia (renewal, new birth) in  Mt
19:28  Tit 3:5 . This universalism of Peter will be clearer to
him after Joppa and Caesarea.

經文:

使徒行傳 3:22-3:22

註釋:

 {Like unto me} (h(9373) eme). As me, literally; Moses ( De
18:14-18 ) claims that God raised him up as a prophet and that
another and greater one will come, the Messiah. The Jews
understood Moses to be a type of Christ ( Joh 1:21 ). God spoke
to Moses face to face ( Ex 33:11 ) and he was the greatest of the
prophets ( De 34:10 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 3:23-3:23

註釋:

 {That prophet} (	ou proph(8874)ou ekeinou). Emphasizes the
future prophet as on "him" (autou) before "hearken." They had
refused to "hearken" to Moses and now, alas, many had refused to
"hearken" to Christ. {Shall be utterly destroyed}
(exolethreuth(8873)etai). First future passive of exole- (o)
	hreu(935c), a late verb, to destroy utterly (ex), only here in
the N.T., common in the LXX.

經文:

使徒行傳 3:24-3:24

註釋:

 {From Samuel} (apo Samou(886c)). Schools of prophets arose in
his time, few before him ( 1Sa 3:1 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 3:25-3:25

註釋:

 {Ye} (Humeis). Emphatic position. {The covenant which God
made} (	(8873) diath(886b)(8873) h(8873) ho theos dietheto). Literally, "the
covenant which God covenanted." Diath(886b)(885c) and dietheto (second
aorist middle indicative of diath(886d)i) are the same root. See on
 Mt 26:28 . The covenant (agreement between two, dia, tith(886d)i)
was with Abraham ( Ge 12:1-3 ) and repeated at various times ( Ge
18:18  22:18  26:4 , etc.). In  Heb 9:15-18  the word is used
both for covenant and will. The genitive relative h(8873) attracted
to case of the antecedent.

經文:

使徒行傳 3:26-3:26

註釋:

 {Unto you first} (Humin pr(9374)on). The Jews were first in
privilege and it was through the Jews that the Messiah was to
come for "all the families of the earth." {His servant} (	on
paida autou). As in verse  13 , the Messiah as God's Servant.
{To bless you} (eulogounta humas). Present active participle to
express purpose, blessing you (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 991). In
turning away (en t(9369) apostrephein). Articular infinitive in the
locative case, almost preserved in the English.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:1-4:1

註釋:

 {The captain of the temple} (ho strat(8867)os tou hierou).
Twenty-four bands of Levites guarded the temple, one guard at a
time. They watched the gates. The commander of each band was
called captain (strat(8867)os). Josephus names this captain of the
temple police next to the high priest (_War_. VI. 5, 3). {The
Sadducees} (hoi Saddoukaioi). Most of the priests were
Sadducees now and all the chief priests since John Hyrcanus I
deserted the Pharisees (Josephus, _Ant_. XVII. 10, 6; XVIII. 1,
4; XX. 9, 1). The Sadducees were slow to line up with the
Pharisees against Jesus, but they now take the lead against Peter
and John. {Came upon them} (epest(8873)an autois). Second aorist
active indicative (intransitive). Burst upon them suddenly or
stood by them in a hostile attitude here ( Lu 20:1  24:4  Ac
6:12  17:5  22:20  23:11 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 4:2-4:2

註釋:

 {Being sore troubled} (diaponoumenoi). Present passive
participle of old verb diapone(935c) (perfective use of dia) to be
worked up, indignant. In the N.T. only here and  16:8 . {Because}
(dia to). The articular infinitive with two accusatives, one
the object (the people), the other ("they") of general reference.
{In Jesus} (en I(8873)ou). In the case of Jesus, an actual instance
of resurrection which the Sadducees denied ( Mt 22:23 ). This
same use of en appears in  1Co 4:6  (in us). The Sadducees were
also aristocrats and political ecclesiastics who disliked popular
disturbances. In particular, they resented the claim about Jesus
whom they had helped crucify.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:3-4:3

註釋:

 {In ward} (eis t(8872)(8873)in). Probably in one of the chambers of
the temple. In safe keeping (from 	(8872)e(935c), to guard). Old word,
in the N.T. only here and  Ac 5:18  1Co 7:19 . So in papyri. {Now
eventide} (hespera (8864)(885c)). Hence no trial could take place before
the next day, a regulation violated in the case of Jesus.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:4-4:4

註釋:

 {Men} (andr(936e)). Strictly, men and not women, for
anthr(9370)os is the term for both men and women. But in  Lu 11:31 
andres seems to include both men and women and that is possible
here, though by no means certain, for see  Mt 14:21  where the
women and children are expressly excepted.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:5-4:5

註釋:

 {Rulers and elders and scribes} (	ous archontas kai tous
presbuterous kai tous grammateis). The three classes composing
the Sanhedrin (rulers=chief priests who were Sadducees, the
scribes usually Pharisees, the elders not in either class: 24
priests, 24 elders, 22 scribes). {Were gathered together}
(sunachth(886e)ai). First aorist passive infinitive of sunag(935c)
with accusative of general reference and the subject of
egeneto.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:6-4:6

註釋:

 {Annas} (Hannas). One of the rulers or chief priests,
ex-high priest (A.D. 7-14) and father-in-law of {Caiaphas}
(Kaiaphas) who was actual high priest at that time, though the
title clung to Annas as here (both so called in  Lu 3:2 ),
Caiaphas so by Roman law, Annas so in the opinion of the Jews.
They with John and Alexander are the leaders among the Sadducees
in pressing the case against Peter and John.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:7-4:7

註釋:

 {In the midst} (en t(9369) mes(9369)). The Sanhedrin sat in a
semicircle. {They inquired} (epunthanonto). Imperfect middle,
began to inquire. {Or in what name} ((8820)en poi(9369) onomati). As if
by some magical formula such as exorcists practised ( Ac 19:13 )
as if to catch them by ( De 13:1 ). {Have ye done this}
(epoi(8873)ate touto humeis). Note emphatic use of humeis (ye).

經文:

使徒行傳 4:8-4:8

註釋:

 {Filled with the Holy Spirit} (pl(8873)theis pneumatos hagiou).
For this occasion and so above all fear as in verse  31  and as
in  2:4 .

經文:

使徒行傳 4:9-4:9

註釋:

 {Concerning a good deed done to an impotent man} (epi
euergesi(8369) anthr(9370)ou asthenous). Objective genitive. Note
euergesia (old word, in the N.T. only here and  1Ti 6:2 ), as a
benefactor, not a malefactor. Skilful turn made by Peter. {Is
made whole} (ses(9373)tai). Perfect passive indicative of s(937a)(935c),
stands whole.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:10-4:10

註釋:

 {Be it known} (gn(9373)ton est(935c)). Imperative present active
third singular of eimi, to be, and the verbal adjective
gn(9373)ton. {Whom ye crucified} (hon humeis estaur(9373)ate). Too
good a chance to miss, and so Peter boldly charges the Sanhedrin
with responsibility for the death of Jesus. Note humeis (ye)
again. {Whom God raised from the dead} (hon ho theos (8867)eiren ek
nekr(936e)). Note repetition of hon (whom). This is God's answer
to their act of crucifixion. {In him doth this man stand} (en
tout(9369) houtos parest(886b)en). Rather (note play on houtos), "In
this one (hon, hon) this one stands (present perfect active
indicative, intransitive)." In Jesus this man stands before you
whole (hugi(8873)). It was a centre shot.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:11-4:11

註釋:

 {Of you the builders} (huph' hum(936e) t(936e) oikodom(936e)). The
experts, the architects, had rejected Jesus for their building
( Ps 118:22 ) as Jesus himself had pointed out ( Mt 21:42  Lu
21:17 ). This very Rejected Stone God had made the head of the
corner (either the highest corner stone right under the roof or
the corner stone under the building,  Isa 28:16 ) as Jesus
showed, as Peter here declares and repeats later ( 1Pe 2:6f. ).

經文:

使徒行傳 4:12-4:12

註釋:

 {Salvation} (h(8820)s(9374)(8872)ia). The Messianic salvation as in
 5:31  17:11  and as Jesus meant in  Joh 4:22 . It is amazing to
see Peter speaking thus to the Sanhedrin and proclaiming the
necessity of salvation (dei s(9374)h(886e)ai) in the name of Jesus
Christ and in no other. If this was true then, it is true today.
There is no second (heteron) name to go beside that of Jesus in
India, China, Japan, or America.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:13-4:13

註釋:

 {The boldness} (	(886e) parr(8873)ian). Telling it all (pan,
r(8873)ia). See also verses  29,31 . Actually Peter had turned the
table on the Sanhedrin and had arraigned them before the bar of
God. {Had perceived} (katalabomenoi). Second aorist middle
participle of katalamban(935c), common verb to grasp strongly
(kata), literally or with the mind (especially middle voice),
to comprehend. The rulers recalled Peter and John from having
seen them often with Jesus, probably during the temple teaching,
etc. {They were unlearned} (agrammatoi eisin). Present
indicative retained in indirect discourse. Unlettered men without
technical training in the professional rabbinical schools of
Hillel or Shammai. Jesus himself was so regarded ( Joh 7:15 ,
"not having learned letters"). {And ignorant} (kai idi(9374)ai).
Old word, only here in the N.T. and  1Co 14:24  2Co 11:6 . It
does not mean "ignorant," but a layman, a man not in office (a
private person), a common soldier and not an officer, a man not
skilled in the schools, very much like agrammatos. It is from
idios (one's own) and our "idiosyncracy" is one with an excess
of such a trait, while "idiot" (this very word) is one who has
nothing but his idiosyncracy. Peter and John were men of ability
and of courage, but they did not belong to the set of the rabbis.
{They marvelled} (ethaumazon). Imperfect (inchoative) active,
began to wonder and kept it up. {Took knowledge of them}
(epegin(9373)kon autous). Imperfect (inchoative) active again, they
began to recognize them as men that they had seen with Jesus.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:14-4:14

註釋:

 {They could say nothing against it} (ouden eichon
anteipein). Imperfect again, they kept on having nothing to say
against it. The lame man was standing there before their eyes in
proof of what Peter had said.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:15-4:15

註釋:

 {They conferred among themselves} (suneballon pros
all(886c)ous). Imperfect active again. With Peter and John and the
lame man outside, they began to compare (sun, ball(935c)) notes and
take stock of their predicament.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:16-4:16

註釋:

 {What shall we do?} (Ti poi(8873)(936d)en). Deliberative aorist
active subjunctive (ingressive and urgent aorist). {Notable
miracle} (gn(9373)ton s(886d)eion). Or sign. It was useless to deny it
with the man there. {We cannot deny it} (ou dunametha
arneisthai). That is, it will do no good.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:17-4:17

註釋:

 {That it spread no further} (hina m(8820)epi pleion
dianem(8874)h(8869)). First aorist passive subjunctive of dianem(935c), to
distribute with hina m(885c), negative purpose. {Let us threaten
them} (apeil(8873)(936d)etha autois). Hortatory aorist middle
subjunctive of apeile(935c), old verb (note middle voice). In the
N.T. only here and  1Pe 2:23 . {That they speak henceforth to no
man in this name} (m(886b)eti lalein epi t(9369) onomati tout(9369) m(8864)eni
anthr(9370)(936e)). Indirect command with the infinitive and double
negative (m(886b)eti, m(8864)eni). They will not say "Jesus," but make
a slur at "this name," contemptuous use of houtos, though they
apparently do mention the name "Jesus" in verse  18 .

經文:

使徒行傳 4:18-4:18

註釋:

 {Not to speak at all} (katholou m(8820)phtheggesthai). Same
construction as above, infinitive in indirect command with
negative m(885c) (and m(8864)e).

經文:

使徒行傳 4:20-4:20

註釋:

 {For we cannot but speak} (ou dunametha gar h(886d)eis--m(880a)lalein). Both negatives hold here, "For we (note emphatic
h(886d)eis) are not able not to speak" (what we saw and heard).
This is defiance of the civil and ecclesiastical authorities that
was justified, for the temple authorities stepped in between the
conscience and God. Peter and John were willing to pay the price
of this defiance with their lives. This is the courage of martyrs
through all the ages.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:21-4:21

註釋:

 {When they had further threatened them}
(prosapeil(8873)amenoi). The "further" is in "pros" (in addition),
{Finding nothing how they might punish them} (m(8864)en heuriskontes
to p(9373) kolas(936e)tai autous). Note the article "to" before p(9373)
(how), "the how." Aorist middle deliberative subjunctive
kolas(936e)tai in indirect question after p(9373) from kolaz(935c), to
lop (kolos, lopped), to curb, to prune, to correct, to punish.
Old verb, in the N.T. only here and  2Pe 2:9 . {Glorified God}
(edoxazon ton theon). Imperfect active, kept on glorifying God
while the Sanhedrin were threatening Peter and John. It was to
laugh at the helplessness of the Sanhedrin.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:22-4:22

註釋:

 {Was wrought} (gegonei). Second past perfect active
without augment from ginomai.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:23-4:23

註釋:

 {To their own company} (pros tous idious). Their own
people as in  Joh 1:11  13:1  Ac 24:23  1Ti 5:8  Tit 3:14 , not
merely the apostles (all the disciples). In spite of Peter's
courageous defiance he and John told the brotherhood all that had
been said by the Sanhedrin. They had real apprehension of the
outcome.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:24-4:24

註釋:

 2Ti
2:21 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ti
2' or engs='2Ti
2'
經文:

使徒行傳 4:25-4:25

註釋:

 {By the mouth of our father David} (	ou patros h(886d)(936e) dia
pneumatos hagiou stomatos Daueid). From  Ps 2:1f . here ascribed
to David. Baumgarten suggests that the whole company sang the
second Psalm and then Peter applied it to this emergency. The
Greek MSS. do not have dia (by) here before stomatos, but
only dia before pneumatos hagiou (the Holy Spirit). Hort
calls this a "primitive error" perhaps due to an early scribe who
omitted this second dia so close to the first dia (Robertson,
_Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the N.T._, p. 238). A
small list of such primitive errors is there given as suggested
by Dr. Hort. {Why} (hina ti). This Greek idiom calls for
gen(8874)ai (second aorist middle subjunctive), {That what may
happen}. {The Gentiles} (ethn(885c)). So always in LXX, while laoi
(peoples) can include Jews. {Did rage} (ephruaxan). First
aorist active indicative of phruass(935c), late word, to neigh like
a horse, to prance or stamp the ground, to put on lofty airs.
Only here in the N.T. in this quotation from  Ps 2:1 . {Imagine}
(emelet(8873)an). First aorist active indicative of meleta(935c). Old
verb from melet(885c) (care), to practise, to caution, as orators
and rhetoricians. Only here in the N.T. in this quotation.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:26-4:26

註釋:

 {Set themselves in array} (parest(8873)an). Literally, stood
by. {Against his Anointed} (kata tou Christou autou). Against
his Messiah, his Christ.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:27-4:27

註釋:

 {Both Herod and Pontios Pilate} (H(8872)(9369)d(8873) te kai Pontius
Peilatos). Luke alone ( Lu 23:12 ) tells of the reconciliation
between Herod and Pilate at the trial of Jesus. So Peter and the
rest interpret this prophecy as directly fulfilled in their
conduct towards Jesus Christ. {Whom thou didst anoint} (hon
echrisas). As in verse  26  (cf.  Lu 4:18  Isa 61:1 ).
Inaugurated as King Messiah.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:28-4:28

註釋:

 {Foreordained} (pro(9372)isen). First aorist active indicative
of prooriz(935c), "They rise above sight and seem to see the Hand
which 'shapes men's ends, rough hew them how they will'"
(Furneaux).

經文:

使徒行傳 4:29-4:29

註釋:

 {And now} (kai ta nun). "And as to (accusative of general
reference) the now things (the present situation)." Only in the
Acts in the N.T. ( 5:38  17:30  20:32  27:22 ). {Grant} (dos).
Second aorist active imperative of did(936d)i, urgency of the
aorist, Do it now. {To speak thy word with all boldness} (meta
parr(8873)ias pas(8873) lalein ton logon sou). Literally, "with all
boldness to go on speaking (present active infinitive) thy word."
Peter and John had defied the Sanhedrin in verse  20 , but all
the same and all the more they pray for courage in deed to live
up to their brave words. A wholesome lesson.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:30-4:30

註釋:

 {While thou stretchest forth thy hand} (en t(9369) t(886e) cheira
ekteinein se). Luke's favourite idiom, "In the stretching out
(articular present active infinitive) the hand as to thee"
(accusative of general reference), the second allusion to God's
"hand" in this prayer (verse  28 ). {To heal} (eis iasin). For
healing. See verse  22 . {And that signs and wonders may be done}
(kai s(886d)eia kai terata ginesthai). Either to be taken as in the
same construction as ekteinein with en t(9369) as Revised Version
has it here or to be treated as subordinate purpose to en t(9369)
ekteinein (as Knowling, Page, Wendt, Hackett). The latter most
likely true. They ask for a visible sign or proof that God has
heard this prayer for courage to be faithful even unto death.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:31-4:31

註釋:

 {The place was shaken} (esaleuth(8820)ho topos). By an
earthquake most likely as in  16:26 , but none the less a token
of God's presence and power ( Ps 114:7  Isa 2:19,21  Heb
12:26f. ). {Were gathered together} ((8873)an sun(8867)menoi).
Periphrastic past perfect passive of sunag(935c). {They spake}
(elaloun). Imperfect active indicative, began to speak, after
being filled (epl(8873)th(8873)an, aorist passive indicative) with the
Holy Spirit. Luke uses the very words of the prayer in verse  29 
to describe their conduct.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:32-4:32

註釋:

 {Of one heart and soul} (kardia kai psuch(8820)mia). It is not
possible to make sharp distinction between heart and soul here
(see  Mr 12:30 ), only that there was harmony in thought and
affection. But the English translation is curiously unlike the
Greek original. "There was one heart and soul (nominative case,
not genitive as the English has it) in the multitude (	ou
pl(8874)hous, subjective genitive) of those who believed." {Not one
of them} (oude heis). More emphatic than oudeis, "not even
one." {Common} (koina). In the use of their property, not in
the possession as Luke proceeds to explain. The word koinos is
kin to sun (together with)=xun (Epic) and so xunos=koinos.
See this word already in  2:44 . The idea of unclean ( Ac 10:15 )
is a later development from the original notion of common to all.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:33-4:33

註釋:

 {Gave their witness} (apedidoun to marturion). Imperfect
active of apodid(936d)i, old verb to give back, to pay back a debt
( Lu 7:42 ), but a late omega form instead of the usual
apedidosan. They kept on giving their witness with power after
the answer to their prayer (verse  31 ). {Of the resurrection}
(	(8873) anastase(9373)). It was on this issue that the Sadducees had
arrested them ( 4:1-3 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 4:34-4:34

註釋:

 {That lacked} (ende(8873)). Literally, in need, old adjective,
here only in the N.T. {Were} (hup(8872)chon). Imperfect active of
huparch(935c), to exist. {Sold them and brought} (p(936c)ountes
epheron). Present active participle and imperfect active
indicative. Selling they brought from time to time, as there was
occasion by reason of need. Hence the wants were kept supplied.
{Laid them} (etithoun). Imperfect active again, _repetition_,
of 	ith(886d)i, late omega form for the usual etithesan.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:35-4:35

註釋:

 {Distribution was made} (diedideto). Imperfect passive of
diadid(936d)i, late omega form for diedidoto (the stem vowel o
displaced by e). Impersonal use of the verb here. {According as
any one had need} (kathoti an tis chreian eichen). Imperfect
active of ech(935c) with kathoti and an with the notion of
customary repetition in a comparative clause (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 967).

經文:

使徒行傳 4:36-4:36

註釋:

 {Barnabas} (Barnabas). His name was Joseph (correct text,
and not Jesus) and he is mentioned as one illustration of those
in verse  34  who selling brought the money. The apostles gave
him the nickname Barnabas by which later he was known because of
this noble deed. This fact argues that all did not actually sell,
but were ready to do so if needed. Possibly Joseph had a larger
estate than some others also. The meaning of the nickname is
given by Luke as "son of consolation or exhortation" (huios
parakl(8873)e(9373)). Doubtless his gifts as a preacher lay along this
same line. Rackham thinks that the apostles gave him this name
when he was recognized as a prophet. In  Ac 11:23  the very word
parekalei (exhorted) is used of Barnabas up at Antioch. He is
the type of preacher described by Paul in  1Co 14:3 .
Encouragement is the chief idea in parakl(8873)is though
exhortation, comfort, consolation are used to render it ( Ac
9:31  13:15  15:31 ). See also  16:9  20:12 . It is not necessary
to think that the apostles coined the name Barnabas for Joseph
which originally may have come from Barnebous (Deissmann,
_Bible Studies_, pp. 308-10), son of Nebo, or even the Hebrew
_Bar Nebi_ (son of a prophet). But, whatever the origin, the
popular use is given by Luke. He was even called apostle along
with Paul ( Ac 14:14 ) in the broad sense of that word.

經文:

使徒行傳 4:37-4:37

註釋:

 {Having a held} (huparchontos aut(9369) agrou). Genitive
absolute with present active participle of huparch(935c) and dative
of possession. {Sold it and brought} (p(936c)(8873)as (886e)egken). Aorist
active participle of p(936c)e(935c) and second aorist active indicative
of pher(935c) because a single definite instance. So also with
eth(886b)en (laid), first aorist active.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:1-5:1

註釋:

 {Sold} (ep(936c)(8873)en). Aorist active indicative again, for a
single case.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:2-5:2

註釋:

 {Kept back} (enosphisato). First aorist middle indicative
of 
osphiz(935c), old verb from 
osphi, afar, apart, and so to set
apart, to separate for oneself, but only here, verse  3  Tit
2:10  in the N.T. {His wife also being privy to it} (suneidui(8873)
kai t(8873) gunaikos). Genitive absolute with second perfect
participle of sunoida, to know together with one, "his wife
also knowing it together with him." {Brought a certain part}
(enegkas meros ti). Aorist active participle of pher(935c), for a
definite act. The praise of Joseph was too much for Ananias, but
he was not willing to turn over all. He wanted praise for giving
all and yet he took care of himself by keeping some. Thus he
started the Ananias Club that gave a new meaning to his lovely
name (God is gracious).

經文:

使徒行傳 5:3-5:3

註釋:

 {Filled} (epl(8872)(9373)en). The very verb used of the filling by
the Holy Spirit ( 4:31 ). Satan the adversary is the father of
lies ( Joh 8:44 ). He had entered into Judas ( Lu 22:3  Joh
13:27 ) and now he has filled the heart of Ananias with a lie.
{To lie to the Holy Spirit} (pseusasthai se to pneuma to
hagion). Infinitive (aorist middle) of purpose with accusative
of general reference (se) and the accusative of the person
(object) as often in Greek writers, though here only in the N.T.
with this verb. Usual dative of the person in verse  4 
(anthr(9370)ois, men, 	(9369) the(9369), God). The Holy Spirit had been
given them to guide them into truth ( Joh 15:13 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 5:4-5:4

註釋:

 {Whiles it remained} (menon). Present active participle of
mend, unsold, Peter means. {After it was sold} (prathen). First
aorist passive of piprask(935c), to sell. {How is that thou hast
conceived} (Ti hoti ethou). _Quid est quod_. See  Lu 2:49 . See
also  Ac 5:9 . Second aorist middle indicative second person
singular of 	ith(886d)i. The devil filled his heart (verse  3 ),
but all the same Ananias did it too and is wholly responsible.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:5-5:5

註釋:

 {Hearing} (akou(936e)). Present active participle of akou(935c),
while hearing. {Fell down} (pes(936e)). Second aorist active
participle of pipt(935c), fell all of a sudden while listening.
{Gave up the ghost} (exepsuxen). First aorist active indicative
of ekpsuch(935c), late verb in LXX and Hippocrates, to breathe out,
to expire. In the N.T. only here, verse  10  12:23 . It is
needless to blame Peter for the death of Ananias. He had brought
the end upon himself. It was the judgment of God. Physically the
nervous shock could have caused the collapse.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:6-5:6

註釋:

 {The young men} (hoi ne(9374)eroi). Literally the younger men
(contrast with hoi presbuteroi, the elder men). Same as

eaniskoi in verse  10  and so no order in the young church.
Perhaps these young men were acting as ushers or actual
pallbearers. {Wrapped him round} (sunesteilan). First aorist
active indicative of sustell(935c), old verb, to draw together, or
contract ( 1Co 7:29 ), to roll together, to wrap with bandages,
to enshroud as here. Nowhere else in the N.T. Frequent in medical
writers. They may have used their own mantles. The time for
burial was short in Jerusalem for sanitary reasons and to avoid
ceremonial defilement.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:7-5:7

註釋:

 {And it was about the space of three hours after} (egeneto
de h(9373) h(9372)(936e) tri(936e) diast(886d)a). Literally "Now there came an
interval (diast(886d)a, distance, space between) of about (h(9373))
three hours." {When} (kai). This use of kai after egeneto
is characteristic of Luke's style in the Gospel. {Not knowing}
(m(8820)eiduia). Feminine singular of second perfect active
participle of oida. M(885c) usual negative of the participle in
the _Koin(825f).

經文:

使徒行傳 5:8-5:8

註釋:

 {For so much} (	osoutou). Genitive of price. Perhaps Peter
pointed to the pile of money at the feet of the apostles (verse
 2 ). The use of ei in direct questions appears in Luke ( Lu
13:23  22:49 ) as in the LXX like the Hebrew _im_ and in  Ac 1:6  19:2 , etc.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:9-5:9

註釋:

 {Ye have agreed together} (suneph(936e)(8874)h(8820)humin). First
aorist passive indicative of sumph(936e)e(935c) (to voice together,
symphony), impersonal with dative; It was agreed together by you
(or for you). "Your souls were allured together respecting this
deceit" (Vincent). {To tempt the Spirit of the Lord} (peirasai
to pneuma kuriou). Like "Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God."
It was close to the unpardonable sin which was attributing the
manifest work of the Holy Spirit to Beelzebub. {The feet} (hoi
podes). Graphic picture by Peter as he heard the steps of the
young men at the door.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:10-5:10

註釋:

 {Immediately} (parachr(886d)a). Hence her death was regarded
as supernatural like that of Ananias. {By her husband} (pros ton
andra aut(8873)). Face to face to her husband.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:11-5:11

註釋:

 {Upon the whole church} (eph' hol(886e) t(886e) ekkl(8873)ian). Here
ekkl(8873)ia for the first time in Acts of the believers in
Jerusalem. Twice already in the Gospels, once of the whole body
of believers or the Kingdom ( Mt 16:18 ), the other of the local
body ( Mt 18:17 ). In  Ac 7:38  it is used of the whole
congregation of Israel while in  19:32  it is used of a public
assembly in Ephesus. But already in  Ac 8:3  it is applied to the
church which Saul was persecuting in their homes when not
assembled. So here the etymological meaning of "assembly"
disappears for "the church" were now the scattered saints hiding
in their separate homes. The whole body of believers in Jerusalem
and all who heard of the fate of Ananias and Sapphira (beautiful,
her name means) were in awe and dread. It was already a dangerous
thing to be a follower of Christ unless one was willing to walk
straight.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:12-5:12

註釋:

 {Were wrought} (egineto). Imperfect middle, wrought from
time to time. {With one accord} (homothumadon). As already in
 1:14  2:46  4:24  and later  7:57  8:6  12:20  15:25  18:21  19:29 , old adverb and only in Acts in the N.T. Here "all" is
added. In Solomon's Porch again as in  3:11  which see.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:13-5:13

註釋:

 {Durst} (etolma). Imperfect active of 	olma(935c), old verb,
not to fear or shun through fear, boldly to take a stand. The
fate of Ananias and Sapphira continued to hold many in check.
{Join} (kollasthai). Present middle infinitive of kolla(935c), old
verb to cleave to like glue as in  Lu 15:15  which see. Seven
times in Acts ( 9:26  10:28  17:34 ). The outsiders (the rest)
preferred, many of them, to remain outside for the present,
especially the rulers. {Howbeit the people} (all'--ho laos).
Probably individuals among the people, the populace as distinct
from the rulers and hostile outsiders.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:14-5:14

註釋:

 {Were the more added} (m(836c)lon prosetithento). Rather
(m(836c)lon) instead of decrease as one might expect. Imperfect
passive indicative of prostith(886d)i common mi verb, kept on
being added. {Both of men and women} (andr(936e) te kai gunaik(936e)).
The distinction between andres and gunaikes and to be
considered in connection with andres in  4:4  which see.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:15-5:15

註釋:

 {Insomuch that} (h(9373)te). With the present infinitive
ekpherein and 	ithenai, regular Greek idiom for result. {Into
the streets} (eis tas plateias). Supply hodous (ways), into
the broad ways. {On beds and couches} (epi klinari(936e) kai
krabatt(936e)). Little beds (klinaria diminutive of klin(885c)) and
camp beds or pallets (see on 烘r 2:4,9,11|). {As Peter came by}
(erchomenou Petrou). Genitive absolute with present middle
participle. {At the least his shadow might overshadow} (kan h(880a)skia episkiasei). Future active indicative with hina (common
with hop(9373) in ancient Greek) and kan (crasis for kai
ean=even if), even if only the shadow. The word for shadow
(skia, like our "sky") is repeated in the verb and preserved in
our "overshadow." There was, of course, no virtue or power in
Peter's shadow. That was faith with superstition, of course, just
as similar cases in the Gospels occur ( Mt 9:20  Mr 6:56  Joh
9:5 ) and the use of Paul's handkerchief ( Ac 19:12 ). God
honours even superstitious faith if it is real faith in him. Few
people are wholly devoid of superstition.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:16-5:16

註釋:

 {Came together} (sun(8872)cheto). Imperfect middle, kept on
coming. {Round about} (perix). Old adverb, strengthened form of
peri, only here in the N.T. {Vexed} (ochloumenous). Present
passive participle of ochle(935c), to excite a mob (ochlos)
against one, to trouble, annoy. Old word, only here in the N.T.,
though enochle(935c) in  Lu 6:18 . {Were healed every one}
(etherapeuonto hapantes). Imperfect passive, were healed one at
a time, repetition.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:17-5:17

註釋:

 1Co
11:19 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
11' or engs='1Co
11'
經文:

使徒行傳 5:18-5:18

註釋:

 {With jealousy} (z(886c)ou). Genitive case. Old word from ze(932c)
to boil, our zeal. In itself it means only warmth, ardour, zeal,
but for a bad cause or from a bad motive, jealousy, envy, rivalry
results ( Ac 13:45 ). Common in the epistles. {In public ward}
(en t(8872)(8873)ei d(886d)osi(8369)). As in  4:3  only with d(886d)osi(8369)
(public) added, in the public prison, perhaps not the "common"
prison, but any prison is bad enough. In verse  19  it is called
"the prison" (	(8873) phulak(8873)), the guardhouse.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:20-5:20

註釋:

 {And stand} (kai stathentes). First aorist passive
participle (intransitive, ingressive aorist), take a stand. Bold
and pictorial command. {All the words of this life} (panta ta
rh(886d)ata t(8873) z(9388)s taut(8873)). Not just a Hebraism for "all these
words of life." Probably "this life" which the Sadducees deny and
of which the angel is now speaking, this eternal life. ( Joh
6:63,68  1Co 15:19 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 5:21-5:21

註釋:

 {About daybreak} (hupo ton orthron). From ornumi, to
stir up, to arouse, so the dawn ( Lu 24:1  Joh 8:2 ). Old word,
but in the N.T. only these three passages. "Under the dawn" or
"about dawn." _Sub lucem_. The temple doors would be open for
early worshippers and traffickers ( Joh 2:14 ). {Taught}
(edidaskon). Imperfect active, began to teach. {The council}
(	o sunedrion). The Sanhedrin. {The senate} (	(886e) gerousian).
From ger(936e), an old man, just as the Latin _senatus_ is from
_senex_, old. Like the gerontes in Homer and the Elder
Statesmen in Japan. Apparently the senate of the people were also
part of the Sanhedrin and the use of "and" (kai) is explanatory
and adds this item in particular. Page thinks that this group of
elders were not members of the Sanhedrin at all. {To the prison
house} (eis to desm(9374)(8872)ion), another word for prison (	(8872)(8873)is
d(886d)osia in verse  18 , h(8820)phulak(885c) in verse  19 ). See also
verses  22,23,25 . This from desmos, bond, and 	(8872)e(935c), to
keep, place where bound men are kept.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:22-5:22

註釋:

 {The officers} (hoi hup(8872)etai). Under-rowers, literally
( Mt 5:25 ). The servants or officers who executed the orders of
the Sanhedrin. {Shut} (kekleismenon). Perfect passive
participle of klei(935c). Shut tight. {Standing at the doors}
(hest(9374)as epi t(936e) thur(936e)). Graphic picture of the sentinels at
the prison doors.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:24-5:24

註釋:

 {They were much perplexed} (di(8870)oroun). Imperfect active
of diapore(935c) old verb by Luke only in the N.T. See already on
 Ac 2:12 . They continued puzzled. {Whereunto this would grow}
(	i an genoito touto). More exactly, {As to what this would
become}. Second aorist middle optative of ginomai with an,
the conclusion of a condition of the fourth class (undetermined
with less likelihood of determination), the unexpressed condition
being "if the thing should be allowed to go on." The indirect
question simply retains the optative with an (Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 1021, 1044). If they had only known how this grain
of mustard seed would grow into the greatest tree on earth and
how dwarfed the tree of Judaism would be beside it!

經文:

使徒行傳 5:26-5:26

註釋:

 {Brought} ((8867)en). Imperfect active of ag(935c), was bringing
(leading), slowly no doubt, and solemnly. {But without violence}
(ou meta bias). Literally, not with violence. {For they feared}
(ephobounto gar). Imperfect middle, still feared, kept on
fearing. {Lest they be stoned} (m(8820)lithasth(9373)in). Negative
purpose with m(885c) (like hina m(885c)), probably with "not with
violence," though possible with "they feared." They handled the
apostles gently for fear of being stoned themselves by the
people. First aorist passive subjunctive of lithaz(935c) (from
lithos, stone), old verb to pelt with stones ( Ac 14:19  Joh
10:31-33 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 5:27-5:27

註釋:

 {They set them} (est(8873)an). First aorist active indicative
(transitive) of hist(886d)i.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:28-5:28

註釋:

 {We straitly charged} (Paraggeli(8369) par(8867)geilamen). Like
the Hebrew idiom (common in the LXX), though found in Greek, with
charging (instrumental case) we charged (cf. same idiom in  Lu
22:15 ). Somewhat like the cognate accusative. The command
referred to occurs in  Ac 4:17,18  and the refusal of Peter and
John in  4:20 . {To bring upon us} (epagagein eph' h(886d)(8373)). Note
repetition of epi. Second aorist active infinitive of epag(935c),
old verb, but in the N.T. only here and  2Pe 2:1,5 . The
Sanhedrin gladly took the blood of Christ on their heads and
their children to Pilate ( Mt 27:25 ). Paul tried to save the
Jews ( Ac 18:6  22:20 ). "{This man}" (	ou anthr(9370)ou toutou).
Contemptuous slur and refusal to call the name of Jesus as in the
Talmud later.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:29-5:29

註釋:

 {We must} (dei). Moral necessity left them no choice. They
stood precisely where Peter and John were when before the
Sanhedrin before ( Ac 4:20 ). {Obey} (peitharchein). Old verb
from peithomai and arch(885c), to obey a ruler. Only by Luke and
Paul in the N.T.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:30-5:30

註釋:

 {Ye slew} (diecheirisasthe). First aorist middle
indicative of diacheirizomai, old verb from dia and cheir
(hand), to take in hand, manage, to lay hands on, manhandle,
kill. In the N.T. only here and  Ac 26:21 . {Hanging him upon a
tree} (kremasantes epi xulou). First aorist active participle
of kremannumi (kremannu(935c) seen already in  Mt 18:6  and  Lu
23:39 ). Peter refers to  De 21:23  as Paul does in  Ga 3:13 ,
the curse pronounced on every one who "hangs upon a tree."

經文:

使徒行傳 5:31-5:31

註釋:

 {Exalt} (ups(9373)en) In contrast to their murder of Christ as
in  2:23f . Peter repeats his charges with increased boldness.
{With his right hand} (	(8869) dexi(8369) autou). So instrumental case,
or at his right hand (locative case), or even "to his right hand"
(dative case) as in  2:33 . {Prince and Saviour} (arch(8867)on kai
s(9374)(8872)a). See on 氨:15|. Clearly "Prince" here. {To give} (	ou
dounai). Genitive of articular infinitive (second aorist active
of did(936d)i) of purpose.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:32-5:32

註釋:

 {We are witnesses} (h(886d)eis esmen martures). As in  2:32 .
{Things} (
h(886d)at(936e)). Literally, sayings, but like the Hebrew
_dabhar_ for "word" it is here used for "things." {And so is the
Holy Ghost} (kai to pneuma to hagion). The word for "is"
(estin) is not in the Greek, but this is plainly the meaning.
Peter claims the witness of the Holy Spirit to the raising of
Jesus Christ, God's Son, by the Father.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:33-5:33

註釋:

 {Were cut to the heart} (dieprionto). Imperfect passive of
diapri(935c) old verb (dia, pri(935c)), to saw in two (dia), to cut
in two (to the heart). Here it is rage that cuts into their
hearts, not conviction of sin as in  Ac 2:37 . Only here and  Ac
7:54  (after Stephen's speech) in the N.T. (cf. Simeon's prophecy
in  Lu 2:35 ). {Were minded} (eboulonto). Imperfect middle of
oulomai. They were plotting and planning to kill (anelein,
as in  Ac 2:23  Lu 23:33  which see) then and there. The point in
 4:7  was whether the apostles deserved stoning for curing the
cripple by demoniacal power, but here it was disobedience to the
command of the Sanhedrin which was not a capital offence. "They
were on the point of committing a grave judicial blunder"
(Furneaux).

經文:

使徒行傳 5:34-5:34

註釋:

 {Gamaliel} (Gamali(886c)). The grandson of Hillel, teacher of
Paul ( Ac 22:3 ), later president of the Sanhedrin, and the first
of the seven rabbis termed "Rabban." It is held by some that he
was one of the doctors who heard the Boy Jesus in the temple ( Lu
2:47 ) and that he was a secret disciple like Joseph of Arimathea
and Nicodemus, but there is no evidence of either position.
Besides, he appears here as a loyal Pharisee and "a doctor of the
law" (
omodidaskalos). This word appears already in  Lu 5:17 
of the Pharisaic doctors bent on criticizing Jesus, which see.
Paul uses it of Judaizing Christians ( 1Ti 1:7 ). Like other
great rabbis he had a great saying: "Procure thyself a teacher,
avoid being in doubt; and do not accustom thyself to give tithes
by guess." He was a man of judicial temper and not prone to go
off at a tangent, though his brilliant young pupil Saul went to
the limit about Stephen without any restraint on the part of
Gamaliel so far as the record goes. Gamaliel champions the cause
of the apostles as a Pharisee to score a point against the
Sadducees. He acts as a theological opportunist, not as a
disciple of Christ. He felt that a temporizing policy was best.
There are difficulties in this speech of Gamaliel and it is not
clear how Luke obtained the data for the address. It is, of
course, possible that Saul was present and made notes of it for
Luke afterwards. {Had in honour of all the people} (	imios panti
t(9369) la(9369)). Ethical dative. Timios from 	im(885c), old word
meaning precious, dear. {The men} (	ous anthr(9370)ous). Correct
text as in verse  35 , not "the apostles" as Textus Receptus.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:35-5:35

註釋:

 {Take heed} (prosechete heautois). Hold your mind (
oun,
unexpressed) for or on yourselves (dative case), the usual idiom.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:36-5:36

註釋:

 {Theudas} (Theudas). Luke represents Gamaliel here about
A.D. 35 as speaking of a man who led a revolt before that of
Judas the Galilean in connection with the enrolment under
Quirinius (Cyrenius) in A.D. 6. But Josephus (_Ant_. XX. 5, 1)
tells of a Theudas who led a similar insurrection in the reign of
Claudius about A.D. 44 or 45. Josephus (_Ant_. XVIII. 1, 6; XX.
5, 2; _War_ ii. 8, 1 and 17, 8) also describes Judas the Galilean
or Gaulonite and places him about A.D. 6. It is not certain that
Josephus and Luke (Gamaliel) refer to the same Theudas as the
name is an abbreviation of Theodosus, a common name. "Josephus
gives an account of four men named Simon who followed each other
within forty years, and of three named Judas within ten years,
who were all instigators of rebellion" (Hackett). If the same
Theudas is meant, then either Josephus or Luke (Gamaliel) has the
wrong historical order. In that case one will credit Luke or
Josephus according to his estimate of the two as reliable
historians. {To be somebody} (einai tina). Indirect assertion
with the infinitive and the accusative of general reference
(heauton) and 	ina, predicate accusative. Tina could be
"anybody" or "somebody" according to context, clearly "somebody"
of importance here. {Joined themselves} (proseklith(885c)). Correct
text and not prosekoll(8874)h(885c) (Textus Receptus). First aorist
passive indicative of prosklin(935c), old verb to lean towards, to
incline towards. Here only in the N.T. {Was slain} (an(8869)reth(885c)).
First aorist passive of anaire(935c) (cf. verse  33 ). {Obeyed}
(epeithonto). Imperfect middle, kept on obeying. {Were
dispersed} (dieluth(8873)an). First aorist passive indicative
(effective aorist) of dialu(935c), old verb to dissolve, to go to
pieces. Here only in the N.T.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:37-5:37

註釋:

 {Of the enrolment} (	(8873) apograph(8873)). Described by Josephus
(_Ant_. XV. 1, 1). The same word used by Luke of the first
enrolment started by Augustus B.C. 8 to 6 ( Lu 2:2 ). See the
discussion on 烊u 2:2|. This is the second enrolment in the
fourteen year cycle carried on for centuries as shown by numerous
dated papyri. Ramsay (_The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the
Trustworthiness of the N.T._) has produced proof from
inscriptions that Quirinius was twice in Syria as Luke reports
(Robertson, _Luke the Historian in the Light of Research_). {Drew
away} (apest(8873)e). Causative sense of the first aorist active
indicative of aphist(886d)i, made people (laon, no need of "some
of the") to revolt (apostatize) with him. {He also} (kakeinos,
crasis for kai ekeinos). That one, also. {Were scattered
abroad} (dieskorpisth(8873)an). First aorist (effective) passive
indicative of diaskorpiz(935c), old verb to disperse. Used of sheep
( Mr 14:27 ), of property ( Lu 15:13 ). Aorist here after
imperfect (epeithonto) as in verse  36 .

經文:

使徒行傳 5:38-5:38

註釋:

 {Refrain from} (apost(8874)e apo). Second aorist (ingressive)
active imperative of aphist(886d)i of verse  37 . Do ye stand off
from these men. "Hands off" was the policy of Gamaliel. {For
if--be} (hoti ean--(8869)). Hoti gives the reason for the advice.
Gamaliel presents two alternatives in terms of two conditional
clauses. The first one is stated as a condition of the third
class, ean with the present subjunctive (8869), undetermined with
prospect of determination. Assuming that it is from men, "it will
be overthrown" (kataluth(8873)etai, first future passive of
katalu(935c), to loosen down like a falling house) as was true of
the following of Theudas and Judas the Galilean.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:39-5:39

註釋:

 {But if it is of God} (ei de ek theou estin). The second
alternative is a condition of the first class, determined as
fulfilled, ei with the present indicative. By the use of this
idiom Gamaliel does put the case more strongly in favor of the
apostles than against them. This condition _assumes_ that the
thing is so without _affirming_ it to be true. On the basis of
this alternative Gamaliel warns the Sanhedrin that they cannot
"overthrow" (katalusai) these men for they in that case must
"overthrow" God, {lest haply ye be found} (m(8820)pote--hureth(8874)e,
negative purpose with first aorist passive subjunctive) {even to
be fighting against God} (kai theomachoi, late adjective from
	heos and machomai, in LXX and here only in the N.T.).

經文:

使徒行傳 5:40-5:40

註釋:

 {To him they agreed} (epeisth(8873)an aut(9369)). First aorist
passive indicative of peith(935c), to persuade, the passive to be
persuaded by, to listen to, to obey. Gamaliel's shrewd advice
scored as against the Sadducaic contention (verse  17 ). {Not to
speak} (m(8820)lalein). The Sanhedrin repeated the prohibition of
 4:18  which the apostles had steadily refused to obey. The
Sanhedrin stood by their guns, but refused to shoot. It was a
"draw" with Gamaliel as tactical victor over the Sadducees.
Clearly now the disciples were set free because only the
Sadducees had become enraged while the Pharisees held aloof.

經文:

使徒行傳 5:41-5:41

註釋:

 3Jo
1:7 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '3Jo
1' or engs='3Jo
1'
經文:

使徒行傳 5:42-5:42

註釋:

 {Every day} (p(8373)an h(886d)eran). Accusative of extent of time,
all through every day. {In the temple and at home} (en t(9369)
hier(9369) kai kat' oikon). This was a distinct triumph to go back
to the temple where they had been arrested (verse  25 ) and at
home or from house to house, as it probably means (cf.  2:46 ).
It was a great day for the disciples in Jerusalem. {They ceased
not} (ouk epauonto). Imperfect middle. They kept it up. {Jesus
as the Christ} (	on Christon I(8873)oun). Jesus is the direct
object of the participles didaskontes (teaching) and
euaggelizomenoi (preaching or evangelizing) while "the Christ"
(	on Christon) is the predicate accusative. These words give
the substance of the early apostolic preaching as these opening
chapters of Acts show, that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah of
promise. Gamaliel had opened the prison doors for them and they
took full advantage of the opportunity that now was theirs.
經文:

使徒行傳 6:1-6:1

註釋:

 {When the number of the disciples was multiplying}
(pl(8874)hunont(936e) t(936e) math(8874)(936e)). Genitive absolute of pl(8874)hun(935c),
old verb from pl(8874)hos, fulness, to increase. The new freedom
from the intercession of Gamaliel was bearing rich fruit. {A
murmuring of the Grecian Jews} (goggusmos t(936e) Hell(886e)ist(936e)).
Late onomatopoetic word (LXX) from the late verb gogguz(935c), to
mutter, to murmur. The substantive occurs also in  Joh 7:12  Php
2:14  1Pe 4:9 . It is the secret grumblings that buzz away till
they are heard. These "Grecian Jews" or Hellenists are members of
the church in Jerusalem who are Jews from outside of Palestine
like Barnabas from Cyprus. These Hellenists had points of contact
with the Gentile world without having gone over to the habits of
the Gentiles, the Jews of the Western Dispersion. They spoke
Greek. {Against the Hebrews} (pros tous Ebraious). The Jewish
Christians from Jerusalem and Palestine. The Aramaean Jews of the
Eastern Dispersion are usually classed with the Hebrew (speaking
Aramaic) as distinct from the Grecian Jews or Hellenists. {Were
neglected} (parethe(9372)ounto). Imperfect passive of
parathe(9372)e(935c), old verb, to examine things placed beside (para)
each other, to look beyond (para also), to overlook, to
neglect. Here only in the N.T. These widows may receive daily
(kath(886d)erin(8869), late adjective from kath' h(886d)eran, only here
in the N.T.) help from the common fund provided for all who need
it ( Ac 4:32-37 ). The temple funds for widows were probably not
available for those who have now become Christians. Though they
were all Christians here concerned, yet the same line of cleavage
existed as among the other Jews (Hebrew or Aramaean Jews and
Hellenists). It is not here said that the murmuring arose among
the widows, but because of them. Women and money occasion the
first serious disturbance in the church life. There was evident
sensitiveness that called for wisdom.

經文:

使徒行傳 6:2-6:2

註釋:

 {The multitude} (	o pl(8874)hos). The whole church, not just
the 120. {Fit} (areston). Pleasing, verbal adjective from
aresk(935c), to please, old word, but in the N.T. only here and  Ac
12:3  Joh 8:29  1Jo 3:22 . _Non placet_. {Should forsake}
(kataleipsantas). Late first aorist active participle for usual
second aorist katalipontas from kataleip(935c), to leave behind.
{Serve tables} (diakonein trapezais). Present active infinitive
of diakone(935c) from diakonos (dia and konis, dust), to raise
a dust in a hurry, to serve, to minister either at table ( Joh
12:20 ), or other service ( Joh 12:25f. ), to serve as deacon
( 1Ti 3:10,13 ). "Tables" here hardly means money-tables as in
 Joh 2:15 , but rather the tables used in the common daily
distribution of the food (possibly including the love-feasts,  Ac
2:43-47 ). This word is the same root as diakonia
(ministration) in verse  1  and diakonos (deacon) in  Php 1:1  1Ti 3:8-13 . It is more frequently used in the N.T. of ministers
(preachers) than of deacons, but it is quite possible, even
probable, that the office of deacon as separate from bishop or
elder grew out of this incident in  Ac 6:1-7 . Furneaux is clear
that these "seven" are not to be identified with the later
"deacons" but why he does not make clear.

經文:

使徒行傳 6:3-6:3

註釋:

 {Of good report} (marturoumenous). Present passive
participle of marture(935c), to bear witness to. Men with a good
reputation as well as with spiritual gifts (the Holy Spirit and
wisdom). {We may appoint} (katast(8873)omen). Future active
indicative of kathist(886d)i, we shall appoint. The action of the
apostles follows the choice by the church, but it is promised as
a certainty, not as a possibility. The Textus Receptus has a
first aorist active subjunctive here (katast(8873)(936d)en).

經文:

使徒行傳 6:4-6:4

註釋:

 {But we} (hemeis de). In contrast to the work given the
seven. {The ministry of the word} (	(8869) diakoni(8369) tou logou).
The same word diakoni(8369) employed in verse  1 , but here about
preaching as the special ministry with which the apostles were
concerned. For "continue steadfastly" (proskarter(8873)omen) see on
氧:42|.

經文:

使徒行傳 6:5-6:5

註釋:

 {Pleased} ((8872)esen). Aorist active indicative of aresk(935c)
like Latin _placuit_ when a vote was taken. The use of en(9370)ion
before "the whole multitude" is like the LXX. {They chose}
(exelexanto). First aorist middle indicative of ekleg(935c), to
pick out for oneself. Each one of the seven has a Greek name and
was undoubtedly a Hellenist, not an Aramaean Jew. Consummate
wisdom is here displayed for the murmuring had come from the
Hellenists, seven of whom were chosen to take proper care of the
widows of Hellenists. This trouble was settled to stay settled so
far as we know. Nothing is here told of any of the seven except
Stephen who is "a man full of faith and the Holy Spirit" and
Nicolas "a proselyte of Antioch" (who was not then born a Jew,
but had come to the Jews from the Greek world).

經文:

使徒行傳 6:6-6:6

註釋:

 {They laid their hands on them} (epeth(886b)an autois tas
cheiras). First aorist active indicative of epitith(886d)i.
Probably by the apostles who ratified the choice (verse  3 ). The
laying on of hands "was a symbol of the impartation of the gifts
and graces which they needed to qualify them for the office. It
was of the nature of a prayer that God would bestow the necessary
gifts, rather than a pledge that they were actually conferred"
(Hackett).

經文:

使徒行傳 6:7-6:7

註釋:

 {Increased} ((8875)xanen). Imperfect active, kept on growing
all the more because the apostles were now relieved from the
daily ministration of the food. {Multiplied} (epl(8874)huneto).
Imperfect passive. The two imperfects kept pace with each other.
{Of the priests} (	(936e) hier(936e)). Who were usually Sadducees. It
was a sad day for Annas and Caiaphas and all the sect of the
Sadducees ( 5:17 ). {Were obedient to} (hup(886b)ouon). Imperfect
active of hupakou(935c), repetition, one after another. {The faith}
(	(8869) pistei). Here meaning the gospel, the faith system as in
 Ro 1:5  Ga 1:23  Jude 1:3 , etc. Here the word means more than
individual trust in Christ.

經文:

使徒行傳 6:8-6:8

註釋:

 {Wrought} (epoiei). Imperfect active, repeatedly wrought.
Evidently a man like Stephen would not confine his "ministry" to
"serving tables." He was called in verse  5  "full of faith and
the Holy Spirit." Here he is termed "full of grace (so the best
MSS., not faith) and power." The four words give a picture of
remarkable attractiveness. The grace of God gave him the power
and so "he kept on doing great wonders and signs among the
people." He was a sudden whirlwind of power in the very realm of
Peter and John and the rest.

經文:

使徒行傳 6:9-6:9

註釋:

 {The synagogue of the Libertines} (ek t(8873) sunag(9367)(8873) t(8873)
legomen(8873) Libertin(936e)). The Libertines (Latin _libertinus_, a
freedman or the son of a freedman) were Jews, once slaves of Rome
(perhaps descendants of the Jews taken to Rome as captives by
Pompey), now set free and settled in Jerusalem and numerous
enough to have a synagogue of their own. Schuerer calls a
Talmudic myth the statement that there were 480 synagogues in
Jerusalem. There were many, no doubt, but how many no one knows.
These places of worship and study were in all the cities of the
later times where there were Jews enough to maintain one.
Apparently Luke here speaks of five such synagogues in Jerusalem
(that of the Libertines, of the Cyrenians, of the Alexandrians,
of Cilicia, and of Asia). There probably were enough Hellenists
in Jerusalem to have five such synagogues. But the language of
Luke is not clear on this point. He may make only two groups
instead of five since he uses the article 	(936e) twice (once
before Libertin(936e) kai Kur(886e)ai(936e) kai Alexandre(936e), again before
apo Kilikias kai Asias). He also changes from the genitive
plural to apo before Cilicia and Asia. But, leaving the number
of the synagogues unsettled whether five or two, it is certain
that in each one where Stephen appeared as a Hellenist preaching
Jesus as the Messiah he met opposition. Certain of them "arose"
(anest(8873)an) "stood up" after they had stood all that they could
from Stephen, "disputing with Stephen" (sunz(8874)ountes t(9369)
Stephan(9369)). Present active participle of sunz(8874)e(935c), to question
together as the two on the way to Emmaus did ( Lu 24:15 ). Such
interruptions were common with Jews. They give a skilled speaker
great opportunity for reply if he is quick in repartee. Evidently
Stephen was fully equipped for the emergency. One of their
synagogues had men from Cilicia in it, making it practically
certain that young Saul of Tarsus, the brilliant student of
Gamaliel, was present and tried his wits with Stephen. His
ignominious defeat may be one explanation of his zest in the
stoning of Stephen ( Ac 8:1 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 6:10-6:10

註釋:

 {They were not able to withstand} (ouk ischuon
antist(886e)ai). Imperfect active of ischu(935c), to have strength, and
ingressive second aorist active (intransitive) infinitive of
anthist(886d)i. They continued unable (without strength enough) to
take a stand against. Stephen knocked them down, Saul included,
as fast as they got up. Stephen was like a battery charged and in
action. {The wisdom and spirit} (	(8869) sophi(8369) kai pneumati).
Dative case. They stood up against Stephen's wisdom and the Holy
Spirit "by whom he spoke" (h(9369) elalei). Instrumental case and
the relative agrees with "Spirit." He kept on speaking so
(elalei, imperfect active). It was a desperate situation.

經文:

使徒行傳 6:11-6:11

註釋:

 {Then they suborned men} (	ote hupebalon andras). Second
aorist active indicative of hupoball(935c), old verb, but here only
in the N.T., to put under like a carpet, to bring men under one's
control by suggestion or by money. One recalls the plight of
Caiaphas in the trial of Jesus when he sought false witnesses.
_Subornaverunt_. They put these men forward in an underhand way
for fraud. {Blasphemous words against Moses and God} (lasph(886d)a
eis M(9375)s(886e) kai ton theon). The punishment for blasphemy was
stoning to death. See  Mt 12:31  for discussion of the word
lasph(886d)ia, blasph(886d)e(932c) blasph(886d)os, all in the N.T. from
lapt(935c), to harm, and ph(886d)(885c), speech, harmful speech, or
lax, stupid, and ph(886d)(885c). But the charge against Stephen was
untrue. Please note that Moses is here placed before God and
practically on a par with God in the matter of blasphemy. The
purpose of this charge is to stir the prejudices of the people in
the matter of Jewish rights and privileges. It is the Pharisees
who are conducting this attack on Stephen while the Sadducees had
led them against Peter and John. The position of Stephen is
critical in the extreme for the Sadducees will not help him as
Gamaliel did the apostles.

經文:

使徒行傳 6:12-6:12

註釋:

 {They stirred up the people} (sunekin(8873)an ton laon). They
shook the people together like an earthquake. First aorist active
indicative of sunkine(935c), to throw into commotion. Old verb, but
here only in the N.T. The elders and the scribes (Pharisees) are
reached, but no word about the Sadducees. This is the first
record of the hostility of the masses against the disciples
(Vincent). {Came upon him} (epistantes). Second aorist
(ingressive) active participle of ephist(886d)i. Rushed at him.
{Seized} (sun(8872)pasan). Effective aorist active of sunarpaz(935c)
as if they caught him after pursuit.

經文:

使徒行傳 6:13-6:13

註釋:

 {False witnesses} (marturas pseudeis). Just as Caiaphas
did with Jesus. {Ceaseth not} (ou pauetai). Wild charge just
like a false witness that Stephen talks in the synagogues against
the law and the holy temple.

經文:

使徒行傳 6:14-6:14

註釋:

 {We have heard him say} (ak(886b)oamen autou legontos). The
only direct testimony and evidently wrong. Curiously like the
charge brought against Jesus before Caiaphas that he would
destroy the temple and build it again in three days. Undoubtedly
Stephen had said something about Christianity before as meant for
others besides Jews. He had caught the spirit of Jesus about
worship as shown to the woman at Sychar in  Joh 4  that God is
spirit and to be worshipped by men anywhere and everywhere
without having to come to the temple in Jerusalem. It was
inflammable material surely and it was easy to misrepresent and
hard to clear up. {This Jesus of Nazareth} (I(8873)ous ho Naz(9372)aios
houtos). With contempt.

經文:

使徒行傳 6:15-6:15

註釋:

 {As if the face of an angel} (h(9373)ei pros(9370)on aggelou).
Even his enemies saw that, wicked as they were. See  Ex 34:30 
for the face of Moses when he came down from Sinai ( 2Co 3:7 ).
Page quotes Tennyson: "God's glory smote him on the face." Where
were Peter and John at this crisis? Apparently Stephen stands
alone before the Sanhedrin as Jesus did. But he was not alone for
he saw Jesus standing at the right hand of God ( Ac 7:56 ). There
was little that Peter and John could have done if they had been
present. Gamaliel did not interpose this time for the Pharisees
were behind the charges against Stephen, false though they were
as Gamaliel could have found out.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:1-7:1

註釋:

 {Are these things so?} (ei tauta hout(9373) echei). On this use
of ei in a direct question see on 氣:6|. Literally "Do these
things hold thus?" A formal question by the high priest like our
"Do you plead guilty, or not guilty?" (Furneaux). The abrupt
question of the high priest would serve to break the evident
spell of the angelic look on Stephen's face. Two charges had been
made against Stephen (1) speaking against the holy temple, (2)
changing the customs which Moses had delivered. Stephen could not
give a yes or no answer to these two charges. There was an
element of truth in each of them and a large amount of error all
mixed together. So he undertakes to explain his real position by
the historical method, that is to say, by a rapid survey of God's
dealing with the people of Israel and the Gentiles. It is the
same method adopted by Paul in Pisidian Antioch ( Ac 13:16ff. )
after he had become the successor of Stephen in his
interpretation of the universal mission of Christianity. If one
is disposed to say that Luke made up this speech to suit
Stephen's predicament, he has to explain how the style is less
Lukan than the narrative portions of Acts with knowledge of
Jewish traditions that a Greek would not be likely to know.
Precisely how Luke obtained the data for the speech we do not
know, but Saul heard it and Philip, one of the seven, almost
certainly. Both could have given Luke help about it. It is even
possible that some one took notes of this important address. We
are to remember also that the speech was interrupted at the end
and may not include all that Stephen meant to say. But enough is
given to give us a good idea of how Stephen met the first charge
"by showing that the worship of God is not confined to Jerusalem
or the Jewish temple" (Page). Then he answers the second charge
by proving that God had many dealings with their fathers before
Moses came and that Moses foretold the coming of the Messiah who
is now known to be Jesus. It is at this point (verse  51 ) that
Stephen becomes passionate and so powerful that the wolves in the
Sanhedrin lose all self-control. It is a great and masterful
exposition of the worldwide mission of the gospel of Christ in
full harmony with the Great Commission of Christ. The apostles
had been so busy answering the Sadducees concerning the
Resurrection of Christ and maintaining their freedom to teach and
preach that they had not pushed the world-wide propaganda of the
gospel as Jesus had commanded after they had received the Promise
of the Father. But Stephen had proclaimed the same message of
Christ and was now facing the same fate. Peter's mind had been
enlightened by the Holy Spirit so that he could rightly interpret
Joel and David in the light of Pentecost. "So Stephen read the
history of the Old Testament with new eyes in the light of the
life and death of Jesus" (Furneaux).

經文:

使徒行傳 7:2-7:2

註釋:

 {Brethren and fathers} (andres adelphoi kai pateres). The
spectators (brethren) and members of the Sanhedrin (fathers) as
Paul in  Ac 22:1 . {Hearken} (akousate). First aorist
(ingressive) active imperative, Give me your attention now. {The
God of glory} (Ho theos t(8873) dox(8873)). The God characterized by
glory (genitive case, genus or kind) as seen in the Shekinah, the
visible radiance of God. Jesus is also called "the Glory"=the
Shekinah in  Jas 2:1 . Cf.  Ex 25:22  40:34  Le 9:6  Heb 9:5 . By
these words Stephen refutes the charge of blasphemy against God
in  Ac 6:11 . {Appeared} ((9370)hth(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative of hora(935c). See on 烊u 23:43|. Before there was temple
or tabernacle and away over in Mesopotamia (Ur of the Chaldees,
 Ge 11:31 ), even before (prin (885c) with the infinitive) he dwelt
in Haran (Charran, or Carrae not far from Edessa, where Crassus
met death after his defeat by the Parthians B.C. 53).

經文:

使徒行傳 7:3-7:3

註釋:

 {Which I shall shew thee} (h(886e) an soi deix(935c)). Indefinite
relative clause with an and the aorist active subjunctive (same
form in first person singular as the future active indicative).
Abraham followed on as God led him.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:4-7:4

註釋:

 {When his father was dead} (meta to apothanein auton).
Meta with the accusative of the articular infinitive and the
accusative of general reference (auton), regular Greek idiom.
In  Ge 11:32  it is stated that Terah died at Haran at the age of
205. There are various explanations of the discrepancy, but no
one that seems certain. It is possible (Hackett, Felten) that
Abraham is mentioned first in  Ge 11:26  because he became the
most prominent and was really younger than Haran his brother who
died before the first migration who was really sixty years older
than Abraham. According to this view Terah was 130 years old at
the birth of Abraham, leaving Abraham 75 at the death of Terah
(205). {Wherein ye now dwell} (eis h(886e) humeis nun katoikeite).
Note eis in the sense of en as often. Note also emphatic use
of humeis (ye) and now (
un).

經文:

使徒行傳 7:5-7:5

註釋:

 {Not so much as to set his foot on} (oude b(886d)a podos). From
 De 2:5 . Old word from ain(935c), to go, to step. "Stepping of a
foot," only instance of this original meaning in the N.T. From
this it comes to mean a platform reached by steps, official seat
of a judge ( Mt 27:19 ). The field purchased by Abraham ( Ge
23:9-17 ) was not a gift from God. {Promised} (ep(8867)geilato).
First aorist middle indicative of epaggell(935c), common verb. See
 Ge 12:7  17:8  48:4  for this promise. So God appeared again to
Abraham in a strange land. {In possession} (eis kataschesin).
Late word, in LXX, and in N.T. only here and verse  45 . From
katech(935c), to hold back, then to hold fast (or down), to possess.
It was fulfilled in the descendants of Abraham. {When as yet he
had no child} (ouk ontos aut(9369) teknou). Genitive absolute with
negative ouk rather than m(885c) to emphasize actual absence of a
child. He had only the promise of God about the land and the
child.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:6-7:6

註釋:

 {On this wise} (hout(9373)). A free quotation from  Ge 15:13 .
{Should sojourn} (estai paroikon). Shall be a sojourner,
Paroikos (para, beside, oikos, home), one dwelling near
one's home, but not of it, so a stranger, foreigner, old word,
often in LXX, temporary residence without full rights of
citizenship ( 7:29  13:17 ), and descriptive of Christians ( Eph
2:19  1Pe 1:17  2:11 ). {In a strange land} (en g(8869) allotri(8369)).
In a land not one's own, that belongs to another, alien as in  Mt
17:25f. , which see. {Four hundred years} (et(8820)tetrakosia).
Accusative of duration of time. As in  Ge 15:13 , but a round
number as in  Ex 12:40  the time is 430 years. But in  Ga 3:17 
Paul, following the LXX in  Ex 12:40 , takes the 430 years to
cover the period in Canaan and the stay in Egypt, cutting the
sojourn in Egypt to about half. Josephus gives it both ways.
Hackett suggests two solutions, one that there were two ways of
reckoning the period among the Jews with no way of settling it,
the other that by the 430 years in Egypt the writers meant to
include Canaan also as merely the preliminary to the period in
Egypt.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:7-7:7

註釋:

 {Will I judge} (krin(9320)eg(935c)). Future (accent on (935c)) active
indicative of krin(935c) and eg(935c) (I) expressed is emphatic. {In
this place} (en t(9369) top(9369) tout(9369)). Quoted from  Ex 3:12  and
referring to Sinai or Horeb, but Stephen applies it to the
Promised Land.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:8-7:8

註釋:

 {The covenant of circumcision} (diath(886b)(886e) peritom(8873)). A
covenant marked by (genitive) circumcision (no article) of which
circumcision is the sign ( Ro 4:11 ) as set forth in  Ge
17:9-14 . In the ancient Greek diath(886b)(885c) was usually will
(Latin, _testamentum_) and sunth(886b)(885c) was used for covenant
(sun, together, rather than dia, between). But the LXX and
the N.T. use diath(886b)(885c) for covenant (will in  Heb 9:15f. ) as
Lightfoot on  Ga 3:16  says: "The LXX translation and New
Testament writers probably preferred diath(886b)(885c) as better
expressing the {free grace} of God than sunth(886b)(885c)." {And so}
(kai hout(9373)). After the covenant was made and as a sign and
seal of it.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:9-7:9

註釋:

 {Moved with jealousy} (z(886c)(9373)antes). First aorist active
participle of z(886c)o(935c), old verb from z(886c)os ( Ac 5:17 ), to burn
or boil with zeal, and then with envy as here ( 17:5 , etc.) and
 Ge 37:11 .

經文:

使徒行傳 7:10-7:10

註釋:

 {Delivered him out} (exeilato auton ek). First aorist
middle indicative of exaire(935c), old verb to take out, snatch out.
Note repetition of ek. {Pharaoh King of Egypt} (Phara(930a)basile(9373) Aiguptou). Pharaoh is not a name, but a title, the
Egyptian _per(8383)_ meaning great house.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:11-7:11

註釋:

 {Found no sustenance} (ouch h(8875)riskon chortasmata).
Imperfect active, kept on not finding. {Chortasmata} is from
{chortaz(937d), originally to feed with grass (chortos) or herbs.
Old word, but only here in the N.T. and includes food for both
men and animals. In  Ge 24:25,32  it is fodder for the cattle, a
first necessity for owners of herds of cattle.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:12-7:12

註釋:

 {That there was corn} (onta sitia). Participle (present
active of eimi) in indirect discourse, after akousas, "heard
of corn being in Egypt." Sitia is diminutive of sitos and
means grain (wheat, barley, not our maize or Indian corn), old
word also for provisions, victuals, here only in the N.T. {The
first time} (pr(9374)on). While Jacob himself remained in Canaan
before he went down to Egypt and died there (verse  15f. ).

經文:

使徒行傳 7:13-7:13

註釋:

 {At the second time} (en t(9369) deuter(9369)). This expression
only here in the N.T. This second visit is recorded in  Ge
45:1ff . {Became manifest} (phaneron egeneto). In  Ge 41:12 
the fact that Joseph was a Hebrew had been incidentally mentioned
to Pharaoh, but now it was made clear to him.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:14-7:14

註釋:

 {Three-score and fifteen souls} (en psuchais hebdom(886b)onta
pente). Stephen follows the LXX which counts some grandchildren
of Joseph and so makes it 75 whereas  Ge 46:26  has 66 and then
the next verse makes it  70  including Jacob and Joseph with his
two sons. The use of en means "consisting in."

經文:

使徒行傳 7:16-7:16

註釋:

 {They were carried over unto Shechem} (meteteth(8873)an eis
Suchem). First aorist passive of metatith(886d)i, only here in the
N.T. in this sense of changing places. Jacob was buried in the
cave of Machpelah ( Ge 50:13 ). The O.T. does not say where the
sons of Jacob were buried save that Joseph was buried in Shechem
( Jos 24:32 ). Possibly only "our fathers" without Jacob is the
subject of "were carried." {Which Abraham bought} (h(9369) (936e)(8873)ato
Abraam). Hackett is sure that our present text is wrong. Hort
notes some sixty "primitive errors" in the critical text of the
N.T. It is possible that this is also one. If "Jacob" is
substituted for "Abraham," the matter is cleared up. "It is quite
as likely, judging _a priori_, that the word producing the error
escaped from some early copyist as that so glaring an error was
committed by Stephen" (Hackett). At any rate Abraham bought a
burying-place, the cave of Machpelah, from Ephron the Hittite at
Hebron ( Ge 23:16 ), while Jacob bought a field from the sons of
Hamor at Shechem ( Ge 33:19  Jos 24:32 ). Abraham had built an
altar at Shechem when he entered Canaan ( Ge 12:6f. ). It is
possible, of course, that Abraham also bought the ground on which
the altar stood. {In Shechem} (en Suchem). This is the reading
of Aleph B C instead of the Textus Receptus 	ou Suchem which
makes it "Hamar the father of Sichem." "In Shechem" is the true
reading.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:17-7:17

註釋:

 {Drew nigh} ((8867)gizen). Imperfect active, was drawing nigh.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:18-7:18

註釋:

 {Another king} (asileus heteros). A different kind of
king also, probably a king of the new dynasty after the shepherd
kings had been expelled from Egypt. {Who knew not Joseph} (hos
ouk (8869)dei ton I(9373)(8870)h). Second past perfect of oida used like
an imperfect. Joseph's history and services meant nothing to the
new king. "The previous dynasty had been that of the Hyksos: the
new king was Ahmes who drove out the Hyksos" (Knobel).

經文:

使徒行傳 7:19-7:19

註釋:

 {Dealt subtilly} (katasophisamenos). First aorist middle
participle of katasophizomai, late compound (kata and
sophiz(935c), old verb, to make wise, to become wise, then to play
the sophist), perfective use of kata. In the LXX, but here only
in the N.T. To use fraud, craft, deceit. {That they should cast
out their babes} (	ou poiein ta breph(8820)ektheta). Tou poiein
(genitive of the articular present infinitive) can be either
design or result. The Revised Version here takes it as purpose
while the Authorized as result. In either case Pharaoh required
the Israelites to expose their children to death, a possible
practice done voluntarily in heathen China and by heathen in
so-called Christian lands. But the Israelites fought against such
an iniquity. The word ektheta (exposed, cast out) is a verbal
adjective from ektith(886d)i. It is an old word, but here only in
the N.T. and not in the LXX. {To the end they might not live}
(eis to m(8820)z(936f)goneisthai). Purpose with eis and the articular
infinitive (present middle). This compound verb is from
z(936f)gonos (from z(936f)s, alive, and gen(935c), to bear) and is used
by late writers and the LXX. It is three times in the N.T. (here,
 Lu 17:33  1Ti 6:13 ) in the sense to preserve alive.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:20-7:20

註釋:

 {Exceeding fair} (asteios t(9369) the(9369)). Ethical dative, fair
to God (as God looked at him). Asteios is from astu, city,
and so means "of the city," with city manners and polish. Old
word, only twice in the N.T. (here and  Heb 11:23 ) and both
times about Moses and taken from  Ex 2:2 . {He was nourished}
(anetraph(885c)). Second aorist passive indicative of anatreph(935c).
He was brought up at home for three months in defiance of the new
Pharaoh.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:21-7:21

註釋:

 {When he was cast out} (ektethentos autou). Genitive
absolute with first aorist passive participle of ektith(886d)i.
{Took up} (aneilato). Second aorist middle indicative (with
first aorist vowel a instead of e as often in the _Koin(825f)) of
anaire(935c), common in the N.T. in the sense of take up and make
away with, to kill as in verse  28 , but here only in the N.T. in
the original sense of taking up from the ground and with the
middle voice (for oneself). Quoted here from  Ex 2:5 . The word
was used of old for picking up exposed children as here. Vincent
quotes Aristophanes (_Clouds_, 531): "I exposed (the child), and
some other women, having taken it, adopted (aneileto) it."
Vulgate has _sustulit_. "Adopted" is the idea here. "After the
birth of a child the father took it up to his bosom, if he meant
to rear it; otherwise it was doomed to perish" (Hackett).
{Nourished him for her own son} (anethrepsato auton heaut(8869) eis
huion). Literally, "she nursed him up for herself (heaut(8869)
besides middle voice) as a son." This use of eis=as occurs in
the old Greek, but is very common in the LXX as a translation of
the Hebrew _le_. The tradition is that she designed Moses for the
throne as the Pharaoh had no son (Josephus, _Ant_. ii. 9, 7).

經文:

使徒行傳 7:22-7:22

註釋:

 {Was instructed} (epaideuth(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative of paideu(935c), to train a child (pais), the usual
idea in ancient Greek as here. The notion of chastisement ( Heb
12:6 ) is also in the old Greek and especially in the LXX and the
N.T. Here with instrumental case (pas(8869) sophi(8369)) or the
locative. The accusative would usually be retained after this
verb. The priestly caste in Egypt was noted for their knowledge
of science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics. This reputation
was proverbial ( 1Ki 4:30 ). Modern discoveries have thrown much
light on the ancient civilization of Egypt. Moses, like Paul, was
a man of the schools. {Mighty in his words and works} (dunatos
en logois kai ergois autou). The same phrase used of Jesus in
 Lu 24:19 . The adjective dunatos is employed of Apollos as an
interpreter of the Scriptures ( Ac 18:24 ). Moses did not have
the rhetorical skill or eloquence of Aaron ( Ex 4:10 ), but his
words like his deeds carried weight and power.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:23-7:23

註釋:

 {When he was well-nigh forty years old} (H(9373) epl(8872)outo
aut(9369) tessarakontaet(8873) chronos). A rather awkward Greek idiom
for the English: "When a forty year old time (same idiom in  Ac
13:18  and only twice in the N.T.) was being fulfilled
(epl(8872)outo, imperfect passive) for him (dative case)." The life
of Moses is divided into three periods of forty years each (in
Egypt 40 years, in Midian 40, governed Israel 40, 120 when he
died,  De 34:7 ). {It came into his heart} (aneb(8820)epi t(886e)
kardian autou). Second aorist active indicative of anabain(935c),
common verb. Came up as if from the lower deeps of his nature.
This Hebrew image occurs in  Jer 3:16  Isa 65:17  1Co 2:9 . {To
visit} (episkepsasthai). First aorist middle infinitive of
episkeptomai, old verb to go to see for oneself, with his own
eyes, to help if possible. Used of God visiting his people ( Lu
7:16 ). Our "visit" is from Latin _video_, to see, _visito_, to
go to see. During the Welsh mining troubles the Prince of Wales
made a sympathetic visit to see for himself the actual condition
of the coal miners. Moses desired to know first hand how his
kinsmen were faring.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:24-7:24

註釋:

 {Suffer wrong} (adikoumenon). Present passive participle
of adik(886f). By blows ( Ex 2:11 ). {Avenged} (epoi(8873)en
ekdik(8873)in). First aorist active indicative of poie(935c). This
idiom occurs in  Lu 18:7  with ekdik(8873)in (this from ekdike(935c)
and that from ekdikos without right or law dik(885c) and then
exacting law of right out of ek one, exacting vengeance). {Him
that was oppressed} (	(9369) kataponoumen(9369)). Present passive
articular participle in the dative case of kataponeo, to tire
down with toil, to treat roughly, common in late Greek, in the
N.T. only here and  2Pe 2:7  (sore distressed). The man was on
the point of being overcome. {Smiting} (pataxas). First aorist
active participle of patass(935c), in the old Greek the beat of the
heart, only in the LXX and N.T. to smite a deadly blow as here
like pl(8873)s(935c).

經文:

使徒行傳 7:25-7:25

註釋:

 {He supposed} (enomizen). Imperfect active of 
omiz(935c). He
was supposing, Stephen explains, when he smote the Egyptian.
{That his brethren understood} (sunienai tous adelphous).
Present active infinitive of suni(886d)i, to send (put) together,
to grasp, to comprehend, in indirect discourse with the
accusative of general reference. {By his hand was giving them
deliverance} (dia cheiros autou did(9373)in sot(8872)ian autois).
Picturesque use of "hand" as in  2:23 , present active indicative
of did(936d)i retained in indirect discourse after imperfect
enomizen. But they understood not (hoi de ou sun(886b)an). Page
notes "the rhetorical power of these words" from Stephen.
Sun(886b)an (first aorist indicative, k aorist) refers to
sunienai just before.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:26-7:26

註釋:

 {The day following} (	(8869) epious(8869) h(886d)er(8369)). Locative case,
"on the following day" (from epeimi, to come upon, to approach,
present active participle epi(936e) -ousa, -on). Common phrase in
old Greek both with h(886d)era (day) as here and without as
 16:11 . Only in Acts in the N.T. {Appeared} ((9370)hth(885c)). First
aorist passive indicative of hora(935c) not with idea that only a
vision but rather that it was sudden or unexpected. {As they
strove} (machomenois). Present middle participle of machomai,
actually fighting. {Would have set them at one again}
(sun(886c)lassen autous eis eir(886e)en). Better, he tried to reconcile
them (or change them into peace). It is the conative imperfect
active as in  Mt 3:14  of sunallass(935c), only here in the N.T.
though common in the old Greek. Vulgate has _reconciliabat_. The
usual word in the N.T. for reconcile is katallass(935c). {Do ye
wrong one to another} (adikeite all(886c)ous). The same word used
in verse  24  of the wrong done one of the Hebrews by the
Egyptian, but here both are "brethren."

經文:

使徒行傳 7:27-7:27

註釋:

 {Thrust him away} (ap(9373)ato auton). First aorist middle
indicative (_Koin(825f) for Attic ape(9373)ato) of ap(9374)he(935c), to push
away from oneself in middle voice as here, common in old Greek.
Again in verse  39  13:46  Ro 11:1  1Ti 1:19 . It is always the
man who is doing the wrong who is hard to reconcile.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:28-7:28

註釋:

 {Wouldest thou kill me?} (m(8820)anelein me su theleis).
Expecting the answer no, but a thrust direct at Moses, Do you
wish to kill me (note me su right together, {me thou}). See  Ex
2:14  quoted by Stephen.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:29-7:29

註釋:

 {Sojourner} (paroikos). Temporary dweller (cf. Abraham in
verse  6 ) in Midian though for forty years.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:30-7:30

註釋:

 Sentence begins with genitive absolute again. {In a flame of
fire in a bush} (en phlogi puros batou). Horeb in  Ex 3:1 ; but
Sinai and Horeb were "probably peaks of one mountain range"
(Page), Horeb "the mountain of the dried-up ground," Sinai "the
mountain of the thorns." Literally, "in the flame of fire of a
bush" (two genitives, puros and atou dependent on phlogi,
flame). Descriptive genitives as in  9:15  2Th 1:8 . Batos
(bush) is the wild acacia (_mimosa nilotica_). In  Ex 3:20  it is
Jehovah who speaks. Hence "angel" here with Stephen is understood
to be the Angel of the Presence, the Eternal Logos of the Father,
the Angel of Jehovah.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:31-7:31

註釋:

 {The sight} (	o horama). Used of visions in the N.T. as in
 Mt 17:9 . {As he drew near} (proserchomenou autou). Genitive
absolute with present middle participle of proserchomai. {A
voice of the Lord} (ph(936e)(8820)kuriou). Here the angel of Jehovah of
verse  30  is termed Jehovah himself. Jesus makes powerful use of
these words in his reply to the Sadducees in defence of the
doctrine of the resurrection and the future life ( Mr 12:26  Mt
22:32  Lu 20:37f. ) that God here describes himself as the God of
the living. {Trembled} (entromos genomenos). Literally,
becoming tremulous or terrified. The adjective entromos (en,
tromos from 	rem(935c), to tremble, to quake) occurs in Plutarch
and the LXX. In the N.T. only here and  Ac 16:29 . {Durst not}
(ouk etolma). Imperfect active, was not daring, negative
conative imperfect.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:33-7:33

註釋:

 {Holy ground} (g(8820)hagia). The priests were barefooted when
they ministered in the temple. Moslems enter their mosques
barefooted today. Cf.  Jos 5:15 . {Sandal} (hupod(886d)a, bound
under) is here "a distributive singular" (Hackett). Even the
ground near the bush was "holy," a fine example for Stephen's
argument.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:34-7:34

註釋:

 {I have surely seen} (id(936e) eidon). Imitation of the Hebrew
infinitive absolute, ( Ex 3:7 ) "Seeing I saw" (cf.  Heb 6:14 ).
{The affliction} (	(886e) kak(9373)in). From kako(935c), to treat evilly
(from kakos, evil). Old word, here only in the N.T. and from
 Ex 3:7 . {Groaning} (stenagmou). Old word from stenaz(935c), to
sigh, to groan. In the N.T. only here and  Ro 8:26 . Root sten
in our word stentorian. {I am come down} (kateb(886e)). Second
aorist active indicative of katabain(935c), I came down. {To
deliver} (exelesthai). Second aorist middle infinitive of
exaire(935c), to take out for myself. {I will send} (aposteil(935c)).
First aorist active subjunctive (hortatory of apostell(935c), "Let
me send").

經文:

使徒行傳 7:35-7:35

註釋:

 {This Moses} (Touton ton M(9375)s(886e)). Rhetorical repetition
follows this description of Moses (five times, anaphora, besides
the use here, six cases of houtos here about Moses: verse  35 
twice,  36,37,38,40 ). Clearly Stephen means to draw a parallel
between Moses and Jesus. They in Egypt {denied} ((8872)n(8873)anto)
Moses as now you the Jews denied ((8872)n(8873)asthe,  3:13 ) Jesus.
Those in Egypt scouted Moses as "ruler and judge" (verses
 27,35 , archonta kai dikast(886e)) and God "hath sent"
(apestalken, perfect active indicative, state of completion)
Moses "both a ruler and a deliverer" (archonta kai lutr(9374)(886e)) as
Jesus was to be ( Lu 1:68  2:38  Heb 9:12  Tit 2:14 ). "Ransomer"
or "Redeemer" (lutr(9374)(8873)) is not found elsewhere, lutron
(ransom), lutro(935c), to ransom, and lutr(9373)is, ransoming or
redemption, are found often. In  Ac 5:31  Christ is termed
"Prince and Saviour." {With the hand} (sun cheiri). So the
correct text. The Pharisees had accused Stephen of blaspheming
"against Moses and God" ( 6:11 ). Stephen here answers that
slander by showing how Moses led the people out of Egypt in
co-operation (sun) with the hand of the Angel of Jehovah.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:37-7:37

註釋:

 {Like unto me} (h(9373) eme). This same passage Peter quoted
to the crowd in Solomon's Porch ( Ac 3:22 ). Stephen undoubtedly
means to argue that Moses was predicting the Messiah as a prophet
like himself who is no other than Jesus so that these Pharisees
are in reality opposing Moses. It was a neat turn.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:38-7:38

註釋:

 1Pe
2:4f 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Pe
2' or engs='1Pe
2'
經文:

使徒行傳 7:39-7:39

註釋:

 {To whom} (h(9369)). That is Moses, this Moses. {Would not be}
(ouk (8874)hel(8873)an genesthai). Aorist active, negative aorist, were
unwilling to become (genesthai) obedient. {Thrust him from
them} (ap(9373)anto). Indirect middle of the very verb used of the
man (verse  27 ) who "thrust" Moses away from him. {Turned back}
(estraph(8873)an). Second aorist passive indicative of streph(935c),
to turn. They yearned after the fleshpots of Egypt and even the
gods of Egypt. It is easy now to see why Stephen has patiently
led his hearers through this story. He is getting ready for the
home-thrust.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:40-7:40

註釋:

 {Gods which shall go before us} (	heous hoi proporeusontai
h(886d)(936e)).  Ex 32:1 . As guides and protectors, perhaps with some
allusion to the pillar of fire and of cloud that had gone before
them ( Ex 13:21 ). The future indicative here with hoi
(relative) expresses purpose. {Ye wot not} (ouk oidamen). We do
not know. How quickly they had forgotten both God and Moses while
Moses was absent in the mount with God. {Become of him} (egeneto
aut(9369)). Happened to him. "This" (houtos) here is a
contemptuous allusion to Moses by the people.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:41-7:41

註釋:

 {They made a calf} (emoschopoi(8873)an). First aorist active
indicative of moschopoie(935c), here only in the N.T. and unknown
elsewhere. The LXX ( Ex 32:3 ) has epoi(8873)e moschon from which
phrase the word is evidently made. Aaron made the calf, but so
did the people ( Ex 32:35 ). {The idol} (	(9369) eid(936c)(9369)). Stephen
calls it by the right name. The people said it was their way of
worshipping Jehovah! So the Egyptians worshipped the bull Apis at
Memphis as the symbol of Osiris (the sun). They had another
sacred bull Mnevis at Leontopolis. Eid(936c)on (from eidos, form
or figure) is the image or likeness of anything. The heathen
worship the god through the image or idol. {Rejoiced}
(euphrainonto). Imperfect, middle, kept on rejoicing ( Ex
32:6,18 ) or making merry.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:42-7:42

註釋:

 2Ki
17:16 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ki
17' or engs='2Ki
17'
經文:

使徒行傳 7:43-7:43

註釋:

 {The tabernacle of Moloch} (	(886e) sk(886e)(886e) tou Moloch). Or
tent of Moloch which they took up after each halt instead of the
tabernacle of Jehovah. Moloch was the god of the Amorites to whom
children were offered as live sacrifices, an ox-headed image with
arms outstretched in which children were placed and hollow
underneath so that fire could burn underneath. {The star of the
god Rephan} (	o astron tou theou Rompha). Spelled also Romphan
and Remphan. Supposed to be Coptic for the star Saturn to which
the Egyptians, Arabs, and Phoenicians gave worship. But some
scholars take the Hebrew _Kiyyoon_ to mean statues and not a
proper name at all, "statues of your gods" carried in procession,
making "figures" (	upous) with both "tabernacle" and "star"
which they carried in procession. {I will carry} (metoiki(935c)).
Attic future of metoikis(935c) from metoikiz(935c). {Beyond Babylon}
(epekeina Babul(936e)os). The Hebrew and the LXX have "beyond
Damascus." An adverbial preposition (ep' ekeina with mer(885c)
understood) used in the old Greek and the LXX with the ablative
case and meaning "beyond." Here only in the N.T. in quotation
from  Am 5:27 .

經文:

使徒行傳 7:44-7:44

註釋:

 {The tabernacle of the testimony} (h(8820)sk(886e)(8820)tou
marturiou). Probably suggested by the mention of "the tabernacle
of Moloch" (verse  43 ). See on 烘t 17:4| for discussion of
sk(886e)(885c) (from skia, shadow, root ska, to cover). This first
sanctuary was not the temple, but the tent in the wilderness.
"Stephen passes on from the conduct of the Israelites to his
other argument that God is not necessarily worshipped in a
particular spot" (Page). {According to the figure} (kata ton
tupon). According to the type or pattern. Tupos is from
	upt(935c), to strike, to smite, and is the print of the blow ( Joh
20:25 ), then the figure formed by a blow or impression like our
type, a model or example. Quoted from  Ex 25:40 . Common word in
the old Greek. {That he had seen} (hon he(9372)akei). Past perfect
active of hora(935c), to see (double reduplication).

經文:

使徒行傳 7:45-7:45

註釋:

 {Which} (h(886e)). Agreeing with sk(886e)(886e), not with 	upon.
{In their turn} (diadexamenoi). First aorist middle participle
of diadechomai, to receive through another, to receive in
sucession or in turn. Late Greek, only here in N.T. Deissmann
(_Bible Studies_, p. 115) argues from a second century B.C.
papyrus that diadochos means rather deputy or court official
than successor. {With Joshua} (meta I(8873)ou). With Jesus, the
Greek form of Joshua (contracted from Jehoshua,  Mt 1:21 ), as in
 Heb 4:8 . {When they entered on the possession of the nations}
(en t(8869) kataschesei t(936e) ethn(936e)). Literally "in (or at the time
of) the possession of the nations." See on 浪:5| for the only
other N.T. instance of kataschesis. {Which} (h(936e)). The
nations, genitive by attraction to case of ethn(936e). {Thrust out}
(ex(9373)en). First aorist active indicative of ex(9374)he(935c), to push
out, common verb, here, only in N.T. save some MSS. in  Ac
27:39 .

經文:

使徒行傳 7:46-7:46

註釋:

 {Asked} ((8869)t(8873)ato). Aorist middle (indirect) indicative,
asked for himself (as a favour to himself). Cf.  2Sa 7:2f . {A
habitation} (sk(886e)(936d)a). Like  Ps 132:5 , but it was a house that
David proposed to build ( 2Sa 7:2 ), not a tent (sk(886e)(885c)) which
already existed. Sk(886e)(936d)a here means a more permanent abode
(oikon, house, in verse  47 ), though from the same root as
sk(886e)(885c).

經文:

使徒行傳 7:48-7:48

註釋:

 {Howbeit} (all'). By contrast with what Solomon did and
David planned. Note emphatic position of "not" (all' ouch),
"But not does the Most High dwell." The presence of the Most High
is not confined in any building, even one so splendid as
Solomon's Temple as Solomon himself foresaw and acknowledged in
his prayer ( 1Ki 8:27  2Ch 6:18 ). {In houses made with hands}
(en cheiropoi(8874)ois). No word here for "houses" or "temples" in
correct text (
aois temples in Textus Receptus). Literally, "In
things made with hands" (cheir, hand, poi(8874)os, verbal
adjective of poie(935c)). It occurs in  Mr 14:58  of the temple and
of the sanctuary of Moab ( Isa 16:12 ). It occurs also in  Ac
7:24  Heb 9:11,24  Eph 2:11 . Common in the old Greek. {The
prophet} (ho proph(8874)(8873)).  Isa 66:1 . Isaiah taught plainly that
heaven is God's throne.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:49-7:49

註釋:

 {What manner of house} (Poion oikon). What sort of a
house? This interrogative is sometimes scornful as in  4:7  Lu
6:32ff.  (Page). So Stephen shows by Isaiah that Solomon was
right that the temple was not meant to "confine" God's presence
and that Jesus had rightly shown that God is a spirit and can be
worshipped anywhere by any individual of any race or land. It is
a tremendous argument for the universality and spirituality of
Christianity free from the shackles of Jewish racial and national
limitations, but its very strength only angered the Sanhedrin to
desperation.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:51-7:51

註釋:

 {Stiffnecked} (skl(8872)otrach(886c)oi). From skl(8872)os (hard) and
	rach(886c)os, neck, both old words, but this compound only in the
LXX and here alone in the N.T. Critics assume that Stephen was
interrupted at this point because of the sharp tone of the
speech. That may be true, but the natural climax is sufficient
explanation. {Uncircumcised in heart} (aperitm(8874)oi kardiais).
Late adjective common in LXX and here only in the N.T. Verbal of
peritemn(935c), to cut around and a privative. Both of these
epithets are applied to the Jews in the O.T. ( Ex 32:9  33:3,5  34:9  Le 26:41  De 9:6  Jer 6:10 ). Kardiais is locative plural
like (9373)in (ears), but some MSS. have genitive singular
kardias (objective genitive). No epithet could have been more
galling to these Pharisees than to be turned "uncircumcised in
heart" ( Ro 2:29 ). They had only the physical circumcision which
was useless. {Ye always} (humeis aei). Emphatic position of
humeis and "always" looks backward over the history of their
forefathers which Stephen had reviewed. {Resist} (antipiptete).
Old word to fall against, to rush against. Only here in the N.T.,
but used in the O.T. which is here quoted ( Nu 27:14 ). Their
fathers had made "external worship a substitute for spiritual
obedience" (Furneaux). Stephen has shown how God had revealed
himself gradually, the revelation sloping upward to Christ Jesus.
"And as he saw his countrymen repeating the old mistake--clinging
to the present and the material, while God was calling them to
higher spiritual levels--and still, as ever, resisting the Holy
Spirit, treating the Messiah as the patriarchs had treated
Joseph, and the Hebrews Moses--the pity of it overwhelmed him,
and his mingled grief and indignation broke out in words of fire,
such as burned of old on the lips of the prophets" (Furneaux).
Stephen, the accused, is now the accuser, and the situation
becomes intolerable to the Sanhedrin.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:52-7:52

註釋:

 {Which of the prophets} (	ina t(936e) proph(8874)(936e)). Jesus ( Lu
11:47  Mt 23:29-37 ) had charged them with this very thing. Cf.
 2Ch 36:16 . {Which shewed before} (prokataggeilantas). The
very prophets who foretold the coming of the Messiah their
fathers killed. {The coming} (	(8873) eleuse(9373)). Not in ancient
Greek or LXX and only here in the N.T. (in a few late writers).
{Betrayers} (prodotai). Just like Judas Iscariot. He hurled
this old biting word at them. In the N.T. only here and  Lu 6:16  2Ti 3:4 . It cut like a knife. It is blunter than Peter in  Ac
3:13 . {Murderers} (phoneis). The climax with this sharp word
used of Barabbas ( 3:14 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 7:53-7:53

註釋:

 {Ye who} (hoitines). The very ones who, _quippe qui_,
often in Acts when the persons are enlarged upon ( 8:15  9:35  10:41,47 ). {As it was ordained by angels} (eis diatagas
aggel(936e)). About angels see on 浪:38|. Diatag(885c) (from
diatass(935c), to arrange, appoint) occurs in late Greek, LXX,
inscriptions, papyri, Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_,
pp. 89ff., and in N.T. only here and  Ro 13:2 . At (or as) the
appointment of angels (cf.  Mt 10:41  12:41  for this use of
eis). {And kept it not} (kai ouk ephulaxate). Like a
whipcracker these words cut to the quick. They gloried in
possessing the law and openly violated it ( Ro 2:23 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 7:54-7:54

註釋:

 {When they heard} (akouontes). Present active participle
of akou(935c), while hearing. {They were cut to the heart}
(dieprionto tais kardiais). See  5:33  where the same word and
form (imperfect passive of diapri(935c)) is used of the effect of
Peter's speech on the Sadducees. Here Stephen had sent a saw
through the hearts of the Pharisees that rasped them to the bone.
{They gnashed on him with their teeth} (ebruchon tous odontas
ep' auton). Imperfect (inchoative) active of ruch(935c) (Attic
ruk(935c)), to bite with loud noise, to grind or gnash the teeth.
Literally, They began to gnash their teeth at (ep') him (just
like a pack of hungry, snarling wolves). Stephen knew that it
meant death for him.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:55-7:55

註釋:

 {And Jesus standing} (kai I(8873)oun hest(9374)a). Full of the
Holy Spirit, gazing steadfastly into heaven, he saw God's glory
and Jesus "standing" as if he had risen to cheer the brave
Stephen. Elsewhere (save verse  56  also) he is pictured as
sitting at the right hand of God (the Session of Christ) as in
 Mt 26:64  Mr 16:19  Ac 2:34  Eph 1:20  Col 3:1  Heb 1:3 .

經文:

使徒行傳 7:56-7:56

註釋:

 {Opened} (di(886e)oigmenous). Perfect passive predicate
participle of dianoignumi (cf.  Mt 3:16  Lu 3:21 ). {The son of
man} (	on huion tou anthr(9370)ou). Elsewhere in the N.T. in
Christ's own words. Here Stephen may refer to the words of Jesus
as preserved in  Mt 26:64 .

經文:

使徒行傳 7:57-7:57

註釋:

 {Stopped their ears} (suneschon ta (9374)a aut(936e)). Second
aorist active of sunech(935c), to hold together. They held their
ears together with their hands and affected to believe Stephen
guilty of blasphemy (cf.  Mt 26:65 ). {Rushed upon him with one
accord} (h(9372)m(8873)an homothumadon ep' auton). Ingressive aorist
active indicative of horma(935c), to rush impetuously as the hogs
did down the cliff when the demons entered them ( Lu 8:33 ). No
vote was taken by the Sanhedrin. No scruple was raised about not
having the right to put him to death ( Joh 8:31 ). It may have
taken place after Pilate's recall and before his successor came
or Pilate, if there, just connived at such an incident that did
not concern Rome. At any rate it was mob violence like modern
lynching that took the law into the hands of the Sanhedrin
without further formalities. {Out of the city} (ek t(8873) pole(9373)).
To keep from defiling the place with blood. But they sought to
kill Paul as soon as they got him out of the temple area ( Ac
21:30f. ). {Stoned} (elithoboloun). Imperfect active indicative
of lithobole(935c), began to stone, from lithobolos (lithos,
stone, all(935c), to throw), late Greek verb, several times in the
N.T. as  Lu 13:34 . Stoning was the Jewish punishment for
blasphemy ( Le 24:14-16 ). {The witnesses} (hoi martures). The
false testifiers against Stephen suborned by the Pharisees ( Ac
6:11,13 ). These witnesses had the privilege of casting the first
stones ( De 13:10  17:7 ) against the first witness for Christ
with death (_martyr_ in our modern sense of the word). {At the
feet of a young man named Saul} (para tous podas neaniou
kaloumenou Saulou). Beside (para) the feet. Our first
introduction to the man who became the greatest of all followers
of Jesus Christ. Evidently he was not one of the "witnesses"
against Stephen, for he was throwing no stones at him. But
evidently he was already a leader in the group of Pharisees. We
know from later hints from Saul (Paul) himself that he had been a
pupil of Gamaliel ( Ac 22:3 ). Gamaliel, as the Pharisaic leader
in the Sanhedrin, was probably on hand to hear the accusations
against Stephen by the Pharisees. But, if so, he does not raise
his voice against this mob violence. Saul does not seem to be
aware that he is going contrary to the views of his master,
though pupils often go further than their teachers.

經文:

使徒行傳 7:59-7:59

註釋:

 {They stoned} (elithoboloun). Same verb and tense
repeated, they kept on stoning, they kept it up as he was calling
upon the Lord Jesus and making direct prayer to him as "Lord
Jesus" (Kurie I(8873)ou). {Receive my spirit} (dexai to pneuma
mou). Aorist middle imperative, urgency, receive it now. Many
have followed Stephen into death with these words upon their
dying lips. See,  9:14,21  22:16 .

經文:

使徒行傳 7:60-7:60

註釋:

 {Kneeled down} (	heis ta gonata). Second aorist active
participle of 	ith(886d)i, placing the knees (on the ground). This
idiom is not in the old Greek for kneeling, but Luke has it five
times ( Lu 22:41  Ac 7:60  9:40  22:36  21:5 ) and Mark once
( 15:19 ). Jesus was standing at the right hand of God and
Stephen knelt before him in worship and called on him in prayer.
{Lay not this sin to their charge} (m(8820)st(8873)(8869)s autois taut(886e) t(886e)
hamartian). First aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive with
m(885c), regular Greek idiom, Place not to them or against them
(dative autois) this sin. The very spirit of Jesus towards his
enemies as he died upon the Cross ( Lu 23:34 ). {He fell asleep}
(ekoim(8874)h(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of koima(935c), to
put to sleep. Old verb and the metaphor of sleep for death is
common in all languages, but it is peculiarly appropriate here as
Jesus used it of Lazarus. See also  Ac 13:36  1Co 15:18 , etc.
Our word cemetery (koim(8874)(8872)ion) is the sleeping place of the
dead. Knowling calls ekoim(8874)h(885c) here "a picture word of rest and
calmness which stands in dramatic contrast to the rage and
violence of the scene."

經文:

使徒行傳 8:1-8:1

註釋:

 {Was consenting} ((886e) suneudok(936e)). Periphrastic imperfect of
suneudoke(935c), a late double compound (sun, eu, doke(935c)) that well
describes Saul's pleasure in the death (anairesis, taking off,
only here in the N.T., though old word) of Stephen. For the verb
see on 烊u 23:32|. Paul himself will later confess that he felt
so ( Ac 22:20 ), coolly applauding the murder of Stephen, a
heinous sin ( Ro 1:32 ). It is a gruesome picture. Chapter 7
should have ended here. {On that day} (en ekein(8869) t(8869) h(886d)er(8369)).
On that definite day, that same day as in  2:41 . {A great
persecution} (di(9367)mos megas). It was at first persecution from
the Sadducees, but this attack on Stephen was from the Pharisees
so that both parties are now united in a general persecution that
deserves the adjective "great." See on 烘t 13:21| for the old
word di(9367)mos from di(936b)(935c), to chase, hunt, pursue, persecute.
{Were all scattered abroad} (pantes diespar(8873)an). Second aorist
passive indicative of diaspeir(935c), to scatter like grain, to
disperse, old word, in the N.T. only in  Ac 8:1,4  11:19 .
{Except the apostles} (pl(886e) t(936e) apostol(936e)). Preposition pl(886e)
(adverb from pleon, more) with the ablative often in Luke. It
remains a bit of a puzzle why the Pharisees spared the apostles.
Was it due to the advice of Gamaliel in  Ac 5:34-40 ? Or was it
the courage of the apostles? Or was it a combination of both with
the popularity of the apostles in addition?

經文:

使徒行傳 8:2-8:2

註釋:

 {Devout} (eulabeis). Only four times in the N.T. ( Lu 2:25  Ac 2:5  8:2  22:12 ). Possibly some non-Christian Jews helped.
The burial took place before the Christians were chiefly
scattered. {Buried} (sunekomisan). Aorist active indicative of
sunkomiz(935c), old verb to bring together, to collect, to join with
others in carrying, to bury (the whole funeral arrangements).
Only here in the N.T. {Lamentation} (kopeton). Late word from
koptomai, to beat the breast, in LXX, Plutarch, etc., only here
in the N.T.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:3-8:3

註釋:

 {Laid waste} (elumaineto). Imperfect middle of
lumainomai, old verb (from lum(885c), injury), to dishonour,
defile, devastate, ruin. Only here in the N.T. Like the laying
waste of a vineyard by a wild boar ( Ps 79:13 ). Picturesque
description of the havoc carried on by Saul now the leader in the
persecution. He is victor over Stephen now who had probably
worsted him in debate in the Cilician synagogue in Jerusalem.
{Into every house} (kata tous oikous). But Luke terms it "the
church" (	(886e) ekkl(8873)ian). Plainly not just an "assembly," but an
organized body that was still "the church" when scattered in
their own homes, "an unassembled assembly" according to the
etymology. Words do not remain by the etymology, but travel on
with usage. {Haling} (sur(936e)). Literally, dragging forcibly
(=hauling). Present active participle of sur(935c), old verb. {Men
and women} (andras kai gunaikas). A new feature of the
persecution that includes the women. They met it bravely as
through all the ages since (cf.  9:2  22:4 ). This fact will be a
bitter memory for Paul always. {Committed} (paredidou).
Imperfect active of paradid(936d)i, old verb, kept on handing them
over to prison.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:4-8:4

註釋:

 {They therefore} (hoi men oun). Demonstrative hoi as
often ( 1:6 , etc.) though it will make sense as the article with
the participle diasparentes. The general statement is made here
by men and a particular instance (de) follows in verse  5 .
The inferential particle (oun) points back to verse  3 , the
persecution by young Saul and the Pharisees. Jesus had commanded
the disciples not to depart from Jerusalem till they received the
Promise of the Father ( 1:4 ), but they had remained long after
that and were not carrying the gospel to the other peoples
( 1:8 ). Now they were pushed out by Saul and began as a result
to carry out the Great Commission for world conquest, that is
those "scattered abroad" (diasparentes, second aorist passive
participle of diaspeir(935c)). This verb means disperse, to sow in
separate or scattered places (dia) and so to drive people
hither and thither. Old and very common verb, especially in the
LXX, but in the N.T. only in  Ac 8:1,4  11:19 . {Went about}
(di(886c)thon). Constative second aorist active of dierchomai, to
go through (from place to place, dia). Old and common verb,
frequent for missionary journeys in the Acts ( 5:40  8:40  9:32  11:19  13:6 ). {Preaching the word} (euaggelizomenoi ton
logon). Evangelizing or gospelizing the word (the truth about
Christ). In  11:19  Luke explains more fully the extent of the
labours of these new preachers of the gospel. They were emergency
preachers, not ordained clergymen, but men stirred to activity by
the zeal of Saul against them. The blood of the martyrs (Stephen)
was already becoming the seed of the church. "The violent
dispersion of these earnest disciples resulted in a rapid
diffusion of the gospel" (Alvah Hovey).

經文:

使徒行傳 8:5-8:5

註釋:

 {Philip} (Philippos). The deacon ( 6:5 ) and evangelist
( 21:8 ), not the apostle of the same name ( Mr 3:18 ). {To the
city of Samaria} (eis t(886e) polin t(8873) Samarias). Genitive of
apposition. Samaria is the name of the city here. This is the
first instance cited of the expansion noted in verse  4 . Jesus
had an early and fruitful ministry in Samaria ( Joh 4 ), though
the twelve were forbidden to go into a Samaritan city during the
third tour of Galilee ( Mt 10:5 ), a temporary prohibition
withdrawn before Jesus ascended on high ( Ac 1:8 ). {Proclaimed}
(ek(8872)ussen). Imperfect active, began to preach and kept on at
it. Note euaggelizomenoi in verse  4  of missionaries of good
news (Page) while ek(8872)ussen here presents the preacher as a
herald. He is also a teacher (didaskalos) like Jesus. Luke
probably obtained valuable information from Philip and his
daughters about these early days when in his home in Caesarea
( Ac 21:8 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 8:6-8:6

註釋:

 {Gave heed} (proseichon). Imperfect active as in verses
 10,11 , there with dative of the person (aut(9369)), here with the
dative of the thing (	ois legomenois). There is an ellipse of

oun (mind). They kept on giving heed or holding the mind on
the things said by Philip, spell-bound, in a word. {When they
heard} (en t(9369) akouein autous). Favourite Lukan idiom, en and
the locative case of the articlar infinitive with the accusative
of general reference "in the hearing as to them." {Which he did}
(ha epoiei). Imperfect active again, which he kept on doing
from time to time. Philip wrought real miracles which upset the
schemes of Simon Magus.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:7-8:7

註釋:

 {For many} (polloi gar). So the correct text of the best
MSS., but there is an anacoluthon as this nominative has no verb
with it. It was "the unclean spirits" that "came out"
(ex(8872)chonto, imperfect middle). The margin of the Revised
Version has it "came forth," as if they came out of a house, a
rather strained translation. The loud outcry is like the demons
cast out by Jesus ( Mr 3:11  Lu 4:41 ). {Palsied}
(paralelumenoi, perfect passive participle). Luke's usual word,
loosened at the side, with no power over the muscles. Furneaux
notes that "the servant was reaping where the Master had sown.
Samaria was the mission field white for the harvest ( Joh
4:35 )." The Samaritans who had been bewitched by Simon are now
carried away by Philip.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:9-8:9

註釋:

 {Simon} (Sim(936e)). One of the common names (Josephus, _Ant_.
XX. 7, 2) and a number of messianic pretenders had this name. A
large number of traditions in the second and third centuries
gathered round this man and Baur actually proposed that the Simon
of the Clementine Homilies is really the apostle Paul though Paul
triumphed over the powers of magic repeatedly ( Ac 13:6-12  19:11-19 ), "a perfect absurdity" (Spitta, _Apostelgeschichte_,
p. 149). One of the legends is that this Simon Magus of Acts is
the father of heresy and went to Rome and was worshipped as a god
(so Justin Martyr). But a stone found in the Tiber A.D. 1574 has
an inscription to _Semoni Sanco Deo Fidio Sacrum_ which is (Page)
clearly to Hercules, Sancus being a Sabine name for Hercules.
This Simon in Samaria is simply one of the many magicians of the
time before the later gnosticism had gained a foothold. "In his
person Christianity was for the first time confronted with
superstition and religious imposture, of which the ancient world
was at this period full" (Furneaux). {Which beforetime used
sorcery} (proup(8872)chen mageu(936e)). An ancient idiom
(periphrastic), the present active participle mageu(936e) with the
imperfect active verb from prouparch(935c), the idiom only here and
 Lu 23:12  in the N.T. Literally "Simon was existing previously
practising magic." This old verb mageu(935c) is from magos (a
magus, seer, prophet, false prophet, sorcerer) and occurs here
alone in the N.T. {Amazed} (existan(936e)). Present active participle
of the verb existan(935c), later form of exist(886d)i, to throw out of
position, displace, upset, astonish, chiefly in the Gospels in
the N.T. Same construction as mageu(936e). {Some great one} (	ina
megan). Predicate accusative of general reference (infinitive in
indirect discourse). It is amazing how gullible people are in the
presence of a manifest impostor like Simon. The Magi were the
priestly order in the Median and Persian empires and were
supposed to have been founded by Zoroaster. The word magoi
(magi) has a good sense in  Mt 2:1 , but here and in  Ac 13:6  it
has the bad sense like our "magic."

經文:

使徒行傳 8:10-8:10

註釋:

 {That power of God which is called Great} (h(8820)Dunamis tou
theou h(8820)kaloumen(8820)Megal(885c)). Apparently here already the oriental
doctrine of emanations or aeons so rampant in the second century.
This "power" was considered a spark of God himself and Jerome (in
 Mt 24 ) quotes Simon (Page) as saying: _Ego sum sermo Dei, ...
ego omnipotens, ego omnia Dei_. Simon claimed to _impersonate
God_.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:11-8:11

註釋:

 {Because that of long time he had amazed them with his
sorceries} (dia to hikan(9369) chron(9369) tais magiais exestakenai
autous). Causal use of dia with the accusative articular
infinitive (perfect active _Koin(825f) form and transitive,
exestakenai). Same verb as in verse  9  participle existan(936e)
and in verse  13  imperfect passive existato (cf. also  2:7 
already). Chron(9369) is associative instrumental and magiais
instrumental case.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:12-8:12

註釋:

 {They were baptized} (ebaptizonto). Imperfect passive
(repetition, from time to time), while {believed} (episteusan)
is constative aorist antecedent to the baptism. Note dative case
of Philip with episteusan. Note the gospel of Philip
"concerning the kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ."

經文:

使徒行傳 8:13-8:13

註釋:

 {And Simon also himself believed} (Ho de Sim(936e) kai autos
episteusen). Note the same verb in the aorist tense
episteusen. What did he believe? Evidently that Jesus was this
"power of God" not himself (Simon). He saw that the miracles
wrought by Philip in the name of Christ were genuine while he
knew that his own were frauds. He wanted this power that Philip
had to add to his own pretensions. "He was probably half victim
of self-delusion, half conscious impostor" (Furneaux). He was
determined to get this new "power," but had no sense of personal
need of Jesus as Saviour for his sins. So he submitted to baptism
(aptistheis, first aorist passive participle of aptiz(935c)),
clear proof that baptism does not convey salvation. {He continued
with Philip} ((886e) proskarter(936e) t(9369) Philipp(9369)). Periphrastic
imperfect of the verb proskartere(935c) (see on 氧:46|). He stuck to
Philip (dative case) to find out the secret of his power.
{Beholding} (	he(9372)(936e)). Watching the signs and miracles (powers,
dunameis that threw his "power" in the shade) as they were
wrought (ginomenas, present middle participle of ginomai).
The more he watched the more the wonder grew (existato). He had
"amazed" (verse  9 ) the people by his tricks and he was himself
more "amazed" than they by Philip's deeds.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:14-8:14

註釋:

 {That Samaria had received} (hoti dedektai h(8820)Samaria).
The district here, not the city as in verse  5 . Perfect middle
indicative of dechomai retained in indirect discourse. It was a
major event for the apostles for now the gospel was going into
Samaria as Jesus had predicted ( 1:8 ). Though the Samaritans
were nominally Jews, they were not held so by the people. The
sending of Peter and John was no reflection on Philip, but was an
appropriate mission since "many Christian Jews would be
scandalized by the admission of Samaritans" (Furneaux). If Peter
and John sanctioned it, the situation would be improved. John had
once wanted to call down fire from heaven on a Samaritan village
( Lu 9:54 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 8:15-8:15

註釋:

 {That they might receive} (hop(9373) lab(9373)in). Second aorist
active subjunctive of lamban(935c), final clause with hop(9373). Did
they wish the Samaritan Pentecost to prove beyond a doubt that
the Samaritans were really converted when they believed? They had
been baptized on the assumption that the Holy Spirit had given
them new hearts. The coming of the Holy Spirit with obvious signs
(cf.  10:44-48 ) as in Jerusalem would make it plain.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:16-8:16

註釋:

 {He was fallen} ((886e) epipept(936b)os). Periphrastic past
perfect active of epipipt(935c), old verb. The participle is neuter
here because of the grammatical gender of pneuma, but the
translation should be "he" (natural gender), not "it." We should
not use "it" for the Holy Spirit. {Only they had been baptized}
(monon de babaptismenoi hup(8872)chon). Periphrastic past perfect
passive of aptiz(935c) with huparch(935c) (see verse  9 
proup(8872)chon), instead of (8873)an. {Into the name} (eis to
onoma). Better, in the name (see on 氧:38|).

經文:

使徒行傳 8:17-8:17

註釋:

 {Laid they their hands} (epetithesan tas cheiras).
Imperfect active, repetition. The laying on of hands did not
occur at the great Pentecost ( 2:4,33 ) nor in  4:31  10:44  nor
is it mentioned in  1Co 12  14 . It is mentioned in  Ac 6:7 
about the deacons and in  13:3  when Barnabas and Saul left
Antioch. And in Saul's case it was Ananias who laid his hands on
him ( 9:17 ). Hence it cannot be concluded that the Holy Spirit
was received only by the laying on of the hands of the apostles
or by the hands of anyone. The so-called practice of
"confirmation" appeals to this passage, but inconclusively. {They
received} (elambanon). Imperfect active, repetition as before
and pari passu with the laying on of the hands.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:18-8:18

註釋:

 {When Simon saw} (Id(936e) de ho Sim(936e)). This participle
(second aorist active of hora(935c)) shows plainly that those who
received the gift of the Holy Spirit spoke with tongues. Simon
now saw power transferred to others. Hence he was determined to
get this new power. {He offered them money} (pros(886e)egken
chr(886d)ata). Second aorist active indicative of prospher(935c). He
took Peter to be like himself, a mountebank performer who would
sell his tricks for enough money. Trafficking in things sacred
like ecclesiastical preferments in England is called "Simony"
because of this offer of Simon.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:19-8:19

註釋:

 {Me also} (kamoi). This is the whole point with this
charlatan. He wants the power to pass on "this power." His notion
of "The Holy Spirit" was on this low level. He regarded spiritual
functions as a marketable commodity. Money "can buy diamonds, but
not wisdom, or sympathy, or faith, or holiness" (Furneaux).

經文:

使徒行傳 8:20-8:20

註釋:

 {Perish with thee} (sun soi ei(8820)eis ap(936c)eian). Literally,
Be with thee for destruction. Optative for a future wish. The use
of eis with the accusative in the predicate is especially
common in the LXX. The wish reveals Peter's indignation at the
base offer of Simon. Peter was no grafter to accept money for
spiritual power. He spurned the temptation. The natural meaning
of Peter's language is that Simon was on the road to destruction.
It is a warning and almost a curse on him, though verse  22 
shows that there was still room for repentance. {To obtain}
(kt(8373)thai). To acquire. Usual meaning of the present tense
(infinitive middle) of ktaomai.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:21-8:21

註釋:

 {Lot} (kl(8872)os). Same idea as "part" (meris), only as a
figure. {Matter} (logoi). Literally, word or subject (as in  Lu
1:4  Ac 15:6 ), the power of communicating the Holy Spirit. This
use of logos is in the ancient Greek. {Straight} (eutheia).
Quotation from  Ps 78:37 . Originally a mathematically straight
line as in  Ac 9:11 , then moral rectitude as here.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:22-8:22

註釋:

 {Wickedness} (kakias). Only here in Luke's writings,
though old word and in LXX (cf.  1Pe 2:1,16 ). {If perhaps} (ei
ara). _Si forte_. This idiom, though with the future indicative
and so a condition of the first class (determined as fulfilled),
yet minimizes the chance of forgiveness as in  Mr 11:13 . Peter
may have thought that his sin was close to the unpardonable sin
( Mt 12:31 ), but he does not close the door of hope. {The
thought} (h(8820)epinoia). Old Greek word from epinoe(935c), to think
upon, and so purpose. Only here in the N.T.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:23-8:23

註釋:

 {That thou art} (se onta). Participle in indirect
discourse after hor(935c) (I see). {In the gall of bitterness} (eis
chol(886e) pikrias). Old word from cholas either from che(935c), to
pour, or chlo(885c), yellowish green, bile or gall. In the N.T. only
in  Mt 27:34  and here. In LXX in sense of wormwood as well as
bile. See  De 29:18  32:32  La 3:15  Job 16:14 . "Gall and
bitterness" in  De 29:18 . Here the gall is described by the
genitive pikrias as consisting in "bitterness." In  Heb 12:15 
"a root of bitterness," a bitter root. This word pikria in the
N.T. only here and  Heb 12:15  Ro 3:14  Eph 4:31 . The "bond of
iniquity" (sundesmon adikias) is from  Isa 58:6 . Paul uses
this word of peace ( Eph 4:3 ), of love ( Col 3:14 ), of the body
( Col 2:19 ). Peter describes Simon's offer as poison and a
chain.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:24-8:24

註釋:

 {Pray ye for me} (De(8874)h(8874)e humeis huper emou). Emphasis on
humeis (you). First aorist passive imperative. Simon is
thoroughly frightened by Peter's words, but shows no sign of
personal repentance or change of heart. He wants to escape the
penalty for his sin and hopes that Peter can avert it. Peter had
clearly diagnosed his case. He was an unconverted man in spite of
his profession of faith and baptism. There is no evidence that he
ever changed his life at all. {Which} (h(936e)). Genitive by
attraction of the accusative relative ha to case of the
unexpressed antecedent 	out(936e) (of those things), a common Greek
idiom.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:25-8:25

註釋:

 {They therefore} (hoi men oun). Demonstrative hoi with
men (no following de) and the inferential oun (therefore)
as often in Acts ( 1:6 , etc.). {Returned} (hupestrephon).
Imperfect active picturing the joyful journey of preaching
(eu(8867)gelizonto, imperfect middle) to the Samaritan villages.
Peter and John now carried on the work of Philip to the
Samaritans. This issue was closed.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:26-8:26

註釋:

 {Toward the South} (kata mes(886d)brian). Old word from
mesos and h(886d)era, midday or noon as in  Ac 22:16 , the only
other example in the N.T. That may be the idea here also, though
"towards the South" gets support from the use of kata liba in
 Ac 27:12 . {The same is desert} (haut(8820)estin er(886d)os). Probably
a parenthetical remark by Luke to give an idea of the way. One of
the ways actually goes through a desert. Gaza itself was a strong
city that resisted Alexander the Great five months. It was
destroyed by the Romans after war broke out with the Jews.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:27-8:27

註釋:

 {A eunuch of great authority} (eunouchos dunast(8873)).
Eunuchs were often employed by oriental rulers in high posts.
_Dynasty_ comes from this old word dunast(8873) used of princes in
 Lu 1:52  and of God in  1Ti 6:15 . Eunuchs were not allowed to
be Jews in the full sense ( De 23:1 ), but only proselytes of the
gate. But Christianity is spreading to Samaritans and to eunuchs.
{Candace} (Kandak(8873)). Not a personal name, but like Pharaoh and
Ptolemy, the title of the queens of Ethiopia. This eunuch
apparently brought the gospel to Ethiopia. {Treasure} (gaz(8873)).
Persian word, common in late Greek and Latin for the royal
treasure, here only in the N.T. {For to worship} (proskun(8873)(936e)).
Future active participle expressing purpose, a common idiom in
the ancient Greek, but rare in the N.T. (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
1128).

經文:

使徒行傳 8:28-8:28

註釋:

 {Was reading} (anegin(9373)ken). Imperfect active descriptive,
not periphrastic like the two preceding verbs (was returning and
sitting). He was reading aloud as Philip "heard him reading"
((886b)ousen auton anagin(9373)kontos), a common practice among
orientals. He had probably purchased this roll of Isaiah in
Jerusalem and was reading the LXX Greek text. See imperfect again
in verse  32 .

經文:

使徒行傳 8:29-8:29

註釋:

 {Join thyself} (koll(8874)h(8874)i). See this vivid word (be glued
to, first aorist passive imperative) already in  5:13  Lu 10:11  15:15 . Philip probably jumped on the running board on the side
of the chariot.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:30-8:30

註釋:

 {Understandest thou what thou readest?} (Ara ge gin(9373)keis
ha anagin(9373)keis?) The interrogative particle ara and the
intensive particle ge indicate doubt on Philip's part. The play
(paranomasia) upon the words in the Greek is very neat: {Do you
know what you know again (read)?} The verb for read
(anagin(9373)ko) means to know the letters again, recognize, read.
The famous comment of Julian about the Christian writings is
often quoted: Anegn(936e), egn(936e), kategn(936e) (I read, I understood, I
condemned). The keen retort was: Anegn(9373), all'ouk egn(9373), ei gar
egn(9373), ouk an kategn(9373) (You read, but did not understand; for if
you had understood, you would not have condemned).

經文:

使徒行傳 8:31-8:31

註釋:

 {How can I, except some one shall guide me?} (P(9373) gar an
dunaim(886e) ean me tis hod(8867)(8873)ei me?). This is a mixed condition,
the conclusion coming first belongs to the fourth class
(undetermined with less likelihood of being determined) with an
and the optative, but the condition (ean, instead of the usual
ei, and the future indicative) is of the first class
(determined or fulfilled. Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1022), a
common enough phenomenon in the _Koin(825f). The eunuch felt the need
of some one to guide (hod(8867)e(935c) from hod(8867)os, guide, and that
from hodos, way, and hegeomai, to lead).

經文:

使徒行傳 8:32-8:32

註釋:

 {The place} (he perioch(885c)). See the verb periechei so
used in  1Pe 2:6 . The word is used either of the section as in
Codex A before the beginning of Mark or the contents of a
passage. He was here reading one particular passage ( Isa
53:7f. ). The quotation is from the LXX which has some variations
from the Hebrew.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:33-8:33

註釋:

 {Was taken away} ((8872)th(885c)). First aorist passive indicative
of air(935c), to take away. It is not clear what the meaning is here
either in the Hebrew or the LXX. Knowling suggests that the idea
is that justice was withheld, done away with, in his death, as it
certainly was in the death of Christ.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:34-8:34

註釋:

 {Of whom} (peri tinos). Concerning whom, a pertinent
inquiry surely and one that troubles many critics today.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:35-8:35

註釋:

 {Beginning from this scripture} (arxamenos apo t(8873) graph(8873)
taut(8873)). As a text. Philip needed no better opening than this
Messianic passage in Isaiah. {Preached unto him Jesus}
(eu(8867)gelisato aut(9369) ton I(8873)oun). Philip had no doubt about the
Messianic meaning and he knew that Jesus was the Messiah. There
are scholars who do not find Jesus in the Old Testament at all,
but Jesus himself did ( Lu 24:27 ) as Philip does here.
Scientific study of the Old Testament (historical research)
misses its mark if it fails to find Christ the Center of all
history. The knowledge of the individual prophet is not always
clear, but after events throw a backward light that illumines it
all ( 1Pe 1:11f.  2Pe 1:19-21 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 8:36-8:36

註釋:

 {What doth hinder me to be baptized?} (Ti k(936c)uei me
baptisth(886e)ai?). Evidently Philip had said something about
baptism following faith and conversion. Verse  37  is not a
genuine part of Acts, a western addition. Later baptismal
liturgies had it.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:39-8:39

註釋:

 {Out of the water} (ek tou hudatos). Not from the edge of
the water, but up out of the water as in  Mr 1:10 . {Caught away}
(h(8872)pasen). Suddenly and miraculously, for harpaz(935c), like the
Latin _rapio_, means to carry off. Cf.  2Co 12:2  1Th 4:17 .
{Went on his way} (eporeueto). Kept on going, imperfect active.

經文:

使徒行傳 8:40-8:40

註釋:

 {He preached the gospel} (eu(8867)gelizeto). Imperfect middle
describing the evangelistic tour of Philip "till he came to
Caesarea" (he(9373) tou elthein auton, genitive articular
infinitive with the preposition he(9373) and the accusative of
general reference) where he made his home and headquarters
thereafter ( Ac 21:28 ) and was known as the Evangelist.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:1-9:1

註釋:

 {Yet} (eti). As if some time elapsed between the death of
Stephen as is naturally implied by the progressive persecution
described in  8:3 . The zeal of Saul the persecutor increased
with success. {Breathing threatening and slaughter} (enpne(936e)
apeil(8873) kai phonou). Present active participle of old and common
verb. Not "breathing out," but "breathing in" (inhaling) as in
Aeschylus and Plato or "breathing on" (from Homer on). The
partitive genitive of apeil(8873) and phonou means that
threatening and slaughter had come to be the very breath that
Saul breathed, like a warhorse who sniffed the smell of battle.
He breathed on the remaining disciples the murder that he had
already breathed in from the death of the others. He exhaled what
he inhaled. Jacob had said that "Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf"
( Ge 49:27 ). This greatest son of Benjamin was fulfilling this
prophecy (Furneaux). The taste of blood in the death of Stephen
was pleasing to young Saul ( 8:1 ) and now he revelled in the
slaughter of the saints both men and women. In  26:11  Luke
quotes Paul as saying that he was "exceedingly mad against them."

經文:

使徒行傳 9:2-9:2

註釋:

 {Asked} ((8869)t(8873)ato). First aorist middle indicative, the
indirect middle, asked for himself (as a favour to himself).
Felten notes that "Saul as a Pharisee makes request of a
Sadducee" (the high priest) either Caiaphas if before A.D. 35,
but if in 36 Jonathan, son of Caiaphas or if in 37 Theophilus,
another son of Caiaphas. {Letters} (epistolas). Julius Ceasar
and Augustus had granted the high priest and Sanhedrin
jurisdiction over Jews in foreign cities, but this central
ecclesiastical authority was not always recognized in every local
community outside of Judea. Paul says that he received his
authority to go to Damascus from the priests ( Acts 26:10 ) and
"the estate of the elders" ( 22:5 ), that is the Sanhedrin. {To
Damascus} (eis Damaskon). As if no disciples of importance
(outside the apostles in Jerusalem) were left in Judea. Damascus
at this time may have been under the rule of Aretas of Arabia
(tributary to Rome) as it certainly was a couple of years later
when Saul escaped in a basket ( 2Co 11:32 ). This old city is the
most enduring in the history of the world (Knowling). It is some
150 miles Northeast from Jerusalem and watered by the river Abana
from Anti-Lebanon. Here the Jews were strong in numbers (10,000
butchered by Nero later) and here some disciples had found refuge
from Saul's persecution in Judea and still worshipped in the
synagogues. Paul's language in  Ac 26:11  seems to mean that
Damascus is merely one of other "foreign cities" to which he
carried the persecution. {If he found} (ean heur(8869)). Third
class condition with aorist subjunctive retained after secondary
tense (asked). {The Way} (	(8873) hodou). A common method in the
Acts for describing Christianity as the Way of life, absolutely
as also in  19:9,23  22:4  24:14,22  or the way of salvation
( 16:17 ) or the way of the Lord ( 18:25 ). It is a Jewish
definition of life as in  Isa 40:3  "the way of the Lord,"  Ps
1:6  "the way of the righteous," "the way of the wicked." Jesus
called himself "the way" ( Joh 14:6 ), the only way to the
Father. The so-called Epistle of Barnabas presents the Two Ways.
The North American Indians call Christianity the Jesus Road.
{That he might bring them bound} (hop(9373) dedemenous agag(8869)).
Final clause with hop(9373) (less common than hina) and aorist
(effective) subjunctive (agag(8869), reduplicated aorist of ag(935c),
common verb) and perfect passive participle (dedemenous) of
de(935c), in a state of sheer helplessness like his other victims
both men and women. Three times ( 8:3  9:2  22:4 ) this fact of
persecuting women is mentioned as a special blot in Paul's
cruelty (the third time by Paul himself) and one of the items in
his being chief of sinners ( 1Ti 1:15 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 9:3-9:3

註釋:

 {As he journeyed} (en t(9369) poreuesthai). Luke's common idiom
for a temporal clause (in the journeying), en with the locative
articular middle infinitive. {Drew nigh} (eggizein). Present
active infinitive, was drawing nigh. {Shone round about him}
(auton peri(8873)trapsen). First aorist (ingressive) active
indicative of periastrapt(935c), late compound verb common in LXX
and Byzantine writers, here and  22:6  alone in the N.T. "A light
from heaven suddenly flashed around him." It was like a flash of
lightning. Paul uses the same verb in  22:5 , but in  26:13  he
employs perilampsan (shining around). There are numerous
variations in the historical narrative of Saul's conversion in
 9:3-18  and Luke's report of Paul's two addresses, one on the
steps of the Tower of Antonia facing the murderous mob
( 22:6-16 ), the other before Festus and Agrippa ( 26:12-20 ). A
great deal of capital has been made of these variations to the
discredit of Luke as a writer as if he should have made Paul's
two speeches conform at every point with his own narrative. This
objection has no weight except for those who hold that Luke
composed Paul's speeches freely as some Greek writers used to do.
But, if Luke had notes of Paul's speeches or help from Paul
himself, he naturally preserved the form of the two addresses
without trying to make them agree with each other in all details
or with his own narrative in chapter 9. Luke evidently attached
great importance to the story of Saul's conversion as the turning
point not simply in the career of the man, but an epoch in the
history of apostolic Christianity. In broad outline and in all
essentials the three accounts agree and testify to the
truthfulness of the account of the conversion of Saul. It is
impossible to overestimate the worth to the student of
Christianity of this event from every angle because we have in
Paul's Epistles his own emphasis on the actual appearance of
Jesus to him as the fact that changed his whole life ( 1Co 15:8  Ga 1:16f. ). The variations that appear in the three accounts do
not mar the story, when rightly understood, as we shall see.
Here, for instance, Luke simply mentions "a light from heaven,"
while in  22:6  Paul calls it "a great (hikanon) light" "about
noon" and in  26:13  "above the brightness of the sun," as it
would have to be "at midday" with the sun shining.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:4-9:4

註釋:

 {He fell upon the earth} (pes(936e) epi t(886e) g(886e)). Second aorist
active participle. So in  22:7  Paul says: "I fell unto the
ground" (epesa eis to edaphos) using an old word rather than
the common g(886e). In  26:14  Paul states that "we were all fallen
to the earth" (pant(936e) katapesont(936e) h(886d)(936e) eis t(886e) g(886e), genitive
absolute construction). But here in verse  7  "the men that
journeyed with him stood speechless" (hist(886b)eisan eneoi). But
surely the points of time are different. In  26:14  Paul refers
to the first appearance of the vision when all fell to the earth.
Here in verse  7  Luke refers to what occurred after the vision
when both Saul and the men had risen from the ground. {Saul,
Saul} (Saoul, Saoul). The Hebrew form occurs also in  22:7  26:14  where it is expressly stated that the voice was in the
Hebrew (Aramaic) tongue as also in  9:17  (Ananias). Deissmann
(_Bible Studies_, p. 316) terms this use of Saoul "the
historian's sense of liturgical rhythm." For the repetition of
names by Jesus note  Lu 10:41  (Martha, Martha),  Lu 22:31 
(Simon, Simon). {Me} (me). In persecuting the disciples, Saul
was persecuting Jesus, as the words of Jesus in verse  5  made
plain. Christ had already spoken of the mystic union between
himself and his followers ( Mt 10:40  25:40,45  Joh 15:1-5 ). The
proverb (Pindar) that Jesus quotes to Saul about kicking against
the goad is genuine in  26:14 , but not here.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:5-9:5

註釋:

 {Lord} (kurie). It is open to question if kurie should
not here be translated "Sir" as in  16:30  and in  Mt 21:29,30  Joh 5:7  12:21  20:15 ; and should be so in  Joh 9:36 . It is
hardly likely that at this stage Saul recognized Jesus as Lord,
though he does so greet him in  22:10  "What shall I do, Lord?"
Saul may have recognized the vision as from God as Cornelius says
"Lord" in  10:4 . Saul surrendered instantly as Thomas did ( Joh
20:28 ) and as little Samuel ( 1Sa 3:9 ). This surrender of the
will to Christ was the conversion of Saul. He saw a real Person,
the Risen Christ, to whom he surrendered his life. On this point
he never wavered for a moment to the end.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:6-9:6

註釋:

 The best MSS. do not have "trembling and astonished," and
"What wilt thou have me to do, Lord?" The Textus Receptus put
these words in here without the authority of a Greek codex. See
 22:10  above for the genuine text. {It shall be told thee}
(lal(8874)h(8873)etai). Future passive indicative of lale(935c). It is
hardly likely that Luke records all that Jesus said to Saul, but
more was to come on his arrival in Damascus. Saul had received
all that he could bear just now ( Joh 16:12 ). {What} (hoti).
Rare in _Koin(825f) use of this indefinite neuter relative in an
indirect question, the only example in the N.T. (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 731). Human agents like Ananias can finish what
Jesus by supernatural manifestation has here begun in Saul.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:7-9:7

註釋:

 {That journeyed with him} (hoi sunodeuontes aut(9369)). Not in
the older Greek, but in the _Koin(825f), with the associative
instrumental. {Speechless} (eneoi). Mute. Only here in N.T.,
though old word. {Hearing the voice, but beholding no man}
(akouontes men t(8873) ph(936e)(8873), m(8864)ena de the(9372)ountes). Two present
active participles in contrast (men, de). In  22:9  Paul says
that the men "beheld the light" (	o men ph(9373) etheasanto), but
evidently did not discern the person. Paul also says there, "but
they heard not the voice of him that spake to me" (	(886e) de ph(936e)(886e)
ouk (886b)ousan tou lalountos moi). Instead of this being a flat
contradiction of what Luke says in  9:7  it is natural to take it
as being likewise (as with the "light" and "no one") a
distinction between the "sound" (original sense of ph(936e)(885c) as in
 Joh 3:8 ) and the separate words spoken. It so happens that
akou(935c) is used either with the accusative (the extent of the
hearing) or the genitive (the specifying). It is possible that
such a distinction here coincides with the two senses of ph(936e)(885c).
They heard the sound ( 9:7 ), but did not understand the words
( 22:9 ). However, this distinction in case with akou(935c), though
possible and even probable here, is by no means a necessary one
for in  Joh 3:8  where ph(936e)(886e) undoubtedly means "sound" the
accusative occurs as Luke uses (886b)ousen ph(936e)(886e) about Saul in  Ac
9:4 . Besides in  22:7  Paul uses (886b)ousa ph(936e)(8873) about himself,
but (886b)ousa ph(936e)(886e) about himself in  76:14 , interchangeably.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:8-9:8

註釋:

 {He saw nothing} (ouden eblepen). Imperfect active
indicative, was seeing nothing. "The glory of that light"
( 22:11 ) when he saw Jesus had blinded his eyes now wide open
(ane(9369)gmen(936e), perfect passive participle of anoig(935c) with
double reduplication). The blindness was proof that something had
happened to him and that it was no hallucination that he had seen
the Risen Christ. Saul arose after the others were on their feet.
{They led him by the hand} (cheirag(9367)ountes). From
cheirag(9367)os (cheir, hand and ag(935c), to lead). Only here in
the N.T., but in LXX and late writers though not in the old
Greek. It was a pathetic picture to see the masterful Saul,
victorious persecutor and conqueror of the disciples, now
helpless as a child.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:9-9:9

註釋:

 {Not seeing} (m(8820)blep(936e)). The usual negative m(885c) of the
participle. It was a crisis for Saul, this sudden blindness for
three days (h(886d)eras treis, accusative of extent of time). Later
( Ga 4:15 ) Paul has an affection of the eyes which may have been
caused by this experience on the road to Damascus or at least his
eyes may have been predisposed by it to weakness in the glare of
the Syrian sun in the land where today so much eye trouble
exists. He neither ate nor drank anything, for his appetite had
gone as often happens in a crisis of the soul. These must have
been days of terrible stress and strain.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:10-9:10

註釋:

 {Ananias} (Hananias). Name common enough (cf.  5:1  for
another Ananias) and means "Jehovah is gracious." _Nomen et omen_
(Knowling). This Ananias had the respect of both Jews and
Christians in Damascus ( 22:12 ). {In a vision} (en horamati).
Zeller and others scout the idea of the historicity of this
vision as supernatural. Even Furneaux holds that "it is a
characteristic of the Jewish Christian sources to point out the
Providential ordering of events by the literary device of a
vision," as "in the early chapters of Matthew's and Luke's
Gospels." He is content with this "beautiful expression of the
belief" with no interest in the actual facts. But that is plain
illusion, not to say delusion, and makes both Paul and Luke
deceived by the story of Ananias ( 9:10-18  22:12-16,26 ). One
MS. of the old Latin Version does omit the vision to Ananias and
that is basis enough for those who deny the supernatural aspects
of Christianity.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:11-9:11

註釋:

 {To the street} (epi t(886e) rhum(886e)). See on 烊u 14:21|. A run
way (from 
he(935c), to run) between the houses. So were the narrow
lanes or alleys called streets and finally in later Greek the
word is applied to streets even when broad. {Straight}
(eutheian). Most of the city lanes were crooked like the
streets of Boston (old cow-paths, people say), but this one still
runs "in a direct line from the eastern to the western gate of
the city" (Vincent). Since the ancients usually rebuilt on the
same sites, it is probable that the line of the street of that
name today is the same, though the actual level has been much
raised. Hence the identification of the house of Ananias and the
house of Judas are very precarious.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:12-9:12

註釋:

 {Coming in and laying} (eiselthonta kai epithenta). Second
aorist (ingressive) active participles picturing the punctiliar
act as a sort of indirect discourse after verbs of sensation
(Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1040-2). Some ancient documents do not
have "in a vision" here. {Receive his sight} (anablepsei).
First aorist active subjunctive with hop(9373) (purpose). See again
as in  9:17 .

經文:

使徒行傳 9:13-9:13

註釋:

 {How much evil} (hosa kaka). How many evil things. Saul's
reputation ( 26:10 ) as a persecutor had preceded him. {To thy
saints} (	ois hagiois). Dative of disadvantage. "Used here for
the first time as a name for the Christians" (Knowling), but it
came to be the common and normal (Hackett) term for followers of
Christ ( 9:32,41  26:10  1Co 1:2 , etc.). This common word is
from 	o hagos, religious awe or reverence and is applied to
God's name ( Lu 1:49 ), God's temple ( Mt 24:15 ), God's people
as set apart for God ( Lu 1:70  2:23  Ro 1:7 , etc.). Ananias in
his ignorance saw in Saul only the man with an evil reputation
while Jesus saw in Saul the man transformed by grace to be a
messenger of mercy.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:14-9:14

註釋:

 {Hath authority} (echei exousian). Probably Ananias had
received letters from the Christians left in Jerusalem warning
him of the coming of Saul. The protest of Ananias to Jesus
against any dealing with Saul is a fine illustration of our own
narrow ignorance in our rebellious moods against the will of God.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:15-9:15

註釋:

 {A chosen vessel} (skeuos eklog(8873)). A vessel of choice or
selection. The genitive of quality is common in the Hebrew, as in
the vernacular _Koin(825f). Jesus chose Saul before Saul chose Jesus.
He felt of himself that he was an earthen vessel ( 2Co 4:7 )
unworthy of so great a treasure. It was a great message that
Ananias had to bear to Saul. He told it in his own way ( 9:17  22:14f. ) and in  26:16f.  Paul blends the message of Jesus to
Ananias with that to him as one. {Before the Gentiles} (en(9370)ion
t(936e) ethn(936e)). This was the chief element in the call of Saul. He
was to be an apostle to the Gentiles ( Eph 3:6-12 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 9:16-9:16

註釋:

 {I will shew} (hupodeix(935c)). Beforehand as a warning as in
 Lu 3:7  and from time to time. {He must suffer} (dei auton
pathein). Constative aorist active infinitive (pathein, from
pasch(935c)) covering the whole career of Saul. Suffering is one
element in the call that Saul receives. He will learn "how many
things" (hosa) are included in this list by degrees and by
experience. A glance at  2Co 10-12  will show one the fulfilment
of this prophecy. But it was the "gift" of Christ to Paul to go
on suffering (paschein, present infinitive,  Php 1:39 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 9:17-9:17

註釋:

 {Laying his hands on him} (epitheis ep' auton tas
cheiras). As in the vision Saul saw (verse  12 ). {Brother Saul}
(Saoul adelphe). All suspicion has vanished and Ananias takes
Saul to his heart as a brother in Christ. It was a gracious word
to Saul now under suspicion on both sides. {The Lord, even Jesus}
(ho kurios, I(8873)ous). Undoubted use of kurios as Lord and
applied to Jesus. {Who appeared} (ho ophtheis). First aorist
passive participle of hora(935c), was seen as in  26:16  and with
the dative also (soi). {Thou camest} ((8872)chou). Imperfect
indicative middle, "thou wert coming." {Be filled with the Holy
Spirit} (pl(8873)theis pneumatos hagiou). This enduement of special
power he will need as an apostle (Hackett) and as promised by
Jesus ( 1:8  Ga 2:7 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 9:18-9:18

註釋:

 {Fell off} (apepesan). Second aorist active indicative
(note--an ending like first aorist) of apopipt(935c), old verb, but
here alone in the N.T. {As if it were scales} (h(9373) lepides).
Chiefly late word (LXX) from lep(935c), to peel, and only here in
the N.T. See Tobit 11:13, "The white film peeled from his eyes"
(elepisth(885c)). Luke does not say that actual "scales" fell from
the eyes of Saul, but that it felt that way to him as his sight
returned, "as if" (h(9373)). Medical writers use the word lepis
for pieces of the skin that fall off (Hobart, _Medical Language
of St. Luke_, p. 39). Luke may have heard Paul tell of this vivid
experience. {Was baptized} (ebaptisth(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative. Apparently by Ananias ( 22:16 ) as a symbol of the
new life in Christ already begun, possibly in the pool in the
house of Judas as today water is plentiful in Damascus or in
Abana or Pharpar (Furneaux), better than all the waters of Israel
according to Naaman ( 2Ki 5:12 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 9:19-9:19

註釋:

 {Was strengthened} (enischuth(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative of enischu(935c), to receive strength (ischus),
comparatively late verb and here only in the N.T. save  Lu 22:43 
where it is doubtful. Poor verse division. This clause belongs in
sense to verse  18 . {Some days} (h(886d)eras tinas). An indefinite
period, probably not long, the early period in Damascus before
Saul left for Arabia ( Ga 1:13-24 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 9:20-9:20

註釋:

 {He proclaimed Jesus} (ek(8872)ussen ton I(8873)oun). Imperfect
indicative, inchoative, began to preach. Jesus, not Christ, is
the correct text here. He did this first preaching in the Jewish
synagogues, a habit of his life when possible, and following the
example of Jesus. {That he is the Son of God} (hoti houtos estin
ho huios tou theou). This is Paul's platform as a Christian
preacher, one that he always occupied to the very end. It was a
complete reversal of his previous position. Jesus had turned him
completely around. It is the conclusion that Saul now drew from
the vision of the Risen Christ and the message through Ananias.
By "the Son of God" Saul means the Messiah of promise and hope,
the Messianic sense of the Baptist ( Joh 1:34 ) and of Nathanael
( Joh 1:49 ) for Saul is now proclaiming his faith in Jesus in
the very synagogues where he had meant to arrest those who
professed their faith in him. Peter laid emphasis on the
Resurrection of Jesus as a glorious fact and proclaimed Jesus as
Lord and Christ. Paul boldly calls Jesus the Son of God with full
acknowledgment of his deity from the very start. Thomas had come
to this place slowly ( Joh 20:28 ). Saul begins with this truth
and never leaves it. With this faith he can shake the world.
There is no power in any other preaching.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:21-9:21

註釋:

 {Were amazed} (existanto). Imperfect middle indicative of
exist(886d)i. They continued to stand out of themselves in
astonishment at this violent reversal in Saul the persecutor.
{Made havock} (porth(8873)as). First aorist active participle of
porthe(935c), to lay waste, an old verb, but only here and  Ga
1:13,23  by Paul, an interesting coincidence. It is the old
proverb about Saul among the prophets ( 1Sa 10:12 ) revived with
a new meaning (Furneaux). {Had come} (el(886c)uthei). Past perfect
indicative active. {Might bring} (agag(8869)). Second aorist
(effective) active subjunctive of ag(935c) with hina (purpose).
{Bound} (dedemenous). Perfect passive participle of de(935c).
Interesting tenses.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:22-9:22

註釋:

 {Increased the more} (m(836c)lon enedunamouto). Imperfect
passive indicative of endunamo(935c), to receive power (late verb),
progressive increase in strength as opposition grew. Saul's
recantation stirred controversy and Saul grew in power. See also
Paul in  Php 4:13  1Ti 1:12  2Ti 2:1  4:17  Ro 4:20 . Christ, the
dynamo of spiritual energy, was now pouring power ( Ac 1:8 ) into
Paul who is already filled with the Holy Spirit ( Ac 9:17 ).
{Confounded} (sunechunnen). Imperfect active indicative of
sunchunn(935c) (late form of sunche(935c), to pour together, commingle,
make confusion. The more Saul preached, the more the Jews were
confused. {Proving} (sunbibaz(936e)). Present active participle of
sunbibaz(935c), old verb to make go together, to coalesce, to knit
together. It is the very word that Luke will use in  16:10  of
the conclusion reached at Troas concerning the vision of Paul.
Here Saul took the various items in the life of Jesus of Nazareth
and found in them the proof that he was in reality "the Messiah"
(ho Christos). This method of argument Paul continued to use
with the Jews ( Ac 17:3 ). It was irresistible argument and
spread consternation among the Jews. It was the most powerful
piece of artillery in the Jewish camp that was suddenly turned
round upon them. It is probable that at this juncture Saul went
into Arabia for several years ( Ga 1:12-24 ). Luke makes no
mention of this important event, but he leaves ample room for it
at this point.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:23-9:23

註釋:

 2Co
11:24 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
11' or engs='2Co
11'
經文:

使徒行傳 9:24-9:24

註釋:

 {Plot} (epiboul(885c)). Old word for a plan (oul(885c)) against
(epi) one. In the N.T. only in Acts ( 9:24  20:3,19  23:30 ).
{They watched} (paret(8872)ounto). Imperfect middle indicative of
parat(8872)e(935c), common verb in late Greek for watching beside
(para) or insidiously or on the sly as in  Lu 6:7 , they kept
on watching by day and night to kill him. In  2Co 11:32  Paul
says that the Ethnarch of Aretas "kept guard" (ephrourei,
imperfect active of phroure(935c)) to seize him. Probably the Jews
obtained the consent of the Ethnarch and had him appoint some of
them as guards or watchers at the gate of the city.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:25-9:25

註釋:

 {Through the wall} (dia tou teichous). Paul in  2Co 11:33 
explains dia tou teichous as being dia thuridos (through a
window) which opened into the house on the inside of the wall as
is true today in Damascus as Hackett saw there. See  Jos 2:15f. 
(cf.  1Sa 19:12 ) for the way that Rahab let out the spies "by a
cord through the window." {Lowering him} (auton chalasantes).
First aorist active participle of chala(935c), old and common verb
in a nautical sense ( Ac 27:17,30 ) as well as otherwise as here.
Same verb used by Paul of this experience ( 2Co 11:33 ). {In a
basket} (en sphuridi). The word used when the four thousand
were fed ( Mr 8:8  Mt 15:37 ). A large basket plaited of reeds
and distinguished in  Mr 8:19f.  ( Mt 16:9f. ) from the smaller
kophinos. Paul uses sargan(885c), a basket made of ropes. This
escape by night by the help of the men whom he had come to
destroy was a shameful memory to Paul ( 2Co 11:33 ). Wendt thinks
that the coincidences in language here prove that Luke had read
II Corinthians. That, of course, is quite possible.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:26-9:26

註釋:

 {He assayed} (epeirazen). Imperfect active of conative
action. {To join himself} (kollasthai). Present middle (direct)
infinitive of conative action again. Same word kolla(935c) in  Lu
15:15  Ac 10:28 . See on 烘t 19:5| for discussion. {Were all
afraid of him} (pantes ephobounto auton). They were fearing
him. Imperfect middle picturing the state of mind of the
disciples who had vivid recollections of his conduct when last
here. What memories Saul had on this return journey to Jerusalem
after three years. He had left a conquering hero of Pharisaism.
He returns distrusted by the disciples and regarded by the
Pharisees as a renegade and a turncoat. He made no effort to get
in touch with the Sanhedrin who had sent him to Damascus. He had
escaped the plots of the Jews in Damascus only to find himself
the object of suspicion by the disciples in Jerusalem who had no
proof of his sincerity in his alleged conversion. {Not believing}
(m(8820)pisteuontes). They had probably heard of his conversion,
but they frankly disbelieved the reports and regarded him as a
hypocrite or a spy in a new role to ruin them. {Was} (estin).
The present tense is here retained in indirect discourse
according to the common Greek idiom.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:27-9:27

註釋:

 {Took him} (epilabomenos). Second aorist middle (indirect)
participle of epilamban(935c), common verb to lay hold of. Barnabas
saw the situation and took Saul to himself and listened to his
story and believed it. It is to the credit of Barnabas that he
had the insight and the courage to stand by Saul at the crucial
moment in his life when the evidence seemed to be against him. It
is a pleasing hypothesis that this influential disciple from
Cyprus had gone to the University of Tarsus where he met Saul. If
so, he would know more of him than those who only knew his record
as a persecutor of Christians. That fact Barnabas knew also, but
he was convinced that Jesus had changed the heart of Saul and he
used his great influence ( Ac 4:36  11:22 ) to win the favour of
the apostles, Peter in particular ( Ga 1:19 ) and James the
half-brother of Jesus. The other apostles were probably out of
the city as Paul says that he did not see them. {To the apostles}
(pros tous apostolous). Both Barnabas and James are termed
apostles in the general sense, though not belonging to the
twelve, as Paul did not, though himself later a real apostle. So
Barnabas introduced Saul to Peter and vouched for his story,
declared it fully (di(8867)(8873)ato, in detail) including Saul's
vision of Jesus (eiden ton kurion) as the vital thing and
Christ's message to Saul (elal(8873)en aut(9369)) and Saul's bold
preaching ((8870)arr(8873)iasato, first aorist middle indicative of
parr(8873)iaz(935c) from pan--r(8873)ia telling it all as in  Ac 2:29 ).
Peter was convinced and Saul was his guest for two weeks ( Ga
1:18 ) with delightful fellowship (histor(8873)ai). He had really
come to Jerusalem mainly "to visit" (to see) Peter, but not to
receive a commission from him. He had that from the Lord ( Ga
1:1f. ). Both Peter and James could tell Saul of their special
experiences with the Risen Christ. Furneaux thinks that Peter was
himself staying at the home of Mary the mother of John Mark ( Ac
12:12 ) who was a cousin of Barnabas ( Col 4:10 ). This is quite
possible. At any rate Saul is now taken into the inner circle of
the disciples in Jerusalem.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:28-9:28

註釋:

 {Going in and going out} (eisporeumenos kai
ekporeuomenos). Barnabas and Peter and James opened all the
doors for Saul and the fear of the disciples vanished.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:29-9:29

註釋:

 {Preaching boldly} (parr(8873)iazomenos). For a while.
Evidently Saul did not extend his preaching outside of Jerusalem
( Ga 1:22 ) and in the city preached mainly in the synagogues of
the Hellenists (pros tous Hellenistas) as Stephen had done ( Ac
8:9 ). As a Cilician Jew he knew how to speak to the Hellenists.
{Disputed} (sunez(8874)ei). Imperfect active of sunz(8874)e(935c), the
very verb used in  6:9  of the disputes with Stephen in these
very synagogues in one of which (Cilicia) Saul had probably
joined issue with Stephen to his own discomfort. It was
intolerable to these Hellenistic Jews now to hear Saul taking the
place of Stephen and using the very arguments that Stephen had
employed. {But they went about to kill him} (Hoi de epecheiroun
anelein auton). Demonstrative hoi with de and the conative
imperfect of epicheire(935c), to put the hand to, to try, an old
verb used in the N.T. only three times ( Lu 1:1  Ac 9:29  19:3 ).
They offer to Saul the same conclusive answer that he gave to
Stephen, death. Paul tells how the Lord Jesus appeared to him at
this juncture in a vision in the temple ( Ac 22:17-21 ) with the
distinct command to leave Jerusalem and how Paul protested that
he was willing to meet the fate of Stephen in whose death he had
a shameful part. That is to Saul's credit, but the Lord did not
want Saul to be put to death yet. His crown of martyrdom will
come later.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:30-9:30

註釋:

 {Knew it} (epignontes). Second aorist active participle of
epigin(9373)k(935c), to know fully. The disciples saw it clearly, so
they {conducted} (kat(8867)agon, effective second aorist active
indicative of katag(935c)). {Sent forth} (exapesteilan). Double
compound (ex, out, apo, away or off). Sent him out and off
{to Tarsus} (eis Tarson). Silence is preserved by Luke. But it
takes little imagination to picture the scene at home when this
brilliant young rabbi, the pride of Gamaliel, returns home a
preacher of the despised Jesus of Nazareth whose disciples he had
so relentlessly persecuted. What will father, mother, sister
think of him now?

經文:

使徒行傳 9:31-9:31

註釋:

 {So the church} (H(8820)men oun ekkl(8873)ia). The singular
ekkl(8873)ia is undoubtedly the true reading here (all the great
documents have it so). By this time there were churches scattered
over Judea, Galilee, and Samaria ( Ga 1:22 ), but Luke either
regards the disciples in Palestine as still members of the one
great church in Jerusalem (instance already the work of Philip in
Samaria and soon of Peter in Joppa and Caesarea) or he employs
the term ekkl(8873)ia in a geographical or collective sense
covering all of Palestine. The strictly local sense we have seen
already in  8:1,3  (and  Mt 18:17 ) and the general spiritual
sense in  Mt 16:18 . But in  Ac 8:3  it is plain that the term is
applied to the organization of Jerusalem Christians even when
scattered in their homes. The use of men oun (so) is Luke's
common way of gathering up the connection. The obvious meaning is
that the persecution ceased because the persecutor had been
converted. The wolf no longer ravined the sheep. It is true also
that the effort of Caligula A.D. 39 to set up his image in the
temple in Jerusalem for the Jews to worship greatly excited the
Jews and gave them troubles of their own (Josephus, _Ant_. XVIII.
8, 2-9). {Had peace} (eichen eir(886e)(886e)). Imperfect active. Kept
on having peace, enjoying peace, because the persecution had
ceased. Many of the disciples came back to Jerusalem and the
apostles began to make preaching tours out from the city. This
idiom (ech(9320)eir(886e)(886e)) occurs again in  Ro 5:1  (eir(886e)(886e)
ech(936d)en, present active subjunctive) where it has been
grievously misunderstood. There it is an exhortation to keep on
enjoying the peace with God already made, not to make peace with
God which would be eir(886e)(886e) sch(936d)en (ingressive aorist
subjunctive). {Edified} (oikodomoumen(885c)). Present passive
participle, linear action also. One result of the enjoyment of
peace after the persecution was the continued edification (Latin
word _aedificatio_ for building up a house), a favourite figure
with Paul ( 1Co 14  Eph 3 ) and scattered throughout the N.T.,
old Greek verb. In  1Pe 2:5  Peter speaks of "the spiritual
house" throughout the five Roman provinces being "built up" (cf.
 Mt 16:18 ). {In the comfort of the Holy Spirit} (	(8869) parakl(8873)ei
tou hagiou pneumatos). Either locative ({in}) or instrumental
case ({by}). The Holy Spirit had been promised by Jesus as
"another Paraclete" and now this is shown to be true. The only
instance in Acts of the use of parakl(8873)is with the Holy Spirit.
The word, of course, means calling to one's side (parakale(935c))
either for advice or for consolation. {Was multiplied}
(epl(8874)huneto). Imperfect middle passive. The multiplication of
the disciples kept pace with the peace, the edification, the
walking in the fear of the Lord, the comfort of the Holy Spirit.
The blood of the martyrs was already becoming the seed of the
church. Stephen had not borne his witness in vain.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:32-9:32

註釋:

 {Lydda} (Ludda). In O.T. Lod ( 1Ch 8:12 ) and near Joppa.
Later Diospolis.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:33-9:33

註釋:

 {Aenias} (Ainean). Old Greek name and so probably a
Hellenistic Jew. He was apparently a disciple already (the saint,
verse  32 ). Luke the physician notes that he had been bed ridden
for eight years. See on 氤:15| for "bed" (krabattou) and 涕:7;
Lu 5:18| for "paralyzed" (paralelumenos, perfect passive
participle of paralu(935c) with (886e), periphrastic past perfect
passive).

經文:

使徒行傳 9:34-9:34

註釋:

 {Healeth} (i(8374)ai). Aoristic present middle indicative,
heals here and now. {Make thy bed} (str(9373)on seaut(9369)). First
aorist (ingressive) active imperative of str(936e)numi (-u(935c)). Old
word with "bed" (krabatton) understood as the object.
Literally, spread thy bed for thyself (dative case), what others
for eight years have done for thee.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:35-9:35

註釋:

 {Sharon} (Sar(936e)a). The Plain of Sharon, not a town. Thirty
miles long from Joppa to Caesarea.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:36-9:36

註釋:

 {At Joppa} (En Iopp(8869)). The modern Jaffa, the port of
Jerusalem ( 2Ch 2:16 ). {Disciple} (math(8874)ria). Feminine form
of math(8874)(8873), a learner from manthan(935c), to learn, a late word
and only here in the N.T. {Tabitha} (Tabeitha). Aramaic form of
the Hebrew _Tsebi_ and, like the Greek word {Dorcas} (Dorkas),
means Gazelle, "the creature with the beautiful look" (or eyes),
from derkomai. The gazelle was a favourite type for beauty in
the orient (Song of Solomon  2:9,17  4:5  7:3 ). She may have had
both the Aramaic and the Greek name, Tabitha Dorcas like John
Mark. There is nothing said about a husband and so she was
probably unmarried. She is the second woman mentioned by name
after Pentecost (Sapphira the other). She did her beautiful deeds
by herself. She did not have a Dorcas society. {Did} (epoiei).
Imperfect active, her habit.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:37-9:37

註釋:

 {In an upper chamber} (en huper(9369)(9369)). See on 氣:13|. Also
in verse  39 . In that house. This service was rendered by the
women, though Luke has lousantes (masculine plural aorist
active participle of lou(935c)), a general way of saying "they
washed." The interment was not hurried as in Jerusalem (Ananias
and Sapphira) and the upper room is where the body was usually
placed.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:38-9:38

註釋:

 {Delay not} (m(8820)okn(8873)(8869)s). Ingressive aorist active
subjunctive in prohibition. Direct discourse and not indirect as
late MSS. have (aorist active infinitive, okn(8873)ai). Possibly
the two messengers started before Dorcas was quite dead, though
we do not know. Peter had recently healed Aeneas and the
disciples may have had faith enough to believe that he could
raise the dead by the power of Christ. W. M. Ramsay doubts if
Dorcas was really dead, but why see legends in these supernatural
events?

經文:

使徒行傳 9:39-9:39

註釋:

 {Stood by him} (parest(8873)an aut(9369)). Second aorist active
indicative, intransitive, of parist(886d)i). Vivid picture of this
group of widows as they stood around Peter, weeping (klaiousai)
and showing (epideiknumenai, present middle as belonging to
themselves, pointing with pride to) the very inner garments
(chit(936e)as) and outer garments (himatia), like the Latin
_tunica_ and _toga_, which she made from time to time (epoiei,
imperfect active, repeated action). It was a heart-breaking
scene.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:40-9:40

註釋:

 {Put them all forth} (ekbal(936e) ex(9320)pantas). Second aorist
(effective) active participle of ekball(935c), a rather strong word,
perhaps with some difficulty. Cf.  Mr 5:40  which incident Peter
may have recalled. The words are not genuine in  Lu 8:54 .
Peter's praying alone reminds one of Elijah ( 1Ki 17:20 ) and the
widow's son and Elisha for the Shunammite's son ( 2Ki 4:33 ).
{Tabitha, arise} (Tabeitha, anast(8874)hi). With sublime faith like
Taleitha koum of Jesus in  Mr 5:41 . {She sat up}
(anekathisen). Effective aorist active indicative of
anakathiz(935c). Often in medical writers, only here in the N.T. and
 Lu 7:15  where Westcott and Hort have in the margin the
uncompounded form ekathisen. Vivid picture.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:41-9:41

註釋:

 {Raised her up} (anest(8873)en aut(886e)). First aorist active
indicative, transitive, of anist(886d)i. {Presented}
(parest(8873)en). First aorist active indicative, transitive of
parist(886d)i (cf. intransitive second aorist in verse  39  above).
It was a joyful time for Peter, the widows, all the saints, and
for Dorcas.

經文:

使徒行傳 9:43-9:43

註釋:

 {Many days} (h(886d)eras hikanas). See on verse 氧3|. Luke is
fond of the phrase and uses it for time, number, size. It might
be "ten days, ten months, or ten years" (Page). {With one Simon a
tanner} (para tini Sim(936e)i bursei). The use of para is usual
for staying with one (by his side). "The more scrupulous Jews
regarded such an occupation as unclean, and avoided those who
pursued it. The conduct of Peter here shows that he did not carry
his prejudices to that extent" (Hackett). One of the rabbis said:
"It is impossible for the world to do without tanners; but woe to
him who is a tanner." A Jewess could sue for divorce if she
discovered that her husband was a tanner. And yet Peter will have
scruples on the housetop in the tanner's house about eating food
considered unclean. "The lodging with the tanner was a step on
the road to eating with a Gentile" (Furneaux).

經文:

使徒行傳 10:1-10:1

註釋:

 {Cornelius} (Korn(886c)ios). The great Cornelian family of
Rome may have had a freedman or descendant who is {centurion}
(hekaton-tarch(8873), leader of a hundred, Latin _centurio_). See
on 烘t 8:5|. These Roman centurions always appear in a favourable
light in the N.T. ( Mt 8:5  Lu 7:2  23:47  Ac 10:1  22:25  27:3 ). Furneaux notes the contrasts between Joppa, the oldest
town in Palestine, and Caesarea, built by Herod; the Galilean
fisherman lodging with a tanner and the Roman officer in the seat
of governmental authority. {Of the band called the Italian} (ek
speir(8873) t(8873) kaloumen(8873) Italik(8873)). A legion had ten cohorts or
"bands" and sixty centuries. The word speir(8873) (note genitive in
-es like the Ionic instead of -as) is here equal to the Latin
_cohors_. In the provinces were stationed cohorts of Italic
citizens (volunteers) as an inscription at Carnuntum on the
Danube (Ramsay) has shown (epitaph of an officer in the second
Italic cohort). Once more Luke has been vindicated. The soldiers
could, of course, be Roman citizens who lived in Caesarea. But
the Italian cohorts were sent to any part of the empire as
needed. The procurator at Caesarea would need a cohort whose
loyalty he could trust, for the Jews were restless.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:2-10:2

註釋:

 {Devout} (euseb(8873)). Old word from eu (well) and
sebomai (to worship, to reverence), but rare in the N.T. ( Ac
10:2,7  2Pe 2:1 ). It might refer to a worshipful pagan ( Ac
17:23 , sebasmata, objects of worship), but connected with "one
that feared God" (phoboumenos ton theon) Luke describes "a
God-fearing proselyte" as in  10:22,35 . This is his usual term
for the Gentile seekers after God ( 13:16, 26  17:4,17 , etc.),
who had come into the worship of the synagogue without
circumcision, and were not strictly proselytes, though some call
such men "proselytes of the gate" (cf.  Ac 13:43 ); but clearly
Cornelius and his family were still regarded as outside the pale
of Judaism ( 10:28,34  11:1,8  15:7 ). They had seats in the
synagogue, but were not Jews. {Gave much alms} (poi(936e)
eleemosunas pollas). Doing many alms (the very phrase in  Mt
6:2 ), a characteristic mark of Jewish piety and from a Gentile
to the Jewish people. {Prayed} (deomenos). Begging of God.
Almsgiving and prayer were two of the cardinal points with the
Jews (Jesus adds fasting in his picture of the Pharisee in  Mt
6:1-18 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 10:3-10:3

註釋:

 {Coming in} (eiselthonta). Ingressive second aorist active
participle, not present. So punctiliar, "saw come," not "saw
coming." So also "say" or "speak," not "saying." Luke repeats the
account of this vision to Cornelius twice ( 10:30  11:13 ) and
also the story of the vision to Peter ( 10:1-16,28  11:5 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 10:4-10:4

註釋:

 {Lord} (kurie). Cornelius recognizes the angel of God
(verse  3 ) as God's messenger. {Are gone up} (aneb(8873)an).
Timeless second aorist active indicative of anabain(935c). Gone up
like the smoke of incense in sacrifices. {For a memorial} (eis
mn(886d)osunon). Old word from mn(886d)(936e). The only other instance in
the N.T. is by Jesus about the act of Mary of Bethany ( Mt 26:13  Mr 14:9 ). His prayers and his alms proved his sincerity and won
the ear of God.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:5-10:5

註釋:

 {Fetch} (metapempsai). First aorist middle (indirect, for
one's self) imperative of metapemp(935c), usual voice in ancient
Greek with this verb in sense of sending another for one's own
sake. Only in Acts in the N.T. See also  10:22 .

經文:

使徒行傳 10:6-10:6

註釋:

 {Lodgeth} (xenizetai). Present passive indicative of
xeniz(935c) old verb from xenos, a stranger as a guest. So to
entertain a guest as here or to surprise by strange acts ( Ac
17:20  1Pe 4:4 ). {Whose} (h(9369)). To whom, dative of possession.
{By the seaside} (para thalassan). Along by the sea. Note
accusative case. Outside the city walls because a tanner and to
secure water for his trade. Some tanneries are by the seashore at
Jaffa today.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:8-10:8

註釋:

 {Rehearsed} (ex(8867)(8873)amenos). See on 烊u 24:35|. All the
details about the vision. The soldier was "devout" like Cornelius
and would protect the two household servants (oiket(936e)).

經文:

使徒行傳 10:9-10:9

註釋:

 {On the morrow} (	(8869) epaurion). Locative case of article
with the compound adverb (h(886d)er(8369) day being understood), the
second day after leaving Caesarea, 28 miles from Joppa. The third
day (the next morrow, verse  23 ) they start back home and the
fourth day (on the morrow again, verse  24 ) they reach Caesarea.
{As they} (ekein(936e)). The party of three from Caesarea. Genitive
absolute with present participle hodoiporount(936e) (journeying)
and eggizont(936e) (drew nigh). {The housetop} (	o d(936d)a). Old
word and in Gospels ( Lu 3:19 , etc.), but only here in Acts.
From dem(935c), to build, and so any part of the building (hall,
dining room, and then roof). The roof was nearly flat with walls
around and so was a good place for meditation and prayer and
naps.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:10-10:10

註釋:

 {Hungry} (prospeinos) Only instance of the word known, a
hapax legomenon. Probably "very hungry" (pros=besides, in
addition). {Desired} ((8874)helen). Imperfect active. Was longing
to eat. It was about twelve o'clock noon and Peter may even have
smelt the savory dishes, "while they made ready"
(paraskeuazont(936e)). "The natural and the supernatural border
closely on one another, with no definable limits" (Furneaux). {He
fell into a trance} (egeneto ep' auton ekstasis). More exactly,
"An ecstasy came upon him," in which trance he passed out of
himself (ekstasis, from exist(886d)i) and from which one came to
himself ( 12:11 ). Cf. also  11:5  22:17 . It is thus different
from a vision (horama) as in verse  3 .

經文:

使徒行傳 10:11-10:11

註釋:

 {Beholdeth} (	he(9372)ei). Vivid historical present and
change from past time. {Opened} (ane(9369)gmenon, perfect passive
participle with double reduplication, state of completion).
{Descending} (katabainon). Present active participle describing
the process. {Sheet} (othon(886e)). Old word for linen cloth and
only here in the N.T. Accusative case in apposition with skeuos
(vessel). {Let down} (Kathiemenon). Present passive participle
of Kathi(886d)i. Old verb, but in the N.T. only here and  Lu 5:19  Ac 9:25 . Linear action here picturing the process, "being let
down." {By four corners} (	essarsin archais). Instrumental case
of arch(885c), beginning. We say "end" or extremity for this use of
the word. The picture is the sheet held up by four cords to which
the sheet is fastened.  Isa 11:12  had said that Israel would be
gathered from the four corners of the earth. Knowling follows
Hobart in taking the four corners of the sheet to be a medical
phrase for bandage (the end of a bandage).

經文:

使徒行傳 10:12-10:12

註釋:

 {Were} (hup(8872)chen). Imperfect of huparch(935c) in sense of
(886e), to exist, be. Fish are not mentioned, perhaps because the
sheet had no water, though they were clean and unclean also ( Le
11:9  De 14:9 ). {All manner of} (panta). Literally, all, but
clearly all varieties, not all individuals. Both clean and
unclean animals are in the sheet.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:14-10:14

註釋:

 {Not so, Lord} (M(8864)am(9373), kurie). The negative m(8864)am(9373)
calls for the optative ei(885c) (may it not be) or the imperative
est(935c) (let it be). It is not oudam(9373), a blunt refusal (I shall
not do it). And yet it is more than a mild protest as Page and
Furneaux argue. It is a polite refusal with a reason given. Peter
recognizes the invitation to slay (	huson) the unclean animals
as from the Lord (kurie) but declines it three times. {For I
have never eaten anything} (hoti oudepote ephagon pan). Second
aorist active indicative, I never did anything like this and I
shall not do it now. The use of pan (everything) with
oudepote (never) is like the Hebrew (_lo--k(936c)_) though a like
idiom appears in the vernacular _Koin(825f) (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
752). {Common and unclean} (koinon kai akatharton). Koinos
from epic xunos (xun, sun, together with) originally meant
common to several (Latin _communis_) as in  Ac 2:44  4:32  Tit
1:4  Jude 1:3 . The use seen here (also  Mr 7:2,5  Ro 14:14  Heb
10:29  Re 21:27  Ac 10:28  11:8 ), like Latin _vulgaris_ is
unknown in ancient Greek. Here the idea is made plain by the
addition of akatharton (unclean), ceremonially unclean, of
course. We have the same double use in our word "common." See on
烘r 7:18f.| where Mark adds the remarkable participle
kathariz(936e) (making all meats clean), evidently from Peter who
recalls this vision. Peter had been reared from childhood to make
the distinction between clean and unclean food and this new
proposal even from the Lord runs against all his previous
training. He did not see that some of God's plans for the Jews
could be temporary. This symbol of the sheet was to show Peter
ultimately that Gentiles could be saved without becoming Jews. At
this moment he is in spiritual and intellectual turmoil.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:15-10:15

註釋:

 {Make not thou common} (su m(8820)koinou). Note emphatic
position of su (thou). Do thou stop making common what God
cleansed (ekatharisen). The idiom of m(885c) with the present
active imperative koinou means precisely this. Peter had just
called "common" what God had invited him to slay and eat.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:16-10:16

註釋:

 {Thrice} (epitris). For three times. Peter remained
unconvinced even by the prohibition of God. Here is a striking
illustration of obstinacy on the part of one who acknowledges the
voice of God to him when the command of the Lord crosses one's
preferences and prejudices. There are abundant examples today of
precisely this thing. In a real sense Peter was maintaining a
pose of piety beyond the will of the Lord. Peter was defiling
what God had cleansed. {Was received up} (anel(886d)phth(885c)). First
aorist passive indicative of analamban(935c), to take up. The word
used of the Ascension ( 1:22 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 10:17-10:17

註釋:

 {Was much perplexed in himself} (en heaut(9369) di(8870)orei).
Imperfect active of diapore(935c), intensive compound (dia,
thoroughly, and a privative and poros, way), to be completely
at a loss to know what road to take. Old verb, but in N.T. only
in Luke and Acts. Page notes that Luke is singularly fond of
verbs compounded with dia. See on 烊u 9:7| and  Ac 2:12 . When
out of the ecstasy he was more puzzled than ever. {Might be} (an
ei(885c)). Optative with an in indirect question simply retained
from the direct (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1021, 1044). See  Ac
17:18 , for the direct and  Lu 1:62  for the indirect (an
theloi both times). It is the conclusion of a fourth class
condition. {Having made inquiry} (dier(9374)(8873)antes). First aorist
active participle of dier(9374)a(935c), another compound of dia, to
ask one after another, to ask through, old verb, but only here in
the N.T. It took diligent inquiry to find the obscure house of
Simon the tanner. {Stood before the gate} (epest(8873)an epi ton
pul(936e)a). Second aorist active indicative of ephist(886d)i,
intransitive. Note repetition of epi. The messengers stopped
right at the folding gates of the passage (pul(936e)a) which led
from the street to the inner court or house.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:18-10:18

註釋:

 {Called} (ph(936e)(8873)antes). In a loud voice that those inside
the house might hear. {Asked} (epunthanonto). Imperfect middle
of punthanomai, old verb to make inquiry especially with an
indirect question as here. Kept on inquiring. Westcott and Hort
follow B C here and read eputhonto (second aorist middle,
effective aorist). Either makes sense, though the imperfect is
more picturesque. {Were lodging} (xenizetai). Present middle
indicative retained in indirect question. See on verse 泰| for
the verb.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:19-10:19

註釋:

 {Thought} (dienthumoumenou). Genitive absolute of present
middle participle of dienthumeomai, a double compound (dia
and en- with 	humos) and another hapax legomenon save in
ecclesiastical writers, though enthumeomai is common enough and
Textus Receptus so reads here. Peter was revolving in his mind,
through and through, in and out, to find the meaning of the
strange vision.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:20-10:20

註釋:

 {But} (alla). So usually, though it is open to question
whether alla is adversative here and not rather, "Now then."
{Get thee down} (katab(8874)hi). Second aorist active imperative,
at once. {Go} (poreuou). Present middle imperative, go on.
{Nothing doubting} (m(8864)en diakrinomenos). Another compound of
dia, old and common verb for a divided mind (dia like duo,
two). Note usual negative of the present middle participle, the
subjective m(8864)en. The notion of wavering ( Jas 1:6 ) is common
with this verb in the middle voice. In  Ac 11:12  the aorist
active (m(8864)en diakrinanta) is used perhaps with the idea of
conduct towards others rather than his own internal doubt as here
(Page). {For I} (hoti eg(935c)). The Holy Spirit assumes
responsibility for the messengers from Cornelius and thus
connects their mission with the vision which was still troubling
Peter. Peter had heard his name called by the man (verse  19 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 10:21-10:21

註釋:

 {Cause} (aitia). Or reason. Common in this sense. See on
烘t 19:3|.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:22-10:22

註釋:

 {Righteous} (dikaios). In the Jewish sense as in  Lu 1:6  2:25 . {Well reported of} (marturoumenos). Present passive
participle as in  6:3 . Cf. the other centurion in  Lu 7:4 .
{Nation} (ethnous). Not laou, for the speakers are Gentiles.
{Was warned} (echr(886d)atisth(885c)). First aorist passive of
chr(886d)atiz(935c), old word for doing business, then consulting an
oracle, and here of being divinely (word God not expressed)
warned as in  Mt 2:12,22  Lu 2:26  Heb 11:7 . Then to be called
or receive a name from one's business as in  Ac 11:26  Ro 7:3 .

經文:

使徒行傳 10:23-10:23

註釋:

 {Lodged them} (exenisen). Active voice here rather than
passive as in  10:6 . {Accompanied him} (sun(886c)than aut(9369)).
Associative instrumental case after verb. The wisdom of having
these half dozen Jewish Christians from Joppa with Peter in the
house of Cornelius in Caesarea becomes manifest in Jerusalem
( 11:12 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 10:24-10:24

註釋:

 {Was waiting} ((886e) prosdok(936e)). Periphrastic imperfect
active, in eager expectation and hope, directing the mind
(doka(935c)) towards (pros) anything. Old and common verb. {Near}
(anagkaious). Only instance in the N.T. of this sense of
anagkaios from anagk(885c), necessity, what one cannot do without,
necessary ( 1Co 12:22 ), duty ( Ac 13:46 ), or blood relations as
here. The ancient Greek writers combined these two words
(suggeneis, kinsmen, anagkaious, necessary friends) as here.
It was a homogeneous group of Gentiles close to Cornelius and
predisposed to hear Peter favourably.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:25-10:25

註釋:

 {That Peter entered} (	ou eiselthein ton Petron). This is
a difficult construction, for the subject of egeneto (it
happened) has to be the articular genitive infinitive 	ou
eiselthein with the accusative of general reference 	on
Petron. Most commentators consider it inexplicable. It is
probably an extension of the ordinary articular infinitive under
the influence of the Hebrew infinitive construct without regard
to the case, regarding it as a fixed case form and so using it as
nominative. Precisely this construction of 	ou and the
infinitive as the subject of a verb occurs in the LXX ( 2Ch 6:7 ,
etc.). See Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1067f. for full discussion
of this obvious Hebraism. Somewhat similar examples appear in  Ac
20:3  27:1 . But the Codex Bezae avoids this awkward idiom by the
genitive absolute (proseggizontos tou Petrou) and some
additional details (one of the servants ran forward and announced
that he was come). {Worshipped him} (prosekun(8873)en). "Cornelius
was not an idolator and would not have honoured Peter as a god"
(Furneaux). The word probably means here reverence like old
English usage (Wycliff) and not actual worship, though Peter took
it that way (verse  26 ). Jesus accepted such worship ( Mt 8:2  Lu 5:8  by Peter).

經文:

使徒行傳 10:27-10:27

註釋:

 {As he talked with him} (sunomil(936e) aut(9369)). Present active
participle of sunomile(935c), rare compound and here alone in the
N.T., with associative instrumental case. The uncompounded verb
is common enough though in the N.T. only in  Lu 24:14  which see
and  Ac 20:11  24:26 . {Findeth} (heuriskei). Vivid historical
present indicative active. {Come together} (sunel(886c)uthotas).
Second perfect active participle of sunerchomai. It was an
expectant group of Gentiles eager for Peter's interpretation of
the vision of Cornelius.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:28-10:28

註釋:

 {How that it is an unlawful thing} (h(9373) athemiton estin).
The conjunction h(9373) is sometimes equivalent to hoti (that).
The old form of athemitos was athemistos from 	hemisto
(	hemiz(932c) themis, law custom) and a privative. In the N.T.
only here and  1Pe 4:3  (Peter both times). But there is no O.T.
regulation forbidding such social contact with Gentiles, though
the rabbis had added it and had made it binding by custom. There
is nothing more binding on the average person than social custom.
On coming from the market an orthodox Jew was expected to immerse
to avoid defilement (Edersheim, _Jewish Social Life_, pp. 26-28;
Taylor's _Sayings of the Jewish Fathers_, pp. 15, 26, 137, second
edition). See also  Ac 11:3  Ga 2:12 . It is that middle wall of
partition between Jew and Gentile ( Eph 2:14 ) which Jesus broke
down. {One of another nation} (allophul(9369)). Dative case of an
old adjective, but only here in the N.T. (allos, another,
phulon, race). Both Juvenal (_Sat_. XIV. 104, 105) and Tacitus
(_History_, V. 5) speak of the Jewish exclusiveness and
separation from Gentiles. {And yet unto} (kamoi). Dative of the
emphatic pronoun (note position of prominence) with kai
(crasis) meaning here "and yet" or adversative "but" as often
with kai which is by no means always merely the connective
"and" (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1182f.). Now Peter takes back
both the adjectives used in his protest to the Lord (verse  14 )
"common and unclean." It is a long journey that Peter has made.
He here refers to "no one" (m(8864)ena), not to "things," but that
is great progress.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:29-10:29

註釋:

 {Without gainsaying} (anantirrh(8874)(9373)). A privative with
compound adverb from anti (back, in return, against) and verbal

h(8874)os (from errh(8874)h(886e), to speak). Late and rare and here
only in the N.T., but the adjective in  19:36 . Without answering
back. That is true after the Holy Spirit expressly told Peter to
go with the messengers of Cornelius ( 10:19-23 ). Peter's
objections were made to the Lord in the vision which he did not
understand. But that vision prepared him for this great step
which he had now taken. He had stepped over the line of Jewish
custom. {With what intent} (	ini log(9369)). More exactly, "for
what reason" as in Plato, _Gorgias_ 512 C.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:30-10:30

註釋:

 {Four days ago} (apo tetart(8873) h(886d)eras). From the fourth
day, reckoning backwards from this day. {I was keeping the ninth
hour of prayer} ((886d)(886e) t(886e) enat(886e) proseuchomenos). Periphrastic
middle imperfect and accusative of extension of time (all the
ninth hour).

經文:

使徒行傳 10:31-10:31

註釋:

 {Is heard} (eis(886b)ousth(885c)). Sort of timeless first aorist
passive indicative as is "are had in remembrance" (emn(8873)th(8873)an.
See verse  4  "are gone up for a memorial").

經文:

使徒行傳 10:32-10:32

註釋:

 {In the house of Simon} (en oiki(8369) Sim(936e)os). See  9:43 
for para Sim(936e)i with same idea.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:33-10:33

註釋:

 {And thou hast well done that thou art come} (su te kal(9373)
epoi(8873)as paragenomenos). "And thou didst well in coming." A
regular formula for expressing thanks as in  Php 4:14  3Jo 1:6  2Pe 1:19 . The participle completes the idea of kal(9373) poie(935c)
neatly. Cornelius commends Peter for his courage in breaking away
from Jewish custom and takes no offence at the implied
superiority of the Jews over the Gentiles. Cornelius and his
circle of kinsmen and close friends are prepared soil for a new
era in the history of Christianity. The Samaritans were now
nominal Jews and the Ethiopian eunuch was a single case, but here
Peter the chief apostle, not Philip the preaching deacon
(evangelist), was involved. It was a crisis. Cornelius reveals an
open mind for the message of God through Peter. {Commanded thee}
(prostetagmena soi). Perfect passive participle with the dative
case (soi). Cornelius is a military man and he employs a
military term (prostass(935c), old word to command). He is ready for
orders from the Lord.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:34-10:34

註釋:

 2Ch
19:7 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ch
19' or engs='2Ch
19'
經文:

使徒行傳 10:35-10:35

註釋:

 {Acceptable to him} (dektos aut(9369)). Verbal adjective from
dechomai. _Acceptabilis_. That is to say, a Gentile would not
have to become a Jew in order to become a Christian. Evidently
Peter had not before perceived this fact. On the great Day of
Pentecost when he spoke of the promise "to all those afar off"
( 2:39 ) Peter understood that they must first become Jews and
then Christians. The new idea that now makes a revolution in
Peter's outlook is precisely this that Christ can and will save
Gentiles like this Cornelius group without their becoming Jews at
all.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:36-10:36

註釋:

 {The word which he sent} (	on logon hon apesteilen). Many
ancient MSS. (so Westcott and Hort) read merely 	on logon
apesteilen (he sent the word). This reading avoids the
anacoluthon and inverse attraction of logon to the case of the
relative hon (which). {Preaching good tidings of peace through
Jesus Christ} (euaggelizomenos eir(886e)(886e) dia I(8873)ou Christou).
Gospelizing peace through Jesus Christ. There is no other way to
have real peace between individuals and God, between races and
nations, than by Jesus Christ. Almost this very language occurs
in  Eph 2:17  where Paul states that Jesus on the cross "preached
(gospelized) peace to you who are afar off and peace to you who
are near." Peter here sees what Paul will see later with great
clearness. {He is Lord of all} (houtos estin pant(936e) kurios). A
triumphant parenthesis that Peter throws in as the reason for his
new truth. Jesus Christ is Lord of all, both Jews and Gentiles.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:37-10:37

註釋:

 {Ye know} (humeis oidate). Peter reminds his Gentile
audience that the main facts concerning Jesus and the gospel were
known to them. Note emphatic expression of humeis (you).
{Beginning} (arxamenos). The Textus Receptus has arxamenon
(accusative), but the nominative is given by Aleph A B C D E H
and is certainly correct. But it makes a decided anacoluthon. The
accusative would agree with 
h(886d)a used in the sense of message
or story as told by the disciples. The nominative does not agree
with anything in the sentence. The same phrase occurs in  Lu
23:5 . Here is this aorist middle participle almost used like an
adverb. See a similar loose use of arxamenos in the same sense
by Peter in  Ac 1:22 . The baptism of John is given as the
_terminus a quo_. The story began with a skip to Galilee after
the baptism just like the Gospel of Mark. This first message of
Peter to the Gentiles ( 10:37-44 ) corresponds in broad outline
with Mark's Gospel. Mark heard Peter preach many times and
evidently planned his Gospel (the Roman Gospel) on this same
model. There is in it nothing about the birth and childhood of
Jesus nor about the intervening ministry supplied by John's
Gospel for the period (a year) between the baptism and the
Galilean Ministry. Peter here presents an objective statement of
the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus with proof from the
Scriptures that he is the Messiah. It is a skilful presentation.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:38-10:38

註釋:

 {Jesus of Nazareth} (I(8873)oun ton apo Nazareth). Jesus the
one from Nazareth, the article before the city identifying him
clearly. The accusative case is here by prolepsis, Jesus being
expressed for emphasis before the verb "anointed" and the pronoun
repeated pleonastically after it. "Jesus transfers the mind from
the gospel-history to the personal subject of it" (Hackett). {God
anointed him} (echrisen, auton, ho theos). First aorist active
of the verb chri(935c), to anoint, from which the verbal Christos
is formed ( Ac 2:36 ). The precise event referred to by Peter
could be the Incarnation ( Lu 1:35f. ), the Baptism ( Lu 3:22 ),
the Ministry at Nazareth ( Lu 4:14 ). Why not to the life and
work of Jesus as a whole? {Went about doing good} (di(886c)then
euerget(936e)). Beautiful description of Jesus. Summary (constative)
aorist active of dierehomai, to go through (dia) or from
place to place. The present active participle euerget(936e) is from
the old verb euergete(935c) (eu, well, ergon, work) and occurs
only here in the N.T. The substantive euerget(8873) (benefactor)
was often applied to kings like Ptolemy Euergetes and that is the
sense in  Lu 22:25  the only N.T. example. But the term applies
to Jesus far more than to Ptolemy or any earthly king (Cornelius
a Lapide). {And healing} (kai i(936d)enos). And in particular
healing. Luke does not exclude other diseases (cf.  Lu
13:11,16 ), but he lays special emphasis on demoniacal possession
(cf.  Mr 1:23 ). {That were oppressed} (	ous
katadunasteuomenous). Present passive articular participle of
katadunasteu(935c). A late verb in LXX and papyri. In the N.T. only
here and  Jas 2:6  (best MSS.). One of the compounds of kata
made transitive. The reality of the devil (the slanderer,
diabolos) is recognized by Peter. {For God was with him} (hoti
ho theos (886e) met' autou). Surely this reason does not reveal "a
low Christology" as some charge. Peter had used the same language
in  Ac 7:9  and earlier in  Lu 1:28,66  as Nicodemus does in  Joh
3:2 .

經文:

使徒行傳 10:39-10:39

註釋:

 {And we are witnesses} (kai h(886d)eis martures). Compare "ye
yourselves know" (verse  37 ). Peter thus appeals to what the
audience know and to what the disciples know. He made the same
claim about personal witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus at
Pentecost ( 2:32 ). Here Peter affirms full knowledge of the work
of Jesus in Judea (for whole country including Galilee and Perea)
and Jerusalem (given mainly in John's Gospel). In the Greek h(936e)
(which) is attracted into the genitive case to agree with the
antecedent pant(936e) (all), a common enough idiom. {Whom also they
slew} (hon kai aneilan). Second aorist active indicative of
anaire(935c) with a as often in Acts ( 2:23  5:30 ). But note
kai (also) in the old MSS., not in the Textus Receptus. They
"also" slew him, went that far, "this crowning atrocity"
(Vincent), kai could here be "even." {Hanging him on a tree}
(kremasantes epi xulou). This same expression used by Peter in
 5:30  which see for discussion.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:40-10:40

註釋:

 {Gave him to be made manifest} (ed(936b)en auton emphan(880a)genesthai). Peculiar phrase, here only in the N.T. and in  Ro
10:20  (quoted from  Isa 65:1 ). Emphan(885c), predicate accusative
after infinitive genesthai agreeing with auton object of
ed(936b)en.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:41-10:41

註釋:

 {Chosen before} (prokecheiroton(886d)enois). Perfect passive
participle dative plural from procheirotone(935c), to choose or
designate by hand (cheirotone(932c) cheir, hand, and 	ein(935c), to
stretch, as in  Ac 14:23  2Co 8:19 ), beforehand (pro), a
double compound as old as Plato, but here alone in the N.T. Peter
is evidently stating the thing as it happened and not trying to
make a convincing story by saying that both friends and foes saw
him after his resurrection. It is the "historian's candour"
(Paley) in Luke here that adds to the credibility of the
narrative. The sceptical Jews would not have believed and Jesus
was kept from open contact with the world of sin after his
Passion. {To us who did eat and drink with him} (h(886d)in hoitines
sunephagomen kai sunepiomen aut(9369)). The "who" (hoitines) is
first person agreeing with "us" (h(886d)in). Second aorist active
indicative of the common verbs sunesthi(935c) and sumpin(935c). Aut(9369)
is associative instrumental case. There are difficulties to us in
understanding how Jesus could eat and drink after the
resurrection as told here and in  Lu 24:41-3 , but at any rate
Peter makes it clear that it was no hallucination or ghost, but
Jesus himself whom they saw after he rose from the dead, "after
the rising as to him" (meta to anast(886e)ai auton, meta with the
accusative articular infinitive second aorist active and the
accusative auton of general reference). Furneaux dares to think
that the disciples misunderstood Jesus about eating after the
resurrection. But that is to deny the testimony merely because we
cannot explain the transition state of the body of Jesus.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:42-10:42

註釋:

 {He charged} (par(8867)geilen). First aorist active
indicative as in  1:4 . There Jesus is the subject and so
probably here, though Page insists that ho theos (God) is here
because of verse  40 . {To testify} (diamarturasthai). First
aorist middle infinitive. See on 氧:40|. {Ordained}
(h(9372)ismenos). Perfect passive participle of horiz(935c), old verb,
to mark out, to limit, to make a horizon. {Judge} (krit(8873)). The
same point made by Peter in  1Pe 4:5 . He does not use the word
"Messiah" to these Gentiles though he did say "anointed"
(echrisen) in verse  38 . Peter's claim for Jesus is that he is
the Judge of Jew and Gentile (living and dead).

經文:

使徒行傳 10:43-10:43

註釋:

 {Every one that believeth} (panta ton pisteuonta). This
accusative active participle of general reference with the
infinitive in indirect discourse is the usual idiom. Only
labein (second aorist active infinitive of lamban(935c)) is not
indirect statement so much as indirect command or arrangement.
The prophets bear witness to Jesus Christ to this effect. It is
God's plan and no race distinctions are drawn. Peter had already
said the same thing at Pentecost ( 2:38 ), but now he sees
himself that Gentiles do not have to become Jews, but have only
to believe in Jesus as Messiah and Judge as foretold by the
prophets. It was glorious news to Cornelius and his group.
{Through his name} (dia tou onomatos autou), not as a _title_
or magic formula ( Ac 18:13 ), but the power of Christ himself
represented by his name.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:44-10:44

註釋:

 {While Peter yet spake} (eti lalountos tou Petrou).
Genitive absolute of present participle, still going on. {The
Holy Ghost fell} (epepesen to pneuma to hagion). Second aorist
active indicative of epipipt(935c), old verb to fall upon, to
recline, to come upon. Used of the Holy Spirit in  8:16  10:44  11:15 . It appears that Peter was interrupted in his sermon by
this remarkable event. The Jews had received the Holy Spirit
( 2:4 ), the Samaritans ( 8:17 ), and now Gentiles. But on this
occasion it was before baptism, as was apparently true in Paul's
case ( 9:17f. ). In  8:16  19:5  the hands of the apostles were
also placed after baptism on those who received the Holy Spirit.
Here it was unexpected by Peter and by Cornelius and was
indubitable proof of the conversion of these Gentiles who had
accepted Peter's message and had believed on Jesus Christ as
Saviour.

經文:

使徒行傳 10:45-10:45

註釋:

 {They of the circumcision which believed} (hoi ek
peritom(8873) pistoi). The believing ones of the circumcision, more
exactly. {Were amazed} (exest(8873)an). Second aorist active
indicative, intransitive, of exist(886d)i. They stood out of
themselves. {On the Gentiles also} (kai epi ta ethn(885c)). Or, even
upon the Gentiles. {Was poured out} (ekkechutai). Present
perfect passive retained in indirect discourse of ekche(935c) or
ekchun(935c), old verb, used metaphorically of the Holy Spirit also
in  2:17  (from  Joe 2:28f. ),  Ac 2:33 .

經文:

使徒行傳 10:46-10:46

註釋:

 {They heard} ((886b)ouon). Imperfect active, were hearing,
kept on hearing. {Speak} (lalount(936e)). Present active
participle, speaking, for they kept it up. {With tongues}
(gl(9373)sais). Instrumental case as in  2:4,11  which see. The
fuller statement there makes it clear that here it was new and
strange tongues also as in  19:6  1Co 14:4-19 . This sudden
manifestation of the Holy Spirit's power on uncircumcised
Gentiles was probably necessary to convince Peter and the six
brethren of the circumcision that God had opened the door wide to
Gentiles. It was proof that a Gentile Pentecost had come and
Peter used it effectively in his defence in Jerusalem ( Ac
11:15 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 10:47-10:47

註釋:

 {Can any man forbid the water?} (M(8874)i to hud(9372) dunatai
k(936c)(9673)ai tis?). The negative m(8874)i expects the answer _No_. The
evidence was indisputable that these Gentiles were converted and
so were entitled to be baptized. See the similar idiom in  Lu
6:39 . Note the article with "water." Here the baptism of the
Holy Spirit had preceded the baptism of water ( Ac 1:5  11:16 ).
"The greater had been bestowed; could the lesser be withheld?"
(Knowling). {That these should not be baptized} (	ou m(880a)baptisth(886e)ai toutous). Ablative case of the articular first
aorist passive infinitive of aptiz(935c) with the redundant
negative after the verb of hindering (k(936c)(9673)ai) and the
accusative of general reference (	outous). The redundant
negative after the verb of hindering is not necessary though
often used in ancient Greek and in the _Koin(825f) (papyri). Without
it see  Mt 19:14  Ac 8:36  and with it see  Lu 4:42  24:16  Ac
14:18 . Cf. Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1061, 1094, 1171. The
triple negatives here are a bit confusing to the modern mind
(m(8874)i in the question, k(936c)(9673)ai, to hinder or to cut off, m(885c)
with aptisth(886e)ai). Literally, Can any one cut off the water
from the being baptized as to these? Meyer: "The water is in this
animated language conceived as the element offering itself for
the baptism." {As well as we} (h(9373) kai h(886d)eis). The argument
was conclusive. God had spoken. Note the query of the eunuch to
Philip ( Ac 8:36 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 10:48-10:48

註釋:

 {Commanded} (prosetaxen). First aorist active indicative.
Peter himself abstained from baptizing on this occasion (cf. Paul
in  1Co 1:14 ). Evidently it was done by the six Jewish brethren.
{Them to be baptized} (autous baptisth(886e)ai). Accusative of
general reference with the first aorist passive infinitive. {In
the name of Jesus Christ} (en t(9369) onomati I(8873)ou Christou). The
essential name in Christian baptism as in  2:38  19:5 . But these
passages give the authority for the act, not the formula that was
employed (Alvah Hovey in Hackett's _Commentary_. See also chapter
on the Baptismal Formula in my _The Christ of the Logia_).
"Golden days" (aurei dies, Bengel) were these for the whole
group.


經文:

使徒行傳 11:1-11:1

註釋:

 {In Judea} (kata t(886e) Ioudaian). Throughout Judea (probably
all Palestine), distributive use of kata. The news from
Casearea spread like wildfire among the Jewish Christians. The
case of the Samaritans was different, for they were half Jews,
though disliked. But here were real Romans even if with Jewish
affinities. {Had received} (edexanto). First aorist middle
indicative. The English idiom requires "had" received, the Greek
has simply "received."

經文:

使徒行傳 11:2-11:2

註釋:

 {They that were of the circumcision} (hoi ek peritom(8873)).
Literally, those of circumcision (on the side of circumcision, of
the circumcision party). The phrase in  10:46  is confined to the
six brethren with Peter in Caesarea ( 11:12 ). That can hardly be
the meaning here for it would mean that they were the ones who
brought the charge against Peter though Hort takes this view. All
the disciples in Jerusalem were Jews so that it can hardly mean
the whole body. In  Ga 2:12  the phrase has the narrower sense of
the Judaizing or Pharisaic wing of the disciples ( Ac 15:5 ) who
made circumcision necessary for all Gentile converts. Probably
here by anticipation Luke so describes the beginning of that
great controversy. The objectors probably did not know of Peter's
vision at Joppa, but only of the revolutionary conduct of Peter
in Caesarea. These extremists who spoke probably had abundant
sympathy in their protest. The apostles are mentioned in verse
 1 , but are not referred to in verse  2 . Apparently they are in
contrast with the circumcision party in the church. {Contended}
(diekrinonto). Imperfect middle of the common verb diakrin(935c),
to {separate}. Here to separate oneself apart (dia), to take
sides against, to make a cleavage (dia, two, in two) as in
 Jude 1:9 . So Peter is at once put on the defensive as the
contention went on. It is plain that Peter was not regarded as
any kind of pope or overlord.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:3-11:3

註釋:

 {Thou wentest in} (eis(886c)thes). Direct form, but Westcott
and Hort have it eis(886c)then (he went in), indirect form. So with
sunephages (didst eat) and sunephagen (did eat). The direct
is more vivid. {Men uncircumcised} (andras akrobustian
echontas). "Men having uncircumcision." It is a contemptuous
expression. They did not object to Peter's preaching to the
Gentiles, but to his going into the house of Cornelius and eating
with them, violating his supposed obligations as a Jew (Hackett).
It was the same complaint in principle that the Pharisees had
made against Jesus when he ate with publicans and sinners ( Lu
15:12 ). The Jews had not merely the Mosaic regulations about
clean and unclean food, but also the fact that at a Gentile table
some of the meat may have been an idol sacrifice. And Peter
himself had similar scruples when the vision came to him at Joppa
and when he entered the house of Cornelius in Caesarea  10:28 ).
Peter had been led beyond the circumcision party.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:4-11:4

註釋:

 {Began} (arxamenos). Not pleonastic here, but graphically
showing how Peter began at the beginning and gave the full story
of God's dealings with him in Joppa and Caesarea. {Expounded}
(exetitheto). Imperfect middle of ektith(886d)i, to set forth,
old verb, but in the N.T. only in Acts ( 7:21  11:4  18:26  28:23 ), a deliberate and detailed narrative "in order"
(kathex(8873)). Old word for in succession. In the N.T. only in  Lu
1:2  8:1  Ac 3:24  11:14  18:23 . Luke evidently considered this
defence of Peter important and he preserves the marks of
authenticity. It came originally from Peter himself (verses
 5,6,15,16 ). "The case of Cornelius was a test case of primary
importance" (Page), "the first great difficulty of the early
Church." Part of the story Luke gives three times ( 10:3-6,30-32  11:13f. ). See the discussion chapter 10 for details given here.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:5-11:5

註釋:

 {Let down} (kathiemen(886e)). Here agreeing with the "sheet"
(othon(886e), feminine), not with "vessel" (skeuos, neuter) as in
 10:11 . {Even unto me} (achri emou). Vivid detail added here
by Peter.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:6-11:6

註釋:

 {When I had fastened my eyes} (atenisas). This personal
touch Peter adds from his own experience. See on  Lu 4:20  Ac
3:4,12  for this striking verb ateniz(935c), to stretch the eyes
towards, first aorist active participle here. {I considered}
(katanoe(935c)). Imperfect active of kataneo(935c) to put the mind down
on, to ponder, I was pondering. {And saw} (kai eidon). Second
aorist active indicative, saw in a flash.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:7-11:7

註釋:

 {A voice saying} (ph(936e)(8873) legous(8873)). Genitive case after
(886b)ousa (cf.  9:7  and accusative  9:4  which see for
discussion). Participle legous(8873) (present active of leg(935c))
agreeing with ph(936e)(8873), a kind of indirect discourse use of the
participle.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:8-11:8

註釋:

 {Came into my mouth} (eis(886c)then eis to stoma mou). Instead
of ephagon (I ate) in  10:14 . Different phrase for the same
idea.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:10-11:10

註釋:

 {Was drawn up} (anespasth(885c)). Instead of anel(886d)pth(885c) (was
taken up) in  10:16 . First aorist passive indicative of
anaspa(935c), old verb, but in N.T. only in  Lu 14:5  and here.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:12-11:12

註釋:

 {Making no distinction} (m(8864)en diakrinanta). So Westcott
and Hort (first aorist active participle) instead of m(8864)en
diakrinomenon "nothing doubting" (present middle participle)
like  10:20 . The difference in voice shows the distinction in
meaning. {We entered into the man's house} (eis(886c)thomen eis ton
oikon tou andros). Peter confesses it, but shows that the other
six went in also. He avoids mention of Cornelius's name and
office.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:13-11:13

註釋:

 {Standing and saying} (stathenta kai eiponta). More
precisely, "stand and say" (punctiliar act, first aorist passive
and second aorist active participles). {Fetch Simon}
(metapempsai Sim(936e)a). First aorist middle imperative. Third
time mentioned ( 10:5,22  11:13 ). Perhaps Peter is anxious to
make it plain that he did not go of his own initiative into the
house of Cornelius. He went under God's direct orders.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:14-11:14

註釋:

 {Whereby thou shalt be saved, thou and all thy house} (en
hois s(9374)h(8873)(8869) su kai p(8373) ho oikos sou). Future passive
indicative of s(937a)(935c), to save. Clearly Cornelius was unsaved in
spite of his interest in Jewish worship. Clearly also the
household of Cornelius would likewise be won to Christ by the
words of Simon Peter. This is household conversion before the
household baptism ( 10:48  11:17 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 11:15-11:15

註釋:

 {As I began to speak} (en t(9369) arxasthai me lalein). En
with the locative of the articular aorist infinitive arxasthai
(punctiliar action simply) and the accusative of general
reference. The second infinitive lalein (to speak) is dependent
on arxasthai, "In the beginning to speak as to me." {Even as on
us at the beginning} (h(9373)per kai eph' h(886d)(8373) en arch(8869)). Peter
recalls vividly the events at Pentecost, the speaking with
tongues and all. It is noteworthy that Peter does not here repeat
his sermon. "He rests his defence, not on what he said, but on
what God did" (Furneaux).

經文:

使徒行傳 11:16-11:16

註釋:

 {I remembered} (emn(8873)th(886e)). First aorist passive
indicative of the common verb mimn(8873)k(935c), to remind. Peter
recalls the very words of Jesus as reported in  Ac 1:5 . Peter
now understands this saying of Jesus as he had not done before.
That is a common experience with us all as new experiences of
grace open richer veins in God's truth ( Joh 12:16 ). Peter
clearly sees that the water baptism is merely the symbol or
picture of the spiritual baptism in the heart.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:17-11:17

註釋:

 {The like gift} (	(886e) is(886e) d(9372)ean). The equal gift, equal
in quality, rank, or measure. Common word. {When we believed}
(pisteusasin). First aorist active participle of pisteu(935c) in
the dative case. It agrees both with h(886d)in (unto us) and with
autois (unto them), "having believed on the Lord Jesus Christ."
Both classes (Gentiles and Jews) trusted in Christ, and both
received the Holy Spirit. {Who was I} (eg(9320)tis (886d)(886e)). Note
order, "_I_, who was I." "{That I could withstand God}" (dunatos
k(936c)(9673)ai ton theon). Literally, "able to withstand or hinder
God." It is a rhetorical question, really two questions. Who was
I ? Was I able to hinder God? Peter's statement of the facts made
an unanswerable defence. And yet Peter ( Ga 2:11 ) will later in
Antioch play the coward before emissaries from Jerusalem on this
very point of eating with Gentile Christians.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:18-11:18

註釋:

 {Held their peace} (h(8873)uchasan). Ingressive aorist active
indicative of h(8873)uchaz(935c), old verb to be quiet, to keep quiet.
The wrangling (verse  2 ) ceased. The critics even "glorified
God" (edoxasan, ingressive aorist again). {Then to the Gentiles
also} (Ara kai tois ethnesin). Ergo as in  Lu 11:20,48  and
like ara oun in  Ro 5:18 . In ancient Greek inferential ara
cannot come at the beginning of a clause as here. It was
reluctant acquiescence in the undoubted fact that God had
"granted repentance unto life" to these Gentiles in Caesarea, but
the circumcision party undoubtedly looked on it as an exceptional
case and not to be regarded as a precedent to follow with other
Gentiles. Peter will see in this incident ( Ac 15:8 ) the same
principle for which Paul contends at the Jerusalem Conference.
Furneaux suggests that this conduct of Peter in Caesarea, though
grudgingly acquiesced in after his skilful defence, decreased his
influence in Jerusalem where he had been leader and helped open
the way for the leadership of James the Lord's brother.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:19-11:19

註釋:

 {They therefore that were scattered abroad} (hoi men oun
diasparentes). Precisely the same words used in  8:4  about
those scattered by Saul (which see) and a direct reference to it
is made by the next words, "upon the tribulation that arose about
Stephen" (apo t(8873) thlipse(9373) t(8873) genomen(8873) epi Stephan(9369)). As a
result of (apo), in the case of (epi) Stephen. From that
event Luke followed Saul through his conversion and back to
Jerusalem and to Tarsus. Then he showed the activity of Peter
outside of Jerusalem as a result of the cessation of the
persecution from the conversion of Saul with the Gentile
Pentecost in Caesarea and the outcome in Jerusalem. Now Luke
starts over again from the same persecution by Saul and runs a
new line of events up to Antioch parallel to the other, probably
partly following. {Except to Jews only} (ei m(8820)monon
Ioudaiois). Clearly these disciples did not know anything about
the events in Caesarea and at first their flight preceded that
time. But it was a wonderful episode, the eager and loyal
preaching of the fleeing disciples. The culmination in Antioch
was probably after the report of Peter about Caesarea. This
Antioch by the Orontes was founded 300 B.C. by Seleucus Nicator
and was one of five cities so named by the Seleucides. It became
the metropolis of Syria though the Arabs held Damascus first.
Antioch ranked next to Rome and Alexandria in size, wealth,
power, and vice. There were many Jews in the cosmopolitan
population of half a million. It was destined to supplant
Jerusalem as the centre of Christian activity.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:20-11:20

註釋:

 {Spake} (elaloun). Inchoative imperfect active, began to
speak. For them it was an experiment. {Unto the Greeks also}
(kai pros tous Hell(886e)as). This is undoubtedly the correct
reading in spite of Hellenists (Hell(886e)istas) or Grecian Jews in
B E H L P. Hell(886e)as is read by A and D and a corrector of
Aleph. The presence of "also" or "even" (kai) in Aleph A B
makes no sense unless "Greeks" is correct. Hellenists or Grecian
Jews as Christians were common enough as is seen in  Ac 2  6 .
Saul also had preached to the Hellenists in Jerusalem ( 9:29 ).
Hellenists were merely one kind of Jews in contrast with those
who spoke Aramaic ( Ac 6 ). It is true that the case of Cornelius
was first in importance, but it is not clear that it was before
the work in Antioch. Probably the report of the work among the
Greeks in Antioch reached Jerusalem after Peter's defence in
 11:1-18 . That explains the calm tone about it and also why
Barnabas and not Peter was sent to investigate. Peter and John
( Ac 8 ) had condoned Philip's work in Samaria and Peter was the
agent in the work among the Romans in Caesarea. His position was
now well-known and his services discounted for this new crisis.
These Greeks in Antioch were apparently in part pure heathen and
not "God-fearers" like Cornelius. A man of wisdom was called for.
These preachers were themselves Hellenists (verse  19 ) and open
to the lessons from their environment without a vision such as
Peter had at Joppa. "It was a departure of startling boldness"
(Furneaux) by laymen outside of the circle of official leaders.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:21-11:21

註釋:

 {The hand of the Lord was with them} ((886e) cheir kuriou met'
aut(936e)). This O.T. phrase ( Ex 9:3  Isa 59:1 ) is used by Luke
( Lu 1:66  Ac 4:28,30  13:11 ). It was proof of God's approval of
their course in preaching the Lord Jesus to Greeks. {Turned unto
the Lord} (epestrepsen epi ton kurion). First aorist active
indicative of epistreph(935c), common verb to turn. The usual
expression for Gentiles turning to the true God ( 14:15  15:3,19  26:18,20  1Th 1:9 ). Here "Lord" refers to "the Lord Jesus" as in
verse  20 , though "the hand of the Lord" is the hand of Jehovah,
clearly showing that the early disciples put Jesus on a par with
Jehovah. His deity was not a late development read back into the
early history.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:22-11:22

註釋:

 {Came to the ears} ((886b)ousth(8820)eis ta (9374)a). First aorist
passive indicative of akou(935c), was heard in the ears. {Of the
church which was in Jerusalem} (	(8873) ekkl(8873)ias t(8873) en
Ierousal(886d)). Not yet was the term "church" applied to the group
of disciples in Antioch as it is in  11:26  13:1 . {They sent
forth} (exapesteilan). First aorist active indicative of the
double compound verb ex-apo-stell(935c), to send out and away. The
choice of Barnabas was eminently wise. He already had a position
of leadership in Jerusalem because of his generosity ( 4:36f. )
and his championship of Saul after his conversion ( 9:27 ). He
was originally from Cyprus and probably had personal friends
among some of the leaders in this new movement. He was to
investigate the work of the travelling preachers (verse  19 ) all
the way to Antioch (he(9373) Antiocheias).

經文:

使徒行傳 11:23-11:23

註釋:

 {The grace of God, was glad} (	(886e) charin t(886e) tou theou
echar(885c)). Note repetition of the article, "the grace that of
God." The verb (second aorist passive indicative of chair(935c)) has
the same root as charis. See the same _suavis paronomasia_ in
 Lu 1:28 . "Grace brings gladness" (Page). "A smaller man would
have raised difficulties as to circumcision or baptism"
(Furneaux). {He exhorted} (parekalei). Imperfect active,
picturing the continuous encouragement from Barnabas. {With
purpose of heart} (	(8869) prothesei t(8873) kardias). Placing before
(from pro-tith(886d)i), old word for set plan as in  Ac 27:13  Ro
8:28 . The glow of the first enthusiasm might pass as often
happens after a revival. Barnabas had a special gift ( 4:36 ) for
work like this. {Cleave unto the Lord} (prosmenein [en] t(9369)
kuri(9369)). Dative case (locative if en is genuine) of kurios
(here Jesus again) after prosemenein to keep on remaining loyal
to (present active infinitive). Persistence was needed in such a
pagan city.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:24-11:24

註釋:

 {For} (hoti). Because. This is the explanation of the
conduct of Barnabas. The facts were opposed to the natural
prejudices of a Jew like Barnabas, but he rose above such racial
narrowness. He was a really good man (agathos). See  Ro 5:7 
for distinction between agathos and dikaios, righteous, where
agathos ranks higher than dikaios. Besides, Barnabas was full
of the Holy Spirit (like Peter) and of faith and so willing to
follow the leading of God's Spirit and take some risks. This is a
noble tribute paid by Luke. One wonders if Barnabas was still
living when he wrote this. Certainly he was not prejudiced
against Barnabas though he will follow the fortunes of Paul after
the separation ( 15:36  41 ). {Was added unto the Lord}
(proseteth(8820)t(9369) kuri(9369)). First aorist passive indicative of
prostith(886d)i, common verb to add to. These people were added to
the Lord Jesus before they were added to the church. If that were
always true, what a difference it would make in our churches.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:25-11:25

註釋:

 {To seek for Saul} (anaz(8874)(8873)ai Saulon). First aorist
(effective) active infinitive of purpose. Anaz(8874)e(935c) is a common
verb since Plato, but in the N.T. only here and  Lu 2:44,45 , to
seek up and down (ana), back and forth, to hunt up, to make a
thorough search till success comes. It is plain from  Ga 1:21 
that Saul had not been idle in Cilicia. Tarsus was not very far
from Antioch. Barnabas probably knew that Saul was a vessel of
choice ( Ac 9:15 ) by Christ for the work among the Gentiles. He
knew, of course, of Saul's work with the Hellenists in Jerusalem
( 9:29 ) and echoes of his work in Cilicia and Syria had probably
come to him. So to Tarsus he goes when he saw the need for help.
"He had none of the littleness which cannot bear the presence of
a possible rival" (Furneaux). Barnabas knew his own limitations
and knew where the man of destiny for this crisis was, the man
who already had the seal of God upon him. The hour and the man
met when Barnabas brought Saul to Antioch. The door was open and
the man was ready, far more ready than when Jesus called him on
the road to Damascus. The years in Cilicia and Syria were not
wasted for they had not been idle. If we only knew the facts, it
is probable that Saul also had been preaching to Hellenes as well
as to Hellenists. Jesus had definitely called him to work among
the Gentiles ( 9:15 ). In his own way he had come to the same
place that Peter reached in Caesarea and that Barnabas now holds
in Antioch. God always has a man prepared for a great emergency
in the kingdom. The call of Barnabas was simply the repetition of
the call of Christ. So Saul came.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:26-11:26

註釋:

 {Even for a whole year} (kai eniauton holon). Accusative
of extent of time, probably the year A.D. 44, the year preceding
the visit to Jerusalem ( 11:30 ), the year of the famine. The
preceding years with Tarsus as headquarters covered A.D. 37 (39)
to 44. {They were gathered together with the church}
(sunachth(886e)ai en t(8869) ekkl(8873)i(8369)). First aorist passive
infinitive of sunag(935c), old verb, probably here to meet together
as in  Mt 28:12 . In  Ac 14:27  the verb is used of gathering
together the church, but here en t(8869) ekkl(8873)i(8369) excludes that
idea. Barnabas met together "in the church" (note first use of
the word for the disciples at Antioch). This peculiar phrase
accents the leadership and co-operation of Barnabas and Saul in
teaching (didaxai, first aorist active infinitive) much people.
Both infinitives are in the nominative case, the subject of
egeneto (it came to pass). {And that the disciples were called
Christians first in Antioch} (chr(886d)atisai te pr(9374)(9373) en
Antiochei(8369) tous math(8874)as Christianous). This first active
infinitive chr(886d)atisai is also a subject of egeneto and is
added as a separate item by the use of 	e rather than kai.
For the word itself in the sense of divine command see on 烘t
2:12,22; Lu 2:26; Ac 10:22|. Here and in  Ro 7:3  it means to be
called or named (assuming a name from one's business, chr(886d)a,
from chraomai, to use or to do business). Polybius uses it in
this sense as here. Tous math(8874)as (the disciples) is in the
accusative of general reference with the infinitive.
Christianous (Christians) is simply predicate accusative. This
word is made after the pattern of Herodianus ( Mt 22:16 ,
Her(9369)dianoi, followers of Herod), Caesarianus, a follower of
Caesar (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 377, gives
papyri examples of the genitive Kaisaros meaning also
"belonging to Caesar" like the common adjective Caesarianus).
It is made thus like a Latin adjective, though it is a Greek
word, and it refers to the Hebrew belief in a Messiah (Page). The
name was evidently given to the followers of Christ by the
Gentiles to distinguish them from the Jews since they were
Greeks, not Grecian Jews. The Jews would not call them Christians
because of their own use of Christos the Messiah. The Jews
termed them Galileans or Nazarenes. The followers of Christ
called themselves disciples (learners), believers, brethren,
saints, those of the Way. The three uses of Christian in the N.T.
are from the heathen standpoint (here),  Ac 26:28  (a term of
contempt in the mouth of Agrippa), and  1Pe 4:16  (persecution
from the Roman government). It is a clear distinction from both
Jews and Gentiles and it is not strange that it came into use
first here in Antioch when the large Greek church gave occasion
for it. Later Ignatius was bishop in Antioch and was given to the
lions in Rome, and John Chrysostom preached here his wonderful
sermons.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:27-11:27

註釋:

 1Co
14:3 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
14' or engs='1Co
14'
經文:

使徒行傳 11:28-11:28

註釋:

 {Signified} (es(886d)ainen). Imperfect active in Westcott and
Hort, but aorist active es(886d)(836e)en in the margin. The verb is an
old one from s(886d)a (s(886d)eion) a sign (cf. the symbolic sign in
 21:11 ). Here Agabus (also in  21:10 ) does predict a famine
through the Holy Spirit. {Should be} (mellein esesthai).
Mell(935c) occurs either with the present infinitive ( 16:27 ), the
aorist infinitive ( 12:6 ), or the future as here and  24:15  27:10 . {Over all the world} (eph' hol(886e) t(886e) oikoumen(886e)). Over
all the inhabited earth (g(886e), understood). Probably a common
hyperbole for the Roman empire as in  Lu 2:1 . Josephus (_Ant_.
VIII. 13, 4) appears to restrict it to Palestine. {In the days of
Claudius} (epi Klaudiou). He was Roman Emperor A.D. 41-44. The
Roman writers (Suetonius, Dio Cassius, Tacitus) all tell of
dearths (_assiduae sterilitates_) during the brief reign of
Claudius who was preceded by Caligula and followed by Nero.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:29-11:29

註釋:

 {Every man according to his ability} (kath(9373) euporeito
tis). Imperfect middle of eupore(935c), to be well off (from
euporos), old verb, but here alone in the N.T., "as any one was
well off." The sentence is a bit tangled in the Greek from Luke's
rush of ideas. Literally, "Of the disciples, as any one was able
(or well off), they determined (h(9372)isan, marked off the
horizon) each of them to send relief (eis diakonian, for
ministry) to the brethren who dwelt in Judaea." The worst of the
famine came A.D. 45. The warning by Agabus stirred the brethren
in Antioch to send the collection on ahead.

經文:

使徒行傳 11:30-11:30

註釋:

 {Sending} (aposteilantes). First aorist active participle
of apostell(935c), coincident action with epoi(8873)an (did). {To the
elders} (pros tous presbuterous). The first use of that term
for the Christian preachers. In  20:17,28  "elders" and "bishops"
are used interchangeably as in  Tit 1:5,7 . The term probably
arose gradually and holds a position in the church similar to the
same term in the synagogue. The apostles were apparently absent
from Jerusalem at this time and they were no longer concerned
with serving tables. In  21:18  Paul presented the later
collection also to the elders. Since Peter and James (till his
death) were in Jerusalem during the persecution in chapter 12 it
is probable that the visit of Barnabas and Saul to Jerusalem came
really after that persecution for Peter left Jerusalem ( 12:17 ).
The elders here mentioned may include the preachers in Judea also
outside of Jerusalem ( 26:20 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 12:1-12:1

註釋:

 {About that time} (kat' ekeinon ton kairon). Same phrase
in  Ro 9:9 . That is, the early part of A.D. 44 since that is the
date of Herod's death. As already suggested, Barnabas and Saul
came down from Antioch to Jerusalem after the persecution by
Herod at the end of 44 or the beginning of 45. {Herod the king}
(H(8872)(9369)d(8873) ho basileus). Accurate title at this particular time.
Herod Agrippa I, grandson of Herod the Great, was King of
Palestine A.D. 42 to 44; only for these three years was a Herod
king over Palestine since the death of Herod the Great and never
afterwards. Archelaus never actually became king though he had
the popular title at first ( Mt 2:22 ). {Put forth his hands}
(epebalen tas cheiras). Second aorist active indicative of
epiball(935c), old verb, to cast upon or against. The same idiom
with 	as cheiras (the hands, common Greek idiom with article
rather than possessive pronoun) in  4:3  5:18 . {To afflict}
(kak(9373)ai). First aorist active infinitive of kako(935c), old word
to do harm or evil to (kakos), already in  7:6,19 . Outside of
Acts in the N.T. only  1Pe 5:13 . Infinitive of purpose. Probably
the first who were afflicted were scourged or imprisoned, not put
to death. It had been eight years or more since the persecution
over the death of Stephen ceased with the conversion of Saul. But
the disciples were not popular in Jerusalem with either Sadducees
or Pharisees. The overtures to the Gentiles in Caesarea and
Antioch may have stirred up the Pharisees afresh (cf.  6:14 ).
Herod Agrippa I was an Idumean through his grandfather Herod the
Great and a grandson of Mariamne the Maccabean princess. He was a
favourite of Caligula the Roman Emperor and was anxious to
placate his Jewish subjects while retaining the favour of the
Romans. So he built theatres and held games for the Romans and
Greeks and slew the Christians to please the Jews. Josephus
(_Ant_. XIX. 7, 3) calls him a pleasant vain man scrupulously
observing Jewish rites. Here we have for the first time political
power (after Pilate) used against the disciples.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:2-12:2

註釋:

 {James the brother of John} (Iak(9362)on ton adelphon I(9361)nou).
He had been called by Jesus a son of thunder along with his
brother John. Jesus had predicted a bloody death for both of them
( Mr 10:38ff.  Mt 20:23 ). James is the first of the apostles to
die and John probably the last. He is not James the Lord's
brother ( Ga 1:19 ). We do not know why Luke tells so little
about the death of James and so much about the death of Stephen
nor do we know why Herod selected him as a victim. Eusebius
(_H.E_. ii. 9) quotes Clement of Alexandria as saying that a Jew
made accusations against James and was converted and beheaded at
the same time with him. {Killed with the sword} (aneilen
machair(8869)). The verb is a favourite one with Luke ( Ac 2:33  5:33,36  7:28  9:23-29  10:39 , etc.). Instrumental case and
Ionic form of machaira. The Jews considered beheading a
shameful death as in the case of the Baptist ( Mt 14:10 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 12:3-12:3

註釋:

 {That it pleased the Jews} (hoti areston estin tois
Ioudaiois). Indirect assertion with the present tense estin
retained. Areston is the verbal adjective from aresk(935c)
followed by the dative as in  Joh 8:29 . {Proceeded to seize}
(prosetheto sullabein). A patent Hebraism in  Lu 20:11f. 
already, and nowhere else in the N.T. It occurs in the LXX ( Ge
4:2  8:12  18:29 , etc.). Second aorist middle indicative of
prostith(886d)i and the second aorist active infinitive of
sullamban(935c). Literally, he added to seize, he seized Peter in
addition to James. {The days of unleavened bread} (h(886d)erai t(936e)
azum(936e)). By this parenthesis Luke locates the time of the year
when Peter was arrested, the passover. It was a fine occasion for
Agrippa to increase his favour among the crowds of Jews there by
extra zeal against the Christians. It is possible that Luke
obtained his information about this incident from John Mark for
at his Mother's house the disciples gathered ( 12:12 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 12:4-12:4

註釋:

 {When he had taken him} (piasas). See on 氨:7| for same
form. {He put him in prison} (etheto eis phulak(886e)). Second
aorist middle indicative of 	ith(886d)i, common verb. This is the
third imprisonment of Peter ( 4:3  5:18 ). {To four quaternions
of soldiers} (	essarsin tetradiois strati(9374)(936e)). Four soldiers
in each quaternion (	etradion from 	etras, four), two on the
inside with the prisoner (chained to him) and two on the outside,
in shifts of six hours each, sixteen soldiers in all, the usual
Roman custom. Probably Agrippa had heard of Peter's previous
escape ( 5:19 ) and so took no chances for connivance of the
jailors. {After the passover} (meta to pascha). The passover
feast of eight days. "The stricter Jews regarded it as a
profanation to put a person to death during a religious festival"
(Hackett). So Agrippa is more scrupulous than the Sanhedrin was
about Jesus. {To bring him forth} (anagagein auton). Second
aorist active infinitive of anag(935c), to lead up, old verb, used
literally here. Peter was in the inner prison or lower ward and
so would be led up to the judgment seat where Herod Agrippa would
sit (cf.  Joh 19:13 ). {To the people} (	(9369) la(9369)). Ethical
dative, in the presence of and for the pleasure of the Jewish
people.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:5-12:5

註釋:

 {Therefore} (men oun). Because of the preceding situation.
{Was kept} (et(8872)eito). Imperfect passive, continuously guarded,
waiting for the feast to be over. {But prayer was made earnestly}
(proseuch(8820)de (886e) ekten(9373) ginomen(885c)). Probably de here is not
adversative (but), merely parallel (and) as Page argues. It was a
crisis for the Jerusalem church. James had been slain and Peter
was to be the next victim. Hence "earnestly" (late adverb from
ekten(8873), strained, from ektein(935c), to stretch. In the N.T. only
here,  Lu 22:44  1Pe 1:22 ) prayer was {going up} (ginomen(885c),
present middle participle, periphrastic imperfect with (886e)). It
looked like a desperate case for Peter. Hence the disciples
prayed the more earnestly.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:6-12:6

註釋:

 {Was about to bring him forth} ((886d)ellen prosagagein or
proagagein). The MSS. vary, but not anagagein of verse  4 .
{The same night} (	(8869) nukti ekein(8869)). Locative case, {on that
(very) night}. {Was sleeping} ((886e) koim(936d)enos). Periphrastic
middle imperfect. {Bound with two chains} (dedemenos halusesin
dusin). Perfect passive participle of de(935c), to bind, followed
by instrumental case. One chain was fastened to each soldier (one
on each side of Peter). {Kept} (et(8872)oun). Imperfect active,
were keeping. Two guards outside before the door and two inside,
according to Roman rule. Did Peter recall the prophecy of Jesus
that he should be put to death in his old age ( Joh 21:18 )?
Jesus had not said, as Furneaux does, that he would die by
crucifixion.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:7-12:7

註釋:

 {Stood by him} (epest(885c)). Ingressive second aorist active
indicative of ephist(886d)i, intransitive. This very form occurs in
 Lu 2:9  of the sudden appearance of the angel of the Lord to the
shepherds. Page notes that this second aorist of ephist(886d)i
occurs seven times in the Gospel of Luke, eight times in the
Acts, and nowhere else in the N.T. Note also the same form
apest(885c) (departed from, from aphist(886d)i, stood off from) of the
disappearance of the angel in verse  10 . {In the cell} (en t(9369)
oik(886d)ati). Literally, a dwelling place or habitation (from
oike(935c), to dwell, oikos, house), but here not the prison as a
whole as in Thucydides, but the room in the prison (cell) where
Peter was chained to the two guards. Old word, but only here in
the N.T. {He smote Peter on the side} (pataxas t(886e) pleuran tou
Petrou). More exactly, "smote the side of Peter." Strongly
enough to wake Peter up who was sound asleep and yet not rouse
the two guards. It was probably between 3 A.M. and 6 A.M., hours
when changes in the guards were made. {Rise up} (anasta). Short
form (_Koin(825f)) of anast(8874)hi, second aorist active imperative of
anist(886d)i, intransitive. So also  Ac 9:11  (Westcott and Hort
text);  Eph 5:14 . {Fell off} (exepesan). Second aorist active
with a ending like first aorist of expipt(935c), old verb. This
miracle was necessary if Peter was to escape without rousing the
two guards.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:8-12:8

註釋:

 {Gird thyself} (z(9373)ai). Direct middle first aorist
(ingressive) imperative (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 806f.) from
z(936e)numi (z(936e)nu(935c)). Old verb, but in the N.T. only here and
 Joh 21:18  (twice to Peter) where the active voice and the
reflexive pronoun occur in the first example. The girdle was worn
round the chit(936e) or undergarment. {Bind on} (hupod(8873)ai).
Indirect middle (by yourself or for yourself) first aorist
imperative of hupode(935c), to bind under, old verb, only three
times in the N.T. ( Mr 6:9  Ac 12:8  Eph 6:15  (middle)).
{Sandals} (sandalia). Persian word common from Herodotus on, a
sole made of wood or leather covering the bottom of the foot and
bound on with thongs. In the N.T. only here and  Mr 6:9 . In the
LXX used indiscriminately with hupod(886d)a. {Cast about thee}
(peribalou). Second aorist middle (indirect) imperative of
periball(935c), old and common verb to throw around, especially
clothing around the body as here. The himation (outer garment)
was put over the chit(936e). It was not a hurried flight. {Follow
me} (akolouthei moi). Present (linear) active imperative, keep
on following me (associative instrumental case).

經文:

使徒行傳 12:9-12:9

註釋:

 {Wist not} (ouk (8869)dei). Past perfect of oida used as
imperfect, did not know. {Followed} ((886b)olouthei). Imperfect
active, kept on following as the angel had directed (verse  8 ).
That it was true (hoti al(8874)hes estin). Indirect assertion and
so present tense retained. Note "true" (al(8874)hes) in the sense
of reality or actuality. {Which was done} (	o ginomenon).
Present middle participle, that which was happening. {Thought he
saw a vision} (edokei horama blepein). Imperfect active, kept
on thinking, puzzled as he was. Blepein is the infinitive in
indirect assertion without the pronoun (he) expressed which could
be either nominative in apposition with the subject as in  Ro
1:22  or accusative of general reference as in  Ac 5:36  8:9 
(Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1036-40). Peter had had a vision in
Joppa ( 10:10 ) which Luke describes as an "ecstasy," but here is
objective fact, at least Luke thought so and makes that
distinction. Peter will soon know whether he is still in the cell
or not as we find out that a dream is only a dream when we wake
up.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:10-12:10

註釋:

 {When they were past} (dielthontes). Second aorist active
participle of dierchomai, transitive with dia in composition.
{The first and the second ward} (pr(9374)(886e) phulak(886e) kai deuteran).
It is not clear to what this language refers. Some take it to
mean single soldiers, using phulak(886e) in the sense of a guard
(one before the door, one at the iron gate). But it seems hardly
likely that the two soldiers with whom Peter had been stationed
are meant. Probably the "first ward" means the two soldiers of
the quaternion stationed by the door and the second ward some
other soldiers, not part of the sixteen, further on in the prison
by the iron gate. However understood, the difficulties of escape
are made plain. {Unto the iron gate that leadeth into the city}
(epi t(886e) pul(886e) t(886e) sid(8872)(836e) t(886e) pherousan eis t(886e) polin). Note
the triple use of the article (the gate the iron one the one
leading into the city). For this resumptive use of the article
see Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 762, 764. This iron gate may have
opened from a court out into the street and effectually barred
escape. {Opened to them} ((886e)oig(8820)autois). Second aorist passive
indicative of anoig(935c), the usual later form though (886e)oichth(885c)
(first aorist passive) occurs also, was opened. {Of its own
accord} (automat(885c)). Old compound adjective (autos, self,
obsolete ma(935c), to desire eagerly, feminine form though masculine
automatos also used as feminine). In the N.T. only here and  Mr
4:28 . It was a strange experience for Peter. The Codex Bezae
adds here "went down the seven steps" (kateb(8873)an tous hepta
bathmous), an interesting detail that adds to the picture. {One
street} (
hum(886e) mian). The angel saw Peter through one of the
narrow streets and then left him. We have no means of knowing
precisely the location of the prison in the city. On "departed"
(apest(885c)) see on verse 浪|.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:11-12:11

註釋:

 {Was come to himself} (en heaut(9369) genomenos). Second
aorist middle participle of ginomai with en and the locative
case, "becoming at himself." In  Lu 15:17  we have eis heauton
elth(936e) (coming to himself, as if he had been on a trip away from
himself). {Now I know of a truth} (
un oida al(8874)h(9373)). There was
no further confusion of mind that it was an ecstasy as in
 10:10 . But he was in peril for the soldiers would soon learn of
his escape, when the change of guards came at 6 A.M. {Delivered
me} (exeilato me). Second aorist middle indicative of
exaire(935c). The Lord rescued me of himself by his angel.
{Expectation} (prosdokias). Old word from prosdoka(935c), to look
for. In the N.T. only here and  Lu 21:26 . James had been put to
death and the Jewish people were eagerly waiting for the
execution of Peter like hungry wolves.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:12-12:12

註釋:

 1Co
4:4 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
4' or engs='1Co
4'
經文:

使徒行傳 12:13-12:13

註釋:

 {When he knocked at the door of the gate} (krousantos
autou t(886e) thuran tou pul(936e)os). Genitive absolute with aorist
active participle of krou(935c), common verb to knock or knock at.
So from the outside ( Lu 13:25 ). Pul(936e) here is the gateway or
passageway from the door (	hura) that leads to the house. In
verse  14  it is still the passageway without the use of 	hura
(door, so for both door and passageway). {To answer}
(hupakousai). To listen under before opening. First aorist
active infinitive of hupakou(935c), common verb to obey, to hearken.
{A maid} (paidisk(885c)). Portress as in  Joh 18:17 . A diminutive
of pais, a female slave (so on an ostracon of second century
A.D., Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 200). {Rhoda}.
A rose. Women can have such beautiful names like Dorcas
(Gazelle), Euodia (Sweet Aroma), Syntyche (Good Luck). Mark or
Peter could tell Luke her name.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:14-12:14

註釋:

 {When she knew} (epignousa). Second aorist (ingressive)
active participle of epigin(9373)k(935c), to know fully or in addition
(epi), to recognize. She knew Peter and his voice from his
frequent visits there. {For joy} (apo t(8873) char(8373)). From her joy
(ablative case), life-like picture of the maid who left Peter
standing outside with the door to the passageway unopened. Note
the aorist tenses for quick action (ouk (886e)oixen), eisdramousa
(from eistrech(935c), defective verb, only here in the N.T.),
ap(8867)geilen. {Stood} (hestanai). Second perfect active
infinitive of hist(886d)i, intransitive, in indirect assertion with
	on Petron (Peter) accusative of general reference. The slave
girl acted as if she were a member of the family (Furneaux), but
she left Peter in peril.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:15-12:15

註釋:

 {Thou art mad} (main(8869)). Present middle indicative second
person singular. Old verb, only in the middle voice. Festus used
the same word to Paul ( 26:24 ). The maid was undoubtedly
excited, but it was a curious rebuff from those who had been
praying all night for Peter's release. In their defence it may be
said that Stephen and James had been put to death and many others
by Saul's persecution. {She confidently affirmed}
(diischurizeto). Imperfect middle of diischurizomai, an old
word of vigorous and confident assertion, originally to lean
upon. Only here in the N.T. The girl stuck to her statement. {It
is his angel} (Ho aggelos estin autou). This was the second
alternative of the disciples. It was a popular Jewish belief that
each man had a guardian angel. Luke takes no position about it.
No scripture teaches it.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:16-12:16

註釋:

 {Continued knocking} (epemenen krou(936e)). Imperfect active
and present participle. Now all heard the knocking. {When they
had opened} (anoixantes). First aorist active participle of
anoig(935c) or -numi. The whole group rushed out to the courtyard
this time to make sure. {They were amazed} (exest(8873)an). The
frequent second aorist active (intransitive) indicative of
exist(886d)i.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:17-12:17

註釋:

 1Pe
5:13 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Pe
5' or engs='1Pe
5'
經文:

使徒行傳 12:18-12:18

註釋:

 {As soon as it was day} (Genomen(8873) h(886d)eras). Genitive
absolute, day having come. {No small stir} (	arachos ouk
oligos). Litotes (ouk oligos), occurs eight times in the Acts
as in  15:2 , and nowhere else in the N.T. Tarachos (stir) is
an old word from 	arass(935c), to agitate. In the N.T only here and
 19:23 . Probably all sixteen soldiers were agitated over this
remarkable escape. They were responsible for the prisoner with
their lives (cf.  Ac 16:27  27:42 ). Furneaux suggests that
Manaen, the king's foster-brother and a Christian ( 13:1 ), was
the "angel" who rescued Peter from the prison. That is not the
way that Peter looked at it. {What was become of Peter} (	i ara
ho Petros egeneto). An indirect question with the aorist
indicative retained. Ara adds a syllogism (therefore) to the
problem as in  Lu 1:66 . The use of the neuter 	i (as in  Ac
13:25 ) is different from 	is, though nominative like Petros,
literally, "what then Peter had become," "what had happened to
Peter" (in one idiom). See the same idiom in  Joh 21:21  (houtos
de ti). {But this one what} (verb gen(8873)etai not used).

經文:

使徒行傳 12:19-12:19

註釋:

 {He examined} (anakrinas). First aorist active participle
of anakrin(935c), old verb to sift up and down, to question
thoroughly, in a forensic sense ( Lu 23:14  Ac 4:9  12:19  28:18 ). {That they should be put to death} (apachth(886e)ai).
First aorist passive infinitive (indirect command) of apag(935c),
old verb to lead away, especially to execution as in  Mt 27:31 .
Here it is used absolutely. This was the ordinary Roman routine
and not a proof of special cruelty on the part of Herod Agrippa.
{Tarried} (dietriben). Imperfect active. Herod Agrippa made his
home in Jerusalem, but he went to Caesarea to the public games in
honour of Emperor Claudius.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:20-12:20

註釋:

 {Was highly displeased} ((886e) thumomach(936e)). Periphrastic
imperfect active of 	humomache(935c), late compound of 	humos
(passionate heat) and machomai, to fight. Only here in the
N.T., to fight desperately, to have a hot quarrel. Whether it was
open war with the Phoenicians or just violent hostility we do not
know, save that Phoenicia belonged to Syria and Herod Agrippa had
no authority there. The quarrel may have been over commercial
matters. {They came with one accord} (homothumadon par(8873)an).
The representatives of Tyre and Sidon. See on 氣:14| for
homothumadon. Tyre was a colony of Sidon and had become one of
the chief commercial cities of the world by reason of the
Phoenician ships. {The king's chamberlain} (	on epi tou koit(936e)os
tou basileos). The one over the bedchamber (koit(936e)os, late
word from koit(885c), bed, here only in the N.T.). {Made their
friend} (peisantes). First aorist active participle of
peith(935c), to persuade. Having persuaded (probably with bribes as
in  Mt 28:14 ). {They asked for peace} ((8869)tounto eir(886e)(886e)).
Imperfect middle of aite(935c), kept on asking for peace. {Because
their country was fed} (dia to trephesthai aut(936e) t(886e) choran).
Causal sentence with dia and the articular infinitive (present
passive of 	reph(935c), to nourish or feed) and the accusative of
general reference, "because of the being fed as to their
country." Tyre and Sidon as large commercial cities on the coast
received large supplies of grain and fruits from Palestine. Herod
had cut off the supplies and that brought the two cities to
action.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:21-12:21

註釋:

 {Upon a set day} (	akt(8869) h(886d)er(8369)). Locative case and the
verbal adjective of 	ass(935c), to arrange, appoint, old word, here
only in the N.T. Josephus (_Ant_. XVII. 6, 8; XIX. 8, 2) gives a
full account of the occasion and the death of Herod Agrippa. It
was the second day of the festival in honour of the Emperor
Claudius, possibly his birthday rather than the _Quinquennalia_.
The two accounts of Luke and Josephus supplement each other with
no contradiction. Josephus does not mention the name of Blastus.
{Arrayed himself in royal apparel} (endusamenos esth(8874)a
basilik(886e)). First aorist middle (indirect) participle of
endun(935c) or endu(935c), common verb to put on. Literally, having put
royal apparel on himself (a robe of silver tissue, Josephus
says). The rays of the sun shone on this brilliant apparel and
the vast crowd in the open amphitheatre became excited as Herod
began to speak. {Made an oration} (ed(886d)(8867)orei). Imperfect
active of d(886d)(8867)ore(935c), old verb from d(886d)(8867)oros (haranguer of
the people), and that from d(886d)os (people) and agoreu(935c), to
harangue or address the people. Only here in the N.T. He kept it
up.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:22-12:22

註釋:

 {Shouted} (epeph(936e)ei). Imperfect active, kept on
shouting, calling out to him. Old verb, but only four times in
the N.T. and all by Luke. The heathen crowd (d(886d)os) repeated
their flattering adulation to gain Herod's favour. {The voice of
a god} (	heou ph(936e)(885c)). In the pagan sense of emperor worship,
not as the Supreme Being. But it was pleasing to Herod Agrippa's
vanity.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:23-12:23

註釋:

 {Smote him} (epataxen auton). Effective aorist active
indicative of patass(935c), old verb, used already in verse  7  of
gentle smiting of the angel of the Lord, here of a severe stroke
of affliction. Like Nebuchadnezzar ( Da 4:30 ) pride went before
a fall. He was struck down in the very zenith of his glory.
{Because} (anth' h(936e)). Anti with the genitive of the relative
pronoun, "in return for which things." He accepted the impious
flattery (Hackett) instead of giving God the glory. He was a
nominal Jew. {He was eaten of worms} (genomenos sk(936c)(886b)obr(9374)os).
Ingressive aorist middle participle, "becoming worm-eaten." The
compound verbal adjective (sk(936c)(8878), worm, r(9374)os, eaten, from
ibr(9373)k(935c)) is a late word (II Macc. 9:9) of the death of
Antiochus Epiphanes, used also of a tree (Theophrastus), here
only in the N.T. The word sk(936c)(8878) was used of intestinal worms
and Herodotus (IV. 205) describes Pheretima, Queen of Cyrene, as
having swarms of worms which ate her flesh while still alive.
Josephus (_Ant_. XIX. 8, 2) says that Herod Agrippa lingered for
five days and says that the rotting of his flesh produced worms,
an item in harmony with the narrative in Luke. Josephus gives
further details, one a superstitious sight of an owl sitting on
one of the ropes of the awning of the theatre while the people
flattered him, an omen of his death to him. Luke puts it simply
that God smote him. {Gave up the ghost} (exepsuxen). Effective
aorist active of ekpsuch(935c), to breathe out, late verb, medical
term in Hippocrates, in the N.T. only in  Ac 5:5,10  12:23 .
Herod was carried out of the theatre a dying man and lingered
only five days.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:24-12:24

註釋:

 {Grew and multiplied} ((8875)xanen kai epl(8874)huneto).
Imperfect active and passive. Cf.  6:1 . The reaction from the
death of James and the imprisonment of Peter.

經文:

使徒行傳 12:25-12:25

註釋:

 {From Jerusalem} (ex Ierousal(886d)). Probably correct text,
though D has apo. Westcott and Hort follow Aleph B in reading
eis (to) Jerusalem, an impossible reading contradicted by
 11:29f.  13:1 . The ministration (diakonian) referred to is
that in  11:29f.  which may have taken place, in point of time,
after the death of Herod. {Taking with them} (sunparalabontes).
Taking along (para) with (sun) them, John Mark from Jerusalem
( 12:12 ) to Antioch ( 13:1 ). The aorist participle does not
express subsequent action as Rackham here argues (Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 861-863).

經文:

使徒行傳 13:1-13:1

註釋:

 {In the church that was there} (kata t(886e) ousan ekkl(8873)ian).
Possibly distributed throughout the church (note "in the church"
 11:26 ). Now a strong organization there. Luke here begins the
second part of Acts with Antioch as the centre of operations, no
longer Jerusalem. Paul is now the central figure instead of
Peter. Jerusalem had hesitated too long to carry out the command
of Jesus to take the gospel to the whole world. That glory will
now belong to Antioch. {Prophets and teachers} (proph(8874)ai kai
didaskaloi). All prophets were teachers, but not all teachers
were prophets who were for-speakers of God, sometimes
fore-speakers like Agabus in  11:28 . The double use of 	e here
makes three prophets (Barnabas, Symeon, Lucius) and two teachers
(Manaen and Saul). Barnabas heads the list ( 11:22 ) and Saul
comes last. Symeon Niger may be the Simon of Cyrene who carried
the Saviour's cross. Lucius of Cyrene was probably one of the
original evangelists ( 11:20 ). The name is one of the forms of
Luke, but it is certainly not Luke the Physician. Manaen shows
how the gospel was reaching some of the higher classes (home of
Herod Antipas). {Foster-brother} (suntrophos). Old word for
nourished with or brought up with one _collactaneus_ (Vulgate).
These are clearly the outstanding men in the great Greek church
in Antioch.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:2-13:2

註釋:

 {As they ministered to the Lord} (leitourgount(936e) aut(936e) toi
kuri(9369)). Genitive absolute of leitourge(935c), old verb, used of
the Attic orators who served the state at their own cost le(9373)
or laos, people, and ergon, work or service). Common in the
LXX of the priests who served in the tabernacle ( Ex 28:31,39 )
like leitourgia ( Lu 1:23 ) which see. So in  Heb 10:11 . In
 Ro 15:27  of aiding others in poverty. Here of worship (prayer,
exhortation, fasting). The word liturgy grows out of this use.
{And fasted} (kai n(8873)teuont(936e)). Genitive absolute also.
Christian Jews were keeping up the Jewish fast ( Lu 18:12 ). Note
fasting also in the choice of elders for the Mission Churches
( Ac 14:23 ). Fasting was not obligatory on the Christians, but
they were facing a great emergency in giving the gospel to the
Gentile world. {Separate me} (aphorisate d(8820)moi). First aorist
active imperative of aphoriz(935c), old verb to mark off boundaries
or horizon, used by Paul of his call ( Ro 1:1  Ga 1:15 ). The
Greek has d(885c), a shortened form of (8864)(885c) and like Latin _jam_
and German _doch_, now therefore. It ought to be preserved in the
translation. Cf.  Lu 2:15  Ac 15:36  1Co 6:20 . Moi is the
ethical dative. As in verse  1  Barnabas is named before Saul.
Both had been called to ministry long ago, but now this call is
to the special campaign among the Gentiles. Both had been active
and useful in such work. {Whereunto} (ho). Here eis has to be
repeated from eis to ergon just before, "for which" as Jesus
sent the twelve and the seventy in pairs, so here. Paul nearly
always had one or more companions.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:3-13:3

註釋:

 {When they had fasted} (
(8873)teusantes). Either finishing
the same fast in verse  2  or another one (Hackett), but clearly
a voluntary fast. {Laid their hands upon them} (epithentes tas
cheiras autois). Second aorist active participle of
epitith(886d)i. Not ordination to the ministry, but a solemn
consecration to the great missionary task to which the Holy
Spirit had called them. Whether the whole church took part in
this ceremony is not clear, though in  15:40  "the brethren" did
commend Paul and Silas. Perhaps some of them here acted for the
whole church, all of whom approved the enterprise. But Paul makes
it plain in  Php 4:15  that the church in Antioch did not make
financial contribution to the campaign, but only goodwill. But
that was more than the church at Jerusalem would have done as a
whole since Peter had been arraigned there for his activities in
Caesarea ( Ac 11:1-18 ). Clearly Barnabas and Saul had to finance
the tour themselves. It was Philippi that first gave money to
Paul's campaigns. There were still heathen enough in Antioch, but
the church approved the going of Barnabas and Saul, their very
best.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:4-13:4

註釋:

 {So they} (autoi men oun). They themselves indeed
therefore. No contrast is necessary, though there is a slight one
in verses  5,6 . Luke again refers to the Holy Spirit as the
source of their authority for this campaign rather than the
church at Antioch. {Sent forth} (ekpemphthentes). Old verb from
ekpemp(935c) and first aorist passive participle, but in the N.T.
only here and  Ac 17:10 . {Sailed} (apepleusan). Effective
aorist active indicative of apople(935c), old verb to sail away,
depart from. In the N.T. only here and  14:26  20:15  27:1 .
Barnabas was from Cyprus where there were many Jews.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:5-13:5

註釋:

 {Proclaimed} (kat(8867)gellon). Imperfect active of
kataggell(935c), inchoative, began to proclaim. This was Paul's rule
of procedure, "to the Jew first" ( Ro 1:16  Ac 13:46  17:2  18:4,19  19:8 ). {They had also} (eichon de kai). Imperfect
active, descriptive. {As their attendant} (hup(8872)et(886e)).
Literally, "under-rower" (hupo, (8872)et(8873)) in the trireme.
Probably here minister (chazzan) or assistant in the synagogue
as in  Lu 4:20 . Cf.  Mt 5:25 . It is not clear what John Mark
did, though he was evidently selected by Barnabas as his cousin.
He may have helped in the baptizing. There were probably others
also in the company (verse  13 ). The "also" may mean that Mark
did some preaching. Barnabas was probably the leader in the work
in these Jewish synagogues.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:6-13:6

註釋:

 {Unto Paphos} (achri Paphou). The new Paphos at the other
end of the island, reached by a fine Roman road, some eight miles
north of the old Paphos famous for the worship of Venus. {A
certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew} (andra tina magon
pseudoproph(8874)(886e) Ioudaion). Literally, "a certain man" (andra
tina) with various descriptive epithets. The word magon does
not necessarily mean "sorcerer," but only a magus ( Mt
2:1,7,10  which see). The bad sense occurs in  Ac 8:9,11  (Simon
Magus) and is made plain here by "false prophet." In verse  8 
here Barjesus (Son of Jesus) is called "Elymas the sorcerer (or
Magian)," probably his professional title, as Luke interprets the
Arabic or Aramaic word Elymas. These Jewish mountebanks were
numerous and had great influence with the uneducated. In  Ac
19:13  the seven sons of Sceva, Jewish exorcists, tried to
imitate Paul. If one is surprised that a man like Sergius Paulus
should fall under the influence of this fraud, he should recall
what Juvenal says of the Emperor Tiberius "sitting on the rock of
Capri with his flock of Chaldaeans around him."

經文:

使徒行傳 13:7-13:7

註釋:

 {With the proconsul Sergius Paulus} (sun t(9369) anthupat(9369)
Sergi(9369) Paul(9369)). Luke used to be sharply criticized for applying
this term to Sergius Paulus on the ground that Cyprus was a
province under the appointment of the emperor with the title of
propraetor and not under the control of the senate with the title
of proconsul. That was true B.C. 30, but five years later it was
changed to proconsul by Augustus and put under the control of the
Senate. Two inscriptions have been found with the date A.D. 51
and 52 with the names of proconsuls of Cyprus and one is in the
Cesnola Collection, an inscription found at Soli with the name of
Paulus as Proconsul, undoubtedly this very man, though no date
occurs. {A man of understanding} (andri sunet(9369)). All the more
amazing that he should be a victim of Barjesus. He had given up
idolatry at any rate and was eager to hear Barnabas and Saul.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:8-13:8

註釋:

 {Withstood them} (anthistato autois). Imperfect middle of
anthist(886d)i, to stand against (face to face). Dative case
(autois). He persisted in his opposition and was unwilling to
lose his great prize. There may have been a public discussion
between Elymas and Saul. {To turn aside} (diastrepsai). First
aorist active infinitive of diastreph(935c), old verb to turn or
twist in two, to distort, to pervert (cf.  Mt 17:17  Lu 23:2 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 13:9-13:9

註釋:

 {But Saul, who is also called Paul} (Saulos de, ho kai
Paulos). By this remarkably brief phrase Luke presents this
epoch in the life of Saul Paul. The "also" (kai) does not mean
that the name Paul was given now for the first time, rather than
he had always had it. As a Jew and a Roman citizen, he
undoubtedly had both names all the time (cf. John Mark, Symeon
Niger, Barsabbas Justus). Jerome held that the name of Sergius
Paulus was adopted by Saul because of his conversion at this
time, but this is a wholly unlikely explanation, "an element of
vulgarity impossible to St. Paul " (Farrar). Augustine thought
that the meaning of the Latin _paulus_ (little) would incline
Saul to adopt, "but as a proper name the word rather suggested
the glories of the Aemilian family, and even to us recalls the
name of another Paulus, who was 'lavish of his noble life'"
(Page). Among the Jews the name Saul was naturally used up to
this point, but from now on Luke employs Paul save when there is
a reference to his previous life ( Ac 22:7  26:14 ). His real
career is work among the Gentiles and Paul is the name used by
them. There is a striking similarity in sound between the Hebrew
Saul and the Roman Paul. Paul was proud of his tribe of Benjamin
and so of King Saul ( Php 3:5 ). {Filled with the Holy Spirit}
(pl(8873)theis pneumatos hagiou). First aorist (ingressive) passive
participle of pimpl(886d)i with the genitive case. A special influx
of power to meet this emergency. Here was a cultured heathen,
typical of the best in Roman life, who called forth all the
powers of Paul plus the special help of the Holy Spirit to expose
the wickedness of Elymas Barjesus. If one wonders why the Holy
Spirit filled Paul for this emergency rather than Barnabas, when
Barnabas was named first in  13:2 , he can recall the sovereignty
of the Holy Spirit in his choice of agents ( 1Co 12:4-11 ) and
also the special call of Paul by Christ ( Ac 9:15  26:17f. ).
{Fastened his eyes} (atenisas). As already in  Lu 4:20  22:56  Ac 3:4,12  6:15  10:4 .

經文:

使徒行傳 13:10-13:10

註釋:

 {Of all guile} (pantos dolou). From del(935c), to catch with
bait, old word, already seen in  Mt 26:4  Mr 7:22  14:1 . Paul
denounces Elymas as a trickster. {All villainy} (p(8373)(8873)
rh(8369)diourgias). Late compound from 
h(8369)diourgos (
h(8369)dios,
easy, facile, ergon, deed, one who does a thing adroitly and
with ease). So levity in Xenophon and unscrupulousness in
Polybius, Plutarch, and the papyri. Only here in the N.T., though
the kindred word 
h(8369)diourg(886d)a occurs in  Ac 18:14 . With
deadly accuracy Paul pictured this slick rascal. {Thou son of the
devil} (huie diabolou). Damning phrase like that used by Jesus
of the Pharisees in  Joh 8:44 , a slanderer like the diabolos.
This use of son (huios) for characteristic occurs in  Ac 3:25  4:36 , a common Hebrew idiom, and may be used purposely by Paul
in contrast with the name Barjesus (son of Jesus) that Elymas
bore ( 13:6 ). {Enemy of all righteousness} (echthre p(8373)(8873)
dikaiosun(8873)). Personal enemy to all justice, sums up all the
rest. Note triple use of "all" (pantos, p(8373)(8873), p(8373)(8873)), total
depravity in every sense. {Wilt thou not cease?} (ou paus(8869)).
An impatient rhetorical question, almost volitive in force
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 874). Note ou, not m(885c), {To pervert}
(diastreph(936e)). Present active participle describing the actual
work of Elymas as a perverter or distorter (see verse  8 ). More
exactly, Wilt thou not cease perverting? {The right ways of the
Lord} (	as hodous tou kuriou tas eutheias). The ways of the
Lord the straight ones as opposed to the crooked ways of men
( Isa 40:4  42:16  Lu 3:5 ). The task of John the Baptist as of
all prophets and preachers is to make crooked paths straight and
to get men to walk in them. This false prophet was making even
the Lord's straight ways crooked. Elymas has many successors.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:11-13:11

註釋:

 {Upon thee} (epi se). The use of epi with the
accusative is rich and varied, the precise shade of meaning
depending on the content. The "hand of the Lord" might be kindly
( Ac 11:21 ) or hostile ( Heb 10:31 ), but when God's hand
touches one's life ( Job 19:21 ) it may be in judgment as here
with Elymas. He has not humbled himself under the mighty hand of
God ( 1Pe 5:6 ). {Not seeing} (m(8820)blep(936e)). Repeating with
negative participle the negative idea in "blind" (	uphlos). "It
was a judicial infliction; blindness for blindness, darkness
without for wilful darkness within" (Furneaux). He was an example
of the blind leading the blind that was to cease and Sergius
Paulus was to be led into the light. The blindness was to be "for
a season" (achri kairou,  Lu 4:13 ), if it should please God to
restore his sight. Paul apparently recalls his own blindness as
he entered Damascus. {A mist} (achlus). Especially a dimness of
the eyes, old poetic word and late prose, in LXX, only here in
N.T. Galen uses it of the opacity of the eye caused by a wound.
{He went about seeking some one to lead him by the hand}
(periag(936e) ez(8874)ei cheirag(9367)ous). A rather free rendering.
Literally, "going about (periag(936e), present active participle of
periag(935c)) he was seeking (ez(8874)ei, imperfect active of z(8874)e(935c))
guides (cheirag(9367)ous, from cheir, hand, and ag(9367)os, guide,
from ag(935c), one who leads by the hand)." The very verb
cheirag(9367)e(935c), to lead by the hand, Luke uses of Paul in  9:8 ,
as he entered Damascus.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:12-13:12

註釋:

 {Believed} (episteusen). Ingressive aorist active
indicative. Renan considers it impossible that a Roman proconsul
could be converted by a miracle. But it was the teaching about
the Lord (	ou kuriou, objective genitive) by which he was
astonished (ekpl(8873)somenos, present passive participle of
ekpl(8873)s(935c), see on 烘t 7:28|) or struck out as well as by the
miracle. The blindness came "immediately" (paraehr(886d)a) upon the
judgment pronounced by Paul. It is possible that Sergius Paulus
was converted to Christ without openly identifying himself with
the Christians as his baptism is not mentioned as in the case of
Cornelius. But, even if he was baptized, he need not have been
deposed from his proconsulship as Furneaux and Rackham argue
because his office called for "official patronage of idolatrous
worship." But that could have been merely perfunctory as it
probably was already. He had been a disciple of the Jewish
magician, Elymas Barjesus, without losing his position. Imperial
persecution against Christianity had not yet begun. Furneaux even
suggests that the conversion of a proconsul to Christianity at
this stage would have called for mention by the Roman and Greek
historians. There is the name Sergia Paullina in a Christian
cemetery in Rome which shows that one of his family was a
Christian later. One will believe what he wills about Sergius
Paulus, but I do not see that Luke leaves him in the category of
Simon Magus who "believed" ( 8:13 ) for revenue only.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:13-13:13

註釋:

 {Paul and his company} (hoi peri Paulon). Neat Greek
idiom as in Plato, Cratylus 440 C hoi peri Herakleiton. On this
idiom see Gildersleeve, _Syntax_, p. 264. It means a man and his
followers, "those around Paul." Now Paul ranks first always in
Acts save in  14:2  15:12,25  for special reasons. Heretofore
Saul (Paul) held a secondary position ( 9:27  11:30  13:1f. ).
"In nothing is the greatness of Barnabas more manifest than in
his recognition of the superiority of Paul and acceptance of a
secondary position for himself" (Furneaux). {Set sail}
(anachthentes). First aorist passive participle of anag(935c).
Thirteen times in the Acts and  Lu 8:22  which see. They sailed
up to sea and came down (katag(932c) katabain(935c)) to land. So it
looks. {Departed from them} (apoch(9372)(8873)as ap' aut(936e)). First
aorist active participle of apoch(9372)e(935c), old verb to withdraw, go
away from. In the N.T. only here and  Mt 7:23  Lu 9:39 . He is
called John there as in verse  5  and Mark in  15:39 , though
John Mark in  12:12,25 . This may be accidental or on purpose
(Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 317). Luke is silent on John's
reasons for leaving Paul and Barnabas. He was the cousin of
Barnabas and may not have relished the change in leadership.
There may have been change in plans also now that Paul is in
command. Barnabas had chosen Cyprus and Paul has led them to
Perga in Pamphylia and means to go on into the highlands to
Antioch in Pisidia. There were perils of many sorts around them
and ahead ( 2Co 11:26 ), perils to which John Mark was unwilling
to be exposed. Paul will specifically charge him at Antioch with
desertion of his post ( Ac 15:39 ). It is possible, as Ramsay
suggests, that the mosquitoes at Perga gave John malaria. If so,
they bit Paul and Barnabas also. He may not have liked Paul's
aggressive attitude towards the heathen. At any rate he went home
to Jerusalem instead of to Antioch, _zu seiner Mutter_
(Holtzmann). It was a serious breach in the work, but Paul and
Barnabas stuck to the work.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:14-13:14

註釋:

 {Passing through} (dielthontes). It is not clear why Paul
and Barnabas left Perga so soon nor why they went to Antioch in
Pisidia. Ramsay suggests malaria that spurred them on to the
hills after the desertion of John Mark. They preached at Perga on
the return ( 14:25 ) and apparently hurried away now. Farrar
thinks that the hot weather had driven the population to the
hills. At any rate it is not difficult to imagine the perils of
this climb over the rough mountain way from Perga to Pisidian
Antioch to which Paul apparently refers in  2Co 11:26 . {Sat
down} (ekathisan). Ingressive aorist active indicative, took
their seats as visiting Jews, possibly in the seats of the rabbis
(J. Lightfoot). Whether they expected to be called on or not,
they were given the opportunity as prominent visitors. The
Pisidian Antioch was really in Phrygia, but towards Pisidia to
distinguish it from Antioch on the Maeander (Ramsay, _Church in
the Roman Empire_, p. 25). It was a colony like Philippi and so a
free city. If Paul is referring to South Galatia and not North
Galatia in  Ga 4:13  when he says that his preaching in Galatia
at first was due to illness, then it was probably here at
Pisidian Antioch. What it was we have no means of knowing, though
it was a temptation in his flesh to them so severe that they were
willing to pluck out their eyes for him ( Ga 4:14f. ). Opthalmia,
malaria, epilepsy have all been suggested as this stake in the
flesh ( 2Co 12:7 ). But Paul was able to preach with power
whatever his actual physical condition was.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:15-13:15

註釋:

 {After the reading of the law and the prophets} (meta t(886e)
anagn(9373)in tou nomou kai t(936e) proph(8874)(936e)). The law was first read
in the synagogues till B.C. 163 when Antiochus Epiphones
prohibited it. Then the reading of the prophets was substituted
for it. The Maccabees restored both. There was a reading from the
law and one from the prophets in Hebrew which was interpreted
into the Aramaic or the Greek _Koin(825f) for the people. The reading
was followed by the sermon as when Jesus was invited to read and
to preach in Nazareth ( Lu 4:16f. ). For the service in the
synagogue see Schuerer, _History of the Jewish People_, Div. II,
Vol. II, pp. 79ff. It was the duty of the rulers of the synagogue
(archisunag(9367)oi) to select the readers and the speakers for the
service ( Mr 5:22,35-38  Lu 8:49  13:14  Ac 13:15  18:8,17 ). Any
rabbi or distinguished stranger could be called on to speak. {If
ye have any word of exhortation for the people} (ei tis estin en
humin logos parakl(8873)e(9373) pros ton laon). Literally, if there is
among you any word of exhortation for the people. It is a
condition of the first class and assumed to be true, a polite
invitation. On "exhortation" (parakl(8873)is) see  9:31 . It may be
a technical phrase used in the synagogue ( Heb 13:22  1Ti 4:13 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 13:16-13:16

註釋:

 {Paul stood up} (anastas Paulos). The Jewish custom was
to sit while speaking ( Lu 4:20 ), but the Greek and Roman was to
stand ( Ac 17:22 ). It is possible as Lewin (_Life of St. Paul_,
Vol. 1, p. 141) suggests that here Paul stepped upon the platform
and then took his seat as he began to speak or he may have
followed the Greek and Roman custom. Paul is the leader now and
the more gifted speaker ( Ac 14:12 ), so that he responds to the
courteous invitation of the rulers. {Beckoning} (kataseisas).
First aorist active participle of katasei(935c), old verb to shake
down, a dramatic gesture for quiet and order like Peter in
 12:17  and Paul on the steps of the tower of Antonia ( 21:40 ).
{And ye that fear God} (kai hoi phoboumenoi ton theon).
Evidently large numbers of these Gentiles like Cornelius in
Caesarea were present. They offered Paul a great opportunity for
reaching the purely pagan Gentiles. This (verses  16-41 ) is the
first full report of a sermon of Paul's that Luke has preserved
for us. He is now a practised preacher of the gospel that he
began proclaiming at Damascus, that Jesus of Nazareth is the
Messiah of promise and the Saviour of the whole world both Jew
and Gentile if they will only believe on him and be saved. It is
possible that Paul here based his sermon on the passages of the
law and the prophets that had just been read. He uses two words
from the LXX, one in verse  19  from  De 1:31  etrophophor(8873)en
(as a nursing-father bare he them), the reading of many old MSS.
and the one preferred by the American Committee, the other in
verse  17  from  Isa 1:2  hups(9373)en (exalted). At any rate it is
clear that Paul spoke in Greek so that all could understand his
sermon. He may have written out notes of this sermon afterwards
for Luke. The keynotes of Paul's theology as found in his
Epistles appear in this sermon. It is interesting to observe the
steady growth of Paul's Christology as he faced the great
problems of his day. Here we see Paul's gospel for the Jews and
the God-fearers (Gentiles friendly to the Jews).

經文:

使徒行傳 13:17-13:17

註釋:

 {Chose} (exelexato). First aorist middle (indirect),
selected for himself. Israel was the chosen people. {Exalted}
(hups(9373)en). From hupso(935c), late verb from hupsos so often
used of Christ. {When they sojourned} (en t(8869) paroiki(8369)). In
the sojourn. Late word from paroikos (sojourner, dweller,  Ac
7:6 ) common in LXX. In N.T. only here and  1Pe 1:17 . {With a
high arm} (meta brachionos hups(886c)ou). Vivid picture from the
LXX ( Ex 6:1,6  De 5:15  Ps 136:12 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 13:18-13:18

註釋:

 {Suffered he their manners} (etropophor(8873)en). First
aorist active indicative of 	ropophore(935c), late word from
	ropos, manner, and pher(935c), reading of Aleph B D and accepted
by Westcott and Hort. But A C Sahidic Bohairic read
etrophophor(8873)en from 	rophophore(935c) (	rophos, a nurse, and
pher(935c),) late word (II Macc. 7:27), probably correct word here
and  De 1:31 .

經文:

使徒行傳 13:19-13:19

註釋:

 {When he had destroyed} (kathel(936e)). Second aorist active
participle of kathaire(935c), to tear down, old verb. {He gave them
for an inheritance} (katekl(8872)onom(8873)en). First aorist active
indicative of the double compound verb kata-kl(8872)o-nome(935c), late
verb in LXX ( Nu 34:18  De 3:28  Jos 14:1 ) and only here in the
N.T., to distribute by lot, to distribute as an inheritance. This
is the correct reading and not katekl(8872)odot(8873)en from
katakl(8872)odote(935c) of the Textus Receptus. These two verbs were
confused in the MSS. of the LXX as well as here. {For about four
hundred and fifty years} (h(9373) etesin tetrakosiois kai
pent(886b)onta). Associative instrumental case with an expression of
time as in  8:11  Lu 8:29  (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 527). The
oldest MSS. (Aleph A B C Vg Sah Boh) place these figures before
"after these things" and so in verse  19 . This is the true
reading and is in agreement with the notation in  1Ki 6:1 . The
difficulty found in the Textus Receptus (King James Version) thus
disappears with the true text. The four hundred and fifty years
runs therefore from the birth of Isaac to the actual conquest of
Canaan and does not cover the period of the Judges. See on 涉c
7:6|.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:20-13:20

註釋:

 {And after these things} (kai meta tauta). That is, the
time of the Judges then began. Cf.  Jud 2:16 . {Until Samuel the
prophet} (he(9373) Samou(886c) proph(8874)ou). The _terminus ad quem_. He
was the last of the judges and the first of the prophets who
selected the first king (Saul) under God's guidance. Note the
absence of the Greek article with proph(8874)ou.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:21-13:21

註釋:

 {They asked} ((8869)t(8873)anto). First aorist indirect middle
indicative, they asked for themselves. They were tired of a
theocracy. Cf.  1Sa 8:5  10:1 . Paul mentions with pride that
Benjamin was the tribe of Saul (his name also), but he does not
allude to Saul's sin (Furneaux). {For the space of forty years}
(et(8820)tesserakonta). Accusative of extent of time. Not in the
O.T., but in Josephus, _Ant_. VI. 14, 9.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:22-13:22

註釋:

 {When he had removed him} (metast(8873)as auton). First
aorist active participle of methist(886d)i, old verb to transfer,
to transpose (note force of meta). This verb occurs in  Lu
16:4  by the unjust steward about his removal from office. Cf.
 1Sa 15:16 . {To be} (eis). As or for, Greek idiom like the
Hebrew _le_, common in the LXX. {A man after my heart} (andra
kata t(886e) kardian mou). The words quoted by Paul as a direct
saying of God are a combination of  Ps 89:20, 21  1Sa 13:14  (the
word of the Lord to Samuel about David). Knowling thinks that
this free and rather loose quotation of the substance argues for
the genuineness of the report of Paul's sermon. Hackett observes
that the commendation of David is not absolute, but, as compared
with the disobedient Saul, he was a man who did God's will in
spite of the gross sin of which he repented ( Ps 51 ). Note
"wills" (	hel(886d)ata), plural, of God.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:23-13:23

註釋:

 2Ti
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經文:

使徒行傳 13:24-13:24

註釋:

 {When John had first preached} (prok(8872)uxantos I(9361)nou).
Literally, John heralding beforehand, as a herald before the king
( Lu 3:3 ). Genitive absolute of first aorist active participle
of prok(8872)uss(935c), old verb to herald beforehand, here alone in the
N.T., though Textus Receptus has it also in  Ac 3:20 . {Before
his coming} (pro pros(9370)ou t(8873) eisodou autou). Literally, before
the face of his entering in (here act of entrance as  1Th 1:9 ,
not the gate as in  Heb 10:19 ). See  Mal 3:1  quoted in  Mt
11:10  ( Lu 7:27 ) for this Hebrew phrase and also  Lu 1:76 .
{The baptism of repentance} (aptisma metanoias). Baptism
marked by, characterized by (genitive case, case of kind or
species) repentance (change of mind and life). The very phrase
used of John's preaching in  Mr 1:4  Lu 3:3 . It is clear
therefore that Paul understood John's ministry and message as did
Peter ( Ac 2:38  10:37 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 13:25-13:25

註釋:

 {As John was fulfilling his course} (h(9373) epl(8872)ou I(9361)n(8873)
ton dromon). Imperfect active of pl(8872)o(935c), describing his vivid
ministry without defining the precise period when John asked the
question. Paul uses this word dromos (course) of his own race
( Ac 20:24  2Ti 4:7 ). {What suppose ye that I am?} (Ti eme
huponoeite einai?) Note 	i (neuter), not 	ina (masculine),
{what} not {who}, character, not identity. It is indirect
discourse (the infinitive einai and the accusative of general
reference). {Huponoe(937d) (hupo, noe(935c)) is to think secretly, to
suspect, to conjecture. {I am not he} (ouk eimi eg(935c)). These
precise words are not given in the Gospels, but the idea is the
same as the disclaimers by the Baptist in  Joh 1:19-27  (cf. also
 Mt 3:11  Mr 1:7  Lu 3:16 ). Paul had a true grasp of the message
of the Baptist. He uses the very form l(9673)ai (first aorist
active infinitive of lu(935c)) found in  Mr 1:7  Lu 3:16  and the
word for shoes (hupod(886d)a, singular) in all three. His quotation
is remarkably true to the words in the Synoptic Gospels. How did
Paul get hold of the words of the Baptist so clearly?

經文:

使徒行傳 13:26-13:26

註釋:

 {To us} (h(886d)in). Both Jews and Gentiles, both classes in
Paul's audience, dative of advantage. {Is sent forth}
(exapestal(885c)). Second aorist passive indicative of the double
compound verb exapostell(935c), common verb to send out (ex) and
forth (apo). It is a climacteric or culminative aorist tense.
It has come to us in one day, this glorious promise. {The word of
this salvation} (ho logos t(8873) s(9374)(8872)ias taut(8873)). The message of
Jesus as Saviour (verse  23 ), long ago promised and now come to
us as Saviour.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:27-13:27

註釋:

 {Because they knew him not} (	outon agno(8873)antes). First
aorist active participle (causal) of agnoe(935c), old verb, not to
know. Peter gives "ignorance" (agnoia) as the excuse of the
Jews in the death of Christ ( 3:17 ) and Paul does the same about
his conduct before his conversion ( 1Ti 1:13 ). This ignorance
mitigated the degree of their guilt, but it did not remove it,
for it was willing ignorance and prejudice. {The voices of the
prophets which are read} (	as ph(936e)as t(936e) proph(8874)(936e) tas
anagin(9373)komenas). Object also of agno(8873)antes, though it could
be the object of epl(8872)(9373)an (fulfilled) if kai is taken as
"also". The "voices" were heard as they were read aloud each
Sabbath in the synagogue. In their ignorant condemnation they
fulfilled the prophecies about the suffering Messiah.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:28-13:28

註釋:

 {Though they found no cause of death} (m(8864)emian aitian
thanatou heurontes). Second aorist active with usual negative of
the participle. As a matter of fact the Sanhedrin did charge
Jesus with blasphemy, but could not prove it ( Mt 26:65  27:24  Lu 23:22 ). At this time no Gospel had probably been written, but
Paul knew that Jesus was innocent. He uses this same idiom about
his own innocence ( Ac 28:18 ). {That he should be slain}
(anaireth(886e)ai auton). First aorist passive infinitive, the
accusative case, the direct object of (8869)t(8873)anto (first aorist
middle indicative, asked as a favour to themselves).

經文:

使徒行傳 13:29-13:29

註釋:

 {From the tree} (apo tou xulou). Not here strictly a
tree, but wood as already in  5:30  10:29  and later in  Ga
3:13 . Strictly speaking, it was Joseph of Arimathea and
Nicodemus who took the body of Jesus down from the cross, though
the Jews had asked Pilate to have the bones of Jesus broken that
his body should not remain on the cross during the Sabbath ( Joh
19:31 ). Paul does not distinguish the details here. {Laid}
(eth(886b)an). First (kappa) aorist active indicative third plural
of 	ith(886d)i in place of ethesan the usual second aorist active
plural form. {Tomb} (mn(886d)eion). Memorial, common in the
Gospels.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:30-13:30

註釋:

 {But God raised him from the dead} (ho de theos (8867)eiren ek
nekr(936e)). This crucial fact Paul puts sharply as he always did.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:31-13:31

註釋:

 {Was seen for many days} ((9370)hth(8820)epi h(886d)eras pleious).
The common verb (first aorist passive indicative of hora(935c), to
see) for the appearance of the Risen Christ, the one used by Paul
of his own vision of Christ ( 1Co 15:8 ), which is not reported
by Luke here. For more days (than a few), the language means,
forty in all ( 1:3 ). {Of them that came up with him} (	ois
sunanab(8373)in aut(9369)). Dative (after (9370)hth(885c)) articular participle
(second aorist active of sunanabain(935c)) with associative
instrumental case (aut(9369)), the very men who knew him best and
who could not be easily deceived about the reality of his
resurrection. But this fact rules Paul out on this point, for he
had not fellowshipped with Jesus from Galilee to Jerusalem. {Who
are now his witnesses} (hoitines nun eisin martures autou). The
very point that Peter used to clinch his argument with such
powerful effect ( 2:32  3:15 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 13:32-13:32

註釋:

 {We bring you good tidings of the promise} (h(886d)eis hum(8373)
euaggelizometha t(886e) epaggelian). Two accusatives here (person
and thing), old Greek did not use accusative of the person with
this verb as in  16:10  Lu 3:18 . Note "we you" together. Here
the heart of Paul's message on this occasion.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:33-13:33

註釋:

 {Hath fulfilled} (ekpepl(8872)(936b)en). Hath filled out (ek).
{Unto our children} (	ois teknois h(886d)(936e)). The MSS. vary greatly
here about h(886d)(936e) (our), some have aut(936e), some aut(936e) h(886d)in.
Westcott and Hort consider these readings "a primitive error" for
h(886d)in (to us) taken with anast(8873)as I(8873)oun (having for us
raised up Jesus). This raising up (from anist(886d)i, set up) as in
 3:22  7:37  refers not to resurrection (verse  34 ), but to the
sending of Jesus (two raisings up). {In the second psalm} (en
t(9369) psalm(9369) t(9369) deuter(9369)).  Ps 2:7 . D has pr(9374)(9369) because the
first psalm was often counted as merely introductory.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:34-13:34

註釋:

 {Now no more to return to corruption} (m(886b)eti mellonta
hupostrephein eis diaphthoran). No longer about to return as
Lazarus did. Jesus did not die again and so is the first fruits
of the resurrection ( 1Co 15:23  Ro 6:9 ). {He hath spoken}
(eir(886b)en). Present perfect active indicative, common way of
referring to the permanent utterances of God which are on record
in the Scriptures. {The holy and sure blessings of David} (	a
hosia Daueid ta pista). See  2Sa 7:13 . Literally, "the holy
things of David the trustworthy things." He explains "the holy
things" at once.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:35-13:35

註釋:

 {Because} (dioti). Compound conjunction (dia, hoti)
like our "because that." The reason for the previous statement
about "the holy things." {Thou wilt not give thy holy one to see
corruption} (ou d(9373)eis ton hosion sou idein diaphthoran).
Quotation from  Ps 16:10  to show that Jesus did not see
corruption in his body, a flat contradiction for those who deny
the bodily resurrection of Jesus.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:36-13:36

註釋:

 1Co
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15' or engs='1Co
15'
經文:

使徒行傳 13:38-13:38

註釋:

 {Through this man} (dia toutou). This very man whom the
Jews had crucified and whom God had raised from the dead.
Remission of sins (aphesis hamarti(936e)) is proclaimed
(kataggelletai) to you. This is the keynote of Paul's message
as it had been that of Peter at Pentecost ( 2:38  5:31  10:43 ).
Cf.  26:18 . This glorious message Paul now presses home in his
exhortation.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:39-13:39

註釋:

 {And by him every one that believeth is justified from all
things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses}
(kai apo pant(936e) h(936e) ouk (8864)un(8874)h(8874)e en nom(9369) M(9375)se(9373) dikaioth(886e)ai
en tout(9369) p(8373) ho pisteu(936e) dikaioutai). This is a characteristic
Greek sentence with the principal clause at the end and Pauline
to the core. A literal rendering as to the order would be: "And
from all the things from (apo not repeated in the Greek, but
understood, the ablative case being repeated) which ye were not
able to be justified in this one every one who believes is
justified." The climax is at the close and gives us the heart of
Paul's teaching about Christ. "We have here the germ of all that
is most characteristic in Paul's later teaching. It is the
argument of the Epistle to Galatians and Romans in a sentence"
(Furneaux). The failure of the Mosaic law to bring the kind of
righteousness that God demands is stated. This is made possible
in and by (en) Christ alone. Paul's favourite words occur here,
pisteu(935c), believe, with which pistis, faith, is allied,
dikaio(935c), to set right with God on the basis of faith. In  Ro
6:7  Paul uses apo also after dikaio(935c). These are key words
(pisteu(935c) and dikaio(935c)) in Paul's theology and call for
prolonged and careful study if one is to grasp the Pauline
teaching. Dikaio(935c) primarily means to make righteous, to declare
righteous like axio(935c), to deem worthy (axios). But in the end
Paul holds that real righteousness will come ( Ro 6-8 ) to those
whom God treats as righteous ( Ro 3-5 ) though both Gentile and
Jew fall short without Christ ( Ro 1-3 ). This is the doctrine of
grace that will prove a stumbling block to the Jews with their
ceremonial works and foolishness to the Greeks with their
abstract philosophical ethics ( 1Co 1:23-25 ). It is a new and
strange doctrine to the people of Antioch.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:40-13:40

註釋:

 {Beware therefore} (lepete oun). The warning is
pertinent. Perhaps Paul noticed anger on the faces of some of the
rabbis. {Lest there come upon you} (m(8820)epelth(8869)). Second aorist
active subjunctive with the negative final conjunction m(885c). {In
the prophets} (en tois proph(8874)ais). The quotation is from the
LXX text of  Hab 1:5 . The plural here refers to the prophetic
collection ( Lu 24:44  Ac 24:14 ). "The Jews of Habakkuk's day
had refused to believe in the impending invasion by the
Chaldeans, and yet it had come" (Furneaux).

經文:

使徒行傳 13:41-13:41

註釋:

 {Ye despisers} (hoi kataphron(8874)ai). Not in the Hebrew,
but in the LXX. It is pertinent for Paul's purpose. {Perish}
(aphanisth(8874)e). Or vanish away. First aorist passive
imperative. Added by the LXX to the Hebrew. {If one declare it
unto you} (ean tis ekdi(8867)(8874)ai humin). Condition of third class
with present middle subjunctive, if one keep on outlining (double
compound, ek-di-(8867)eomai) it unto you. Paul has hurled a
thunderbolt at the close.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:42-13:42

註釋:

 {And as they went out} (Exiont(936e) de aut(936e)). Genitive
absolute with present active participle of exeimi, to go out,
old verb, in the N.T. only in  Ac 12:42  17:15  20:7  27:43 . As
they (Paul and Barnabas) were going out with all the excitement
and hubbub created by the sermon. {They besought} (parekaloun).
Imperfect active, inchoative, began to beseech. The Textus
Receptus inserts wrongly 	a ethn(885c) (the Gentiles) as if the Jews
were opposed to Paul from the first as some doubtless were. But
both Jews and Gentiles asked for the repetition of the sermon
(lal(8874)h(886e)ai, first aorist passive infinitive object of
parekaloun with accusative of general reference). {The next
Sabbath} (eis to metaxu sabbaton). Late use (Josephus,
Plutarch, etc.) of metaxu (meta and xun=sun) in sense of
after or next instead of between (sense of meta prevailing).
Note use of eis for "on" or "by."

經文:

使徒行傳 13:43-13:43

註釋:

 {When the synagogue broke up} (lutheis(8873) t(8873) sunag(9367)(8873)).
Genitive absolute of first aorist passive participle of lu(935c).
Apparently Paul and Barnabas had gone out before the synagogue
was formally dismissed. {Of the devout proselytes} (	(936e)
sebomen(936e) pros(886c)ut(936e)). Of the worshipping proselytes described
in verses  16,25  as "those who fear God" (cf.  16:14 ) employed
usually of the uncircumcised Gentiles who yet attended the
synagogue worship, but the word pros(886c)utoi (pros, (886c)utos
verbal from erchomai, a new-comer) means usually those who had
become circumcised (proselytes of righteousness). Yet the rabbis
used it also of proselytes of the gate who had not yet become
circumcised, probably the idea here. In the N.T. the word occurs
only in  Mt 23:15  Ac 2:10  6:5  13:43 . Many (both Jews and
proselytes) followed ((886b)olouth(8873)an, ingressive aorist active
indicative of akolouthe(935c)) Paul and Barnabas to hear more
without waiting till the next Sabbath. So we are to picture Paul
and Barnabas speaking (proslalountes, late compound, in N.T.
only here and  28:20 ) to eager groups. {Urged} (epeithon).
Imperfect active of peith(935c), either descriptive (were
persuading) or conative (were trying to persuade). Paul had great
powers of persuasion ( 18:4  19:8,26  26:28  28:23  2Co 5:11  Ga
1:10 ). These Jews "were beginning to understand for the first
time the true meaning of their national history" (Furneaux), "the
grace of God" to them.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:44-13:44

註釋:

 {The next Sabbath} (	(9369) erchomen(9369) sabbat(9369)). Locative
case, on the coming (erchomen(9369), present middle participle of
erchomai) Sabbath. So the best MSS., though some have
echomen(9369) (present middle participle of ech(935c) in sense of
near, bordering, following as in  Lu 13:33  Ac 29:15 ). {Almost}
(schedon). Old word, but in N.T. only here,  Ac 19:26  Heb
9:22 . {Was gathered together} (sun(8863)hth(885c)). First aorist
(effective) passive indicative of sunag(935c), old and common verb.
The "whole city" could hardly all gather in the synagogue.
Perhaps Paul spoke in the synagogue and Barnabas to the overflow
outside (see verse  46 ). It was an eager and earnest gathering
"to hear (akousai, first aorist active infinitive of purpose)
the word of God" and a great opportunity for Paul and Barnabas.
The Codex Bezae has it "to hear Paul." It was the new preacher
(Paul) that drew the big crowd. It was a crowd such as will later
hang on the words of John Wesley and George Whitfield when they
preach Jesus Christ.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:45-13:45

註釋:

 {The Jews} (hoi Ioudaioi). Certainly not the proselytes
of verse  43 . Probably many of the Jews that were then
favourably disposed to Paul's message had reacted against him
under the influence of the rabbis during the week and evidently
on this Sabbath very many Gentiles ("almost the whole city," "the
multitudes" 	ous ochlous) had gathered, to the disgust of the
stricter Jews. Nothing is specifically stated here about the
rabbis, but they were beyond doubt the instigators of, and the
ringleaders in, the opposition as in Thessalonica ( 17:5 ). No
such crowds (ochlous) came to the synagogue when they were the
speakers. {With jealousy} (z(886c)ou). Genitive case of z(886c)os
(from ze(935c), to boil) after epl(8873)th(8873)an (effective first aorist
passive indicative of pimpl(886d)i). Envy and jealousy arise
between people of the same calling (doctors towards doctors,
lawyers towards lawyers, preachers towards preachers). So these
rabbis boiled with jealousy when they saw the crowds gathered to
hear Paul and Barnabas. {Contradicted} (antelegon). Imperfect
active of antileg(935c), old verb to speak against, to say a word in
opposition to (anti, face to face). It was interruption of the
service and open opposition in the public meeting. Paul and
Barnabas were guests by courtesy and, of course, could not
proceed further, when denied that privilege. {Blasphemed}
(lasph(886d)ountes). Blaspheming. So the correct text without the
addition antilegontes (repeated from antelegon above). Common
verb in the Gospels for saying injurious and harmful things.
Doubtless these rabbis indulged in unkind personalities and made
it plain that Paul and Barnabas were going beyond the limitations
of pure Judaism in their contacts with Gentiles.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:46-13:46

註釋:

 {Spake out boldly} (parr(8873)iasamenoi). First aorist middle
participle of parr(8873)iazomai, to use freedom in speaking, to
assume boldness. Both Paul and Barnabas accepted the challenge of
the rabbis. They would leave their synagogue, but not without a
word of explanation. {It was necessary to you first} (Humin (886e)
anagkaion pr(9374)on). They had done their duty and had followed the
command of Jesus ( 1:8 ). They use the very language of Peter in
 3:26  (humin pr(9374)on) "to you first." This position Paul as the
apostle to the Gentiles will always hold, the Jew first in
privilege and penalty ( Ro 1:16  2:9,10 ). {Ye thrust it from
you} (ap(9374)heisthe auton). Present middle (indirect, from
yourselves) indicative of ap(9374)he(935c), to push from. Vigorous verb
seen already in  Ac 7:27,39  which see. {Judge yourselves
unworthy} (ouk axious krinete heautous). Present active
indicative of the common verb krin(935c), to judge or decide with
the reflexive pronoun expressed. Literally, Do not judge
yourselves worthy. By their action and their words they had taken
a violent and definite stand. {Lo, we turn to the Gentiles}
(idou strephometha eis ta ethn(885c)). It is a crisis (idou, lo):
"Lo, we turn ourselves to the Gentiles." Probably also aoristic
present, we now turn (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 864-70).
Strephometha is probably the direct middle (Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 806-08) though the aorist passive estraph(886e) is
so used also ( 7:39 ). It is a dramatic moment as Paul and
Barnabas turn from the Jews to the Gentiles, a prophecy of the
future history of Christianity. In  Ro 9-11  Paul will discuss at
length the rejection of Christ by the Jews and the calling of the
Gentiles to be the real (the spiritual) Israel.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:47-13:47

註釋:

 {For so hath the Lord commanded us} (hout(9373) gar entetaltai
h(886d)in ho kurios). Perfect middle indicative of entell(935c), poetic
(Pindar) and late verb to enjoin ( 1:2 ). The command of the Lord
Paul finds in  Isa 49:6  quoted by Simeon also ( Lu 2:32 ). The
conviction of Paul's mind was now made clear by the fact of the
rejection by the Jews. He could now see more clearly the words of
the prophet about the Gentiles: The Messiah is declared by God in
Isaiah to be "a light to the Gentiles" (ethn(936e), objective
genitive), "a light for revelation to the Gentiles" (ph(9373) eis
apokalupsin ethn(936e),  Lu 2:32 ). So Paul is carrying out the will
of God in turning to the Gentiles. He will still appeal to the
Jews elsewhere as they allow him to do so, but not here. {That
thou shouldest be} (	ou einai se). Genitive articular
infinitive of purpose with the accusative of general reference.
This is all according to God's fixed purpose (	etheika, perfect
active indicative of 	ith(886d)i). {Unto the uttermost part of the
earth} (he(9373) eschatou t(8873) g(8873)). Unto the last portion (genitive
neuter, not feminine) of the earth. It is a long time from Paul
to now, not to say from Isaiah to now, and not yet has the gospel
been carried to half of the people of earth. God's people are
slow in carrying out God's plans for salvation.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:48-13:48

註釋:

 {As the Gentiles heard this they were glad} (akouonta ta
ethn(8820)echairon). Present active participle of akou(935c) and
imperfect active of chair(935c), linear action descriptive of the
joy of the Gentiles. {Glorified the word of God} (edoxazon ton
logon tou theou). Imperfect active again. The joy of the
Gentiles increased the fury of the Jews. "The synagogue became a
scene of excitement which must have been something like the
original speaking with tongues" (Rackham). The joy of the
Gentiles was to see how they could receive the higher blessing of
Judaism without circumcision and other repellent features of
Jewish ceremonialism. It was the gospel of grace and liberty from
legalism that Paul had proclaimed. Whether  Ga 4:13  describes
this incident or not (the South Galatian theory), it illustrates
it when Gentiles received Paul as if he were Christ Jesus
himself. It was triumph with the Gentiles, but defeat with the
Jews. {As many as were ordained to eternal life} (hosoi (8873)an
tetagmenoi eis z(9388)n ai(936e)ion). Periphrastic past perfect passive
indicative of 	ass(935c), a military term to place in orderly
arrangement. The word "ordain" is not the best translation here.
"Appointed," as Hackett shows, is better. The Jews here had
voluntarily rejected the word of God. On the other side were
those Gentiles who gladly accepted what the Jews had rejected,
not all the Gentiles. Why these Gentiles here ranged themselves
on God's side as opposed to the Jews Luke does not tell us. This
verse does not solve the vexed problem of divine sovereignty and
human free agency. There is no evidence that Luke had in mind an
_absolutum decretum_ of personal salvation. Paul had shown that
God's plan extended to and included Gentiles. Certainly the
Spirit of God does move upon the human heart to which some
respond, as here, while others push him away. {Believed}
(episteusan). Summary or constative first aorist active
indicative of pisteu(935c). The subject of this verb is the relative
clause. By no manner of legerdemain can it be made to mean "those
who believe were appointed." It was saving faith that was
exercised only by those who were appointed unto eternal life, who
were ranged on the side of eternal life, who were thus revealed
as the subjects of God's grace by the stand that they took on
this day for the Lord. It was a great day for the kingdom of God.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:49-13:49

註釋:

 {Was spread abroad} (diephereto). Imperfect passive of
diapher(935c), to carry in different directions (dia). By the
recent converts as well as by Paul and Barnabas. This would seem
to indicate a stay of some months with active work among the
Gentiles that bore rich fruit. {Throughout all the region} (di'
hol(8873) t(8873) ch(9372)as). Antioch in Pisidia as a Roman colony would be
the natural centre of a Roman _Regio_, an important element in
Roman imperial administration. There were probably other
_Regiones_ in South Galatia (Ramsay, _St. Paul the Traveller and
Roman Citizen_, pp. 102-12).

經文:

使徒行傳 13:50-13:50

註釋:

 {Urged on} (par(9374)runan). First aorist (effective) active
of par-otrun(935c), old verb, but here alone in the N.T., to incite,
to stir up. The Jews were apparently not numerous in this city as
they had only one synagogue, but they had influence with people
of prominence, like "the devout women of honourable estate" (	as
sebomenas gunaikas tas eusch(886d)onas), the female proselytes of
high station, a late use of an old word used about Joseph of
Arimathea ( Mr 15:43 ). The rabbis went after these Gentile women
who had embraced Judaism (cf.  Ac 17:4  in Thessalonica) as Paul
had made an appeal to them. The prominence of women in public
life here at Antioch is quite in accord with what we know of
conditions in the cities of Asia Minor. "Thus women were
appointed under the empire as magistrates, as presidents of the
games, and even the Jews elected a woman as Archisynagogos, at
least in one instance at Smyrna" (Knowling). In Damascus Josephus
(_War_ II. 20, 21) says that a majority of the married women were
proselytes. Strabo (VIII. 2) and Juvenal (VI. 542) speak of the
addiction of women to the Jewish religion. {The chief men of the
city} (	ous pr(9374)ous t(8873) pole(9373)). Probably city officials (the
Duumviri, the Praetors, the First Ten in the Greek Cities of the
east) or other "foremost" men, not officials. The rabbis were
shrewd enough to reach these men (not proselytes) through the
women who were proselytes of distinction. {Stirred up a
persecution} (ep(8867)eiran di(9367)mon). First aorist active
indicative of epegeir(935c), old verb, but in the N.T. only here and
 14:2 . Paul seems to allude to this persecution in  2Ti 3:11 
"persecutions, sufferings, what things befell me at Antioch, at
Iconium, at Lystra, what persecutions I endured." Here Paul had
perils from his own countrymen and perils from the Gentiles after
the perils of rivers and perils of robbers on the way from Perga
( 2Co 11:26 ). He was thrice beaten with rods (	ris
erhabdisth(886e),  2Co 11:25 ) by Roman lictors in some Roman
colony. If that was here, then Paul and Barnabas were publicly
scourged by the lictors before they left. Probably the Jews
succeeded in making the Roman officials look on Paul and Barnabas
as disturbers of the public peace. So "they cast them out of
their borders" (exebalon autous apo t(936e) hori(936e) aut(936e)). Second
aorist active indicative of ekball(935c), forcible expulsion plainly
as public nuisances. Just a few days before they were the heroes
of the city and now!

經文:

使徒行傳 13:51-13:51

註釋:

 {But they shook off the dust of their feet against them}
(Hoi de ektinaxamenoi ton koniorton t(936e) pod(936e) ep' autous).
First aorist middle (indirect) participle of ektinass(935c), to
shake out or off. Homer uses it for knocking out teeth. In the
papyri. The middle aorist participle occurs again in  18:6  and
the active imperative with the dust of the feet in  Mr 6:11  ( Lu
10:11  has apomassometha). and  Mt 10:14  (command of Jesus).
It is a dramatic gesture that forbids further intercourse. "As a
protest against the injustice which cast them out. The sandal was
taken off and the dust shaken out as a symbolic token that the
very soil of the country was defiling" (Furneaux). {Unto Iconium}
(eis Ikonion). About 45 miles southeast from Antioch in
Pisidia, at the foot of the Taurus mountains. At various times it
was reckoned also in Pisidia or Phrygia as well as Lycaonia,
Phrygian in population and distinguished by Luke ( Ac 14:6 ) from
Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia. As compared with Antioch (a
Roman colony) it was a native Phrygian town. When the province of
Galatia was divided, Iconium became the capital of Lycaonia and
eclipsed Antioch in Pisidia. Strictly speaking at this time
Lystra and Derbe were cities of Lycaonia-Galatica while Iconium
was in Phrygia-Galatica (all three in the Roman Province of
Galatia). It was at the meeting place of several Roman roads and
on the highway from east to west. It is still a large town Konieh
with 30,000 population.

經文:

使徒行傳 13:52-13:52

註釋:

 {And the disciples} (hoi te or hoi de math(8874)ai). The
Gentile Christians in Antioch in Pisidia. Persecution had
precisely the opposite effect to the intention of the Jews for
they "were filled with joy and the Holy Spirit" (epl(8872)ounto
charas kai pneumatos hagiou). Imperfect passive, they kept on
being filled. It had been so before ( Ac 4:31  8:4  9:31  12:24 ). The blood of the martyrs is still the seed of the
church.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:1-14:1

註釋:

 {They entered together} (kata to auto eiselthein). Like
epi to auto in  3:1 . The infinitive eiselthein is the
subject of egeneto. {So spake that} (lal(8873)ai hout(9373) h(9373)te).
Infinitive again parallel to eiselthein. With the result that,
actual result here stated with h(9373)te and the aorist infinitive
pisteusai (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 999f.) rather than h(9373)te
and the indicative like  Joh 3:16 . It was a tremendous first
meeting.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:2-14:2

註釋:

 {That were disobedient} (hoi apeith(8873)antes). First aorist
active articular participle, not the present apeithountes as
the Textus Receptus has it. But the meaning is probably the Jews
that disbelieved, rather than that disobeyed. Strictly apeithe(935c)
does mean to disobey and apiste(935c) to disbelieve, but that
distinction is not observed in  Joh 3:36  nor in  Ac 19:9  28:24 . The word apeithe(935c) means to be apeith(8873), to be
unwilling to be persuaded or to withhold belief and then also to
withhold obedience. The two meanings run into one another. To
disbelieve the word of God is to disobey God. {Made them evil
affected} (ekak(9373)an). First aorist active indicative of
kako(935c), old verb from kakos, to do evil to, to ill-treat, then
in later Greek as here to embitter, to exasperate as in  Ps
105:32  and in Josephus. In this sense only here in the N.T.
Evidently Paul preached the same message as in Antioch for it won
both Jews and Gentiles, and displeased the rabbis. Codex Bezae
adds here that "the chiefs of the synagogue and the rulers"
brought persecution upon Paul and Barnabas just as was argued
about Antioch. Outside the synagogue the Jews would poison the
minds of the Gentiles against Paul and Barnabas. "The story of
Thecla suggests a means, and perhaps the apostles were brought
before the magistrates on some charge of interference with family
life. The magistrates however must have seen at once that there
was no legal case against them; and by a sentence of acquittal or
in some other way the Lord gave peace" (Rackham). As we have it,
the story of Paul and Thecla undoubtedly has apocryphal features,
though Thecla may very well be an historical character here at
Iconium where the story is located. Certainly the picture of Paul
herein drawn cannot be considered authentic though a true
tradition may underlie it: "bald, bowlegged, strongly built,
small in stature, with large eyes and meeting eyebrows and
longish nose; full of grace; sometimes looking like a man,
sometimes having the face of an angel."

經文:

使徒行傳 14:3-14:3

註釋:

 {Long time therefore} (hikanon men oun chronon).
Accusative of duration of time (possibly six months) and note
men oun. There is an antithesis in eschisth(8820)de (verse  4 )
and in verse  5  (egeneto de). After the persecution and
vindication there was a season of great opportunity which Paul
and Barnabas used to the full, "speaking boldly"
(parr(8873)iazomenoi as in  13:46  at Antioch in Pisidia, "in the
Lord" (epi t(9369) kuri(9369)), upon the basis of the Lord Jesus as in
 4:17f . And the Lord Jesus "bore witness to the word of his
grace" as he always does, "granting signs and wonders to be done
by their hands" (didonti s(886d)eia kai terata ginesthai dia t(936e)
cheir(936e) aut(936e)). Present participle (didonti) and present
infinitive (ginesthai) repetition of both signs and wonders
(note both words) just as had happened with Peter and John and
the other apostles ( 2:43  4:29f.  5:12 ; cf.  Heb 2:4 ). The
time of peace could not last forever with such a work of grace as
this. A second explosion of persecution was bound to come and
some of the MSS. actually have ek deuterou (a second time).

經文:

使徒行傳 14:4-14:4

註釋:

 2Co
8:23 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
8' or engs='2Co
8'
經文:

使徒行傳 14:5-14:5

註釋:

 {An onset} (horm(885c)). A rush or impulse as in  Jas 3:4 . Old
word, but only twice in the N.T. (here and James). It probably
denotes not an actual attack so much as the open start, the
co-operation of both Jews and Gentiles (the disaffected portion),
"with their rulers" (sun tois archousin aut(936e)), that is the
rulers of the Jewish synagogue ( 13:27 ). The city officials
would hardly join in a mob like this, though Hackett and Rackham
think that the city magistrates were also involved as in Antioch
in Pisidia ( 13:50 ). {To entreat them shamefully} (hubrisai).
First aorist active infinitive of hubriz(935c), old verb to insult
insolently. See on 烘t 22:6; Lu 18:32|. {To stone}
(lithobol(8873)ai). First aorist active infinitive of lithobole(935c),
late verb from lithobolos (lithos, stone, all(935c), to throw)
to pelt with stones, the verb used of the stoning of Stephen
( 7:58 ). See on 烘t 21:35|. The plan to stone them shows that
the Jews were in the lead and followed by the Gentile rabble.
"Legal proceedings having failed the only resource left for the
Jews was illegal violence" (Rackham).

經文:

使徒行傳 14:6-14:6

註釋:

 {They became aware of it} (sunidontes). Second aorist
(ingressive) active participle of sunora(935c) (suneidon), old
word to see together, to become conscious of as already in
 12:12 . In the N.T. only by Luke and Paul. {Fled}
(katephugon). Second aorist (effective) active indicative of
katapheug(935c), old verb, but in the N.T. only here and  Heb 6:18 .
Paul and Barnabas had no idea of remaining to be stoned (lynched)
by this mob. It is a wise preacher who always knows when to stand
his ground and when to leave for the glory of God. Paul and
Barnabas were following the directions of the Lord Jesus given to
the twelve on their special tour of Galilee ( Mt 10:23 ). Lystra
and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia (still part of the Province of
Galatia, though in another _Regio_), not far from the base of the
Black Mountain. Professor Sterrett has apparently identified
Lystra by an inscription about six hours (18 miles)
south-southwest from Iconium near the village Khatyn Serai and
Derbe probably near the village Losta or Zosta though its
location is really not known. Lystra had been made a colony in
B.C. 6 and Derbe was the frontier city of the Roman empire in the
southeast. These are the only cities mentioned, but they were of
importance and show that Paul kept to his plan of going to
centres of influence. The new imperial road from Antioch and
Iconium reached these cities. {The region round about} (	(886e)
perich(9372)on) was "a high table land, ill-watered, bleak, but
suited for sheep pasture" (Page).

經文:

使徒行傳 14:7-14:7

註釋:

 {And there they preached the gospel} (kakei euaggelizomenoi
(8873)an). Periphrastic imperfect middle. We are to think of
extensive evangelistic work perhaps with the assistance of
disciples from Antioch and Iconium since Paul and Barnabas could
not speak Lycaonian. Kakei is crasis for kai ekei.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:8-14:8

註釋:

 2Ti
3:11 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ti
3' or engs='2Ti
3'
經文:

使徒行傳 14:9-14:9

註釋:

 {The same} (houtos). Just "this one." {Heard} ((886b)ouen).
Imperfect active, was listening to Paul speaking (lalountos).
Either at the gate or in the market place ( 17:17 ) Paul was
preaching to such as would listen or could understand his Greek
(_Koin(825f)). Ramsay (_St. Paul the Traveller_, pp. 114, 116) thinks
that the cripple was a proselyte. At any rate he may have heard
of the miracles wrought at Iconium (verse  3 ) and Paul may have
spoken of the work of healing wrought by Jesus. This man was "no
mendicant pretender," for his history was known from his birth.
{Fastening his eyes upon him} (atenisas aut(9369)). Just as in
 13:9  of Paul and  1:10  which see. Paul saw a new hope in the
man's eyes and face. {He had faith} (echei pistin). Present
active indicative retained in indirect discourse. {To be made
whole} (	ou s(9374)h(886e)ai). Genitive of articular first aorist
passive infinitive (purpose and result combined) of s(937a)(935c), to
make sound and also to save. Here clearly to make whole or well
as in  Lu 7:50  (cf.  Ac 3:16  4:10 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 14:10-14:10

註釋:

 {Upright} (orthos). Predicate adjective. In this sense
Galen and Hippocrates frequently use orthos (erect, straight).
Paul spoke in a loud (megal(8869)) voice so that all could hear and
know. {He leaped up and walked} (h(886c)ato kai periepatei).
Rather, He leaped up with a single bound and began to walk. The
second aorist middle indicative (with first aorist vowel a) of
hallomai (late verb, in papyri) and inchoative imperfect active
of peripate(935c), common verb to walk around. This graphic picture
is concealed by the usual English rendering. It is possible that
Luke obtained the vivid report of this incident from Timothy who
may have witnessed it and who was probably converted during
Paul's stay here ( 16:3 ). His father was a prominent Greek and
his mother Eunice, possibly a widow, may have lived here with her
mother Lois ( 2Ti 1:5 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 14:11-14:11

註釋:

 {Lifted up their voice} (ep(8872)an t(886e) ph(936e)(886e) aut(936e)). First
aorist active of epair(935c). In their excitement they elevated
their voices. {In the speech of Lycaonia} (Lukaonisti). Adverb
from verb lukaoniz(935c), to use the language of Lycaonia found here
alone, but formed regularly like Ebraisti ( Joh 5:2 ),
Hell(886e)isti ( Ac 21:37 ), R(936d)aisti ( Joh 19:20 ). Paul was
speaking in Greek, of course, but the excitement of the crowd
over the miracle made them cry out in their native tongue which
Paul and Barnabas did not understand. Hence it was not till
preparations for offering sacrifice to them had begun that Paul
understood the new role in which he and Barnabas were held. {In
the likeness of men} (homoi(9374)hentes anthr(9370)ois). First aorist
passive participle of homoi(935c), to liken, with the associative
instrumental case. In this primitive state the people hold to the
old Graeco-Roman mythology. The story of Baucis and Philemon
tells how Jupiter (Zeus) and Mercury (Hermes) visited in human
form the neighbouring region of Phrygia (Ovid, _Meta_. VIII.
626). Jupiter (Zeus) had a temple in Lystra.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:12-14:12

註釋:

 {They called} (ekaloun). Inchoative imperfect began to
call. {Barnabas, Jupiter} (	on Barnaban Dia). Because Barnabas
was the older and the more imposing in appearance. Paul admits
that he was not impressive in looks ( 2Co 10:10 ). {And Paul,
Mercury} (	on de Paulon Herm(886e)). Mercury (Herm(8873)) was the
messenger of the gods, and the spokesman of Zeus. Herm(8873) was of
beautiful appearance and eloquent in speech, the inventor of
speech in legend. Our word hermeneutics or science of
interpretation comes from this word ( Heb 7:2  Joh 1:38 ).
{Because he was the chief speaker} (epeid(8820)autos (886e) ho
h(8867)oumenos tou logou). Paul was clearly "the leader of the
talk." So it seemed a clear case to the natives. If preachers
always knew what people really think of them! Whether Paul was
alluding to his experience in Lystra or not in  Ga 4:14 ,
certainly they did receive him as an angel of God, as if
"Mercury" in reality.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:13-14:13

註釋:

 {Whose temple was before the city} (	ou ontos pro t(8873)
p(936c)e(9373)). The god (Zeus) is identified with his temple. He had a
statue and temple there. {Oxen and garlands} (	aurous kai
stemmata). Probably garlands to put on the oxen before they were
slain. It was common to sacrifice bullocks to Jupiter and
Mercury. {Would have done sacrifice} ((8874)helen thuein).
Imperfect indicative, wanted to offer sacrifice. He was planning
to do it, and his purpose now became plain to Paul and Barnabas.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:14-14:14

註釋:

 {Having heard} (akousantes). Such elaborate preparation
"with the multitudes" (sun tois ochlois) spread rumours and
some who spoke Greek told Paul and Barnabas. It is possible that
the priest of Jupiter may have sent a formal request that the
visiting "gods" might come out to the statue by the temple gates
to make it a grand occasion. They rent their garments
(diarr(8878)antes). First aorist active participle from
diarr(8867)numi, old verb to rend in two. Like the high priest in
 Mt 26:65  as if an act of sacrilege was about to be committed.
It was strange conduct for the supposed gods! {Sprang forth}
(exep(8864)(8873)an). First aorist (ingressive) active indicative of
ekp(8864)a(935c) (note ek), old verb, here only in the N.T. It was all
a sign of grief and horror with loud outcries (krazontes).

經文:

使徒行傳 14:15-14:15

註釋:

 2Co
6:16 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
6' or engs='2Co
6'
經文:

使徒行傳 14:16-14:16

註釋:

 {In the generations gone by} (en tais par(9369)ch(886d)enais
geneais). Perfect middle participle from paroichomai, to go
by, old verb, here alone in the N.T. {Suffered} (eiasen).
Constative aorist active indicative of ea(935c) (note syllabic
augment). Paul here touches God in history as he did just before
in creation. God's hand is on the history of all the nations
(Gentile and Jew), only with the Gentiles he withdrew the
restraints of his grace in large measure ( Ac 17:30  Ro
1:24,26,28 ), judgment enough for their sins. {To walk in their
ways} (poreuesthai tais hodois aut(936e)). Present middle
infinitive, to go on walking, with locative case without en.
This philosophy of history does not mean that God was ignorant or
unconcerned. He was biding his time in patience.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:17-14:17

註釋:

 1Ti
6:18 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ti
6' or engs='1Ti
6'
經文:

使徒行傳 14:18-14:18

註釋:

 {Scarce} (molis). Adverb in same sense as old mogis,
from molos, toil. {Restrained} (katepausan). Effective first
aorist active indicative of katapau(935c), old verb in causative
sense to make abstain from. {From doing sacrifice unto them}
(	ou m(8820)thuein autois). Ablative case of the articular
infinitive with redundant negative after katepausan, regular
Greek idiom (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1094, 1171). It had been a
harrowing and well-nigh a horrible ordeal, but finally Paul had
won. If only nobody else had interposed!

經文:

使徒行傳 14:19-14:19

註釋:

 {But there came thither Jews from Antioch and Iconium}
(Ep(886c)than de apo Antiocheias kai Ikoniou Ioudaioi). Came to or
upon them, ep(886c)than, second aorist (ingressive) indicative of
eperchomai. Whether news of the miracle had reached those
cities we do not know. These may have been travelling grain
merchants. At any rate there was an interval in which Paul and
Barnabas won some disciples (verse  22 ). There would be a
natural reaction, even revulsion, in the minds of many who had
come so near to worshipping Paul and Barnabas. The pendulum
swings easily from one extreme to the other. The hostile Jews
from Antioch and Iconium may even have followed Paul and Barnabas
along the fine Roman road on purpose to keep them on the run.
They had driven them out of Antioch and out of Iconium and now
appear at Lystra at an opportune moment for their work. {Having
persuaded the multitudes} (peisantes tous ochlous). First
aorist (effective) active participle of peith(935c). They had
complete success with many and struck at the psychological
moment. {They stoned Paul} (lithasantes ton Paulon). First
aorist active participle of lithaz(935c), late verb from lithos
for throwing stones (used by Paul referring to this one incident
when alone he was stoned,  2Co 11:25 ). The wounds inflicted may
have left some of the scars (stigmata) mentioned in  Ga 6:17 .
They stoned Paul as the chief speaker (Mercury) and passed by
Barnabas (Jupiter). It was a Jewish mode of punishment as against
Stephen and these Jews knew that Paul was the man that they had
to deal with. Hackett notes that the Jews with two exceptions
incited the persecutions which Paul endured. The exceptions were
in Philippi ( 16:16-40 ) and Ephesus ( 19:23-41 ). {Dragged him
out of the city} (esuron ex(9320)t(8873) pole(9373)). They hurled Stephen
outside of the city before stoning him (:58). It was a hurried
and irregular proceeding, but they were dragging (imperfect
active of sur(935c), old verb) Paul out now. {Supposing that he were
dead} (
omizontes auton tethn(886b)enai). Present active participle
with infinitive (second perfect active of 	hn(8873)k(935c)) in indirect
discourse with accusative of general reference. The Jews are
jubilant this time with memories of Paul's escape at Antioch and
Iconium. The pagan mob feel that they have settled accounts for
their narrow escape from worshipping two Jewish renegade
preachers. It was a good day's work for them all. Luke does not
say that Paul was actually dead.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:20-14:20

註釋:

 {Stood round about him} (kukl(9373)ant(936e) auton). Genitive
absolute with first aorist active participle of kuklo(935c), old
verb from kuklos (circle, cycle) to make a circle round, to
encircle. The would-be murderers left and a group of disciples
gathered round to see if Paul was dead or alive and, if dead, to
bury him. In that group Timothy may very well have been along
with Eunice and Barnabas. Timothy, a lad of about fifteen, would
not soon forget that solemn scene ( 2Ti 3:11 ). But Paul suddenly
(apparently a miraculous recovery) rose up (anastas) and
entered the city to the surprise and joy of the disciples who
were willing to brave persecution with Paul. {With Barnabas}
(sun t(9369) Barnab(8369)). With the assistance of Barnabas. It was
plainly unwise to continue in Lystra so that they set out on the
next day (	(8869) epaurion, ten times in Acts), shaken and bruised
as Paul was. Derbe was some forty miles distant, near the pass to
the Cilician Gates.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:21-14:21

註釋:

 {When they had preached the gospel to that city}
(euaggelisamenoi t(886e) polin ekein(886e)). Having evangelized (first
aorist middle participle) that city, a smaller city and
apparently with no trouble from the Jews. {Had made many
disciples} (math(8874)eusantes hikanous). First aorist active
participle of math(8874)eu(935c) from math(8874)(8873), a learner or disciple.
Late verb in Plutarch, to be a disciple ( Mt 27:57  like  Joh
19:38 ) and then to disciple (old English, Spenser), to make a
disciple as in  Mt 28:19  and here. Paul and Barnabas were
literally here obeying the command of Jesus in discipling people
in this heathen city. {They returned to Lystra and to Iconium,
and to Antioch} (hupestrepsan eis t(886e) Lustran kai eis Ikonion
kai eis Antiocheian). Derbe was the frontier city of the Roman
empire. The quickest way to return to Antioch in Syria would have
been by the Cilician Gates or by the pass over Mt. Taurus by
which Paul and Silas will come to Derbe in the second tour ( Ac
15:41-16:1 ), but difficult to travel in winter. But it was
necessary to revisit the churches in Lystra, Iconium, Antioch in
Pisidia and to see that they were able to withstand persecution.
Paul was a Roman citizen though he had not made use of this
privilege as yet for his own protection. Against mob violence it
would count for little, but he did not hesitate. Paul had been
stoned in Lystra, threatened in Iconium, expelled in Antioch. He
shows his wisdom in conserving his work.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:22-14:22

註釋:

 {Confirming} (epist(8872)izontes). Late verb (in LXX), in
N.T. only in  Ac 14:22  15:32,41 , to make more firm, to give
additional (epi) strength. Each time in Acts the word is used
concerning these churches. {To continue in the faith} (emmenein
t(8869) pistei). To remain in with locative, old verb. It is
possible that pistis here has the notion of creed as Paul uses
it later ( Col 1:23  with epimen(935c);  1Ti 5:8 ). It seems to be
here more than trust or belief. These recent converts from
heathenism were ill-informed, were persecuted, had broken family
and social ties, greatly needed encouragement if they were to
hold out. {We must} (dei h(886d)(8373)). It does not follow from this
use of "we" that Luke was present, since it is a general
proposition applying to all Christians at all times ( 2Ti 3:12 ).
Luke, of course, approved this principle. Knowling asks why
Timothy may not have told Luke about Paul's work. It all sounds
like quotation of Paul's very language. Note the change of
construction here after parakalountes (infinitive of indirect
command, emmenein, but hoti dei, indirect assertion). They
needed the right understanding of persecution as we all do. Paul
frankly warned these new converts in this heathen environment of
the many tribulations through which they must enter the Kingdom
of God (the culmination at last) as he did at Ephesus ( Ac
20:20 ) and as Jesus had done ( Joh 16:33 ). These saints were
already converted.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:23-14:23

註釋:

 {And when they had appointed for them elders in every
church} (cheiroton(8873)antes de autois kat' ekkl(8873)ian
presbuterous). They needed also some form of organization,
though already churches. Note distributive use of kata with
ekkl(8873)ian ( 2:46  5:42  Tit 1:5 ). Cheirotone(935c) (from
cheirotonos, extending the hand, cheir, hand, and 	ein(935c), to
stretch) is an old verb that originally meant to vote by show of
the hands, finally to appoint with the approval of an assembly
that chooses as in  2Co 8:19 , and then to appoint without regard
to choice as in Josephus (_Ant_. XIII. 2, 2) of the appointment
of Jonathan as high priest by Alexander. So in  Ac 10:41  the
compound procheiratone(935c) is used of witnesses appointed by God.
But the seven (deacons) were first selected by the Jerusalem
church and then appointed (katast(8873)omen) by the apostles. That
is probably the plan contemplated by Paul in his directions to
Titus ( Tit 1:5 ) about the choice of elders. It is most likely
that this plan was the one pursued by Paul and Barnabas with
these churches. They selected the elders in each instance and
Paul and Barnabas "ordained" them as we say, though the word
cheirotone(935c) does not mean that. "Elders" were mentioned first
in  11:30 . Later Paul will give the requirements expected in
these "elders" or "bishops" ( Php 1:1 ) as in  1Ti 3:1-7  Tit
1:5-9 . It is fairly certain that these elders were chosen to
correspond in a general way with the elders in the Jewish
synagogue after which the local church was largely copied as to
organization and worship. Paul, like Jesus, constantly worshipped
and spoke in the synagogues. Already it is plain, as at Antioch
in Syria ( 11:26 ), that the Christians can no longer count on
the use of the Jewish synagogue. They must have an organization
of their own. The use of the plural here implies what was true at
Philippi ( Php 1:1 ) and Ephesus ( Ac 20:17,28 ) that each church
(one in each city) "had its college of elders" (Hackett) as in
Jerusalem ( 21:18 ). Elder (presbuteros) was the Jewish name
and bishop (episkopos) the Greek name for the same office.
"Those who are called elders in speaking of Jewish communities
are called bishops in speaking of Gentile communities" (Hackett).
Hovey rightly holds against Hackett that teaching was a normal
function of these elders, pastors or bishops as they were
variously called ( 1Ti 3:2  Tit 1:9  1Co 12:28,30  Eph 4:11 ).
{Had prayed with fasting} (proseuxamenoi meta n(8873)tei(936e)). It was
a serious matter, this formal setting apart of these "elders" in
the churches. So it was done in a public meeting with prayer and
fasting as when Paul and Barnabas were sent forth from Antioch in
Syria ( 13:3 ) on this mission tour. {They commended them to the
Lord} (parethento autous t(9369) kuri(9369)). Second aorist middle
indicative of paratith(886d)i. Old and solemn word, to entrust, to
deposit as in a bank ( 1Ti 1:18  2Ti 2:2 ). Cf. parath(886b)(885c) in
 1Ti 6:20  2Ti 1:12,14 . It was all that they could now do, to
commit them to the Lord Jesus. Jesus used this word on the cross
( Lu 22:32 ). {On whom they had believed} (eis hon
pepisteukeisan). Past perfect indicative (without augment) of
pisteu(935c). They had "trusted" in Jesus ( 2Ti 1:12 ) and Paul now
"entrusts" them to him with confidence. It was a solemn and
serious occasion in each instance as it always is to set apart
men for the ministry. These men may not have been ideal men for
this service, but they were the only ones available and they were
chosen from the actual membership in each instance, men who knew
local conditions and problems.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:24-14:24

註釋:

 {When they had spoken the word in Perga} (lal(8873)antes en
Perg(8869) ton logon). Now they stopped and preached in Perga which
they had apparently not done before (see  13:13f. ). After
leaving Antioch they passed on through Pisidia, as if Antioch was
not strictly in Pisidia (see on  13:14 ) and into Pamphylia. They
crossed from Perga to Attaleia, the port of Perga, sixteen miles
down the Cestus, and capital of Pamphylia, to find a ship for
Antioch in Syria. It is now called Adala and for long was the
chief harbour of the south coast of Asia Minor. We do not know
why they did not revisit Cyprus, perhaps because no permanent
Gentile churches were founded there.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:26-14:26

註釋:

 {They sailed away to Antioch} (apepleusan eis
Antiocheian). Effective aorist active indicative of apople(935c),
to sail off. They had been gone some eighteen months. {They had
been committed} ((8873)an paradedomenoi). Periphrastic past perfect
passive of paradid(936d)i, old and common verb. High and serious
thoughts filled the hearts of these first returned missionaries
as they neared home. The grace of God had been with them. They
had fulfilled (epl(8872)(9373)an) the work to which they had been set
apart by the Holy Spirit with the prayers of the Antioch church.
They now had a wondrous story to tell.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:27-14:27

註釋:

 {Gathered the church together} (sunagagontes t(886e)
ekkl(8873)ian). Second aorist active participle of sunag(935c). It "was
the first missionary meeting in history" (Furneaux). It was not
hard to get the church together when the news spread that Paul
and Barnabas had returned. "The suitability of the Gospel to
become the religion of the world had not before been put to the
test" (Furneaux). Doubtless many "wise-acres" had predicted
failure as they did for William Carey and for Adoniram Judson and
Luther Rice. {Rehearsed} (an(8867)gellon). Imperfect active. It was
a long story for they had many things to tell of God's dealings
"with them" (met' aut(936e)) for God had been "with them" all the
while as Jesus had said he would be ( Mt 28:20 , meth' h(966d)(936e)).
Paul could recount some of the details given later in  2Co 11 .
{And how} (kai hoti). Or "and that" in particular, as the
upshot of it all. {He had opened a door of faith unto the
Gentiles} ((886e)oixen tois ethnesin thuran piste(9373)). Three times
in Paul's Epistles ( 1Co 16:9  2Co 2:12  Col 4:3 ) he employed
the metaphor of "door," perhaps a reminiscence of the very
language of Paul here. This work in Galatia gained a large place
in Paul's heart ( Ga 4:14f. ). The Gentiles now, it was plain,
could enter the kingdom of God (verse  22 ) through the door of
faith, not by law or by circumcision or by heathen philosophy or
mythology.

經文:

使徒行傳 14:28-14:28

註釋:

 {And they tarried no little time} (dietribon de chronon
ouk oligon). Imperfect active of diatrib(935c), old verb to rub
hard, to consume, with accusative of extent of time. It was a
happy time of fellowship. The experiment entered upon by the
church of Antioch was now a pronounced success. It was at the
direct command of the Holy Spirit, but they had prayed for the
absent missionaries and rejoiced at their signal success. There
is no sign of jealousy on the part of Barnabas when Paul returns
as the chief hero of the expedition. A new corner has been turned
in the history of Christianity. There is a new centre of
Christian activity. What will Jerusalem think of the new
developments at Antioch? Paul and Barnabas made no report to
Jerusalem.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:1-15:1

註釋:

 {And certain men came down from Judea} (kai tines
katelthontes apo t(8873) Ioudaias). Evidently the party of the
circumcision in the church in Jerusalem ( 11:2 ) had heard of the
spread of the gospel among the Gentiles in Cyprus, Pamphylia, and
South Galatia (Phrygia, Pisidia, Lycaonia). Possibly John Mark
after his desertion at Perga ( 13:13 ) told of this as one of his
reasons for coming home. At any rate echoes of the jubilation in
Antioch in Syria would be certain to reach Jerusalem. The
Judaizers in Jerusalem, who insisted that all the Gentile
Christians must become Jews also, had acquiesced in the case of
Cornelius and his group ( 11:1-18 ) after plain proof by Peter
that it was the Lord's doing. But they had not agreed to a formal
campaign to turn the exception into the rule and to make
Christianity mainly Gentile with a few Jews instead of mainly
Jewish with a few Gentiles. Since Paul and Barnabas did not come
up to Jerusalem, the leaders among the Judaizers decided to go
down to Antioch and attack Paul and Barnabas there. They had
volunteered to go without church action in Jerusalem for their
activity is disclaimed by the conference ( Ac 15:24 ). In  Ga
2:4  Paul with some heat describes these Judaizers as "false
brethren, secretly introduced who sneaked in to spy out our
liberty." It is reasonably certain that this visit to Jerusalem
described in  Ga 2:1-10  is the same one as the Jerusalem
Conference in Acts  15:5-29  in spite of the effort of Ramsay to
identify it with that in  11:29f . Paul in Galatians is not
giving a list of his visits to Jerusalem. He is showing his
independence of the twelve apostles and his equality with them.
He did not see them in  11:29f. , but only "the elders." In  Ac
15  Luke gives the outward narrative of events, in  Ga 2:1-10 
Paul shows us the private interview with the apostles when they
agreed on their line of conduct toward the Judaizers. In  Ga 2:2 
by the use of "them" (autois) Paul seems to refer to the first
public meeting in Acts before the private interview that came in
between verses  15:5-6 . If we recall the difficulty that Peter
had on the subject of preaching the gospel to the heathen
( 10:1-11:18 ), we can the better understand the attitude of the
Judaizers. They were men of sincere convictions without a doubt,
but they were obscurantists and unable and unwilling to receive
new light from the Lord on a matter that involved their racial
and social prejudices. They recalled that Jesus himself had been
circumcised and that he had said to the Syro-Phoenician woman
that he had come only save to the lost sheep of the house of
Israel ( Mt 15:24ff. ). They argued that Christ had not repealed
circumcision. So one of the great religious controversies of all
time was begun, that between spiritual religion and ritualistic
or ceremonial religion. It is with us yet with baptism taking the
place of circumcision. These self-appointed champions of
circumcision for Gentile Christians were deeply in earnest.
{Taught the brethren} (edidaskon tous adelphous). Inchoative
imperfect active, began to teach and kept it up. Their attitude
was one of supercilious superiority. They probably resented the
conduct of Barnabas, who, when sent by the Church in Jerusalem to
investigate the conversion of the Greeks in Antioch ( 11:20-26 ),
did not return and report till a strong church had been
established there with the help of Saul and only then with a big
collection to confuse the issue. Paul and Barnabas were on hand,
but the Judaizers persisted in their efforts to force their views
on the church in Antioch. It was a crisis. {Except ye be
circumcised after the custom of Moses, ye cannot be saved} (ean
me peritm(8874)h(8874)e t(9369) ethei M(9375)se(9373), ou dunasthe s(9374)h(886e)ai). There
was the dictum of the Judaizers to the Gentiles. Paul and
Barnabas had been circumcised. This is probably the precise
language employed, for they spoke in Greek to these Greeks. It is
a condition of the third class (undetermined, but with prospect
of being determined, ean plus the first aorist passive
subjunctive of peritemn(935c)). There was thus hope held out for
them, but only on condition that they be circumcised. The issue
was sharply drawn. The associative instrumental case (	(9369)
ethei) is customary. "Saved" (s(9374)h(886e)ai) here is the Messianic
salvation. This doctrine denied the efficacy of the work of
Christ.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:2-15:2

註釋:

 {When Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and
questioning with them} (Genomen(8873) stase(9373) kai z(8874)(8873)e(9373) ouk
olig(8873) t(9369) Paul(9369) kai Barnab(8369) pros autous). Genitive absolute
of second aorist middle participle of ginomai, genitive
singular agreeing with first substantive stase(9373). Literally,
"No little (litotes for much) strife and questioning coming to
Paul and Barnabas (dative case) with them " (pros autous, face
to face with them). Paul and Barnabas were not willing to see
this Gentile church brow-beaten and treated as heretics by these
self-appointed regulators of Christian orthodoxy from Jerusalem.
The work had developed under the leadership of Paul and Barnabas
and they accepted full responsibility for it and stoutly resisted
these Judaizers to the point of sedition (riot, outbreak in  Lu
23:25  Ac 19:40 ) as in  23:7 . There is no evidence that the
Judaizers had any supporters in the Antioch church so that they
failed utterly to make any impression. Probably these Judaizers
compelled Paul to think through afresh his whole gospel of grace
and so they did Paul and the world a real service. If the Jews
like Paul had to believe, it was plain that there was no virtue
in circumcision ( Ga 2:15-21 ). It is not true that the early
Christians had no disagreements. They had selfish avarice with
Ananias and Sapphira, murmuring over the gifts to the widows,
simony in the case of Simon Magus, violent objection to work in
Caesarea, and now open strife over a great doctrine (grace vs.
legalism). {The brethren appointed} (etaxan). "The brethren"
can be supplied from verse  1  and means the church in Antioch.
The church clearly saw that the way to remove this deadlock
between the Judaizers and Paul and Barnabas was to consult the
church in Jerusalem to which the Judaizers belonged. Paul and
Barnabas had won in Antioch. If they can win in Jerusalem, that
will settle the matter. The Judaizers will be answered in their
own church for which they are presuming to speak. The verb
etaxan (	ass(935c), to arrange) suggests a formal appointment by
the church in regular assembly. Paul ( Ga 2:2 ) says that he went
up by revelation (kat' apokalupsin), but surely that is not
contradictory to the action of the church. {Certain others of
them} (	inas allous). Certainly Titus ( Ga 2:1,3 ), a Greek and
probably a brother of Luke who is not mentioned in Acts. Rackham
thinks that Luke was in the number. {The apostles and elders}
(	ous apostolous kai presbuterous). Note one article for both
(cf. "the apostles and the brethren" in  11:1 ). "Elders" now
( 11:30 ) in full force. The apostles have evidently returned now
to the city after the death of Herod Agrippa I stopped the
persecution.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:3-15:3

註釋:

 {They therefore} (hoi men oun). Luke's favourite method of
resumptive narrative as we have seen ( 11:19 , etc.),
demonstrative hoi with men (indeed) and oun (therefore).
{Being brought on their way by the church} (propemphthentes hupo
t(8873) ekkl(8873)ias). First aorist passive participle of propemp(935c),
old verb, to send forward under escort as a mark of honour as in
 20:38  21:5  3Jo 1:6 . They were given a grand send-off by the
church in Antioch. {Passed through} (di(8872)chonto). Imperfect
middle describing the triumphal procession through both (	e
kai) Phoenicia and Samaria. {The conversion} (	(886e)
epistroph(886e)). The turning. {They caused great joy} (epoioun
charan megal(886e)). Imperfect active. They were raising a constant
paean of praise as they proceeded toward Jerusalem. Probably the
Judaizers had gone on or kept still.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:4-15:4

註釋:

 {Were received} (paredechth(8873)an). First aorist passive
indicative of paradechomai, old verb, to receive, to welcome.
Here it was a public reception for Paul and Barnabas provided by
the whole church including the apostles and elders, at which an
opportunity was given to hear the story of Paul and Barnabas
about God's dealings with them among the Gentiles. This first
public meeting is referred to by Paul in  Ga 2:2  "I set before
them (autois) the gospel, etc."

經文:

使徒行傳 15:5-15:5

註釋:

 {But there rose up} (exanest(8873)an de). Second aorist active
indicative (intransitive). Note both ex and an. These men
rose up out of the crowd at a critical moment. They were
believers in Christ (pepisteukotes, having believed), but were
still members of "the sect of the Pharisees" (	(8873) hairese(9373) t(936e)
Pharisai(936e)). Evidently they still held to the Pharisaic
narrowness shown in the attack on Peter ( 11:2f. ). Note the
dogmatism of their "must" (dei) after the opposition of Paul
and Barnabas to their "except" (ean me) at Antioch ( 15:1 ).
They are unconvinced and expected to carry the elders with them.
Codex Bezae says that they had appealed to the elders ( 15:2,5 ).
At any rate they have made the issue in open meeting at the
height of the jubilation. It is plain from verse  6  that this
meeting was adjourned, for another gathering came together then.
It is here that the private conference of which Paul speaks in
 Ga 2:1-10  took place. It was Paul's chance to see the leaders
in Jerusalem (Peter, James, and John) and he won them over to his
view of Gentile liberty from the Mosaic law so that the next
public conference ( Ac 15:6-29 ) ratified heartily the views of
Paul, Barnabas, Peter, James, and John. It was a diplomatic
triumph of the first order and saved Christianity from the
bondage of Jewish ceremonial sacramentalism. So far as we know
this is the only time that Paul and John met face to face, the
great spirits in Christian history after Jesus our Lord. It is a
bit curious to see men saying today that Paul surrendered about
Titus and had him circumcised for the sake of peace, the very
opposite of what he says in Galatians, "to whom I yielded, no not
for an hour." Titus as a Greek was a red flag to the Judaizers
and to the compromisers, but Paul stood his ground.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:6-15:6

註釋:

 {Were gathered together} (sun(8863)hth(8873)an). First aorist
(effective) passive indicative. The church is not named here as
in verse  4 , but we know from verses  12-22  that the whole
church came together this time also along with the apostles and
elders. {Of this matter} (peri tou logou toutou). Same idiom in
 8:21  19:38 . They realized the importance of the issue.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:7-15:7

註釋:

 {When there had been much questioning} (poll(8873) z(8874)(8873)e(9373)
genomen(8873)). Genitive absolute with second aorist middle
participle of ginomai. Evidently the Judaizers were given full
opportunity to air all their grievances and objections. They were
allowed plenty of time and there was no effort to shut off debate
or to rush anything through the meeting. {Peter rose up}
(anastas Petros). The wonder was that he had waited so long.
Probably Paul asked him to do so. He was the usual spokesman for
the apostles and his activities in Jerusalem were well-known. In
particular his experience at Caesarea ( Ac 10 ) had caused
trouble here in Jerusalem from this very same party of the
circumcism ( Ac 11:1-18 ). It was fitting that Peter should
speak. This is the last time that Peter appears in the Acts. {A
good while ago} (aph' h(886d)er(936e) archai(936e)). From ancient days. The
adjective archaios is from arch(885c), beginning, and its actual
age is a matter of relativity. So Mnason ( Ac 21:16 ) is termed
"an ancient disciple." It was probably a dozen years since God
"made choice" (exelexato) to speak by Peter's mouth to
Cornelius and the other Gentiles in Caesarea. His point is that
what Paul and Barnabas have reported is nothing new. The
Judaizers made objection then as they are doing now.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:8-15:8

註釋:

 {Which knoweth the heart} (kardiogn(9373)t(8873)). Late word from
kardia (heart) and gn(9373)t(8873) (known, gin(9373)k(935c)). In the N.T.
only here and  1:24  which see. {Giving them the Holy Spirit}
(dous to pneuma to hagion). And before their baptism. This was
the Lord's doing. They had accepted ( 11:18 ) this witness of God
then and it was true now of these other Gentile converts.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:9-15:9

註釋:

 {He made no distinction between us and them} (outhen
diekrinen metaxu h(886d)(936e) te kai aut(936e)). He distinguished nothing
(first aorist active ind.) between (both dia and metaxu) both
(	e kai) us and them. In the matter of faith and conversion God
treated us Jews as heathen and the heathen as Jews. {Cleansing
their hearts by faith} (	(8869) pistei katharisas tas kardias
aut(936e)). Not by works nor by ceremonies. Peter here has a
thoroughly Pauline and Johannine idea of salvation for all both
Jew and Greek. Cf.  10:15 .

經文:

使徒行傳 15:10-15:10

註釋:

 {Why tempt ye God?} (	i peirazete ton theon;). By
implying that God had made a mistake this time, though right
about Cornelius. It is a home-thrust. They were refusing to
follow the guidance of God like the Israelites at Massah and
Meribah ( Ex 17:7  De 6:16  1Co 10:9 ). {That ye should put}
(epitheinai). Second aorist active infinitive of epitith(886d)i,
epexegetic, explaining the tempting. {A yoke upon the neck}
(zugon epi ton trach(886c)on). Familiar image of oxen with yokes
upon the necks. Paul's very image for the yoke of bondage of the
Mosaic law in  Ga 5:1 . It had probably been used in the private
interview. Cf. the words of Jesus about the Pharisees ( Mt 23:4 )
and how easy and light his own yoke is ( Mt 11:30 ). {Were able
to bear} (ischusamen bastasai). Neither our fathers nor we had
strength (ischu(935c)) to carry this yoke which the Judaizers wish
to put on the necks of the Gentiles. Peter speaks as the
spiritual emancipator. He had been slow to see the meaning of
God's dealings with him at Joppa and Caesarea, but he has seen
clearly by now. He takes his stand boldly with Paul and Barnabas
for Gentile freedom.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:11-15:11

註釋:

 {That we shall be saved} (s(9374)h(886e)ai). First aorist passive
infinitive in indirect discourse after pisteuomen. More
exactly, "We believe that we are saved through the grace of the
Lord Jesus in like manner as they also." This thoroughly Pauline
note shows that whatever hopes the Judaizers had about Peter were
false. His doctrine of grace is as clear as a bell. He has lifted
his voice against salvation by ceremony and ritualism. It was a
great deliverance.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:12-15:12

註釋:

 {Kept silence} (esig(8873)en). Ingressive first aorist active
of siga(935c), old verb, to hold one's peace. All the multitude
became silent after Peter's speech and because of it. {Hearkened}
((886b)ouon). Imperfect active of akou(935c), descriptive of the rapt
attention, were listening. {Unto Barnabas and Paul} (Barnaba kai
Paulou). Note placing Barnabas before Paul as in verse  25 ,
possibly because in Jerusalem Barnabas was still better known
than Paul. {Rehearsing} (ex(8867)oumen(936e)). Present middle
participle of ex(8867)eomai, old verb, to go through or lead out a
narrative of events as in  Lu 24:35  Ac 10:8  which see. Three
times ( 14:27  15:4,12 ) Paul is described as telling the facts
about their mission work, facts more eloquent than argument
(Page). One of the crying needs in the churches is fuller
knowledge of the facts of mission work and progress with enough
detail to give life and interest. The signs and wonders which God
had wrought among the Gentiles set the seal of approval on the
work done through (dia) Barnabas and Paul. This had been
Peter's argument about Cornelius ( 11:17 ). This same verb
(ex(8867)(8873)ato) is used by James in verse  14  referring to Peter's
speech.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:13-15:13

註釋:

 {After they had held their peace} (meta to sig(8873)ai
autous). Literally, "after the becoming silent (ingressive
aorist active of the articular infinitive) as to them (Barnabas
and Paul, accusative of general reference)." {James answered}
(apekrith(8820)Iak(9362)os). First aorist passive (deponent)
indicative. It was expected that James, as President of the
Conference, would speak last. But he wisely waited to give every
one an opportunity to speak. The challenge of the Judaizers
called for an opinion from James. Furneaux thinks that he may
have been elected one of the twelve to take the place of James
the brother of John since Paul ( Ga 1:19 ) calls him apostle.
More likely he was asked to preside because of his great gifts
and character as chief of the elders.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:14-15:14

註釋:

 {Hearken unto me} (akousate mou). Usual appeal for
attention. James was termed James the Just and was considered a
representative of the Hebraic as opposed to the Hellenistic wing
of the Jewish Christians ( Ac 6:1 ). The Judaizers had doubtless
counted on him as a champion of their view and did later
wrongfully make use of his name against Peter at Antioch ( Ga
2:12 ). There was instant attention when James began to speak.
{Symeon} (Sume(936e)). The Aramaic form of Simon as in  2Pe 2:1 .
This little touch would show his affinities with the Jewish
Christians (not the Judaizers). This Aramaic form is used also in
 Lu 2:25,34  of the old prophet in the temple. Possibly both
forms (Symeon, Aramaic, and Simon, Greek) were current in
Jerusalem. {How} (kath(9373)). Strictly, "according as," here like
hos in indirect discourse somewhat like the epexegetic or
explanatory use in  3Jo 1:3 . {First} (pr(9374)on). Told by Peter
in verse  7 . James notes, as Peter did, that this experience of
Barnabas and Paul is not the beginning of work among the
Gentiles. {Did visit} (epeskepsato). First aorist middle
indicative of episkeptomai, old verb to look upon, to look
after, provide for. This same verb occurs in  Jas 1:27  and is
one of various points of similarity between this speech of James
in Acts and the Epistle of James as shown by Mayor in his
_Commentary on James_. Somehow Luke may have obtained notes of
these various addresses. {To take from the Gentiles a people for
his name} (labein ex ethn(936e) laon t(9369) onomati autou). Bengel
calls this _egregium paradoxon_, a chosen people (laon) out of
the Gentiles (ethn(936e)). This is what is really involved in what
took place at Caesarea at the hands of Peter and the campaign of
Barnabas and Paul from Antioch. But such a claim of God's purpose
called for proof from Scripture to convince Jews and this is
precisely what James undertakes to give. This new Israel from
among the Gentiles is one of Paul's great doctrines as set forth
in  Ga 3  Ro 9-11 . Note the use of God's "name" here for "the
Israel of God" ( Ga 6:16 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 15:15-15:15

註釋:

 {To this agree} (	out(9369) sumph(936e)ousin). Associative
instrumental case (	out(9369)) after sumph(936e)ousin (voice together
with, symphony with, harmonize with), from sumph(936e)e(935c), old verb
seen already in  Mt 18:19  Lu 5:36  Ac 5:9  which see. James
cites only  Am 9:11,12  from the LXX as an example of "the words
of the prophets" (hoi logoi t(936e) proph(8874)(936e)) to which he refers
on this point. The somewhat free quotation runs here through
verses  16-18  of  Ac 15  and is exceedingly pertinent. The
Jewish rabbis often failed to understand the prophets as Jesus
showed. The passage in Amos refers primarily to the restoration
of the Davidic empire, but also the Messiah's Kingdom (the throne
of David his father,"  Lu 1:32 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 15:16-15:16

註釋:

 {I will build again} (anoikodom(8873)(935c)). Here LXX has
anast(8873)(935c). Compound (ana, up or again) of oikodome(935c), the
verb used by Jesus in  Mt 16:18  of the general church or kingdom
as here which see. {The tabernacle of David} (	(886e) sk(886e)(886e)
Daueid), a poetical figure of the throne of David ( 2Sa 7:12 )
now "the fallen tent" (	(886e) pept(936b)uian), perfect active
participle of pipt(935c), state of completion. {The ruins thereof}
(	a katestrammena aut(8873)). Literally, "the ruined portions of
it." Perfect passive participle of katastreph(935c), to turn down.
It is a desolate picture of the fallen, torn down tent of David.
{I will let it up} (anorth(9373)(935c)). Old verb from anortho(935c) (ana,
orthos), to set upright. See on  Lu 3:13  of the old woman whose
crooked back was set straight.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:17-15:17

註釋:

 {That the residue of men may seek after the Lord} (hop(9373)
an ekz(8874)(8873)(9373)in hoi kataloipoi t(936e) anthr(9370)(936e) ton kurion). The use
of hop(9373) with the subjunctive (effective aorist active) to
express purpose is common enough and note an for an additional
tone of uncertainty. On the rarity of an with hop(9373) in the
_Koin(825f) see Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 986. Here the Gentiles are
referred to. The Hebrew text is quite different, "that they may
possess the remnant of Edom." Certainly the LXX suits best the
point that James is making. But the closing words of this verse
point definitely to the Gentiles both in the Hebrew and the LXX,
"all the Gentiles" (panta ta ethn(885c)). Another item of similarity
between this speech and the Epistle of James is in the phrase "my
name is called" (epikekl(8874)ai to onoma mou) and  Jas 2:7 . The
purpose of God, though future, is expressed by this perfect
passive indicative epikekl(8874)ai from epi-kale(935c), to call on. It
is a Jewish way of speaking of those who worship God.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:18-15:18

註釋:

 {From the beginning of the world} (ap' ai(936e)os). Or, "from
of old." James adds these words, perhaps with a reminiscence of
 Isa 45:21 . His point is that this purpose of God, as set forth
in Amos, is an old one. God has an Israel outside of and beyond
the Jewish race, whom he will make his true "Israel" and so there
is no occasion for surprise in the story of God's dealings with
the Gentiles as told by Barnabas and Paul. God's eternal purpose
of grace includes all who call upon his name in every land and
people ( Isa 2:1  Mic 4:1 ). This larger and richer purpose and
plan of God was one of the mysteries which Paul will unfold in
the future ( Ro 16:25  Eph 3:9 ). James sees it clearly now. God
is making it known (poi(936e) tauta gn(9373)ta), if they will only be
willing to see and understand. It was a great deliverance that
James had made and it exerted a profound influence on the
assembly.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:19-15:19

註釋:

 {Wherefore} (dio). "Because of which," this plain purpose
of God as shown by Amos and Isaiah. {My judgment is} (eg(930a)krin(935c)). Note expression of eg(935c). {I give my judgment}. (Ego
censeo). James sums up the case as President of the Conference
in a masterly fashion and with that consummate wisdom for which
he is noted. It amounts to a resolution for the adoption by the
assembly as happened (verse  33 ). {That we trouble not} (m(880a)parenochlein). Present active infinitive with m(885c) in an
indirect command (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1046) of
parenochle(935c), a common late verb, occurring here alone in the
N.T. This double compound (para, en) is from the old compound
enochle(935c) (en and ochlos, crowd, annoyance) seen in  Lu
6:18  Heb 12:15 , and means to cause trouble beside (para) one
or in a matter. This is the general point of James which he
explains further concerning "those who are turning from the
Gentiles unto God," the very kind of people referred to in Amos.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:20-15:20

註釋:

 He 13:22 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'He' or engs='He'
經文:

使徒行傳 15:21-15:21

註釋:

 {For Moses} (M(9375)s(8873) gar). A reason why these four
necessary things (verse  28 ) are named. In every city are
synagogues where rabbis proclaim (k(8872)ussontas) these matters.
Hence the Gentile Christians would be giving constant offence to
neglect them. The only point where modern Christian sentiment
would object would be about "things strangled" and "blood" in the
sense of any blood left in the animals, though most Christians
probably agree with the feeling of James in objecting to blood in
the food. If "blood" is taken to be "murder," that difficulty
vanishes. Moses will suffer no loss for these Gentile Christians
are not adherents of Judaism.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:22-15:22

註釋:

 {Then it seemed good} (Tote edoxen). First aorist active
indicative of doke(935c). A regular idiom at the beginning of
decrees. This Eirenicon of James commended itself to the whole
assembly. Apparently a vote was taken which was unanimous, the
Judaizers probably not voting. The apostles and the elders (	ois
apostolois kai tois presbuterois, article with each, dative
case) probably all vocally expressed their position. {With the
whole church} (sun holei t(8869) ekkl(8873)i(8369)). Probably by
acclamation. It was a great victory. But James was a practical
leader and he did not stop with speeches and a vote. {To choose
men out of their company} (eklezamenous andras ex aut(936e)).
Accusative case, though dative just before (	ois apostolois,
etc.), of first aorist middle participle of ekleg(935c), to select.
This loose case agreement appears also in grapsantes in verse
 23  and in MSS. in verse  25 . It is a common thing in all Greek
writers (Paul, for instance), especially in the papyri and in the
Apocalypse of John. {Judas called Barsabbas} (Ioudan ton
kaloumenon Barsabban). Not otherwise known unless he is a
brother of Joseph Barsabbas of  1:23 , an early follower of
Jesus. The other, Silas, is probably a shortened form of Silvanus
(Silouanos,  1Pe 5:12 ), the companion of Paul in his second
mission tour ( Ac 15:32,41  16:25 ). {Chief men} (h(8867)oumenous).
Leaders, leading men (participle from h(8867)eomai, to lead).

經文:

使徒行傳 15:23-15:23

註釋:

 {And they wrote} (grapsantes). First aorist active
participle of graph(935c) and the nominative as if a principal verb
epempsan had been used instead of pempsai, the first aorist
active infinitive (anacoluthon). This committee of four (Judas,
Silas, Barnabas, Paul) carried the letter which embodied the
decision of the Conference. This letter is the writing out of the
judgment of James and apparently written by him as the President.
{The apostles and the elders, brethren} (hoi apostoloi kai hoi
presbuteroi, adelphoi). So the oldest and best MSS. without
kai (and) before "brethren." This punctuation is probably
correct and not "elder brethren." The inquiry had been sent to
the apostles and elders (verse  2 ) though the whole church
joined in the welcome (verse  4 ) and in the decision (verse
 22 ). The apostles and elders send the epistle, but call
themselves "brothers to brothers," _Fratres Fratibus Salutem_.
"The brothers" (	ois adelphois) addressed (dative case) are of
the Gentiles (ex ethn(936e)) and those in Antioch, Syria, and
Cilicia, because they were immediately involved. But the decision
of this Conference was meant for Gentile Christians everywhere
( 16:4 ). {Greeting} (Chairein). The customary formula in the
beginning of letters, the absolute infinitive (usually
chairein) with the nominative absolute also as in  Jas 1:1  Ac
23:26  and innumerable papyri (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1902f.).

經文:

使徒行傳 15:24-15:24

註釋:

 {Certain which went from us} (	ines ex h(886d)(936e), Aleph B
omit exelthontes). A direct blow at the Judaizers, put in
delicate language (we heard (886b)ousamen) as if only at Antioch
( 15:1 ), and not also in Jerusalem in open meeting ( 15:5 ).
{Have troubled you with words} (etaraxan humas logois). What a
picture of turmoil in the church in Antioch, words, words, words.
Aorist tense of the common verb 	arass(935c), to agitate, to make
the heart palpitate ( Joh 14:1,27 ) and instrumental case of
logois. {Subverting your souls} (anaskeuazontes tas psuchas
hum(936e)). Present active participle of anaskeuaz(935c), old verb
(ana and skeuos, baggage) to pack up baggage, to plunder, to
ravage. Powerful picture of the havoc wrought by the Judaizers
among the simple-minded Greek Christians in Antioch. {To whom we
gave no commandment} (hois ou diesteilametha). First aorist
middle indicative of diastell(935c), old verb to draw asunder, to
distinguish, to set forth distinctly, to command. This is a flat
disclaimer of the whole conduct of the Judaizers in Antioch and
in Jerusalem, a complete repudiation of their effort to impose
the Mosaic ceremonial law upon the Gentile Christians.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:25-15:25

註釋:

 {It seemed good unto us} (edoxen h(886d)in). See statement by
Luke in verse  22 , and now this definite decision is in the
epistle itself. It is repeated in verse  28 . {Having come to one
accord} (genomenois homothumadon). On this adverb, common in
Acts, see on 氣:14|. But genomenois clearly means that the
final unity was the result of the Conference (private and public
talks). The Judaizers are here brushed to one side as the
defeated disturbers that they really were who had lacked the
courage to vote against the majority. {To choose out men and send
them} (eklexamenois andras pempsai A B L, though Aleph C D read
eklexamenous as in verse  22 ). Precisely the same idiom as in
verse  22 , "having chosen out to send." {With our beloved
Barnabas and Paul} (sun tois agap(8874)ois h(886d)(936e) Barnab(8369) kai
Paul(9369)). The verbal adjective agap(8874)ois (common in the N.T.)
definitely sets the seal of warm approval on Barnabas and Paul.
Paul ( Ga 2:9 ) confirms this by his statement concerning the
right hand of fellowship given.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:26-15:26

註釋:

 {Have hazarded their lives} (paraded(936b)osi tas psuchas
aut(936e)). Perfect active participle dative plural of paradid(936d)i,
old word, to hand over to another, and with psuchas, to hand
over to another their lives. The sufferings of Paul and Barnabas
in Pisidia and Lycaonia were plainly well-known just as the story
of Judson in Burmah is today. On the use of "name" here see on
氨:6|.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:27-15:27

註釋:

 {Who themselves also shall tell you the same things by word
of mouth} (kai autous dia logou apaggellontas ta auta).
Literally, "they themselves also by speech announcing the same
things." The present participle, as here, sometimes is used like
the future to express purpose as in  3:26  eulogounta after
apesteilen and so here apaggellontas after apestalkamen
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1128). Judas and Silas are specifically
endorsed (perfect active indicative of apostell(935c)) as bearers of
the epistle who will also verbally confirm the contents of the
letter.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:28-15:28

註釋:

 {To the Holy Spirit and to us} (	(9369) pneumati t(9369) hagi(9369)
kai h(886d)in). Dative case after edoxen (third example, verses
 22,25,28 ). Definite claim that the church in this action had
the guidance of the Holy Spirit. That fact was plain to the
church from what had taken place in Caesarea and in this campaign
of Paul and Barnabas (verse  8 ). Jesus had promised that the
Holy Spirit would guide them into all truth ( Joh 16:13 ). Even
so the church deliberated carefully before deciding. What a
blessing it would be if this were always true! But even so the
Judaizers are only silenced for the present, not convinced and
only waiting for a better day to start over again. {No greater
burden} (m(8864)en pleon baros). The restrictions named did
constitute some burden (cf.  Mt 20:12 ), for the old word aros
means weight or heaviness. Morality itself is a restraint upon
one's impulses as is all law a prohibition against license.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:29-15:29

註釋:

 {Than these necessary things} (pl(886e) tout(936e) t(936e)
epanagkes). This old adverb (from epi and anagk(885c)) means on
compulsion, of necessity. Here only in the N.T. For discussion of
these items see on verses  20,21 . In comparison with the freedom
won this "burden" is light and not to be regarded as a compromise
in spite of the arguments of Lightfoot and Ramsay. It was such a
concession as any converted Gentile would be glad to make even if
"things strangled" be included. This "necessity" was not a matter
of salvation but only for fellowship between Jews and Gentiles.
The Judaizers made the law of Moses essential to salvation
( 15:16 ). {It shall be well with you} (eu praxete). Ye shall
fare well. A classical idiom used here effectively. The peace and
concord in the fellowship of Jews and Gentiles will justify any
slight concession on the part of the Gentiles. This letter is not
laid down as a law, but it is the judgment of the Jerusalem
Christians for the guidance of the Gentiles ( 16:4 ) and it had a
fine effect at once ( 15:30-35 ). Trouble did come later from the
Judaizers who were really hostile to the agreement in Jerusalem,
but that opposition in no way discredits the worth of the work of
this Conference. No sane agreement will silence perpetual and
professional disturbers like these Judaizers who will seek to
unsettle Paul's work in Antioch, in Corinth, in Galatia, in
Jerusalem, in Rome. {Fare ye well} (Err(9373)the). _Valete_.
Perfect passive imperative of 
h(936e)numi, to make strong. Common
at the close of letters. Be made strong, keep well, fare well.
Here alone in the N.T. though some MSS. have it in  23:30 .

經文:

使徒行傳 15:30-15:30

註釋:

 {So they} (hoi men oun). As in verse  3 . {When they were
dismissed} (apoluthentes). First aorist passive participle of
apolu(935c), common verb to loosen, to dismiss. Possibly (Hackett)
religious services were held as in verse  33  (cf.  13:3 ) and
perhaps an escort for part of the way as in verse  3 . {The
multitude} (	o pl(8874)hos). Public meeting of the church as in
verses  1-3 . Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 232) gives
illustrations from the inscriptions of the use of pl(8874)hos for
official, political, and religious gatherings. The committee
formally "delivered" (eped(936b)an) the epistle to the church
authorities.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:31-15:31

註釋:

 {When they had read it} (anagnontes). Second aorist
active participle of anagin(9373)k(935c). Public reading, of course, to
the church. {They rejoiced} (echar(8873)an). Second aorist
(ingressive) passive indicative of chair(935c). They burst into
exultant joy showing clearly that they did not consider it a weak
compromise, but a glorious victory of Gentile liberty. {For the
consolation} (epi t(8869) parakl(8873)ei). The encouragement, the cheer
in the letter. See parekalesan in verse  32 . Consolation and
exhortation run into one another in this word.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:32-15:32

註釋:

 {Being themselves also prophets} (kai autoi proph(8874)ai
ontes). As well as Paul and Barnabas and like Agabus
( 11:27-30 ), for-speakers for Christ who justify the
commendation in the letter (verse  27 ) "with many words" (dia
logou pollou), "with much talk," and no doubt with kindly words
concerning the part played at the Conference by Paul and
Barnabas. {Confirmed} (epest(8872)ixan). See on 氣4:22|. It was a
glorious time with no Judaizers to disturb their fellowship as in
 1-3 .

經文:

使徒行傳 15:33-15:33

註釋:

 {Some time} (chronon). Accusative after poi(8873)antes,
"having done time." How long we do not know.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:34-15:34

註釋:

 {But it seemed good unto Silas to abide there} (edoxe de
Sil(8369) epimeinai autou). This verse is not in the Revised Version
or in the text of Westcott and Hort, being absent from Aleph A B
Vulgate, etc. It is clearly an addition to help explain the fact
that Silas is back in Antioch in verse  40 . But the "some days"
of verse  36  afforded abundant time for him to return from
Jerusalem. He and Judas went first to Jerusalem to make a report
of their mission.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:35-15:35

註釋:

 {Tarried} (dietribon). Imperfect active of diatrib(935c),
old verb to pass time, seen already in  12:19  14:3,28 . {With
many others also} (meta kai heter(936e) poll(936e)). A time of general
revival and naturally so after the victory at Jerusalem. It is at
this point that it is probable that the sad incident took place
told by Paul in  Ga 2:11-21 . Peter came up to see how things
were going in Antioch after Paul's victory in Jerusalem. At first
Peter mingled freely with the Greek Christians without the
compunctions shown at Caesarea and for which he had to answer in
Jerusalem ( Ac 11:1-18 ). Rumours of Peter's conduct reached
Jerusalem and the Judaizers saw a chance to reopen the
controversy on the line of social customs, a matter not passed on
at the Jerusalem Conference. These Judaizers threaten Peter with
a new trial and he surrenders and is followed by Barnabas and all
the Jewish brethren in Antioch to the dismay of Paul who boldly
rebuked Peter and Barnabas and won them back to his view. It was
a crisis. Some would even date the Epistle to the Galatians at
this time also, an unlikely hypothesis.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:36-15:36

註釋:

 {Let us return now and visit the brethren} (epistrepsantes
de episkeps(936d)etha tous adelphous). Paul takes the initiative as
the leader, all the more so if the rebuke to Peter and Barnabas
in  Ga 2:11-21  had already taken place. Paul is anxious, like a
true missionary, to go back to the fields where he has planted
the gospel. He uses the hortatory subjunctive (episkeps(936d)etha)
for the proposal (see on 氣5:14| for this verb). Note the
repeated epi (epi-strepsantes and episkeps(936d)etha). There is
special point in the use of d(885c) (shortened form of (8864)(885c)), now
at this juncture of affairs (cf.  13:2 ). {How they fare} (p(9373)
echousin). Indirect question, "how they have it." The
precariousness of the life of new converts in pagan lands is
shown in all of Paul's Epistles (Furneaux). So he wanted to go
city by city (kata polin p(8373)an).

經文:

使徒行傳 15:37-15:37

註釋:

 {Was minded to take with them} (ebouleto sunparalabein).
Imperfect middle (ebouleto), not aorist middle ebouleusato of
the Textus Receptus. Barnabas willed, wished and stuck to it
(imperfect tense). Sunparalabein is second aorist active
infinitive of the double compound sunparalamban(935c), old verb to
take along together with, used already about John Mark in  12:25 
and by Paul in  Ga 2:1  about Titus. Nowhere else in the N.T.
Barnabas used the ingressive aorist in his suggestion.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:38-15:38

註釋:

 {But Paul thought not good to take with them} (Paulos de
(8878)iou--m(8820)sunparalambanein touton). The Greek is far more
effective than this English rendering. It is the imperfect active
of axio(935c), old verb to think meet or right and the present
active infinitive of the same verb (sunparalamban(935c)) with
negative used with this infinitive. Literally, "But Paul kept on
deeming it wise not to be taking along with them this one."
Barnabas looked on it as a simple punctiliar proposal (aorist
infinitive), but Paul felt a lively realization of the problem of
having a quitter on his hands (present infinitive). Each was
insistent in his position (two imperfects). Paul had a definite
reason for his view describing John Mark as "him who withdrew
from them from Pamphylia" (	on apostanta ap' aut(936e) apo
Pamphulias). Second aorist active articular participle of
aphist(886d)i, intransitive use, "the one who stood off from,
apostatized from" (our very word "apostasy"). And also as the one
who "went not with them to the work" (kai m(8820)sunelthonta autois
eis to ergon). At Perga Mark had faced the same task that Paul
and Barnabas did, but he flinched and flickered and quit. Paul
declined to repeat the experiment with Mark.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:39-15:39

註釋:

 {A sharp contention} (paroxusmos). Our very word paroxysm
in English. Old word though only twice in the N.T. (here and  Heb
10:24 ), from paroxun(935c), to sharpen (para, oxus) as of a blade
and of the spirit ( Ac 17:16  1Co 13:5 ). This "son of
consolation" loses his temper in a dispute over his cousin and
Paul uses sharp words towards his benefactor and friend. It is
often so that the little irritations of life give occasion to
violent explosions. If the incident in  Ga 2:11-21  had already
taken place, there was a sore place already that could be easily
rubbed. And if Mark also joined with Peter and Barnabas on that
occasion, Paul had fresh ground for irritation about him. But
there is no way to settle differences about men and we can only
agree to disagree as Paul and Barnabas did. {So that they parted
asunder from one another} (h(9373)te apoch(9372)isth(886e)ai autous ap'
all(886c)(936e)). Actual result here stated by h(9373)te and the first
aorist passive infinitive of apoch(9372)iz(935c), old verb to sever, to
separate, here only and  Re 6:4  in the N.T. The accusative of
general reference (autous) is normal. For construction with
h(9373)te see Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 999f. {And Barnabas took
Mark with him and sailed away to Cyprus} (	on te Barnaban
paralabonta ton Markon ekpleusai eis Kupron). Second infinitival
clause ekpleusai after h(9373)te connected by 	e. The same
participle is used here minus sun, paralabonta (second aorist
active). Barnabas and Mark sailed out (ekpleusai from ekple(935c))
from the harbour of Antioch. This is the last glimpse that Luke
gives us of Barnabas, one of the noblest figures in the New
Testament. Paul has a kindly reference to him in  1Co 9:6 . No
one can rightly blame Barnabas for giving his cousin John Mark a
second chance nor Paul for fearing to risk him again. One's
judgment may go with Paul, but one's heart goes with Barnabas.
And Mark made good with Barnabas, with Peter ( 1Pe 5:13 ) and
finally with Paul ( Col 4:10  2Ti 4:11 ). See my little book on
John Mark (_Making Good in the Ministry_). Paul and Barnabas
parted in anger and both in sorrow. Paul owed more to Barnabas
than to any other man. Barnabas was leaving the greatest spirit
of the time and of all times.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:40-15:40

註釋:

 {Chose} (epilexamenos). First aorist middle (indirect)
participle of epileg(935c), choosing for himself, as the successor
of Barnabas, not of Mark who had no place in Paul's plans at this
time. {Commended} (paradotheis). First aorist passive of
paradid(936d)i, the same verb employed about Paul and Barnabas
( 14:26 ) on their return from the first tour. It is clear now
that the sympathy of the church at Antioch is with Paul rather
than with Barnabas in the cleavage that has come. The church
probably recalled how in the pinch Barnabas flickered and went to
the side of Peter and that it was Paul who for the moment stood
_Paulus contra mundum_ for Gentile liberty in Christ against the
threat of the Judaizers from Jerusalem. Silas had influence in
the church in Jerusalem (verse  22 ) and was apparently a Roman
citizen ( 16:37 ) also. He is the Silas or Silvanus of the
epistles ( 1Th 1:1  2Th 1:1  2Co 1:19  1Pe 5:12 ). It is
remarkable that Peter mentions both Mark and Silas as with him
( 1Pe 5:12f. ) at the same time.

經文:

使徒行傳 15:41-15:41

註釋:

 {Went through} (di(8872)cheto). Imperfect middle. So Paul
went forth on his second mission tour with heart-aches and high
hopes mingled together. {Syria and Cilicia} (	(886e) Surian kai t(886e)
Kilikian). He took the opposite course from the first tour,
leaving Cyprus to Barnabas and Mark. Probably Paul had
established these churches while in Tarsus after leaving
Jerusalem ( Ac 9:30  Ga 1:21 ). Paul would go "by the Gulf of
Issus through the Syrian Gates, a narrow road between steep rocks
and the sea, and then inland, probably past Tarsus and over Mt.
Taurus by the Cilician gates" (Page). This second tour will
occupy Luke's story in Acts through  18:22 .
經文:

使徒行傳 16:1-16:1

註釋:

 {And he came also to Derbe and Lystra} (kat(886e)t(8873)en de kai
eis Derb(886e) kai eis Lustran). First aorist active of katanta(935c),
late verb to come down to, to arrive at. He struck Derbe first of
the places in the first tour which was the last city reached
then. {Timothy} (Timotheos). Apparently a native of Lystra
("there," ekei), his Hebrew mother named Eunice and grandmother
Lois ( 2Ti 1:5 ) and his Greek father's name not known. He may
have been a proselyte, but not necessarily so as Timothy was
taught the Scriptures by his mother and grandmother ( 2Ti 3:15 ),
and, if a proselyte, he would have had Timothy circumcised. It is
idle to ask if Paul came on purpose to get Timothy to take Mark's
place. Probably Timothy was about eighteen years of age, a
convert of Paul's former visit a few years before ( 1Ti 1:2 ) and
still young twelve years later ( 1Ti 4:12 ). Paul loved him
devotedly ( 1Ti 1:3  5:23  2Ti 3:15  Php 2:19f. ). It is a
glorious discovery to find a real young preacher for Christ's
work.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:2-16:2

註釋:

 {Was well reported of} (emartureito). Imperfect passive.
It was a continuous witness that was borne the young disciple
both in his home town of Lystra and in Derbe. Already he had so
borne himself that his gifts and graces for the ministry were
recognized. It is a wise precaution that the approval of the
local church is necessary for the licensing and the ordaining of
a preacher. If God has called a man for the work signs of it will
be manifest to others.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:3-16:3

註釋:

 {Him would Paul have to go forth with him} (	outon
(8874)hel(8873)en ho Paulos sun aut(9369) exelthein). This one (note
emphatic position) Paul wanted (first aorist active indicative of
	hel(935c) with temporal augment as if from ethel(935c) the old form).
Here was a gifted young man who was both Jew and Greek. {He took
and circumcised him} (lab(936e) perietemen auton). Any one could
perform this rite. Paul had stoutly resisted circumcision in the
case of Titus, a pure Greek ( Ga 2:3,5 ), because the whole
principle of Gentile liberty was at stake. But Timothy was both
Jew and Greek and would continually give offence to the Jews with
no advantage to the cause of Gentile freedom. So here for the
sake of expediency, "because of the Jews" (dia tous Ioudaious),
Paul voluntarily removed this stumbling-block to the ministry of
Timothy. Otherwise Timothy could not have been allowed to preach
ln the synagogues. _Idem non est semper idem_. But Timothy's case
was not the case of Titus. Here it was a question of efficient
service, not an essential of salvation. Hovey notes that Timothy
was circumcised because of Jewish unbelievers, not because of
Jewish believers. {Was a Greek} (Hell(886e) hup(8872)chen). Imperfect
active in indirect assertion where ordinarily the present
huparchei would be retained, possibly indicating that his
father was no longer living.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:4-16:4

註釋:

 {They delivered them} (paredidosan autois). Imperfect
active, kept on delivering to them in city after city. This is a
proof of Paul's loyalty to the Jerusalem compact (Knowling). The
circumcision of Timothy would indicate also that the points
involved were under discussion and that Paul felt no
inconsistency in what he did. {The decrees} (	a dogmata). Old
word from doke(935c), to give an opinion. It is used of public
decrees of rulers ( Lu 2:1  Ac 17:7 ), of the requirements of the
Mosaic law ( Col 2:14 ), and here of the regulations or
conclusions of the Jerusalem Conference. Silas was with Paul and
his presence gave added dignity to the passing out of the
decrees, a charter of Gentile freedom, since he was one of the
committee from Jerusalem to Antioch ( 15:22,27,32 ). {Which had
been ordained} (	a kekrimena). Perfect passive articular
participle of krin(935c), to judge, emphasizing the permanence of
the conclusions reached by the apostles and elders in Jerusalem.
{For to keep} (phulassein). This present active infinitive
likewise accents that it is a charter of liberty for continual
living, not a temporary compromise.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:5-16:5

註釋:

 {Were strengthened} (estereounto). Imperfect passive of
stereo(935c), old verb to make firm and solid like the muscles ( Ac
3:7,16 ), these three the only examples in the N.T. {Increased}
(eperisseuon). Imperfect active of the old and common verb
perisseu(935c) from perissos (overplus). The blessing of God was
on the work of Paul, Silas, and Timothy in the form of a
continuous revival.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:6-16:6

註釋:

 {The region of Phrygia and Galatia} (	(886e) Phrugian kai
Galatik(886e) ch(9372)an). This is probably the correct text with one
article and apparently describes one "Region" or District in The
Province of Galatia which was also Phrygian (the old-ethnographic
name with which compare the use of Lycaonia in  14:6 ). Strictly
speaking Derbe and Lystra, though in the Province of Galatia,
were not Phrygian, and so Luke would here be not resumptive of
the record in verses  1-5 ; but a reference to the country around
Iconium and Antioch in Pisidia in North Galatia is not included.
This verse is hotly disputed at every point by the advocates of
the North Galatian theory as represented by Chase and the South
Galatian theory by Ramsay. Whatever is true in regard to the
language of Luke here and in  18:23 , it is still possible for
Paul in  Ga 1:2  to use the term Galatia of the whole province of
that name which could, in fact, apply to either South or North
Galatia or to both. He could, of course, use it also in the
ethnographic sense of the real Gauls or Celts who dwelt in North
Galatia. Certainly the first tour of Paul and Barnabas was in the
Province of Galatia though touching only the Regions of Pisidia,
Phrygia, and Lycaonia, which province included besides the Gauls
to the north. In this second tour Lycaonia has been already
touched (Derbe and Lystra) and now Phrygia. The question arises
why Luke here and in  18:23  adds the term "of Galatia"
(Galatik(886e)) though not in  13:14  (Pisidian Antioch) nor in
 14:6  (cities of Lycaonia). Does Luke mean to use "of Galatia"
in the same ethnographic sense as "of Phrygia" or does he here
add the province (Galatia) to the name of the Region (Phrygia)?
In itself either view is possible and it really matters very
little except that the question is raised whether Paul went into
the North Galatian Region on this occasion or later ( 18:23 ). He
could have done so and the Epistle be addressed to the churches
of South Galatia, North Galatia, or the province as a whole. But
the Greek participle k(936c)uthentes ("having been forbidden")
plays a part in the argument that cannot be overlooked whether
Luke means to say that Paul went north or not. This aorist
passive participle of k(936c)u(935c), to hinder, can only express
simultaneous or antecedent action, not subsequent action as
Ramsay argues. No example of the so-called subsequent use of the
aorist participle has ever been found in Greek as all Greek
grammarians agree (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 860-63, 1112-14).
The only natural meaning of k(936c)uthentes is that Paul with Silas
and Timothy "passed through the region of Phrygia and Galatia"
because they were hindered by the Holy Spirit from speaking the
word in Asia (the Province of Asia of which Ephesus was the chief
city and west of Derbe and Lystra). This construction implies
that the country called "the region of Phrygia and Galatia" is
not in the direct line west toward Ephesus. What follows in verse
 7  throws further light on the point.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:7-16:7

註釋:

 {Over against Mysia} (kata t(886e) Musian). This was an
ill-defined region rather north and west of Phrygia. The Romans
finally absorbed most of it in the Province of Asia. {They
assayed to go into Bithynia} (epeirazon eis t(886e) Bithunian
poreuth(886e)ai). Conative imperfect of peiraz(935c) and ingressive
aorist passive infinitive of poreuomai. Now Bithynia is
northeast of Mysia and north of Galatia (province). Clearly Luke
means to say that Paul had, when hindered by the Holy Spirit from
going west into Asia, gone north so as to come in front of
Bithynia. This journey would take him directly through Phrygia
and the North Galatian country (the real Gauls or Celts). This
is, to my mind, the strongest argument for the North Galatian
view in these verses  6,7 . The grammar and the topography bring
Paul right up to Bithynia (north of the old Galatia). It is
verses  6,7  that make me pause before accepting the plausible
arguments of Ramsay for the South Galatian theory. In itself the
problem is nothing like so important or so determinative as he
makes it. But shall we smash Luke's grammar to pieces to bolster
up a theory of criticism? {And the Spirit of Jesus suffered them
not} (kai ouk eiasen autous to pneuma I(8873)ou). The same Spirit
who in verse  6  had forbidden going into Asia now closed the
door into Bithynia. This expression occurs nowhere else, but we
have the spirit of Christ ( Ro 8:9 ) and the Spirit of Jesus
Christ ( Php 1:19 ). Eiasen is first aorist active indicative
of ea(935c), old verb to allow.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:8-16:8

註釋:

 {Passing by Mysia} (parelthontes t(886e) Musian). Literally,
passing alongside or skirting Mysia, neglecting it without
preaching there. Strictly they passed through part of it to reach
Troas. {To Troas} (eis Troiada). This city, named Alexandria
Troas after Alexander the Great, was the seaport of Mysia, though
a Roman colony and not counted as part of either Asia or
Bithynia. New Ilium, on the site of the old Troy, was four miles
farther north. It was the place to take ship for Philippi. Twice
again Paul will be here ( 2Co 2:12  Ac 20:6 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 16:9-16:9

註釋:

 {A vision} (horama). Old word, eleven times in Acts, once
in  Mt 17:9 . Twice Paul had been hindered by the Holy Spirit
from going where he wanted to go. Most men would have gone back
home with such rebuffs, but not so Paul. Now the call is positive
and not negative, to go "far hence to the Gentiles" ( 22:21 ). He
had little dreamed of such a call when he left Antioch. Paul's
frequent visions always came at real crises in his life. {A man
of Macedonia} (an(8872) Maked(936e)). Ramsay follows Renan in the view
that this was Luke with whom Paul had conversed about conditions
in Macedonia. Verse  10  makes it plain that Luke was now in the
party, but when he joined them we do not know. Some hold that
Luke lived at Antioch in Syria and came on with Paul and Silas,
others that he joined them later in Galatia, others that he
appeared now either as Paul's physician or new convert. Ramsay
thinks that Philippi was his home at this time. But, whatever is
true about Luke, the narrative must not be robbed of its
supernatural aspect ( 10:10  22:17 ). {Was standing} ((886e)
hest(9373)). Second perfect active participle of hist(886d)i,
intransitive, periphrastic imperfect. Vivid picture. {Help us}
(o(8874)h(8873)on h(886d)in). Ingressive first aorist active imperative of
o(8874)he(935c) (o(882c) the(935c)), to run at a cry, to help. The man uses
the plural for all including himself. It was the cry of Europe
for Christ.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:10-16:10

註釋:

 {We sought} (ez(8874)(8873)amen). This sudden use of the plural,
dropped in  17:1  when Paul leaves Philippi, and resumed in
 20:5  when Paul rejoins Luke in Philippi, argues conclusively
that Luke, the author, is in the party ("we" portions of Acts)
and shows in a writer of such literary skill as Luke that he is
not copying a document in a blundering sort of way. Paul told his
vision to the party and they were all ready to respond to the
call. {Concluding} (sunbibazontes). A very striking word,
present active participle of sunbibaz(935c), old verb to make go
together, to coalesce or knit together, to make this and that
agree and so to conclude. Already in  9:22  of Paul's preaching.
This word here gives a good illustration of the proper use of the
reason in connection with revelation, to decide whether it is a
revelation from God, to find out what it means for us, and to see
that we obey the revelation when understood. God had called them
to preach to the Macedonians. They had to go.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:11-16:11

註釋:

 {Setting sail} (anachthentes). Same word in  13:13  which
see. {We made a straight course} (euthudrom(8873)amen). First
aorist active indicative of compound verb euthudrome(935c) (in
Philo) from adjective euthudromos (in Strabo), running a
straight course (euthus, dromos). In the N.T. only here and
 21:1 . It is a nautical term for sailing before the wind. Luke
has a true feeling for the sea. {To Samothrace} (eis
Samothr(8369)k(886e)). A small island in the Aegean about halfway
between Troas and Neapolis. {The day following} (	(8869) epious(8869)).
Locative case of time with h(886d)er(8369) (day) to be supplied ( 7:26  20:15  21:18  23:11 ). With adverse winds it took five days to
make the run of 125 miles ( 20:6 ). {To Neapolis} (eis Nean
Polin). To New Town (Newton, Naples, Neapolis). The port of
Philippi ten miles distant, Thracian, but reckoned as Macedonian
after Vespasian.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:12-16:12

註釋:

 {To Philippi} (eis Philippous). The plural like Ath(886e)ai
(Athens) is probably due to separate sections of the city united
(Winer-Moulton, _Grammar_, p. 220). The city (ancient name
Krenides or Wells) was renamed after himself by Philip, the
father of Alexander the Great. It was situated about a mile east
of the small stream Gangites which flows into the river Strymon
some thirty miles away. In this valley the Battle of Philippi was
fought B.C. 42 between the Second Triumvirate (Octavius,
Antonius, Lepidus) and Brutus and Cassius. In memory of the
victory Octavius made it a colony (kol(936e)ia) with all the
privileges of Roman citizenship, such as freedom from scourging,
freedom from arrest save in extreme cases, and the right of
appeal to the emperor. This Latin word occurs here alone in the
N.T. Octavius planted here a colony of Roman veterans with farms
attached, a military outpost and a miniature of Rome itself. The
language was Latin. Here Paul is face to face with the Roman
power and empire in a new sense. He was a new Alexander, come
from Asia to conquer Europe for Christ, a new Caesar to build the
Kingdom of Christ on the work of Alexander and Caesar. One need
not think that Paul was conscious of all that was involved in
destiny for the world. Philippi was on the Egnatian Way, one of
the great Roman roads, that ran from here to Dyrrachium on the
shores of the Adriatic, a road that linked the east with the
west. {The first of the district} (pr(9374)(8820)t(8873) meridos). Philippi
was not the first city of Macedonia nor does Luke say so. That
honour belonged to Thessalonica and even Amphipolis was larger
than Philippi. It is not clear whether by meris Luke means a
formal division of the province, though the _Koin(825f) has examples
of this geographical sense (papyri). There is no article with
pr(9374)(885c) and Luke may not mean to stress unduly the position of
Philippi in comparison with Amphipolis. But it was certainly a
leading city of this district of Macedonia. {We were tarrying}
((886d)en diatribontes). Periphrastic imperfect active.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:13-16:13

註釋:

 {By a river side} (para potamon). The little river
Gangites (or Gargites) was one mile west of the town. Philippi as
a military outpost had few Jews. There was evidently no synagogue
inside the city, but "without the gates" (ex(9320)t(8873) pul(8873)) they
had noticed an enclosure "where we supposed" (hou enomizomen,
correct text, imperfect active), probably as they came into the
city, "was a place of prayer" (proscuch(886e) einai). Infinitive
with accusative of general reference in indirect discourse.
Proseuch(885c) is common in the LXX and the N.T. for the act of
prayer as in  Ac 2:42  then for a place of prayer either a
synagogue (III Macc. 7:20) or more often an open air enclosure
near the sea or a river where there was water for ceremonial
ablutions. The word occurs also in heathen writers for a place of
prayer (Schurer, _Jewish People_, Div. II, Vol. II, p. 69, Engl.
Tr.). Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 222) quotes an Egyptian
inscription of the third century B.C. with this sense of the word
and one from Panticapaeum on the Black Sea of the first century
A.D. (_Light from the Ancient East_, p. 102). Juvenal (III. 296)
has a sneering reference to the Jewish proseucha. Josephus
(_Ant_. XIV. 10, 23) quotes a decree of Halicarnassus which
allowed the Jews "to make their prayers (proseuchas) on the
seashore according to the custom of their fathers." There was a
synagogue in Thessalonica, but apparently none in Amphipolis and
Apollonia ( Ac 17:1 ). The rule of the rabbis required ten men to
constitute a synagogue, but here were gathered only a group of
women at the hour of prayer. In pioneer days in this country it
was a common thing to preach under bush arbours in the open air.
John Wesley and George Whitfield were great open air preachers.
Paul did not have an inspiring beginning for his work in Europe,
but he took hold where he could. The conjecture was correct. It
was a place of prayer, but only a bunch of women had come
together (	ais sunelthousais gunaixin), excuse enough for not
preaching to some preachers, but not to Paul and his party. The
"man of Macedonia" turned out to be a group of women (Furneaux).
Macedonian inscriptions show greater freedom for women in
Macedonia than elsewhere at this time and confirm Luke's story of
the activities of women in Philippi, Thessalonica, Berea. {We sat
down and spake} (kathisantes elaloumen). Having taken our seats
(aorist active participle of kathiz(935c)) we began to speak or
preach (inchoative imperfect of lale(935c), often used for
preaching). Sitting was the Jewish attitude for public speaking.
It was not mere conversation, but more likely conversational
preaching of an historical and expository character. Luke's use
of the first person plural implies that each of the four (Paul,
Silas, Timothy, Luke) preached in turn, with Paul as chief
speaker.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:14-16:14

註釋:

 {Lydia} (Ludia). Her birthplace was Thyatira in Lydia.
She may have been named after the land, though Lydia is a common
female name (see Horace). Lydia was itself a Macedonian colony
(Strabo, XIII. 4). Thyatira (note plural form like Philippi and
one of the seven churches of Asia here  Re 2:18 ) was famous for
its purple dyes as old as Homer (Iliad, IV. 141) and had a guild
of dyers (hoi bapheis) as inscriptions show. {A seller of
purple} (porphurop(936c)is). A female seller of purple fabrics
(porphura, p(936c)is). Late word, masculine form in an inscription.
There was a great demand for this fabric as it was used on the
official toga at Rome and in Roman colonies. We still use the
term "royal purple." See on 烊u 16:19|. Evidently Lydia was a
woman of some means to carry on such an important enterprise from
her native city. She may have been a freed-woman, since racial
names were often borne by slaves. {One that worshipped God}
(sebomen(8820)ton theon). A God-fearer or proselyte of the gate.
There was a Jewish settlement in Thyatira which was especially
interested in the dyeing industry. She probably became a
proselyte there. Whether this was true of the other women we do
not know. They may have been Jewesses or proselytes like Lydia,
probably all of them employees of hers in her business. When Paul
writes to the Philippians he does not mention Lydia who may have
died meanwhile and who certainly was not Paul's wife. She was
wealthy and probably a widow. {Heard us} ((886b)ouen). Imperfect
active of akou(935c), was listening, really listening and she kept
it up, listening to each of these new and strange preachers.
{Opened} (di(886e)oixen). First aorist active indicative of
dianoig(935c), old word, double compound (dia, ana, oig(935c)) to open
up wide or completely like a folding door (both sides, dia,
two). Only the Lord could do that. Jesus had opened (the same
verb) the mind of the disciples to understand the Scriptures ( Lu
24:45 ). {To give heed} (prosechein). To hold the mind (	on
noun understood), present active infinitive. She kept her mind
centred on the things spoken by Paul whose words gripped her
attention. She rightly perceived that Paul was the foremost one
of the group. He had personal magnetism and power of intellect
that the Spirit of God used to win the heart of this remarkable
woman to Christ. It was worth coming to Philippi to win this fine
personality to the Kingdom of God. She will be the chief spirit
in this church that will give Paul more joy and co-operation than
any of his churches. It is not stated that she was converted on
the first Sabbath, though this may have been the case. "One
solitary convert, a woman, and she already a seeker after God,
and a native of that very Asia where they had been forbidden to
preach" (Furneaux). But a new era had dawned for Europe and for
women in the conversion of Lydia.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:15-16:15

註釋:

 2Co
11:9 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
11' or engs='2Co
11'
經文:

使徒行傳 16:16-16:16

註釋:

 {A spirit of divination} (pneuma puth(936e)a). So the correct
text with accusative (apparition, a spirit, a python), not the
genitive (puth(936e)os). Hesychius defines it as daimonion
manikon (a spirit of divination). The etymology of the word is
unknown. Bengel suggests puthesthai from punthanomai, to
inquire. Python was the name given to the serpent that kept guard
at Delphi, slain by Apollo, who was called Puthios Apollo and
the prophetess at Delphi was termed Pythia. Certainly Luke does
not mean to credit Apollo with a real existence ( 1Co 8:4 ). But
Plutarch (A.D. 50-100) says that the term puth(936e)es was applied
to ventriloquists (eggastrimuthoi). In the LXX those with
familiar spirits are called by this word ventriloquists ( Le
19:31  20:6,27 , including the witch of Endor  1Sa 28:7 ). It is
possible that this slave girl had this gift of prophecy "by
soothsaying" (manteuomen(885c)). Present middle participle of
manteuomai, old heathen word (in contrast with proph(8874)eu(935c))
for acting the seer (mantis) and this kin to mainomai, to be
mad, like the howling dervishes of later times. This is the
so-called instrumental use of the circumstantial participles.
{Brought} (pareichen). Imperfect active of parech(935c), a steady
source of income. {Much gain} (ergasian poll(886e)). Work,
business, from ergazomai, to work. {Her masters} (	ois kuriois
aut(8873)). Dative case. Joint owners of this poor slave girl who
were exploiting her calamity, whatever it was, for selfish gain,
just as men and women today exploit girls and women in the "white
slave" trade. As a fortune-teller she was a valuable asset for
all the credulous dupes of the community. Simon Magus in Samaria
and Elymas Barjesus in Cyprus had won power and wealth as
soothsayers.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:17-16:17

註釋:

 {The Most High God} (	ou theou tou hupsistou). Pagan
inscriptions use this language for the Supreme Being. It looks
like supernatural testimony like that borne by the demoniacs to
Jesus as "son of the Most High God" ( Lu 8:28 . Cf; also  Mr
1:24  3:11  Mt 8:29  Lu 4:41 , etc.). She may have heard Paul
preach about Jesus as the way of salvation. {The way of
salvation} (hodon s(9374)(8872)ias). A way of salvation, strictly
speaking (no article). There were many "ways of salvation"
offered to men then as now.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:18-16:18

註釋:

 {She did} (epoiei). Imperfect active, kept it up for many
days. The strange conduct gave Paul and the rest an unpleasant
prominence in the community. {Being sore troubled}
(diapon(8874)heis). First aorist passive of diapone(935c), old verb,
to work laboriously, then in passive to be "worked up,"
displeased, worn out. In the N.T. only here and  4:2  which see
(there of the Sadducees about Peter's preaching). Paul was
grieved, annoyed, indignant. He wanted no testimony from a source
like this any more than he did the homage of the people of Lystra
( 14:14 ). {That very hour} (aut(8869) t(8869) h(9372)(8369)). Locative case of
time and familiar Lukan idiom in his Gospel, "at the hour
itself." The cure was instantaneous. Paul, like Jesus,
distinguished between the demon and the individual.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:19-16:19

註釋:

 {Was gone} (ex(886c)then). Was gone out of the slave girl,
second aorist active indicative of exerchomai. "The two most
important social revolutions worked by Christianity have been the
elevation of woman and the abolition of slavery" (Furneaux). Both
are illustrated here (Lydia and this slave girl). "The most
sensitive part of 'civilized' man is the pocket" (Ramsay). {Laid
hold on} (epilabomenoi). Second aorist middle participle of
epilamban(935c) as in  9:27  17:19 , but here with hostile intent.
{Dragged} (heilkusan). First aorist active indicative of
helku(935c), late form of the old verb helk(935c) (also in  Jas 2:6 )
to draw as a sword, and then to drag one forcibly as here and
 21:30 . It is also used of spiritual drawing as by Jesus in  Joh
12:32 . Here it is by violence. {Into the marketplace} (eis t(886e)
agoran). Into the Roman forum near which would be the courts of
law as in our courthouse square, as in  17:17 . Marketing went on
also ( Mr 7:4 ), when the crowds collect ( Mr 6:56 ), from
ageir(935c), to collect or gather. {Unto the rulers} (epi tous
archontas). General Greek term for "the magistrates."

經文:

使徒行傳 16:20-16:20

註釋:

 {Unto the magistrates} (	ois strat(8867)ois). Greek term
(stratos, ag(935c)) for leader of an army or general. But in civic
life a governor. The technical name for the magistrates in a
Roman colony was _duumviri_ or duumvirs, answering to consuls in
Rome. Strat(8867)oi here is the Greek rendering of the Latin
_praetores_ (praetors), a term which they preferred out of pride
to the term _duumviri_. Since they represented consuls, the
praetors or duumvirs were accompanied by lictors bearing rods
(verse  35 ). {These men} (houtoi hoi anthr(9370)oi). Contemptuous
use. {Being Jews} (Ioudaioi huparchontes). The people of
Philippi, unlike those in Antioch ( 11:26 ), did not recognize
any distinction between Jews and Christians. These four men were
Jews. This appeal to race prejudice would be especially pertinent
then because of the recent decree of Claudius expelling Jews from
Rome ( 18:2 ). It was about A.D. 49 or 50 that Paul is in
Philippi. The hatred of the Jews by the Romans is known otherwise
(Cicero, _Pro Flacco_, XXVIII; Juvenal, XIV. 96-106). {Do
exceedingly trouble} (ektarassousin). Late compound (effective
use of ek in composition) and only here in the N.T.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:21-16:21

註釋:

 {Customs which it is not lawful for us to receive, or to
observe, being Romans} (eth(8820)ha ouk estin h(886d)in paradechesthai
oude poiein R(936d)aiois ousin). Note the sharp contrast between
"being Jews" in verse  20  and "being Romans" here. This pose of
patriotism is all sound and fury. It is love of money that moves
these "masters" far more than zeal for Rome. As Roman citizens in
a colony they make full use of all their rights of protest.
Judaism was a _religio licita_ in the Roman empire, only they
were not allowed to make proselytes of the Romans themselves. No
Roman magistrate would pass on abstract theological questions
( 18:15 ), but only if a breach of the peace was made
(ektarassousin h(886d)(936e) t(886e) polin) or the formation of secret
sects and organizations. Evidently both of these last points are
involved by the charges of "unlawful customs" by the masters who
are silent about their real ground of grievance against Paul and
Silas. Ethos (kin to (8874)hos,  1Co 15:33 ) is from eth(935c), to
be accustomed or used to a thing. The Romans granted toleration
to conquered nations to follow their religious customs provided
they did not try to win the Romans. But the Jews had made great
headway to favour (the God-fearers) with increasing hatred also.
Emperor worship had in store grave peril for both Jews and
Christians. The Romans will care more for this than for the old
gods and goddesses. It will combine patriotism and piety.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:22-16:22

註釋:

 {Rose up together} (sunepest(885c)). Second aorist
(ingressive) active of the double compound sunephist(886d)i,
intransitive, old verb, but only here in the N.T. (cf.
katepest(8873)an in  18:12 ). There was no actual attack of the mob
as Paul and Silas were in the hands of the officers, but a sudden
and violent uprising of the people, the appeal to race and
national prejudice having raised a ferment. {Rent their garments
off them} (perir(8878)antes aut(936e) ta himatia). First aorist active
participle of perir(8867)numi, old verb, to break off all around,
to strip or rend all round. Here only in the N.T. The duumvirs
probably gave orders for Paul and Silas to be stripped of their
outer garments (himatia), though not actually doing it with
their own hands, least of all not stripping off their own
garments in horror as Ramsay thinks. That would call for the
middle voice. In II Macc. 4:38 the active voice is used as here
of stripping off the garments of others. Paul in  1Th 2:2  refers
to the shameful treatment received in Philippi, "insulted"
(hubristhentas). As a Roman citizen this was unlawful, but the
duumvirs looked on Paul and Silas as vagabond and seditious Jews
and "acted with the highhandedness characteristic of the fussy
provincial authorities" (Knowling). {Commanded} (ekeleuon).
Imperfect active, repeatedly ordered. The usual formula of
command was: "Go, lictors; strip off their garments; let them be
scourged." {To beat them with rods} (
habdizein). Present
active infinitive of 
habdiz(935c), old verb, but in the
N.T.=_virgis caedere_ only here and  2Co 11:25  where Paul
alludes to this incident and two others not given by Luke (	ris
erhabdisth(886e)). He came near getting another in Jerusalem ( Ac
22:25 ). Why did not Paul say here that he was a Roman citizen as
he does later (verse  37 ) and in Jerusalem ( 22:26f. )? It might
have done no good in this hubbub and no opportunity was allowed
for defence of any kind.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:23-16:23

註釋:

 {When they had laid} (epithentes). Second aorist
(constative) active participle of epitith(886d)i, to place upon.
{Many stripes} (pollas pl(8867)as). The Jewish law was forty
stripes save one ( 2Co 11:24 ). The Roman custom depended on the
caprice of the judge and was a terrible ordeal. It was the custom
to inflict the stripes on the naked body (back) as Livy 2.5 says:
"_Missique lictores ad sumendum supplicium, nudatos virgis
caedunt_." On pl(8867)as (from pl(8873)s(935c), to strike a blow) see on
烊u 10:30; 12:47f|. {The jailor} (	(9369) desmophulaki). Late word
(desmos, phulax, keeper of bonds), in the N.T. only here
(verses  23,27,36 ). The LXX has the word archidesmophulax ( Ge
39:21-23 ). Chrysostom calls this jailor Stephanus, he was of
Achaia ( 1Co 16:15 ). {To keep safely} (asphal(9373) t(8872)ein).
Present active infinitive, to keep on keeping safely, perhaps "as
dangerous political prisoners" (Rackham). He had some rank and
was not a mere turnkey.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:24-16:24

註釋:

 {Into the inner prison} (eis t(886e) es(9374)eran phulak(886e)). The
comparative form from the adverb es(935c) (within), Ionic and old
Attic for eis(935c). In the LXX, but in the N.T. only here and  Heb
6:19 . The Roman public prisons had a vestibule and outer prison
and behind this the inner prison, a veritable dungeon with no
light or air save what came through the door when open. One has
only to picture modern cells in our jails, the dungeons in feudal
castles, London prisons before the time of Howard, to appreciate
the horrors of an inner prison cell in a Roman provincial town of
the first century A.D. {Made their feet fast} (	ous podas
(8873)phalisato aut(936e)). First aorist (effective) middle of
asphaliz(935c), from asphal(8873) (safe), common verb in late Greek,
in the N.T. only here and  Mt 24:64ff . The inner prison was safe
enough without this refinement of cruelty. {In the stocks} (eis
to xulon). Xulon, from xu(935c), to scrape or plane, is used for
a piece of wood whether a cross or gibbet ( Ac 5:30  10:39  13:29  Ga 3:13  1Pe 2:24 ) or a log or timber with five holes
(four for the wrists and ankles and one for the neck) or two for
the feet as here, xuloped(885c), Latin _vervus_, to shackle the feet
stretched apart ( Job 33:11 ). This torment was practiced in
Sparta, Athens, Rome, and Adonirom Judson suffered it in Burmah.
Xulon is also used in the N.T. for stick or staff ( Mt 26:47 )
and even a tree ( Lu 23:31 ). Tertullian said of Christians in
the stocks: _Nihil crus sentit in vervo, quum animus in caelo
est_ (Nothing the limb feels in the stocks when the mind is in
heaven).

經文:

使徒行傳 16:25-16:25

註釋:

 {About midnight} (kata de mesonuktion). Middle of the
night, old adjective seen already in  Mr 13:35  Lu 11:5  which
see. {Were praying and singing} (proseuchomenoi humnoun).
Present middle participle and imperfect active indicative:
Praying they were singing (simultaneously, blending together
petition and praise). Humne(935c) is an old verb from humnos (cf.
 Isa 12:4  Da 3:23 ). Paul and Silas probably used portions of
the Psalms (cf.  Lu 1:39f.,67f.  2:28f. ) with occasional
original outbursts of praise. {Were listening to them}
(ep(886b)ro(936e)to aut(936e)). Imperfect middle of epakroaomai. Rare
verb to listen with pleasure as to a recitation or music (Page).
It was a new experience for the prisoners and wondrously
attractive entertainment to them.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:26-16:26

註釋:

 {Earthquake} (seismos). Old word from sei(935c), to shake.
Luke regarded it as an answer to prayer as in  4:31 . He and
Timothy were not in prison. {So that the foundations of the
prison house were shaken} (h(9373)te saleuth(886e)ai ta themelia tou
desm(9374)(8872)iou). Regular construction of the first aorist passive
infinitive and the accusative of general reference with h(9373)te
for actual result just like the indicative. This old word for
prison house already in  Mt 11:2  Ac 5:21,23  which see.
Themelia is neuter plural of the adjective 	hemelios, from
	hema (thing laid down from 	ith(886d)i). So already in  Lu 6:48  14:29 . If the prison was excavated from rocks in the hillside,
as was often the case, the earthquake would easily have slipped
the bars of the doors loose and the chains would have fallen out
of the walls. {Were opened} ((886e)e(9369)chth(8873)an). First aorist
passive indicative of anoig(935c) (or -numi) with triple augment
((882c) e, (935c)), while there is no augment in aneth(885c) (first aorist
passive indicative of ani(886d)i, were loosed), old verb, but in
the N.T. only here and  27:40  Eph 6:9  Heb 13:5 .

經文:

使徒行傳 16:27-16:27

註釋:

 {Being roused out of sleep} (exupnos genomenos). Becoming
exupnos (rare word, only here in N.T., in LXX and Josephus). An
earthquake like that would wake up any one. {Open}
(ane(9369)gmenos). Perfect passive participle with double
reduplication in predicate position, standing open. {Drew his
sword} (spasamenos t(886e) machairan). First aorist middle
participle of spa(935c), to draw, as in  Mr 14:47 , drawing his own
sword himself. Our word spasm from this old word. {Was about}
((886d)ellen). Imperfect active of mell(935c) with both syllabic and
temporal augment and followed here by present infinitive. He was
on the point of committing suicide as Brutus had done near here.
Stoicism had made suicide popular as the escape from trouble like
the Japanese _harikari_. {Had escaped} (ekpepheugenai). Second
perfect active infinitive of ekpheug(935c), old verb with perfective
force of ek, to flee out, to get clean away. This infinitive
and accusative of general reference is due to indirect discourse
after 
omiz(936e). Probably the prisoners were so panic stricken by
the earthquake that they did not rally to the possibility of
escape before the jailor awoke. He was responsible for the
prisoners with his life ( 12:19  27:42 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 16:28-16:28

註釋:

 {Do thyself no harm} (m(8864)en prax(8869)s seaut(9369) kakon). The
usual construction (m(885c) and the aorist subjunctive) for a
prohibition not to {begin} to do a thing. The older Greek would
probably have used poi(8873)(8869)s here. The later Greek does not
always preserve the old distinction between poie(935c), to do a
thing, and prass(935c), to practice, though prassete keeps it in
 Php 4:9  and poie(935c) is rightly used in  Lu 3:10-14 . As a
matter of fact prass(935c) does not occur in Matthew or in Mark,
only twice in John, six times in Luke's Gospel, thirteen in Acts,
and elsewhere by Paul. {Sprang in} (eisep(8864)(8873)en). First aorist
active of eisp(8864)a(935c), old verb, but here only in the N.T. Cf.
ekp(8864)a(935c) in  14:14 . The jailor was at the outer door and he
wanted lights to see what was inside in the inner prison.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:29-16:29

註釋:

 {Trembling for fear} (entromos genomenos). "Becoming
terrified." The adjective entromos (in terror) occurs in N.T.
only here and  7:32  Heb 12:21 . {Fell down} (prosepesen).
Second aorist active indicative of prospipt(935c), old verb. An act
of worship as Cornelius before Peter ( 10:25 ), when
prosekun(8873)en is used.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:30-16:30

註釋:

 {Brought them out} (progag(936e) autous ex(935c)). Second aorist
active participle of proag(935c), to lead forward. He left the other
prisoners inside, feeling that he had to deal with these men whom
he had evidently heard preach or had heard of their message as
servants of the Most High God as the slave girl called them.
There may have been superstition behind his fear, but there was
evident sincerity.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:31-16:31

註釋:

 {To be saved} (hina s(9374)h(935c)). Final clause with hina and
first aorist passive subjunctive. What did he mean by "saved"?
Certainly more than escape from peril about the prisoners or
because of the earthquake, though these had their influences on
him. Cf. way of salvation in verse  17 . {Believe on the Lord
Jesus} (Pisteuson epi ton kurion I(8873)oun). This is what Peter
told Cornelius ( 10:43 ). This is the heart of the matter for
both the jailor and his house.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:32-16:32

註釋:

 {They spake the word of God} (elal(8873)an ton logon tou
theou). So Paul and Silas gave fuller exposition of the way of
life to the jailor "with all that were in his house." It was a
remarkable service with keenest attention and interest, the
jailor with his warden, slaves, and family.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:33-16:33

註釋:

 {Washed their stripes} (elousen apo t(936e) pl(8867)(936e)).
Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 227) cites an inscription of
Pergamum with this very construction of apo and the ablative,
to wash off, though it is an old verb. This first aorist active
indicative of lou(935c), to bathe, succinctly shows what the jailor
did to remove the stains left by the rods of the lictors (verse
 22 ). Nipt(935c) was used for washing parts of the body. {And was
baptized, he and all his, immediately} (kai ebaptisth(8820)autos kai
hoi autou hapantes parachr(886d)a). The verb is in the singular
agreeing with autos, but it is to be supplied with hoi autou,
and it was done at once.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:34-16:34

註釋:

 {He brought them up} (anagag(936e)). Second aorist active
participle of anag(935c). It looks as if his house was above the
prison. The baptism apparently took place in the pool or tank in
which he bathed Paul and Silas (De Wette) or the rectangular
basin (_impluvium_) in the court for receiving the rain or even
in a swimming pool or bath (kolumb(8874)hra) found within the walls
of the prison (Kuinoel). Meyer: "Perhaps the water was in the
court of the house; and the baptism was that of immersion, which
formed an essential part of the symbolism of the act." {Set meat}
(pareth(886b)en trapezan). Set a "table" before them with food on
it. They had probably had no food for a day. {With all his house}
(panoikei). Adverb, once in Plato, though usually panoiki(8369).
In LXX, but here alone in the N.T. It is in an amphibolous
position and can be taken either with "rejoiced" ((8867)alliasato)
or "having believed" (pepisteuk(9373), perfect active participle,
permanent belief), coming between them. The whole household
(family, warden, slaves) heard the word of God, believed in the
Lord Jesus, made confession, were baptized, and rejoiced.
Furneaux considers the haste in baptism here "precipitate" as in
the baptism of the eunuch. But why delay?

經文:

使徒行傳 16:35-16:35

註釋:

 {The serjeants} (	ous rhabdouchous). Fasces-bearers,
regular Greek word (
habdos, ech(935c)) for Latin _lictores_ though
Cicero says that they should carry _baculi_, not _fasces_. Was
this message because of the earthquake, the influence of Lydia,
or a belated sense of justice on the part of the magistrates
(praetors)? Perhaps a bit of all three may be true. The Codex
Bezae expressly says that the magistrates "assembled together in
the market place and recollecting the earthquake that had
happened they were afraid."

經文:

使徒行傳 16:36-16:36

註釋:

 {Now therefore} (
un oun). Note both particles (time and
inference). It was a simple matter to the jailor and he was full
of glee over this happy outcome.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:37-16:37

註釋:

 {Unto them} (pros autous). The lictors by the jailor. The
reply of Paul is a marvel of brevity and energy, almost every
word has a separate indictment showing the utter illegality of
the whole proceeding. {They have beaten us} (deirantes h(886d)as).
First aorist active participle of der(935c), old verb to flay, to
skin, to smite. The _Lex Valeria_ B.C. 509 and the _Lex Poscia_
B.C. 248 made it a crime to inflict blows on a Roman citizen.
Cicero says, "To fetter a Roman citizen was a crime, to scourge
him a scandal, to slay him--parricide." Claudius had "deprived
the city of Rhodes of its freedom for having crucified some
citizen of Rome" (Rackham). {Publicly} (d(886d)osi(8369)). This added
insult to injury. Common adverb (hod(9369)) supplied with
adjective, associative instrumental case, opposed to idi(8369) or
kat' oikous,  Ac 20:20 ) {Uncondemned} (akatakritous). This
same verbal adjective from kata-krin(935c) with a privative is
used by Paul in  22:25  and nowhere else in the N.T. Rare in late
Greek like akatagn(9373)tos, but in late _Koin(825f) (papyri,
inscriptions). The meaning is clearly "without being tried." Paul
and Silas were not given a chance to make a defence. They were
sentenced unheard ( 25:16 ). Even slaves in Roman law had a right
to be heard. {Men that are Romans} (anthr(9370)ous Romaious
huparchontas). The praetors did not know, of course, that Paul
and Silas were Roman citizens any more than Lysias knew it in  Ac
22:27 . Paul's claim is not challenged in either instance. It was
a capital offence to make a false claim to Roman citizenship.
{Have cast us into prison} (ebalan eis phulak(886e)). Second aorist
active indicative of all(935c), old verb, with first aorist ending
as often in the _Koin(825f) (-an, not -on). This was the climax,
treating them as criminals. {And now privily} (kai nun
lathr(8369)). Paul balances their recent conduct with the former.
{Nay verily, but} (ou gar, alla). No indeed! It is the use of
gar so common in answers (ge+ara) as in  Mt 27:23 . Alla
gives the sharp alternative. {Themselves} (autoi). As a public
acknowledgment that they had wronged and mistreated Paul and
Silas. Let them come themselves and lead us out (exagaget(9373)an,
third person plural second aorist active imperative of exag(935c)).
It was a bitter pill to the proud praetors.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:39-16:39

註釋:

 {They feared} (ephob(8874)h(8873)an). This is the explanation.
They became frightened for their own lives when they saw what
they had done to Roman citizens. {They asked} ((8872)(9374)(936e)).
Imperfect active of er(9374)a(935c). They kept on begging them to leave
for fear of further trouble. The colonists in Philippi would turn
against the praetors if they learned the facts, proud as they
were of being citizens. This verb in the _Koin(825f) is often used as
here to make a request and not just to ask a question.

經文:

使徒行傳 16:40-16:40

註釋:

 {Into the house of Lydia} (pros t(886e) Ludian). No word in
the Greek for "house," but it means the house of Lydia. Note "the
brethren" here, not merely Luke and Timothy, but other brethren
now converted besides those in the house of the jailor. The four
missionaries were guests of Lydia (verse  15 ) and probably the
church now met in her home. {They departed} (ex(886c)than). Paul
and Silas, but not Luke and Timothy. Note "they" here, not "we."
Note also the -an ending instead of -on as above. The
movements of Timothy are not perfectly clear till he reappears at
Beroea ( 17:15 ). It seems unlikely that he came to Thessalonica
with Paul and Silas since only Paul and Silas obtained security
there ( 17:9 ) and were sent on to Beroea ( 17:10 ). Probably
Timothy was sent to Thessalonica from Philippi with gifts of
which Paul spoke later ( Php 4:15f. ). Then he followed Paul and
Silas to Beroea.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:1-17:1

註釋:

 {When they had passed through} (diodeusantes). First
aorist active participle of diodeu(935c), common verb in the _Koin(825f)
(Polybius, Plutarch, LXX, etc.), but in the N.T. only here and
 Lu 8:1 . It means literally to make one's way (hodos) through
(dia). They took the Egnatian Way, one of the great Roman roads
from Byzantium to Dyrrachium (over 500 miles long) on the
Adriatic Sea, opposite Brundisium and so an extension of the
Appian Way. {Amphipolis} (	(886e) Amphipolin). So called because
the Strymon flowed almost around (amphi) it, the metropolis of
Macedonia Prima, a free city, about 32 miles from Philippi, about
three miles from the sea. Paul and Silas may have spent only a
night here or longer. {Apollonia} (	(886e) Apoll(936e)ian). Not the
famous Apollonia in Illyria, but 32 miles from Amphipolis on the
Egnatian Way. So here again a night was spent if no more. Why
Paul hurried through these two large cities, if he did, we do not
know. There are many gaps in Luke's narrative that we have no way
of filling up. There may have been no synagogues for one thing.
{To Thessalonica} (eis Thessalonik(886e)). There was a synagogue
here in this great commercial city, still an important city
called Saloniki, of 70,000 population. It was originally called
Therma, at the head of the Thermaic Gulf. Cassander renamed it
Thessalonica after his wife, the sister of Alexander the Great.
It was the capital of the second of the four divisions of
Macedonia and finally the capital of the whole province. It
shared with Corinth and Ephesus the commerce of the Aegean. One
synagogue shows that even in this commercial city the Jews were
not very numerous. As a political centre it ranked with Antioch
in Syria and Caesarea in Palestine. It was a strategic centre for
the spread of the gospel as Paul later said for it sounded
(echoed) forth from Thessalonica throughout Macedonia and Achaia
( 1Th 1:8 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 17:2-17:2

註釋:

 {As his custom was} (kata to ei(9374)hos t(9369) Paul(9369)). The same
construction in  Lu 4:16  about Jesus in Nazareth (kata to
ei(9374)hos aut(9369)) with the second perfect active participle neuter
singular from eth(935c). Paul's habit was to go to the Jewish
synagogue to use the Jews and the God-fearers as a springboard
for his work among the Gentiles. {For three Sabbaths} (epi
sabbata tria). Probably the reference is to the first three
Sabbaths when Paul had a free hand in the synagogue as at first
in Antioch in Pisidia. Luke does not say that Paul was in
Thessalonica only three weeks. He may have spoken there also
during the week, though the Sabbath was the great day. Paul makes
it plain, as Furneaux shows, that he was in Thessalonica a much
longer period than three weeks. The rest of the time he spoke, of
course, outside of the synagogue. Paul implies an extended stay
by his language in  1Th 1:8 . The church consisted mainly of
Gentile converts ( 2Th 3:4,7,8 ) and seems to have been well
organized ( 1Th 5:12 ). He received help while there several
times from Philippi ( Php 4:16 ) and even so worked night and day
to support himself ( 1Th 2:9 ). His preaching was misunderstood
there in spite of careful instruction concerning the second
coming of Christ ( 1Th 4:13-5:5  2Th 2:1-12 ). {Reasoned}
(dielexato). First aorist middle indicative of dialegomai,
old verb in the active to select, distinguish, then to revolve in
the mind, to converse (interchange of ideas), then to teach in
the Socratic ("dialectic") method of question and answer (cf.
dielegeto in verse  17 ), then simply to discourse, but always
with the idea of intellectual stimulus. With these Jews and
God-fearers Paul appealed to the Scriptures as text and basis
(apo) of his ideas.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:3-17:3

註釋:

 {Opening and alleging} (dianoig(936e) kai paratithemenos).
Opening the Scriptures, Luke means, as made plain by the mission
and message of Jesus, the same word (dianoig(935c)) used by him of
the interpretation of the Scriptures by Jesus ( Lu 24:32 ) and of
the opening of the mind of the disciples also by Jesus ( Lu
24:45 ) and of the opening of Lydia's heart by the Lord
( 16:14 ). One cannot refrain from saying that such exposition of
the Scriptures as Jesus and Paul gave would lead to more opening
of mind and heart. Paul was not only "expounding" the Scriptures,
he was also "propounding" (the old meaning of "allege") his
doctrine or setting forth alongside the Scriptures
(para-tithemenos), quoting the Scripture to prove his
contention which was made in much conflict ( 1Th 2:2 ), probably
in the midst of heated discussion by the opposing rabbis who were
anything but convinced by Paul's powerful arguments, for the
Cross was a stumbling-block to the Jews ( 1Co 1:23 ). {That it
behoved the Christ to suffer} (hoti ton Christon edei pathein).
The second aorist active infinitive is the subject of edei with
	on Christon, the accusative of general reference. This is
Paul's major premise in his argument from the Scriptures about
the Messiah, the necessity of his sufferings according to the
Scriptures, the very argument made by the Risen Jesus to the two
on the way to Emmaus ( Lu 24:25-27 ). The fifty-third chapter of
Isaiah was a passage in point that the rabbis had overlooked.
Peter made the same point in  Ac 3:18  and Paul again in  Ac
26:23 . The minor premise is the resurrection of Jesus from the
dead. {To rise again from the dead} (anast(886e)ai ek nekr(936e)). This
second aorist active infinitive anast(886e)ai is also the subject
of edei. The actual resurrection of Jesus was also a necessity
as Paul says he preached to them ( 1Th 4:14 ) and argued always
from Scripture ( 1Co 15:3-4 ) and from his own experience ( Ac
9:22  22:7  26:8,14  1Co 15:8 ). {This Jesus is the Christ}
(houtos estin ho Christos, ho I(8873)ous). More precisely, "This is
the Messiah, viz., Jesus whom I am proclaiming unto you." This is
the conclusion of Paul's line of argument and it is logical and
overwhelming. It is his method everywhere as in Damascus, in
Antioch in Pisidia, here, in Corinth. He spoke as an eye-witness.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:4-17:4

註釋:

 1Th
1:9 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
1' or engs='1Th
1'
經文:

使徒行傳 17:5-17:5

註釋:

 {Moved with jealousy} (z(886c)(9373)antes). Both our English
words, {zeal} and {jealousy}, are from the Greek z(886c)os. In
 13:45  the Jews (rabbis) "were filled with jealousy"
(epl(8873)th(8873)an z(886c)ou). That is another way of saying the same
thing as here. The success of Paul was entirely too great in both
places to please the rabbis. So here is jealousy of Jewish
preachers towards Christian preachers. It is always between men
or women of the same profession or group. In  1Th 2:3-10  Paul
hints at some of the slanders spread against him by these rabbis
(deceivers, using words of flattery as men-pleasers, after
vain-glory, greed of gain, etc.). {Took unto them}
(proslabomenoi). Second aorist middle (indirect, to themselves)
participle of proslamban(935c), old and common verb. {Certain vile
fellows of the rabble} (	(936e) agorai(936e) andras tinas pon(8872)ous).
The agora or market-place was the natural resort for those with
nothing to do ( Mt 20:4 ) like the court-house square today or
various parks in our cities where bench-warmers flock. Plato
(_Protagoras_ 347 C) calls these agoraioi (common word, but in
N.T. only here and  19:38 ) idlers or good-for-nothing fellows.
They are in every city and such "bums" are ready for any job. The
church in Thessalonica caught some of these peripatetic idlers
( 2Th 3:10f. ) "doing nothing but doing about." So the Jewish
preachers gather to themselves a choice collection of these
market-loungers or loafers or wharf-rats. The Romans called them
_subrostrani_ (hangers round the rostrum or _subbasilicari_).
{Gathering a crowd} (ochlopoi(8873)antes). Literally, making or
getting (poie(935c)) a crowd (ochlos), a word not found elsewhere.
Probably right in the agora itself where the rabbis could tell
men their duties and pay them in advance. Instance Hyde Park in
London with all the curious gatherings every day, Sunday
afternoons in particular. {Set the city on an uproar}
(ethoruboun). Imperfect active of 	horube(935c), from 	horubos
(tumult), old verb, but in the N.T. only here and  20:10  Mt
9:23  Mr 4:39 . They kept up the din, this combination of rabbis
and rabble. {Assaulting the house of Jason} (epistantes t(8869)
oiki(8369) Iasonos). Second aorist (ingressive) active of
ephist(886d)i, taking a stand against, rushing at, because he was
Paul's host. He may have been a Gentile (Jason the name of an
ancient king of Thessaly), but the Jews often used it for Joshua
or Jesus (II Macc. 1:7). {They sought} (ez(8874)oun). Imperfect
active. They burst into the house and searched up and down.
{Them} (autous). Paul and Silas. They were getting ready to
have a lynching party.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:6-17:6

註釋:

 {When they found them not} (m(8820)heurontes). Usual negative
m(885c) with the participle in the _Koin(825f), second aorist
(effective) active participle, complete failure with all the
noise and "bums." {They dragged} (esuron). Imperfect active,
vivid picture, they were dragging (literally). See already  8:3  16:19 . If they could not find Paul, they could drag Jason his
host and some other Christians whom we do not know. {Before the
rulers of the city} (epi tous politarchas). This word does not
occur in Greek literature and used to be cited as an example of
Luke's blunders. But now it is found in an inscription on an arch
in the modern city preserved in the British Museum. It is also
found in seventeen inscriptions (five from Thessalonica) where
the word or the verb politarche(935c) occurs. It is a fine
illustration of the historical accuracy of Luke in matters of
detail. This title for city officers in Thessalonica, a free
city, is correct. They were burgomasters or "rulers of the city."
{Crying} (o(936e)tes). Yelling as if the house was on fire like
the mob in Jerusalem ( 21:28 ). {These that have turned the world
upside down} (hoi t(886e) oikoumen(886e) anastat(9373)antes). The use of
oikoumen(886e) (supply gen or ch(9372)an, the inhabited earth,
present passive participle of oike(935c)) means the Roman Empire,
since it is a political charge, a natural hyperbole in their
excitement, but the phrase occurs for the Roman Empire in  Lu
2:1 . It is possible that news had come to Thessalonica of the
expulsion of the Jews from Rome by Claudius. There is truth in
the accusation, for Christianity is revolutionary, but on this
particular occasion the uproar (verse  5 ) was created by the
rabbis and the hired loafers. The verb anastato(935c) (here first
aorist active participle) does not occur in the ancient writers,
but is in LXX and in  Ac 17:6  21:38  Ga 5:12 . It occurs also in
Harpocration (A.D. 4th cent.) and about 100 B.C. exanastato(935c) is
found in a fragment of papyrus (Tebtunis no. 2) and in a Paris
Magical Papyrus l. 2243f. But in an Egyptian letter of Aug. 4, 41
A.D. (Oxyrhynchus Pap. no. 119, 10) "the bad boy" uses it = "he
upsets me" or " he drives me out of my senses" (anastatoi me).
See Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, pp. 84f. It is not
a "Biblical word" at all, but belongs to the current _Koin(825f). It
is a vigorous and graphic term.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:7-17:7

註釋:

 {Whom Jason hath received} (hous hupodedektai Ias(936e)).
Present perfect middle indicative of hupodechomai, to
entertain, old verb, but in N.T. only in  Lu 10:38  19:6  Ac
17:7  Jas 2:25 . This is Jason's crime and he is the prisoner
before the politarchs. {These all} (houtoi pantes). Jason, the
"brethren" of verse  6 , Paul and Silas, and all Christians
everywhere. {Contrary} (apenanti). Late compound preposition
(apo, en, anti) found in Polybius, LXX, here only in the N.T.
{The decrees of Caesar} (	(936e) dogmat(936e) Kaisaros). This was a
charge of treason and was a sure way to get a conviction.
Probably the Julian _Leges Majestatis_ are in mind rather than
the definite decree of Claudius about the Jews ( Ac 18:2 ).
{Saying that there is another king, one Jesus} (Basilea heteron
legontes einai I(8873)oun). Note the very order of the words in the
Greek indirect discourse with the accusative and infinitive after
legontes. Basilea heteron comes first, a different king,
another emperor than Caesar. This was the very charge that the
smart student of the Pharisees and Herodians had tried to catch
Jesus on ( Mr 12:14 ). The Sanhedrin made it anyhow against Jesus
to Pilate ( Lu 23:2 ) and Pilate had to notice it. "Although the
emperors never ventured to assume the title _rex_ at Rome, in the
Eastern provinces they were regularly termed _basileus_" (Page).
The Jews here, as before Pilate ( Joh 19:15 ), renounce their
dearest hope of a Messianic king. It is plain that Paul had
preached about Jesus as the Messiah, King of the Kingdom of God
over against the Roman Empire, a spiritual kingdom, to be sure,
but the Jews here turn his language to his hurt as they did with
Jesus. As a matter of fact Paul's preaching about the kingdom and
the second coming of Christ was gravely misunderstood by the
Christians at Thessalonica after his departure ( 1Th 4:13-5:4  2Th 2 ). The Jews were quick to seize upon his language about
Jesus Christ to his own injury. Clearly here in Thessalonica Paul
had faced the power of the Roman Empire in a new way and pictured
over against it the grandeur of the reign of Christ.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:8-17:8

註釋:

 {They troubled the multitude and the rulers} (etaraxan ton
ochlon kai tous politarchas). First aorist active of 	arass(935c),
old verb to agitate. The excitement of the multitude "agitated"
the politarchs still more. To the people it meant a revolution,
to the politarchs a charge of complicity in treason if they let
it pass. They had no way to disprove the charge of treason and
Paul and Silas were not present.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:9-17:9

註釋:

 {When they had taken security} (labontes to hikanon). A
Greek idiom=Latin _satis accipere_, to receive the sufficient
(bond), usually money for the fulfilment of the judgment.
Probably the demand was made of Jason that he see to it that Paul
and Silas leave the city not to return. In  1Th 2:17f . Paul may
refer to this in mentioning his inability to visit these
Thessalonians again. The idiom lambanein to hikanon now is
found in two inscriptions of the second century A.D. (O. G. I. S.
484, 50 and 629, 101). In Vol. III Oxyrhynchus Papyri no. 294
A.D. 22 the corresponding phrase dounai heikanon ("to give
security") appears. {They let them go} (apelusan autous). The
charge was serious but the proof slim so that the politarchs were
glad to be rid of the case.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:10-17:10

註釋:

 1Th
2:14 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
2' or engs='1Th
2'
經文:

使徒行傳 17:11-17:11

註釋:

 2Co
8:11-19 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
8' or engs='2Co
8'
經文:

使徒行傳 17:12-17:12

註釋:

 {Many therefore} (Polloi men oun). As a result of this
Bible study. {Also of the Greek women of honourable estate}. The
word Hell(886e)is means Greek woman, but the word gun(885c) is added.
In particular women of rank (eusch(886d)on(936e), from eu and ech(935c),
graceful figure and the honourable standing) as in  13:50  ( Mr
15:43 ). Probably Luke means by implication that the "men"
(andr(936e)) were also noble Greeks though he does not expressly
say so. So then the Jews were more open to the message, the
proselytes or God-fearers followed suit, with "not a few" (ouk
oligoi) real Greeks (both men and women) believing. It was quick
and fine work.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:13-17:13

註釋:

 {Was proclaimed} (kat(8867)gel(885c)). Second aorist passive
indicative of kataggell(935c), common late verb as in  Ac 16:21 .
{Of Paul} (hupo Paulou). By Paul, of course. {Stirring up and
troubling the multitudes} (saleuontes kai tarassontes tous
ochlous). Shaking the crowds like an earthquake ( 4:31 ) and
disturbing like a tornado ( 17:8 ). Success at Thessalonica gave
the rabbis confidence and courage. The attack was sharp and
swift. The Jews from Antioch in Pisidia had likewise pursued Paul
to Iconium and Lystra. How long Paul had been in Beroea Luke does
not say. But a church was established here which gave a good
account of itself later and sent a messenger ( Ac 20:4 ) with
their part of the collection to Jerusalem. This quiet and noble
town was in a whirl of excitement over the attacks of the Jewish
emissaries from Thessalonica who probably made the same charge of
treason against Paul and Silas.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:14-17:14

註釋:

 {And then immediately} (euthe(9373) de tote). They acted
swiftly as in Thessalonica. {Sent forth} (exapesteilan). Double
compound (ex, apo, both out and away) common in late Greek.
First aorist active indicative (exapostell(935c), liquid verb). Same
form in  9:30 . {As far as to the sea} (he(9373) epi t(886e)
thalassan). It is not clear whether Paul went all the way to
Athens by land or took ship at Dium or Pydna, some sixteen miles
away, and sailed to Athens. Some even think that Paul gave the
Jews the slip and went all the way by land when they expected him
to go by sea. At any rate we know that Paul was grieved to cut
short his work in Macedonia, probably not over six months in all,
which had been so fruitful in Philippi, Thessalonica, and Beroea.
Silas and Timothy (note his presence) remained behind in Beroea
and they would keep the work going. Paul no doubt hoped to return
soon. Silas and Timothy in Beroea would also serve to screen his
flight for the Jews wanted his blood, not theirs. The work in
Macedonia spread widely ( 1Th 1:7f. ).

經文:

使徒行傳 17:15-17:15

註釋:

 {But they that conducted Paul} (hoi de kathistanontes ton
Paulon). Articular present active participle of kathistan(935c)
(late form in A B of kathist(886d)i or kathista(935c)), an old verb
with varied uses to put down, to constitute, to conduct, etc.
This use here is in the LXX ( Jos 6:23 ) and old Greek also. {To
Athens} (he(9373) Ath(886e)(936e)). To make sure of his safe arrival. {That
they should come to him with all speed} (hina h(9373) tachista
elth(9373)in pros auton). Note the neat Greek idiom h(9373) tachista
as quickly as possible (good Attic idiom). The indirect command
and purpose (hina-elth(9373)in, second aorist active subjunctive)
is also neat Greek (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1046). {Departed}
(ex(8869)esan). Imperfect active of exeimi, old Greek word, but
rare in N.T. All in Acts ( 13:42  17:15  20:7  27:43 )

經文:

使徒行傳 17:16-17:16

註釋:

 2Co
11:8f. 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
11' or engs='2Co
11'
經文:

使徒行傳 17:17-17:17

註釋:

 {So he reasoned} (dielegeto men oun). Accordingly
therefore, with his spirit stirred by the proof of idolatry.
Imperfect middle of dialeg(935c), same verb used in verse  2  which
see. First he reasoned in the synagogue at the services to the
Jews and the God-fearers, then daily in the agora or marketplace
(southwest of the Acropolis, between it and the Areopagus and the
Pnyx) to the chance-comers, "them that met him" (pros tous
paratugchanontas). Simultaneously with the synagogue preaching
at other hours Paul took his stand like Socrates before him and
engaged in conversation with (pros) those who happened by. This
old verb, paratugchan(935c), occurs here alone in the N.T. and
accurately pictures the life in the agora. The listeners to Paul
in the agora would be more casual than those who stop for street
preaching, a Salvation Army meeting, a harangue from a box in
Hyde Park. It was a slim chance either in synagogue or in agora,
but Paul could not remain still with all the reeking idolatry
around him. The boundaries of the agora varied, but there was
always the Poikil(8820)Stoa (the Painted Porch), over against the
Acropolis on the west. In this Stoa (Porch) Zeno and other
philosophers and rhetoricians held forth from time to time. Paul
may have stood near this spot.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:18-17:18

註釋:

 {And certain also of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers
encountered him} (	ines de kai t(936e) Epikouri(936e) kai St(9369)k(936e)
philosoph(936e) suneballon aut(9369)). Imperfect active of sunball(935c),
old verb, in the N.T. only by Luke, to bring or put together in
one's mind ( Lu 2:19 ), to meet together ( Ac 20:14 ), to bring
together aid ( 18:27 ), to confer or converse or dispute as here
and already  4:15  which see. These professional philosophers
were always ready for an argument and so they frequented the
agora for that purpose. Luke uses one article and so groups the
two sects together in their attitude toward Paul, but they were
very different in fact. Both sects were eager for argument and
both had disdain for Paul, but they were the two rival practical
philosophies of the day, succeeding the more abstruse theories of
Plato and Aristotle. Socrates had turned men's thought inward
(Gn(9374)hi Seauton, Know Thyself) away from the mere study of
physics. Plato followed with a profound development of the inner
self (metaphysics). Aristotle with his cyclopaedic grasp sought
to unify and relate both physics and metaphysics. Both Zeno and
Epicurus (340-272 B.C.) took a more practical turn in all this
intellectual turmoil and raised the issues of everyday life. Zeno
(360-260 B.C.) taught in the Stoa (Porch) and so his teaching
was called Stoicism. He advanced many noble ideas that found
their chief illustration in the Roman philosophers (Seneca,
Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius). He taught self-mastery and hardness
with an austerity that ministered to pride or suicide in case of
failure, a distinctly selfish and unloving view of life and with
a pantheistic philosophy. Epicurus considered practical atheism
the true view of the universe and denied a future life and
claimed pleasure as the chief thing to be gotten out of life. He
did not deny the existence of gods, but regarded them as
unconcerned with the life of men. The Stoics called Epicurus an
atheist. Lucretius and Horace give the Epicurean view of life in
their great poems. This low view of life led to sensualism and
does today, for both Stoicism and Epicureanism are widely
influential with people now. "Eat and drink for tomorrow we die,"
they preached. Paul had doubtless become acquainted with both of
these philosophies for they were widely prevalent over the world.
Here he confronts them in their very home. He is challenged by
past-masters in the art of appealing to the senses, men as
skilled in their dialectic as the Pharisaic rabbis with whom Paul
had been trained and whose subtleties he had learned how to
expose. But, so far as we know, this is a new experience for Paul
to have a public dispute with these philosophical experts who had
a natural contempt for all Jews and for rabbis in particular,
though they found Paul a new type at any rate and so with some
interest in him. "In Epicureanism, it was man's sensual nature
which arrayed itself against the claims of the gospel; in
Stoicism it was his self-righteousness and pride of intellect"
(Hackett). Knowling calls the Stoic the Pharisee of philosophy
and the Epicurean the Sadducee of philosophy. Socrates in this
very agora used to try to interest the passers-by in some desire
for better things. That was 450 years before Paul is challenged
by these superficial sophistical Epicureans and Stoics. It is
doubtful if Paul had ever met a more difficult situation. {What
would this babbler say?} (Ti an theloi ho spermologos houtos
legein?). The word for "babbler" means "seed-picker" or picker
up of seeds (sperma, seed, leg(935c), to collect) like a bird in
the agora hopping about after chance seeds. Plutarch applies the
word to crows that pick up grain in the fields. Demosthenes
called Aeschines a spermologos. Eustathius uses it of a man
hanging around in the markets picking up scraps of food that fell
from the carts and so also of mere rhetoricians and plagiarists
who picked up scraps of wisdom from others. Ramsay considers it
here a piece of Athenian slang used to describe the picture of
Paul seen by these philosophers who use it, for not all of them
had it ("some," 	ines). Note the use of an and the present
active optative 	heloi, conclusion of a fourth-class condition
in a rhetorical question (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1021). It
means, What would this picker up of seeds wish to say, if he
should get off an idea? It is a contemptuous tone of supreme
ridicule and doubtless Paul heard this comment. Probably the
Epicureans made this sneer that Paul was a charlatan or quack.
{Other some} (hoi de). But others, in contrast with the "some"
just before. Perhaps the Stoics take this more serious view of
Paul. {He seemeth to be a setter forth of strange gods} (zen(936e)
daimoni(936e) dokei kataggeleus einai). This view is put cautiously
by dokei (seems). Kataggeleus does not occur in the old
Greek, though in ecclesiastical writers, but Deissmann (_Light
from the Ancient East_, p. 99) gives an example of the word "on a
marble stele recording a decree of the Mitylenaens in honour of
the Emperor Augustus," where it is the herald of the games. Here
alone in the N.T. Daimonion is used in the old Greek sense of
deity or divinity whether good or bad, not in the N.T. sense of
demons. Both this word and kataggeleus are used from the
Athenian standpoint. Xenos is an old word for a guest-friend
(Latin _hospes_) and then host ( Ro 16:23 ), then for foreigner
or stranger ( Mt 25:31  Ac 17:21 ), new and so strange as here
and  Heb 13:9  1Pe 4:12 , and then aliens ( Eph 2:12 ). This view
of Paul is the first count against Socrates: Socrates does wrong,
introducing new deities (adikei S(936b)rat(8873), kaina daimonia
eispher(936e), Xen. _Mem_. I). On this charge the Athenians voted
the hemlock for their greatest citizen. What will they do to
Paul? This Athens was more sceptical and more tolerant than the
old Athens. But Roman law did not allow the introduction of a new
religion (_religio illicita_). Paul was walking on thin ice
though he was the real master philosopher and these Epicureans
and Stoics were quacks. Paul had the only true philosophy of the
universe and life with Jesus Christ as the centre ( Col
1:12-20 ), the greatest of all philosophers as Ramsay justly
terms him. But these men are mocking him. {Because he preached
Jesus and the resurrection} (hoti ton I(8873)oun kai t(886e) anastasin
eu(8867)gelizato). Reason for the view just stated. Imperfect middle
indicative of euaggeliz(935c), to "gospelize." Apparently these
critics considered anastasis (Resurrection) another deity on a
par with Jesus. The Athenians worshipped all sorts of abstract
truths and virtues and they misunderstood Paul on this subject.
They will leave him as soon as he mentions the resurrection
(verse  32 ). It is objected that Luke would not use the word in
this sense here for his readers would not under stand him. But
Luke is describing the misapprehension of this group of
philosophers and this interpretation fits in precisely.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:19-17:19

註釋:

 {And they took hold of him} (epilabomenoi de autou).
Second aorist middle participle of epilamban(935c), old verb, but in
the N.T. only in the middle, here with the genitive autou to
lay hold of, but with no necessary sense of violence ( Ac 9:27  23:27  Mr 8:23 ), unless the idea is that Paul was to be tried
before the Court of Areopagus for the crime of bringing in
strange gods. But the day for that had passed in Athens. Even so
it is not clear whether "{unto the Areopagus} (epi ton Areion
Pagon") means the Hill of Mars (west of the Acropolis, north of
the agora and reached by a flight of steps in the rock) or the
court itself which met elsewhere as well as on the hills, usually
in fact in the Stoa Basilica opening on the agora and near to the
place where the dispute had gone on. Raphael's cartoon with Paul
standing on Mars Hill has made us all familiar with the common
view, but it is quite uncertain if it is true. There was not room
on the summit for a large gathering. If Paul was brought before
the Court of Areopagus (commonly called the Areopagus as here),
it was not for trial as a criminal, but simply for examination
concerning his new teaching in this university city whether it
was strictly legal or not. Paul was really engaged in proselytism
to turn the Athenians away from their old gods to Jesus Christ.
But "the court of refined and polished Athenians was very
different from the rough provincial magistrates of Philippi, and
the philosophers who presented Paul to their cognizance very
different from the mob of Thessalonians" (Rackham). It was all
very polite. {May we know?} (Dunametha gn(936e)ai). Can we come to
know (ingressive second aorist active infinitive). {This new
teaching} (h(8820)kain(8820)haut(8820)didach(885c)). On the position of haut(885c)
see Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 700f. The question was prompted by
courtesy, sarcasm, or irony. Evidently no definite charge was
laid against Paul.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:20-17:20

註釋:

 {For thou bringest certain strange things} (xenizonta gar
tina eisphereis). The very verb used by Xenophon (_Mem_. I)
about Socrates. Xenizonta is present active neuter plural
participle of xeniz(935c) and from xenos (verse  18 ), "things
surprising or shocking us." {We would know therefore}
(oulometha oun gn(936e)ai). Very polite still, we wish or desire,
and repeating gn(936e)ai (the essential point).

經文:

使徒行傳 17:21-17:21

註釋:

 {Spent their time} ((8875)kairoun). Imperfect active of
eukaire(935c). A late word to have opportunity (eu, kairos) from
Polybius on. In the N.T. only here and  Mr 6:31 . They had time
for,.etc. This verse is an explanatory parenthesis by Luke. {Some
new thing} (	i kainoteron). Literally "something newer" or
"fresher" than the new, the very latest, the comparative of
kainos. Demosthenes (_Philipp_. 1. 43) pictures the Athenians
"in the agora inquiring if anything newer is said"
(punthanomenoi kata t(886e) agoran ei ti legetai ne(9374)eron). The new
soon became stale with these itching and frivolous Athenians.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:22-17:22

註釋:

 {Stood in the midst of the Areopagus} (statheis en mes(9369)
tou Areiou Pagou). First aorist passive of hist(886d)i used of
Peter in  2:14 . Majestic figure whether on Mars Hill or in the
Stoa Basilica before the Areopagus Court. There would be a crowd
of spectators and philosophers in either case and Paul seized the
opportunity to preach Christ to this strange audience as he did
in Caesarea before Herod Agrippa and the crowd of prominent
people gathered by Festus for the entertainment. Paul does not
speak as a man on trial, but as one trying to get a hearing for
the gospel of Christ. {Somewhat superstitious} (h(9373)
deisidaimonesterous). The Authorized Version has "too
superstitious," the American Standard "very religious."
Deisidaim(936e) is a neutral word (from deid(935c), to fear, and
daim(936e), deity). The Greeks used it either in the good sense of
pious or religious or the bad sense of superstitious. Thayer
suggests that Paul uses it "with kindly ambiguity." Page thinks
that Luke uses the word to represent the religious feeling of the
Athenians (_religiosus_) which bordered on superstition. The
Vulgate has _superstitiosiores_. In  25:19  Festus uses the term
deisidaimonia for "religion." It seems unlikely that Paul
should give this audience a slap in the face at the very start.
The way one takes this adjective here colours Paul's whole speech
before the Council of Areopagus. The comparative here as in verse
 21  means more religions than usual (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp.
664f.), the object of the comparison not being expressed. The
Athenians had a tremendous reputation for their devotion to
religion, "full of idols" (verse  16 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 17:23-17:23

註釋:

 {For} (gar). Paul gives an illustration of their
religiousness from his own experiences in their city. {The
objects of your worship} (	a sebasmata hum(936e)). Late word from
sebazomai, to worship. In N T. only here and  2Th 2:4 . The use
of this word for temples, altars, statues, shows the conciliatory
tone in the use of deisidaimonesterous in verse  22 . {An
altar} ((936d)on). Old word, only here in the N.T. and the only
mention of a heathen altar in the N.T {With this inscription}
(en h(9369) epegegrapto). On which had been written (stood
written), past perfect passive indicative of epigraph(935c), old and
common verb for writing on inscriptions (epigraph(885c),  Lu
23:38 ). {To an Unknown God} (AGNOSTO THEO). Dative case,
dedicated to. Pausanias (I. 1, 4) says that in Athens there are
"altars to gods unknown" ((936d)oi the(936e) agn(9373)t(936e)). Epimenides in
a pestilence advised the sacrifice of a sheep to the befitting
god whoever he might be. If an altar was dedicated to the wrong
deity, the Athenians feared the anger of the other gods. The only
use in the N.T. of agn(9373)tos, old and common adjective (from a
privative and gn(9373)tos verbal of gin(9373)k(935c), to know). Our word
agnostic comes from it. Here it has an ambiguous meaning, but
Paul uses it though to a stern Christian philosopher it may be
the "confession at once of a bastard philosophy and of a bastard
religion" (Hort, _Hulsean Lectures_, p. 64). Paul was quick to
use this confession on the part of the Athenians of a higher
power than yet known to them. So he gets his theme from this
evidence of a deeper religious sense in them and makes a most
clever use of it with consummate skill. {In ignorance}
(agnoountes). Present active participle of agnoe(935c), old verb
from same root as agn(9373)tos to which Paul refers by using it.
{This set I forth unto you} (	outo ego kataggell(9320)humin). He is
a kataggeleus (verse  18 ) as they suspected of a God, both old
and new, old in that they already worship him, new in that Paul
knows who he is. By this master stroke he has brushed to one side
any notion of violation of Roman law or suspicion of heresy and
claims their endorsement of his new gospel, a shrewd and
consummate turn. He has their attention now and proceeds to
describe this God left out of their list as the one true and
Supreme God. The later MSS. here read hon--touton (whom--this
one) rather than ho--touto (what--this), but the late text is
plainly an effort to introduce too soon the personal nature of
God which comes out clearly in verse  24 .

經文:

使徒行傳 17:24-17:24

註釋:

 {The God that made the world} (Ho theos ho poi(8873)as ton
kosmon). Not a god for this and a god for that like the 30,000
gods of the Athenians, but the one God who made the Universe
(kosmos on the old Greek sense of orderly arrangement of the
whole universe). {And all things therein} (kai panta ta en
aut(9369)). All the details in the universe were created by this one
God. Paul is using the words of  Isa 42:5 . The Epicureans held
that matter was eternal. Paul sets them aside. This one God was
not to be confounded with any of their numerous gods save with
this "Unknown God." {Being Lord of heaven and earth} (ouranou
kai g(8873) huparch(936e) kurios). Kurios here owner, absolute
possessor of both heaven and earth ( Isa 45:7 ), not of just
parts. {Dwelleth not in temples made with hands} (ouken
cheiropoi(8874)ois naois katoikei). The old adjective
cheiropoi(8874)os (cheir, poie(935c)) already in Stephen's speech
( 7:48 ). No doubt Paul pointed to the wonderful Parthenon,
supposed to be the home of Athene as Stephen denied that God
dwelt alone in the temple in Jerusalem.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:25-17:25

註釋:

 {As though he needed anything} (prosdeomenos tinos).
Present middle participle of prosdeomai, to want besides, old
verb, but here only in the N.T. This was strange doctrine for the
people thought that the gods needed their offerings for full
happiness. This self-sufficiency of God was taught by Philo and
Lucretius, but Paul shows that the Epicurean missed it by putting
God, if existing at all, outside the universe. {Seeing he himself
giveth to all} (autos didous pasin). This Supreme Personal God
is the source of life, breath, and everything. Paul here rises
above all Greek philosophers.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:26-17:26

註釋:

 {And he made of one} (epoi(8873)en te ex henos). The word
haimatos (blood) is absent from Aleph A B and is a later
explanatory addition. What Paul affirms is the unity of the human
race with a common origin and with God as the Creator. This view
runs counter to Greek exclusiveness which treated other races as
barbarians and to Jewish pride which treated other nations as
heathen or pagan (the Jews were laos, the Gentiles ethn(885c)).
The cosmopolitanism of Paul here rises above Jew and Greek and
claims the one God as the Creator of the one race of men. The
Athenians themselves claimed to be antochthonous (indigenous)
and a special creation. Zeno and Seneca did teach a kind of
cosmopolitanism (really pantheism) far different from the
personal God of Paul. It was Rome, not Greece, that carried out
the moral ideas of Zeno. Man is part of the universe (verse  24 )
and God created (epoi(8873)en) man as he created (poi(8873)as) the
all. {For to dwell} (katoikein). Infinitive (present active) of
purpose, so as to dwell. {Having determined} (horisas). First
aorist active participle of horiz(935c), old verb to make a horizon
as already in  19:42  which see. Paul here touches God's
Providence. God has revealed himself in history as in creation.
His hand appears in the history of all men as well as in that of
the Chosen People of Israel. {Appointed seasons}
(prostetagmenous kairous). Not the weather as in  14:17 , but
"the times of the Gentiles" (kairoi ethn(936e)) of which Jesus
spoke ( Lu 21:24 ). The perfect passive participle of
prostass(935c), old verb to enjoin, emphasizes God's control of
human history without any denial of human free agency as was
involved in the Stoic Fate (Heirmarmen(885c)). {Bounds}
(horothesias). Limits? Same idea in  Job 12:23 . Nations rise
and fall, but it is not blind chance or hard fate. Thus there is
an interplay between God's will and man's activities, difficult
as it is for us to see with our shortened vision.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:27-17:27

註釋:

 {That they should seek God} (Z(8874)ein ton theon).
Infinitive (present active) of purpose again. Seek him, not turn
away from him as the nations had done ( Ro 1:18-32 ). {If haply
they might feel after him} (ei ara ge ps(886c)aph(8873)eian auton).
First aorist active (Aeolic form) optative of ps(886c)apha(935c), old
verb from psa(935c), to touch. So used by the Risen Jesus in his
challenge to the disciples ( Lu 24:39 ), by the Apostle John of
his personal contact with Jesus ( 1Jo 1:1 ), of the contact with
Mount Sinai ( Heb 12:18 ). Here it pictures the blind groping of
the darkened heathen mind after God to "find him" (heuroien,
second aorist active optative) whom they had lost. One knows what
it is in a darkened room to feel along the walls for the door
( De 28:29  Job 5:14  12:25  Isa 59:10 ). Helen Keller, when told
of God, said that she knew of him already, groping in the dark
after him. The optative here with ei is due to the condition of
the fourth class (undetermined, but with vague hope of being
determined) with aim also present (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
1021). Note also ara ge the inferential particle ara with the
delicate intensive particle ge. {Though he is not far from each
one of us} (kai ge ou makran apo henos hekastou h(886d)(936e)
huparchonta). More exactly with B L (kai ge instead of
kaitoi or kaitoi ge), "and yet being not far from each one of
us," a direct statement rather than a concessive one. The
participle huparchonta agrees with auton and the negative
ou rather than the usual me with the participle makes an
emphatic negative. Note also the intensive particle ge.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:28-17:28

註釋:

 {For in him} (en aut(9369) gar). Proof of God's nearness, not
stoic pantheism, but real immanence in God as God dwells in us.
The three verbs (z(936d)en, kinoumetha, esmen) form an ascending
scale and reach a climax in God (life, movement, existence).
Kinoumetha is either direct middle present indicative (we move
ourselves) or passive (we are moved). {As certain even of your
own poets} (h(9373) kai tines t(936e) kath' hum(8373) poi(8874)(936e)). "As also
some of the poets among you." Aratus of Soli in Cilicia (ab. B.C.
270) has these very words in his _Ta Phainomena_ and Cleanthes,
Stoic philosopher (300-220 B.C.) in his _Hymn to Zeus_ has Ek
sou gar genos esmen. In  1Co 15:32  Paul quotes from Menander
and in  Tit 1:12  from Epimenides. J. Rendel Harris claims that
he finds allusions in Paul's Epistles to Pindar, Aristophanes,
and other Greek writers. There is no reason in the world why Paul
should not have acquaintance with Greek literature, though one
need not strain a point to prove it. Paul, of course, knew that
the words were written of Zeus (Jupiter), not of Jehovah, but he
applies the idea in them to his point just made that all men are
the offspring of God.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:29-17:29

註釋:

 {We ought not to think} (ouk opheilomen nomizein). It is
a logical conclusion (oun, therefore) from the very language of
Aratus and Cleanthes. {That the Godhead is like} (	o theion
einai homoion). Infinitive with accusative of general reference
in indirect discourse. To theion is strictly "the divine"
nature like 	heiot(8873) ( Ro 1:20 ) rather than like 	heot(8873)
( Col 2:9 ). Paul may have used 	o theion here to get back
behind all their notions of various gods to the real nature of
God. The Athenians may even have used the term themselves. After
homoios (like) the associative instrumental case is used as
with chrus(9369), argur(9369), lith(9369). {Graven by art and device of
man} (charagmati techn(8873) kai enthum(8873)e(9373) anthr(9370)ou). Apposition
with preceding and so charagmati in associative instrumental
case. Literally, graven work or sculpture from charass(935c), to
engrave, old word, but here alone in N.T. outside of Revelation
(the mark of the beast). Graven work of art (	echn(8873)) or
external craft, and of thought or device (enthum(8873)e(9373)) or
internal conception of man.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:30-17:30

註釋:

 {The times of ignorance} (	ous chronous t(8873) agnoias). The
times before full knowledge of God came in Jesus Christ. Paul
uses the very word for their ignorance (agnoountes) employed in
verse  23 . {Overlooked} (huperid(936e)). Second aorist active
participle of huperora(935c) or hupereid(935c), old verb to see beyond,
not to see, to overlook, not "to wink at" of the Authorized
Version with the notion of condoning. Here only in the N.T. It
occurs in the LXX in the sense of overlooking or neglecting ( Ps
18:62  55:1 ). But it has here only a negative force. God has all
the time objected to the polytheism of the heathen, and now he
has made it plain. In Wisdom 11:23 we have these words: "Thou
overlookest the sins of men to the end they may repent." {But
now} (	a nun). Accusative of general reference, "as to the now
things or situation." All is changed now that Christ has come
with the full knowledge of God. See also  27:22 . {All
everywhere} (pantas pantachou). No exceptions anywhere.
{Repent} (metanoein). Present active infinitive of metanoe(935c)
in indirect command, a permanent command of perpetual force. See
on metanoe(935c) 涉c 2:38| and the Synoptic Gospels. This word was
the message of the Baptist, of Jesus, of Peter, of Paul, this
radical change of attitude and life.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:31-17:31

註釋:

 {Inasmuch as} (kathoti). According as (kata, hoti). Old
causal conjunction, but in N.T. only used in Luke's writings ( Lu
1:7  19:9  Ac 2:45  4:35  17:31 ). {Hath appointed a day}
(est(8873)en h(886d)eran) First aorist active indicative of hist(886d)i,
to place, set. God did set the day in his counsel and he will
fulfil it in his own time. {Will judge} (mellei krinein).
Rather, is going to judge, mell(935c) and the present active
infinitive of krin(935c). Paul here quotes  Ps 9:8  where krinei
occurs. {By the man whom he hath ordained} (en andri h(9369)
h(9372)isen). Here he adds to the Psalm the place and function of
Jesus Christ, a passage in harmony with Christ's own words in  Mt
25 . H(9369) (whom) is attracted from the accusative, object of
h(9372)isen (first aorist active indicative of horiz(935c)) to the
case of the antecedent andri. It has been said that Paul left
the simple gospel in this address to the council of the Areopagus
for philosophy. But did he? He skilfully caught their attention
by reference to an altar to an Unknown God whom he interprets to
be the Creator of all things and all men who overrules the whole
world and who now commands repentance of all and has revealed his
will about a day of reckoning when Jesus Christ will be Judge. He
has preached the unity of God, the one and only God, has
proclaimed repentance, a judgment day, Jesus as the Judge as
shown by his Resurrection, great fundamental doctrines, and
doubtless had much more to say when they interrupted his address.
There is no room here for such a charge against Paul. He rose to
a great occasion and made a masterful exposition of God's place
and power in human history. {Whereof he hath given assurance}
(pistin parasch(936e)). Second aorist active participle of
parech(935c), old verb to furnish, used regularly by Demosthenes for
bringing forward evidence. Note this old use of pistis as
conviction or ground of confidence ( Heb 11:1 ) like a note or
title-deed, a conviction resting on solid basis of fact. All the
other uses of pistis grow out of this one from peith(935c), to
persuade. {In that he hath raised him from the dead} (anast(8873)as
auton ek nekr(936e)). First aorist active participle of anist(886d)i,
causal participle, but literally, "having raised him from the
dead." This Paul knew to be a fact because he himself had seen
the Risen Christ. Paul has here come to the heart of his message
and could now throw light on their misapprehension about "Jesus
and the Resurrection" (verse  18 ). Here Paul has given the proof
of all his claims in the address that seemed new and strange to
them.

經文:

使徒行傳 17:32-17:32

註釋:

 {The resurrection of the dead} (anastasin nekr(936e)).
Rather, "a resurrection of dead men." No article with either
word. The Greeks believed that the souls of men lived on, but
they had no conception of resurrection of the body. They had
listened with respect till Paul spoke of the actual resurrection
of Jesus from the dead as a fact, when they did not care to hear
more. {Some mocked} (hoi men echleuazon). Imperfect active of
chleuaz(935c), a common verb (from chleu(885c), jesting, mockery). Only
here in the N.T. though late MSS. have it in  2:13  (best MSS.
diachleuaz(935c)). Probably inchoative here, began to mock. In
contempt at Paul's statement they declined to listen further to
"this babbler" (verse  18 ) who had now lost what he had gained
with this group of hearers (probably the light and flippant
Epicureans). {But others} (hoi de). A more polite group like
those who had invited him to speak (verse  19 ). They were
unconvinced, but had better manners and so were in favour of an
adjournment. This was done, though it is not clear whether it was
a serious postponement or a courteous refusal to hear Paul
further (probably this). It was a virtual dismissal of the
matter. " It is a sad story--the noblest of ancient cities and
the noblest man of history--and he never cared to look on it
again" (Furneaux).

經文:

使徒行傳 17:33-17:33

註釋:

 {Thus Paul went out from among them} (hout(9373) ho Paulos
ex(886c)then ek mesou aut(936e)). No further questions, no effort to
arrest him, no further ridicule. He walked out never to return to
Athens. Had he failed?

經文:

使徒行傳 17:34-17:34

註釋:

 {Clave unto him and believed} (koll(8874)hentes aut(9369)
episteusan). First aorist passive of this strong word kolla(935c),
to glue to, common in Acts ( 5:13  8:29  9:26  10:28 ) No sermon
is a failure which leads a group of men (andres) to believe
(ingressive aorist of pisteu(935c)) in Jesus Christ. Many so-called
great or grand sermons reap no such harvest. {Dionysius the
Areopagite} (Dionusios ho Areopagit(8873)). One of the judges of
the Court of the Areopagus. That of itself was no small victory.
He was one of this college of twelve judges who had helped to
make Athens famous. Eusebius says that he became afterwards
bishop of the Church at Athens and died a martyr. {A woman named
Damaris} (gun(8820)onomati Damaris). A woman by name Damaris. Not
the wife of Dionysius as some have thought, but an aristocratic
woman, not necessarily an educated courtezan as Furneaux holds.
And there were "others" (heteroi) with them, a group strong
enough to keep the fire burning in Athens. It is common to say
that Paul in  1Co 2:1-5  alludes to his failure with philosophy
in Athens when he failed to preach Christ crucified and he
determined never to make that mistake again. On the other hand
Paul determined to stick to the Cross of Christ in spite of the
fact that the intellectual pride and superficial culture of
Athens had prevented the largest success. As he faced Corinth
with its veneer of culture and imitation of philosophy and sudden
wealth he would go on with the same gospel of the Cross, the only
gospel that Paul knew or preached. And it was a great thing to
give the world a sermon like that preached in Athens.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:1-18:1

註釋:

 {To Corinth} (eis Korinthon). Mummius had captured and
destroyed Corinth B.C. 146. It was restored by Julius Caesar B.C.
46 as a boom town and made a colony. It was now the capital of
the province of Achaia and the chief commercial city of Greece
with a cosmopolitan population. It was only fifty miles from
Athens. The summit of Acrocorinthus was 1,800 feet high and the
ports of Cenchreae and Lechaeum and the Isthmus across which
ships were hauled gave it command of the trade routes between
Asia and Rome. The temple of Aphrodite on the Acrocorinthus had a
thousand consecrated prostitutes and the very name to
Corinthianize meant immorality. Not the Parthenon with Athene
faced Paul in Corinth, but a worse situation. Naturally many Jews
were in such a mart of trade. Philippi, Thessalonica, Beroea,
Athens, all had brought anxiety to Paul. What could he expect in
licentious Corinth?

經文:

使徒行傳 18:2-18:2

註釋:

 {Aquila} (Akulan). Luke calls him a Jew from Pontus,
apparently not yet a disciple, though there were Jews from Pontus
at the great Pentecost who were converted ( 2:9 ). Aquila who
made the famous A.D. translation of the O.T. was also from
Pontus. Paul "found" (heur(936e), second aorist active participle
of heurisk(935c)) though we do not know how. Edersheim says that a
Jewish guild always kept together whether in street or synagogue
so that by this bond they probably met. {Lately come from Italy}
(prosphat(9373) el(886c)uthota apo t(8873) Italias). Second perfect
participle of erchomai. _Koin(825f) adverb, here only in the N.T.,
from adjective prosphatos (pro, spha(935c) or sphaz(935c), to kill),
lately slaughtered and so fresh or recent ( Heb 10:20 ). {With
his wife Priscilla} (kai Priskillan gunaika autou). Diminutive
of Priska ( Ro 16:3  1Co 16:19 ). Prisca is a name in the
Acilian family and the Prisci was the name of another noble clan.
Aquila may have been a freedman like many Jews in Rome. Her name
comes before his in verses  18,26  Ro 16:3  2Ti 4:9 . {Because
Claudius had commanded} (dia to diatetachenai Klaudion).
Perfect active articular infinitive of diatass(935c), old verb to
dispose, arrange, here with accusative of general reference.
Dia here is causal sense, "because of the having ordered as to
Claudius." This was about A.D. 49, done, Suetonius says
(_Claudius_ C. 25), because "the Jews were in a state of constant
tumult at the instigation of one Chrestus" (probably among the
Jews about Christ so pronounced). At any rate Jews were unpopular
in Rome for Tiberius had deported 4,000 to Sardinia. There were
20,000 Jews in Rome. Probably mainly those implicated in the
riots actually left.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:3-18:3

註釋:

 {Because he was of the same trade} (dia to homotechnon
einai). Same construction with dia as above. Homotechnon is
an old word (homos, techn(885c)), though here alone in N.T. Rabbi
Judah says: "He that teacheth not his son a trade, doth the same
as if he taught him to be a thief." So it was easy for Paul to
find a home with these "tentmakers by trade" (sk(886e)oipoioi t(8869)
techn(8869)). Late word from sk(886e)(885c) and poie(935c), here only in the
N.T. They made portable tents of leather or of cloth of goat's
hair. So Paul lived in this home with this noble man and his
wife, all the more congenial if already Christians which they
soon became at any rate. They worked as partners in the common
trade. Paul worked for his support elsewhere, already in
Thessalonica ( 1Th 2:9  2Th 3:8 ) and later at Ephesus with
Aquila and Priscilla ( Ac 18:18,26  20:34  1Co 16:19 ). They
moved again to Rome ( Ro 16:3 ) and were evidently a couple of
considerable wealth and generosity. It was a blessing to Paul to
find himself with these people. So he "abode" (emenen,
imperfect active) with them and "they wrought" ((8872)gazonto,
imperfect middle), happy and busy during week days.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:4-18:4

註釋:

 {He reasoned} (dielegeto). Imperfect middle, same form as
in  17:17  about Paul's work in Athens, here only on the
Sabbaths. {Persuaded} (epeithen). Imperfect active, conative,
he tried to persuade both Jews and Greeks (God-fearers who alone
would come).

經文:

使徒行傳 18:5-18:5

註釋:

 {Was constrained by the word} (suneicheto t(9369) log(9369)). This
is undoubtedly the correct text and not 	(9369) pneumati of the
Textus Receptus, but suneicheto is in my opinion the direct
middle imperfect indicative, not the imperfect passive as the
translations have it (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 808). Paul held
himself together or completely to the preaching instead of just
on Sabbaths in the synagogue (verse  4 ). The coming of Silas and
Timothy with the gifts from Macedonia ( 1Th 3:6  2Co 11:9  Php
4:15 ) set Paul free from tent-making for a while so that he
began to devote himself (inchoative imperfect) with fresh
consecration to preaching. See the active in  2Co 5:14 . He was
now also assisted by Silas and Timothy ( 2Co 1:19 ). {Testifying
to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ} (diamarturomenos tois
Ioudaiois einai ton Christon I(8873)oun). Paul's witness everywhere
( 9:22  17:3 ). This verb diamarturomenos occurs in  2:40 
(which see) for Peter's earnest witness. Perhaps daily now in the
synagogue he spoke to the Jews who came. Einai is the
infinitive in indirect discourse (assertion) with the accusative
of general reference. By 	on Christon Paul means "the Messiah."
His witness is to show to the Jews that Jesus of Nazareth is the
Messiah.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:6-18:6

註釋:

 2Sa
1:16 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Sa
1' or engs='2Sa
1'
經文:

使徒行傳 18:7-18:7

註釋:

 Co 4:11 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Co' or engs='Co'
經文:

使徒行傳 18:8-18:8

註釋:

 {Crispus} (Krispos). Though a Jew and ruler of the
synagogue (cf.  13:15 ), he had a Latin name. Paul baptized him
( 1Co 1:14 ) himself, perhaps because of his prominence,
apparently letting Silas and Timothy baptize most of the converts
( 1Co 1:14-17 ). Probably he followed Paul to the house of Titus
Justus. It looked like ruin for the synagogue. {With all his
house} (sun hol(9369) t(9369) oik(9369) autou). Another household
conversion, for Crispus "believed (episteusen) in the Lord with
all his house." {Hearing believed and were baptized} (akouontes
episteuon kai ebaptizonto). Present active participle and
imperfect indicatives active and passive, expressing repetition
for the "many" others who kept coming to the Lord in Corinth. It
was a continual revival after Silas and Timothy came and a great
church was gathered here during the nearly two years that Paul
laboured in Corinth (possibly A.D. 51 and 52).

經文:

使徒行傳 18:9-18:9

註釋:

 {Be not afraid, but speak, and hold not thy peace} (M(880a)phobou, alla lalei kai m(8820)si(9370)(8873)(8869)s). Literally, "stop being
afraid (m(885c) with present middle imperative of phobe(935c)), but go
on speaking (present active imperative of lale(935c)) and do not
become silent (m(885c) and first aorist active of si(9370)a(935c),
ingressive aorist)." Evidently there were signs of a gathering
storm before this vision and message from the Lord Jesus came to
Paul one night. Paul knew only too well what Jewish hatred could
do as he had learned it at Damascus, Jerusalem, Antioch in
Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe, Thessalonica, Beroea. He had
clearly moments of doubt whether he had not better move on or
become silent for a while in Corinth. Every pastor knows what it
is to have such moods and moments. In  2Th 3:2  (written at this
time) we catch Paul's dejection of spirits. He was like Elijah
( 1Ki 19:4 ) and Jeremiah ( Jer 15:15ff. ).

經文:

使徒行傳 18:10-18:10

註釋:

 {Because I am with thee} (dioti eg(9320)eimi meta sou). Jesus
had given this promise to all believers ( Mt 28:20 ) and here he
renews it to Paul. This promise changes Paul's whole outlook.
Jesus had spoken to Paul before, on the way to Damascus ( 9:4 ),
in Jerusalem ( 22:17f. ), in Troas ( 16:9 ), in great crises of
his life. He will hear him again ( 23:11  27:23 ). Paul knows the
voice of Jesus. {No man shall set on thee to harm thee} (oudeis
epith(8873)etai soi tou kak(9373)ai se). Future direct middle indicative
of epitith(886d)i, old and common verb, here in direct middle to
lay or throw oneself upon, to attack. Jesus kept that promise in
Corinth for Paul. Tou kak(9373)ai is genitive articular infinitive
of purpose of kako(935c), to do harm to. Paul would now face all the
rabbis without fear. {I have much people} (laos estin moi
polus). Dative of personal interest. "There is to me much
people," not yet saved, but who will be if Paul holds on. There
is the problem for every preacher and pastor, how to win the
elect to Christ.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:11-18:11

註釋:

 2Co
11:10 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
11' or engs='2Co
11'
經文:

使徒行傳 18:12-18:12

註釋:

 {When Gallio was proconsul of Achaia} (Galli(936e)os de
anthupatou ontos t(8873) Achaias). Genitive absolute of present
participle ontos. Brother of Seneca the Stoic (Nero's tutor)
and uncle of Lucan the author of the Pharsalia. His original
name was M. Annaeus Novatus till he was adopted by Gallio the
rhetorician. The family was Spanish. Gallio was a man of culture
and refinement and may have been chosen proconsul of Achaia for
this reason. Statius calls him "_dulcis Gallio_." Seneca says of
him: _Nemo enim mortalium uni tam dulcis quam hic omnibus_ (No
one of mortals is so pleasant to one person as he is to all).
Luke alone among writers says that he was proconsul, but Seneca
speaks of his being in Achaia where he caught fever, a
corroboration of Luke. But now a whitish grey limestone
inscription from the Hagios Elias quarries near Delphi (a letter
of Claudius to Delphi) has been found which definitely names
Gallio as proconsul of Achaia (authupatos t(8873) Achaias). The
province of Achaia after various shifts (first senatorial, then
imperial) back and forth with Macedonia, in A.D. 44 Claudius gave
back to the Senate with proconsul as the title of the governor.
It is amazing how Luke is confirmed whenever a new discovery is
made. The discovery of this inscription has thrown light also on
the date of Paul's work in Corinth as it says that Gallio came in
the 26th acclamation of Claudius as Emperor in A.D. 51, that
would definitely fix the time of Paul in Corinth as A.D. 50 and
51 (or 51 and 52). Deissmann has a full and able discussion of
the whole matter in Appendix I to his _St. Paul_. {Rose up}
(katepest(8873)an). Second aorist active of kat-eph-ist(886d)i,
intransitive, to take a stand against, a double compound verb
found nowhere else. They took a stand (est(8873)an) against
(kata, down on, epi, upon), they made a dash or rush at Paul
as if they would stand it no longer. {Before the judgment seat}
(epi to b(886d)a). See on 氣2:21|. The proconsul was sitting in the
basilica in the forum or agora. The Jews had probably heard of
his reputation for moderation and sought to make an impression as
they had on the praetors of Philippi by their rush (sunepest(885c),
 16:22 ). The new proconsul was a good chance also ( 25:2 ). So
for the second time Paul faces a Roman proconsul (Sergius Paulus,
 13:7 ) though under very different circumstances.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:13-18:13

註釋:

 {Contrary to the law} (para ton nomon). They did not
accuse Paul of treason as in Thessalonica, perhaps Paul had been
more careful in his language here. They bring the same charge
here that the owners of the slave-girl brought in Philippi
( 16:21 ) Perhaps they fear to go too far with Gallio, for they
are dealing with a Roman proconsul, not with the politarchs of
Thessalonica. The Jewish religion was a _religio licita_ and they
were allowed to make proselytes, but not among Roman citizens. To
prove that Paul was acting contrary to Roman law (for Jewish law
had no standing with Gallio though the phrase has a double
meaning) these Jews had to show that Paul was making converts in
ways that violated the Roman regulations on that subject. The
accusation as made did not show it nor did they produce any
evidence to do it. The verb used anapeithei means to stir up by
persuasion (old verb here only in the N.T.), a thing that he had
a right to do.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:14-18:14

註釋:

 {When Paul was about to open his mouth} (mellontos tou
Paulou anoigein to stoma). Genitive absolute again. Before Paul
could speak, Gallio cut in and ended the whole matter. According
to their own statement Paul needed no defence. {Wrong}
(adik(886d)a). _Injuria_. Old word, a wrong done one. In N.T. only
here,  Ac 24:20  Re 18:5 . Here it may mean a legal wrong to the
state. {Wicked villainy} (
h(8369)diourg(886d)a). A crime, act of a
criminal, from 
h(8369)diourgos (
h(8369)dios, easy, ergon, work),
one who does a thing with ease, adroitly, a "slick citizen."
{Reason would that I should bear with you} (kata logon an
aneschom(886e) hum(936e)). Literally, "according to reason I should have
put up with you (or held myself back from you)." This condition
is the second class (determined as unfulfilled) and means that
the Jews had no case against Paul in a Roman court. The verb in
the conclusion (aneschom(886e)) is second aorist middle indicative
and means with the ablative hum(936e) "I should have held myself
back (direct middle) from you (ablative). The use of an makes
the form of the condition plain.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:15-18:15

註釋:

 {Questions} (z(8874)(886d)ata). Plural, contemptuous, "a parcel
of questions" (Knowling). {About words} (peri logou). Word,
singular, talk, not deed or fact (ergon, factum). {And names}
(kai onomat(936e)). As to whether "Jesus" should also be called
"Christ" or "Messiah." The Jews, Gallio knew, split hairs over
words and names. {And your own law} (kai nomou tou kath' hum(8373))
Literally, "And law that according to you." Gallio had not been
caught in the trap set for him. What they had said concerned
Jewish law, not Roman law at all. {Look to it yourselves}
(opsesthe autoi). The volitive future middle indicative of
hora(935c) often used (cf.  Mt 27:4 ) where an imperative could be
employed (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 874). The use of autoi
(yourselves) turns it all over to them. {I am not minded} (ou
boulomai). I am not willing, I do not wish. An absolute refusal
to allow a religious question to be brought before a Roman civil
court. This decision of Gallio does not establish Christianity in
preference to Judaism. It simply means that the case was plainly
that Christianity was a form of Judaism and as such was not
opposed to Roman law. This decision opened the door for Paul's
preaching all over the Roman Empire. Later Paul himself argues
( Ro 9-11 ) that in fact Christianity is the true, the spiritual
Judaism.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:16-18:16

註釋:

 {He drave them} (ap(886c)asen autous). First aorist active
indicative of apelaun(935c), old word, but here alone in the N.T.
The Jews were stunned by this sudden blow from the mild proconsul
and wanted to linger to argue the case further, but they had to
go.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:17-18:17

註釋:

 {They all laid hold on Sosthenes} (epilabomenoi pantes
S(9373)then(886e)). See  16:19  17:19  for the same form. Here is
violent hostile reaction against their leader who had failed so
miserably. {Beat him} (etupton). Inchoative imperfect active,
began to beat him, even if they could not beat Paul. Sosthenes
succeeded Crispus (verse  8 ) when he went over to Paul. The
beating did Sosthenes good for he too finally is a Christian
( 1Co 1:1 ), a co-worker with Paul whom he had sought to
persecute. {And Gallio cared for none of these things} (kai
ouden tout(936e) t(9369) Galli(936e)i emelen). Literally, "no one of these
things was a care to Gallio." The usually impersonal verb
(melei, emelen, imperfect active) here has the nominative as in
 Lu 10:40 . These words have been often misunderstood as a
description of Gallio's lack of interest in Christianity, a
religious indifferentist. But that is quite beside the mark.
Gallio looked the other way with a blind eye while Sosthenes got
the beating which he richly deserved. That was a small detail for
the police court, not for the proconsul's concern. Gallio shows
up well in Luke's narrative as a clear headed judge who would not
be led astray by Jewish subterfuges and with the courage to
dismiss a mob.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:18-18:18

註釋:

 {Having tarried after this yet many days} (eti prosmeinas
h(886d)eras hikanas). First aorist (constative) active participle of
prosmen(935c), old verb, to remain besides (pros as in  1Ti 1:3 )
and that idea is expressed also in eti (yet). The accusative is
extent of time. On Luke's frequent use of hikanos see  8:11 .
It is not certain that this period of "considerable days" which
followed the trial before Gallio is included in the year and six
months of verse  11  or is in addition to it which is most
likely. Vindicated as Paul was, there was no reason for haste in
leaving, though he usually left after such a crisis was passed.
{Took his leave} (apotaxamenos). First aorist middle (direct),
old verb, to separate oneself, to bid farewell (Vulgate
_valefacio_), as in verse  21  Mr 6:46 . {Sailed thence}
(exeplei). Imperfect active of ekple(935c), old and common verb,
inchoative imperfect, started to sail. Only Priscilla and Aquila
are mentioned as his companions though others may have been in
the party. {Having shorn his head} (keiramenos t(886e) kephal(886e)).
First aorist middle (causative) of keir(935c), old verb to shear
(sheep) and the hair as also in  1Co 11:6 . The participle is
masculine and so cannot refer to Priscilla. Aquila comes next to
the participle, but since mention of Priscilla and Aquila is
parenthetical and the two other participles (prosmeinas,
apotaxamenos) refer to Paul it seems clear that this one does
also. {For he had a vow} (eichen gar euch(886e)). Imperfect active
showing the continuance of the vow up till this time in
Cenchreae, the port of Corinth when it expired. It was not a
Nazarite vow which could be absolved only in Jerusalem. It is
possible that the hair was only polled or trimmed, cut shorter,
not "shaved" (xura(935c) as in  21:24 ) for there is a distinction
as both verbs are contrasted in  1Co 11:6  (keir(8373)thai (880a)xur(8373)thai). It is not clear what sort of a vow Paul had taken
nor why he took it. It may have been a thank offering for the
outcome at Corinth (Hackett). Paul as a Jew kept up his
observance of the ceremonial law, but refused to impose it on the
Gentiles.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:19-18:19

註釋:

 {Came} (kat(886e)t(8873)an). Came down, as usual in speaking of
coming to land ( 16:1 ). {To Ephesus} (eis Epheson). This great
city on the Cayster, the capital of the Province of Asia, the
home of the worship of Diana (Artemis) with a wonderful temple,
Paul at last had reached, though forbidden to come on the way out
on this tour ( 16:6 ). Here Paul will spend three years after his
return from Jerusalem. {He left them there} (kakeinous katelipen
autou). That is, Priscilla and Aquila he left (second aorist
active indicative) here (autou). But Luke mentions the
departure by way of anticipation before he actually went away
(verse  21 ). {But he himself} (autos de). Paul again the
leading person in the narrative. On this occasion he may have
gone alone into the synagogue. {He reasoned} (dielexato).
Luke's favourite word for Paul's synagogue discourses ( 17:2,17  18:4  which see) as also  19:8,9 .

經文:

使徒行傳 18:20-18:20

註釋:

 {When they asked him} (er(9374)(936e)t(936e) aut(936e)). Genitive
absolute of present participle of er(9374)a(935c), old verb to ask a
question, common in _Koin(825f) to make a request as here. {He
consented not} (ouk epeneusen). First aorist active indicative
of epineu(935c), old verb to express approval by a nod, only here in
the N.T.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:21-18:21

註釋:

 {I shall return} (anakamps(935c)). Future active indicative of
anakampt(935c), old verb to bend back, turn back ( Mt 2:2 ). {If God
will} (	ou theou thelontos). Genitive absolute of present
active participle. This expression (ean with subjunctive)
occurs also in  1Co 4:19  16:7  Jas 4:15 . Such phrases were
common among Jews, Greeks, and Romans, and are today. It is
simply a recognition that we are in God's hands. The Textus
Receptus has here a sentence not in the best MSS.: "I must by all
means keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem." This addition by
D and other documents may have been due to a desire to give a
reason for the language in verse  22  about "going up" to
Jerusalem. Whether Paul said it or not, it was in the spring when
he made this journey with a company of pilgrims probably going to
the feast of Pentecost in Jerusalem. We know that later Paul did
try to reach Jerusalem for Pentecost ( 20:16 ) and succeeded. As
the ship was leaving, Paul had to go, but with the hope of
returning soon to Ephesus as he did.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:22-18:22

註釋:

 {He went up and saluted the church} (anabas kai
aspasamenos t(886e) ekkl(8873)ian). The language could refer to the
church in Caesarea where Paul had just landed, except for several
things. The going up (anabas, second aorist active participle
of anabain(935c)) is the common way of speaking of going to
Jerusalem which was up from every direction save from Hebron. It
was the capital of Palestine as people in England today speaking
of going up to London. Besides "he went down to Antioch" (kateb(880a)eis Antiocheian, second aorist active indicative of katabain(935c))
which language suits better leaving Jerusalem than Caesarea.
Moreover, there was no special reason for this trip to Caesarea,
but to Jerusalem it was different. Here Paul saluted the church
in the fourth of his five visits after his conversion ( 9:26  11:30  15:4  18:22  21:17 ). The apostles may or may not have
been in the city, but Paul had friends in Jerusalem now.
Apparently he did not tarry long, but returned to Antioch to make
a report of his second mission tour as he had done at the close
of the first when he and Barnabas came back ( 14:26-28 ). He had
started on this tour with Silas and had picked up Timothy and
Luke, but came back alone. He had a great story to tell.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:23-18:23

註釋:

 {Having spent some time} (poi(8873)as chronon tina).
Literally, having done some time. How long we do not know,
probably not long. There are those who place the visit of Peter
here to which Paul alludes in  Ga 2:11ff.  and which we have
located while Paul was here the last time ( Ac 15:35 ). {He
departed} (ex(886c)then). Thus simply and alone Paul began the
third mission tour without a Barnabas or a Silas. {Went through}
(dierchomenos). Present middle participle, going through. {The
region of Galatia and Phrygia} (	en Galatik(886e) ch(9372)an kai
Phrygian). See on 涉c 16:6| for discussion of this phrase, here
in reverse order, passing through the Galatic region and then
Phrygia. Does Luke mean Lycaonia (Derbe and Lystra) and Phrygia
(Iconium and Pisidian Antioch)? Or does he mean the route west
through the old Galatia and the old Phrygia on west into Asia?
The same conflict exists here over the South Galatian and the
North Galatian theories. Phrygia is apparently distinguished from
the Galatic region here. It is apparently A.D. 52 when Paul set
out on this tour. {In order} (kathex(8873)). In succession as in
 11:4 , though the names of the cities are not given.
{Stablishing} (st(8872)iz(936e)). As he did in the second tour
( 15:41 , epist(8872)iz(936e), compound of this same verb) which see.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:24-18:24

註釋:

 {Apollos} (Apoll(9373)). Genitive -(935c) Attic second
declension. Probably a contraction of Apollonios as D has it
here. {An Alexandrian} (Alexandreus). Alexander the Great
founded this city B.C. 332 and placed a colony of Jews there
which flourished greatly, one-third of the population at this
time. There was a great university and library there. The
Jewish-Alexandrian philosophy developed here of which Philo was
the chief exponent who was still living. Apollos was undoubtedly
a man of the schools and a man of parts. {A learned man} (an(8872)
logios). Or eloquent, as the word can mean either a man of words
(like one "wordy," verbose) or a man of ideas, since logos was
used either for reason or speech. Apollos was doubtless both
learned (mighty in the Scriptures) and eloquent, though eloquence
varies greatly in people's ideas. {Mighty in the Scriptures}
(dunatos (936e) en tais graphais). Being powerful (dunatos verbal
of dunamai and same root as dunamis, dynamite, dynamo) in the
Scriptures (in the knowledge and the use of the Scriptures), as
should be true of every preacher. There is no excuse for
ignorance of the Scriptures on the part of preachers, the
professed interpreters of the word of God. The last lecture made
to the New Testament English class in Southern Baptist
Theological Seminary by John A. Broadus was on this passage with
a plea for his students to be mighty in the Scriptures. In
Alexandria Clement of Alexandria and Origen taught in the
Christian theological school.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:25-18:25

註釋:

 {Had been instructed in the way of the Lord} ((886e)
kat(8863)h(886d)enos t(886e) hodon tou kuriou). Periphrastic past perfect
passive of kat(8863)he(935c), rare in the old Greek and not in the LXX
from kata and (8863)he(935c) ((8863)h(935c), sound) as in  Lu 1:4 , to
re-sound, to re-echo, to teach by repeated dinning into the ears
as the Arabs do now, to teach orally by word of mouth (and ear).
Here the accusative of the thing (the word) is retained in the
passive like with didask(935c), to teach (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
485). Being fervent in spirit (ze(936e) t(9369) pneumati). Boiling
(from ze(935c), to boil, old and common verb, in N.T. only here and
 Ro 12:11 ) like boiling water or yeast. The Latin verb _ferveo_
means to boil or ferment. Locative case after it. {Taught
carefully} (edidasken akrib(9373)). Imperfect active, was teaching
or inchoative, began teaching, accurately. He taught accurately
what he knew, a fine gift for any preacher. {Only the baptism of
John} (monon to baptisma I(9361)nou). It was a {baptism of
repentance} (marked by repentance) as Paul said ( 13:24  19:4 ),
as Peter said ( 2:38 ) and as the Gospels tell ( Mr 1:4 , etc.).
That is to say, Apollos knew only what the Baptist knew when he
died, but John had preached the coming of the Messiah, had
baptized him, had identified him as the Son of God, had
proclaimed the baptism of the Holy Spirit, but had not seen the
Cross, the Resurrection of Jesus, nor the great Day of Pentecost.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:26-18:26

註釋:

 {They took him unto them} (proselabonto). Second aorist
middle (indirect) indicative of proslamban(935c), old verb, to their
home and heart as companion (cf. the rabbis and the ruffians in
 17:5 ). Probably for dinner after service. {Expounded}
(exethento). Second aorist (effective) middle indicative of
ektith(886d)i seen already in  11:4 , to set forth. {More
carefully} (akribesteron). Comparative adverb of akrib(9373).
More accurately than he already knew. Instead of abusing the
young and brilliant preacher for his ignorance they (particularly
Priscilla) gave him the fuller story of the life and work of
Jesus and of the apostolic period to fill up the gaps in his
knowledge. It is a needed and delicate task, this thing of
teaching gifted young ministers. They do not learn it all in
schools. More of it comes from contact with men and women rich in
grace and in the knowledge of God's ways. He was not rebaptized,
but only received fuller information.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:27-18:27

註釋:

 {Encouraged him} (protrepsamenoi). First aorist middle
participle of protrep(935c), old verb, to urge forward, to push on,
only here in the N.T. Since Apollos wanted (oulomenou autou,
genitive absolute) to go into Achaia, the brethren (including
others besides Priscilla and Aquila) wrote (egrapsan) a letter
of introduction to the disciples in Corinth to receive him
(apodexasthai auton), a nice letter of recommendation and a
sincere one also. But Paul will refer to this very letter later
( 2Co 3:1 ) and observe that he himself needed no such letter of
commendation. The Codex Bezae adds here that certain Corinthians
who had come to Ephesus heard Apollos and begged him to cross
over with them to Corinth. This may very well be the way that
Apollos was led to go. Preachers often receive calls because
visitors from other places hear them. Priscilla and Aquila were
well known in Corinth and their approval would carry weight. But
they did not urge Apollos to stay longer in Ephesus. {Helped them
much} (sunebaleto polu). Second aorist middle indicative of
sunball(935c) used in  17:18  for "dispute," old verb to throw
together, in the N.T. always in the active save here in the
middle (common in Greek writers) to put together, to help.
{Through grace} (dia t(8873) charitos). This makes sense if taken
with "believed," as Hackett does (cf.  13:48  16:14 ) or with
"helped" ( 1Co 3:10  15:10  2Co 1:12 ). Both are true as the
references show.

經文:

使徒行傳 18:28-18:28

註釋:

 {Powerfully} (euton(9373)). Adverb from eutonos (eu,
well, 	ein(935c), to stretch), well-strung, at full stretch.
{Confuted} (diakat(886c)egcheto). Imperfect middle of the double
compound verb dia-kat-elegchomai, to confute with rivalry in a
contest, here alone. The old Greek has dielegch(935c), to convict of
falsehood, but not this double compound which means to argue down
to a finish. It is the imperfect tense and does not mean that
Apollos convinced these rabbis, but he had the last word.
{Publicly} (d(886d)osi(8369)). See  5:18  16:37 . In open meeting where
all could see the victory of Apollos. {Shewing} (epideiknus).
Present active participle of epideiknumi, old verb to set forth
so that all see. {By the Scriptures} (dia t(936e) graph(936e)). In
which Apollos was so "mighty" (verse  24 ) and the rabbis so weak
for they knew the oral law better than the written ( Mr 7:8-12 ).
{That Jesus was the Christ} (einai ton Christon I(8873)oun).
Infinitive and the accusative in indirect assertion. Apollos
proclaims the same message that Paul did everywhere ( 17:3 ). He
had not yet met Paul, but he had been instructed by Priscilla and
Aquila. He is in Corinth building on the foundation laid so well
by Paul ( 1Co 3:4-17 ). Luke has here made a brief digression
from the story of Paul, but it helps us understand Paul better
There are those who think that Apollos wrote Hebrews, a guess
that may be correct.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:1-19:1

註釋:

 {While Apollos was at Corinth} (en t(9369) ton Apoll(9320)einai en
Korinth(9369)). Favourite idiom with Luke, en with the locative of
the articular infinitive and the accusative of general reference
( Lu 1:8  2:27 , etc.). {Having passed through the upper country}
(dielthonta ta an(9374)erika mer(885c)). Second aorist active participle
of dierchomai, accusative case agreeing with Paulon,
accusative of general reference with the infinitive elthein,
idiomatic construction with egeneto. The word for "upper"
(an(9374)erika) is a late form for an(9374)era ( Lu 14:10 ) and
occurs in Hippocrates and Galen. It refers to the highlands (cf.
Xenophon's _Anabasis_) and means that Paul did not travel the
usual Roman road west by Colossae and Laodicea in the Lycus
Valley, cities that he did not visit ( Col 2:1 ). Instead he took
the more direct road through the Cayster Valley to Ephesus. Codex
Bezae says here that Paul wanted to go back to Jerusalem, but
that the Holy Spirit bade him to go into Asia where he had been
forbidden to go in the second tour ( 16:6 ). Whether the upper
"parts" (mer(885c)) here points to North Galatia is still a point of
dispute among scholars. So he came again to Ephesus as he had
promised to do ( 18:21 ). The province of Asia included the
western part of Asia Minor. The Romans took this country B.C.
130. Finally the name was extended to the whole continent. It was
a jewel in the Roman empire along with Africa and was a
senatorial province. It was full of great cities like Ephesus,
Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea (the
seven churches of  Re 2  3 ), Colossae, Hierapolis, Apamea, to go
no further. Hellenism had full sway here. Ephesus was the capital
and chief city and was a richer and larger city than Corinth. It
was located at the entrance to the valley of the Maeander to the
east. Here was the power of Rome and the splendour of Greek
culture and the full tide of oriental superstition and magic. The
Temple of Artemis was one of the seven wonders of the world.
While in Ephesus some hold that Paul at this time wrote the
Epistle to the Galatians after his recent visit there, some that
he did it before his recent visit to Jerusalem. But it is still
possible that he wrote it from Corinth just before writing to
Rome, a point to discuss later. {Certain disciples} (	inas
math(8874)as). Who were they? Apollos had already gone to Corinth.
They show no connection with Priscilla and Aquila. Luke calls
them "disciples" or "learners" (math(8874)as) because they were
evidently sincere though crude and ignorant. There is no reason
at all for connecting these uninformed disciples of the Baptist
with Apollos. They were floating followers of the Baptist who
drifted into Ephesus and whom Paul found. Some of John's
disciples clung to him till his death ( Joh 3:22-25  Lu 7:19  Mt
14:12 ). Some of them left Palestine without the further
knowledge of Jesus that came after his death and some did not
even know that, as turned out to be the case with the group in
Ephesus.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:2-19:2

註釋:

 {Did ye receive the Holy Spirit when ye believed?} (ei
pneuma hagion elabete pisteusantes?). This use of Pi in a
direct question occurs in  1:6 , is not according to the old
Greek idiom, but is common in the LXX and the N.T. as in  Lu
13:23  which see (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 916). Apparently Paul
was suspicious of the looks or conduct of these professed
disciples. The first aorist active participle pisteusantes is
simultaneous with the second aorist active indicative elabete
and refers to the same event. {Nay, we did not so much as hear
whether the Holy Spirit was} (All' oude ei pneuma hagion estin
(886b)ousamen). The reply of these ignorant disciples is amazing.
They probably refer to the time of their baptism and mean that,
when baptized, they did not hear whether (ei in indirect
question) the Holy Spirit was (estin retained as in  Joh
7:39 ). Plain proof that they knew John's message poorly.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:3-19:3

註釋:

 {Into what} (eis ti). More properly, {Unto what} or {on
what basis} (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 592). Clearly, Paul felt
they had received a poor baptism with no knowledge of the Holy
Spirit. {John's baptism} (	o I(9361)nou baptisma). Last mention of
John the Baptist in the N.T. They had been dipped in other words,
but they had not grasped the significance of the ordinance.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:4-19:4

註釋:

 {With the baptism of repentance} (aptisma metanoias).
Cognate accusative with ebaptisen and the genitive metanoias
describing the baptism as marked by (case of species or genus),
not as conveying, repentance just as in  Mr 1:4  and that was the
work of the Holy Spirit. But John preached also the baptism of
the Holy Spirit which the Messiah was to bring ( Mr 1:7f.  Mt
3:11f.  Lu 3:16 ). If they did not know of the Holy Spirit, they
had missed the point of John's baptism. {That they should believe
on him that should come after him, that is on Jesus} (eis ton
erchomenon met' auton hina pisteus(9373)in, tout' estin eis ton
I(8873)oun). Note the emphatic prolepsis of eis ton erchomenon met'
auton before hina pisteus(9373)in with which it is construed. This
is John's identical phrase, "the one coming after me" as seen in
 Mr 1:7  Mt 3:11  Lu 3:16  Joh 1:15 . It is not clear that these
"disciples" believed in a Messiah, least of all in Jesus. They
were wholly unprepared for the baptism of John. Paul does not
mean to say that John's baptism was inadequate, but he simply
explains what John really taught and so what his baptism
signified.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:5-19:5

註釋:

 {The name of the Lord Jesus} (	o onoma ton kuriou I(8873)ou).
Apollos was not rebaptized. The twelve apostles were not
rebaptized. Jesus received no other baptism than that of John.
The point here is simply that these twelve men were grossly
ignorant of the meaning of John's baptism as regards repentance,
the Messiahship of Jesus, the Holy Spirit. Hence Paul had them
baptized, not so much again, as really baptized this time, in the
name or on the authority of the Lord Jesus as he had himself
commanded ( Mt 28:19 ) and as was the universal apostolic custom.
Proper understanding of "Jesus" involved all the rest including
the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). Luke does not give a
formula, but simply explains that now these men had a proper
object of faith (Jesus) and were now really baptized.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:6-19:6

註釋:

 {When Paul had laid his hands upon them} (epithentos autois
tou Paulou cheiras). Genitive absolute of second aorist active
participle of epitith(886d)i. This act of laying on of the hands
was done in Samaria by Peter and John ( 8:16 ) and in Damascus in
the case of Paul ( 9:17 ) and was followed as here by the descent
of the Holy Spirit in supernatural power. {They spake with
tongues} (elaloun gl(9373)sais). Inchoative imperfect, began to
speak with tongues as in Jerusalem at Pentecost and as in
Caesarea before the baptism. {Prophesied} (eproph(8874)euon).
Inchoative imperfect again, began to prophesy. The speaking with
tongues and prophesying was external and indubitable proof that
the Holy Spirit had come on these twelve uninformed disciples now
fully won to the service of Jesus as Messiah. But this baptism in
water did not "convey" the Holy Spirit nor forgiveness of sins.
Paul was not a sacramentalist.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:8-19:8

註釋:

 {Spake boldly} (eparr(8873)iazeto). Imperfect middle, kept on
at it for three months. Cf. same word in  18:26 . {Persuading}
(peith(936e)). Present active conative participle of peith(935c),
trying to persuade ( 28:23 ). Paul's idea of the Kingdom of God
was the church of God which he (Jesus, God's Son) had purchased
with his own blood ( Ac 20:28 , calling Christ God). Nowhere else
had Paul apparently been able to speak so long in the synagogue
without interruption unless it was so at Corinth. These Jews were
already interested ( 18:30 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 19:9-19:9

註釋:

 1Co
16:19 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
16' or engs='1Co
16'
經文:

使徒行傳 19:10-19:10

註釋:

 {For two years} (epi et(8820)duo). Note epi with accusative
for extent of time as in verse  8 , epi m(886e)as treis and often.
But in  20:31  Paul said to the Ephesian elders at Miletus that
he laboured with them for the space of "three years." That may be
a general expression and there was probably a longer period after
the "two years" in the school of Tyrannus besides the six months
in the synagogue. Paul may have preached thereafter in the house
of Aquila and Priscilla for some months, the "for a while" of
verse  22 . {So that all they which dwelt in Asia heard} (h(9373)te
pantas tous katoikountas t(886e) Asian akousai). Actual result with
h(9373)te and the infinitive with accusative of general reference
as is common (also verse  11 ) in the _Koin(825f) (Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 999f.). Paul apparently remained in Ephesus, but
the gospel spread all over the province even to the Lycus Valley
including the rest of the seven churches of  Re 1:11  2  3 .
Demetrius in verse  26  will confirm the tremendous influence of
Paul's ministry in Ephesus on Asia. Forty years after this Pliny
in his famous letter to Trajan from Bithynia will say of
Christianity: "For the contagion of this superstition has not
only spread through cities, but also through villages and country
places." It was during these years in Ephesus that Paul was
greatly disturbed over the troubles in the Corinthian Church. He
apparently wrote a letter to them now lost to us ( 1Co 5:9 ),
received messages from the household of Chloe, a letter from the
church, special messengers, sent Timothy, then Titus, may have
made a hurried trip himself, wrote our First Corinthians, was
planning to go after the return of Titus to Troas where he was to
meet him after Pentecost, when all of a sudden the uproar raised
by Demetrius hurried Paul away sooner than he had planned.
Meanwhile Apollos had returned from Corinth to Ephesus and
refused to go back ( 1Co 16:12 ). Paul doubtless had helpers like
Epaphras and Philemon who carried the message over the province
of Asia, Tychicus, and Trophimus of Asia who were with him on the
last visit to Jerusalem (verses  22,29  20:4 ). Paul's message
reached Greeks, not merely Hellenists and God-fearers, but some
of the Greeks in the upper circles of life in Ephesus.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:11-19:11

註釋:

 {Special miracles} (dunameis ou tas tuchousas). "Powers
not the ones that happen by chance," "not the ordinary ones,"
litotes for "the extraordinary." All "miracles" or "powers"
(dunameis) are supernatural and out of the ordinary, but here
God regularly wrought (epoiei), imperfect active) wonders
beyond those familiar to the disciples and completely different
from the deeds of the Jewish exorcists. This phrase is peculiar
to Luke in the N.T. (also  28:2 ), but it occurs in the classical
Greek and in the _Koin(825f) as in III Macc. 3:7 and in papyri and
inscriptions (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 255). In Samaria
Philip wrought miracles to deliver the people from the influence
of Simon Magus. Here in Ephesus exorcists and other magicians had
built an enormous vogue of a false spiritualism and Paul faces
unseen forces of evil. His tremendous success led some people to
superstitious practices thinking that there was power in Paul's
person.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:12-19:12

註釋:

 {Handkerchiefs} (soudaria). Latin word for sudor
(sweat). Used in  Lu 19:20  Joh 11:44  20:7 . In two papyri
marriage-contracts this word occurs among the toilet articles in
the dowry (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 223). {Aprons}
(simikinthia). Latin word also, _semicinctilum_ (semi,
cingo). Only here in the N.T. Linen aprons used by servants or
artisans (Martial XIV. 153). Paul did manual work at Ephesus
( 20:34 ) and so wore these aprons. {Departed} (apallalsethai).
Present passive infinitive with h(9373)te for actual result as in
verse  10 . If one wonders how God could honour such
superstitious faith, he should remember that there is no power in
superstition or in magic, but in God. If God never honoured any
faith save that entirely free from superstition, how about
Christian people who are troubled over the number 13, over the
moon, the rabbit's foot? The poor woman with an issue of blood
touched the hem of Christ's garment and was healed ( Lu 8:44-46 )
as others sought to do ( Mt 14:36 ). God condescends to meet us
in our ignorance and weakness where he can reach us. Elisha had a
notion that some of the power of Elijah resided in his mantle
( 2Ki 2:13 ). Some even sought help from Peter's shadow ( Ac
5:15 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 19:13-19:13

註釋:

 {Of the strolling Jews, exorcists} (	(936e) perierchomen(936e)
Ioudai(936e) exorkist(936e)). These exorcists travelled around (peri)
from place to place like modern Gypsy fortune-tellers. The Jews
were especially addicted to such practices with spells of sorcery
connected with the name of Solomon (Josephus, _Ant_. VIII. 2.5).
See also Tobit 8:1-3. Jesus alludes to those in Palestine ( Mt
12:27  Lu 11:19 ). The exorcists were originally those who
administered an oath (from exorkiz(935c), to exact an oath), then to
use an oath as a spell or charm. Only instance here in the N.T.
These men regarded Paul as one of their own number just as Simon
Magus treated Simon Peter. Only here these exorcists paid Paul
the compliment of imitation instead of offering money as Magus
did. {To name over} (onomazein epi). They heard what Paul said
and treated his words as a magic charm or spell to drive the evil
spirits out. {I adjure you by Jesus whom Paul preacheth}
(Horkiz(9320)humas ton I(8873)oun hon Paulos k(8872)ussei). Note two
accusatives with the verb of swearing (cf.  Mr 5:7 ) as a
causative verb (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 483). The papyri furnish
numerous instances of horkiz(935c) in such constructions (Deissmann,
_Bible Studies_, p. 281). Note also the article with Jesus, "the
Jesus," as if to identify the magic word to the demons with the
addition "whom Paul preaches." They thought that success turned
on the correct use of the magical formula. The Ephesian mysteries
included Christianity, so they supposed.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:14-19:14

註釋:

 {Seven sons of Sceva} (Skeu(8320)hepta huioi). Who this Sceva
was we do not know. If a high priest, he was highly connected in
Jerusalem (cf.  5:24 ). Some MSS. have ruler instead of priest.
His name may be Latin in origin. Skeu(835c) has Doric form of
genitive. But that he had seven sons in this degraded business
shows how Judaism had fared poorly in this superstitious city.
Did they imagine there was special power in the number seven?

經文:

使徒行傳 19:15-19:15

註釋:

 {Jesus I know} (	on I(8873)oun gin(9373)k(935c)). "The (whom you
mention) Jesus I recognize (gin(9373)k(935c))" and "the (whom you
mentioned) Paul I am acquainted with (	on Paulon epistamai)."
Clear distinction between gin(9373)k(935c) and epistamai. {But who are
ye?} (humeis de tines este?). But you, who are you? Emphatic
prolepsis.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:16-19:16

註釋:

 {Leaped on them} (ephalomenos ep' autous). Second aorist
(ingressive) middle participle of ephallomai, old verb to
spring upon like a panther, here only in the N.T. {Mastered}
(katakurieusas). First aorist (effective) active participle of
katakurieu(935c), late verb from kata and kurios, to become lord
or master of. {Both} (amphoter(936e)). Papyri examples exist where
amphoteroi means "all" or more than "two" (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 745). So here amphoteroi includes all seven.
"Both" in old English was used for more than two. {So that}
(h(9373)te). Another example (verses  10,11 ) of h(9373)te with the
infinitive for result. {Naked} (gumnous). Probably with torn
garments, {Wounded} (	etraumatismenous). Perfect passive
participle of 	raumatiz(935c), old verb to wound, from 	rauma (a
wound). In the N.T. only here and  Lu 20:12 .

經文:

使徒行傳 19:17-19:17

註釋:

 {Was magnified} (emegaluneto). Imperfect passive. To make
great. It was a notable victory over the powers of evil in
Ephesus.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:18-19:18

註釋:

 {Came} ((8872)chonto). Imperfect middle, kept coming, one
after another. Even some of the believers were secretly under the
spell of these false spiritualists just as some Christians today
cherish private contacts with so-called occult powers through
mediums, seances, of which they are ashamed. {Confessing}
(exomologoumenoi). It was time to make a clean breast of it
all, to turn on the light, to unbosom their secret habits.
{Declaring their deeds} (anaggellontes tas praxeis aut(936e)).
Judgment was beginning at the house of God. The dupes (professing
believers, alas) of these jugglers or exorcists now had their
eyes opened when they saw the utter defeat of the tricksters who
had tried to use the name of Jesus without his power. The
boomerang was tremendous. The black arts were now laid bare in
their real character. Gentile converts had a struggle to shake
off their corrupt environment.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:19-19:19

註釋:

 {Not a few of them that practised curious arts} (hikanoi
t(936e) ta perierga praxant(936e)). Considerable number of the
performers or exorcists themselves who knew that they were
humbugs were led to renounce their evil practices. The word
perierga (curious) is an old word (peri, erga) originally a
piddler about trifles, a busybody ( 1Ti 5:13 ), then impertinent
and magical things as here. Only two examples in the N.T. It is a
technical term for magic as the papyri and inscriptions show.
Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 323) thinks that these books here
burned were just like the Magic Papyri now recovered from Egypt.
{Burned them in the sight of all} (katekaion en(9370)ion pant(936e)).
Imperfect active of katakai(935c). It probably took a good while to
do it, burned them completely (up, we say; down, the Greeks say,
perfective use of kata). These Magical Papyri or slips of
parchment with symbols or magical sentences written on them
called Ephesia Grammata (Ephesian Letters). These Ephesian
Letters were worn as amulets or charms. {They brought them
together} (sunenegkantes). Second aorist active participle of
sunpher(935c). What a glorious conflagration it would be if in every
city all the salacious, blasphemous, degrading books, pamphlets,
magazines, and papers could be piled together and burned. {They
counted} (suneps(8870)hisan). First aorist active indicative of
sunps(8870)hiz(935c), to reckon together. In LXX ( Jer 29:49 ). Only
here in N.T. Sunkataps(8870)hiz(935c) in  1:26 . {Fifty thousand pieces
of silver} (arguriou muriadas pente). Five ten thousand
(muriadas) pieces of silver. Ephesus was largely Greek and
probably the silver pieces were Greek drachmae or the Latin
denarius, probably about ten thousand dollars or two thousand
English pounds.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:20-19:20

註釋:

 {Mightily} (kata kratos). According to strength. Only
here in N.T., common military term in Thucydides. Such proof of a
change counted. {Grew and prevailed} ((8875)xanen kai ischuen).
Imperfect actives, kept growing and gaining strength. It was a
day of triumph for Christ in Ephesus, this city of vast wealth
and superstition. Ephesus for centuries will be one of the
centres of Christian power. Timothy will come here and John the
Apostle and Polycarp and Irenaeus.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:21-19:21

註釋:

 2Co
1:15f. 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
1' or engs='2Co
1'
經文:

使徒行傳 19:22-19:22

註釋:

 {Timothy and Erastus} (Timotheon kai Eraston). Paul had
sent Timothy to Corinth ( 1Co 4:17 ) and had requested kindly
treatment of this young minister in his difficult task of
placating the divided church ( 1Co 16:10-11 ) that he might
return to Paul as he evidently had before Paul leaves Ephesus. He
then despatched Titus to Corinth to finish what Timothy had not
quite succeeded in doing with instructions to meet him in Troas.
Now Timothy and Erastus (cf.  Ro 16:23  2Ti 4:20 ) go on to
Macedonia to prepare the way for Paul who will come on later. {He
himself stayed in Asia for a while} (autos epeschen chronon eis
t(886e) Asian). Literally, He himself had additional time in Asia.
Second aorist active indicative of epech(935c), old and common
idiom, only here in the N.T. in this sense and the verb only in
Luke and Paul. The reason for Paul's delay is given by him in
 1Co 16:8f. , the great door wide open in Ephesus. Here again
Luke and Paul supplement each other. Pentecost came towards the
end of May and May was the month of the festival of Artemis
(Diana) when great multitudes would come to Ephesus. But he did
not remain till Pentecost as both Luke and Paul make plain.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:23-19:23

註釋:

 {No small stir} (	arachos ouk oligos). Same phrase in
 12:18  and nowhere else in the N.T. Litotes. {Concerning the
Way} (peri t(8873) hodou). See this phrase for Christianity in
 9:2  19:9  24:22  which see, like the "Jesus Way" of the
Indians. There had already been opposition and "stir" before this
stage (cf.  19:11-20 ). The fight with wild beasts in  1Co 15:32 
(whatever it was) was before that Epistle was written and so
before this new uproar. Paul as a Roman citizen could not be
thrown to wild beasts, but he so pictured the violent opponents
of Christ in Ephesus.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:24-19:24

註釋:

 {Demetrius, a silversmith} (D(886d)(8874)rios argurokopos). The
name is common enough and may or may not be the man mentioned in
 3Jo 1:12  who was also from the neighbourhood of Ephesus. There
is on an inscription at Ephesus near the close of the century a
Demetrius called 
eopoios Artemidos a temple warden of Artemis
(Diana). Zoeckler suggests that Luke misunderstood this word

eopoios and translated it into argurokopos, a beater
(kopt(935c), to beat) of silver (arguros, silver), "which made
silver shrines of Artemis" (poi(936e) naous (argurous)
Artemidos). It is true that no silver shrines of the temple
have been found in Ephesus, but only numerous terra-cotta ones.
Ramsay suggests that the silver ones would naturally be melted
down. The date is too late anyhow to identify the Demetrius who
was 
eopoios with the Demetrius argurokopos who made little
silver temples of Artemis, though B does not have the word
argurous. The poor votaries would buy the terra-cotta ones, the
rich the silver shrines (Ramsay, _Paul the Traveller_, p. 278).
These small models of the temple with the statue of Artemis
inside would be set up in the houses or even worn as amulets. It
is a pity that the Revised Version renders Artemis here. Diana as
the Ephesian Artemis is quite distinct from the Greek Artemis,
the sister of Apollo, the Diana of the Romans. This temple, built
in the 6th century B.C., was burnt by Herostratus Oct. 13 B.C.
356, the night when Alexander the Great was born. It was restored
and was considered one of the seven wonders of the world. Artemis
was worshipped as the goddess of fertility, like the Lydian
Cybele, a figure with many breasts. The great festival in May
would offer Demetrius a golden opportunity for the sale of the
shrines. {Brought no little business} (pareicheto ouk olig(886e)
ergasian). Imperfect middle, continued to bring (furnish,
provide). The middle accents the part that Demetrius played as
the leader of the guild of silversmiths, work for himself and for
them. {Unto the craftsmen} (	ais technitais). The artisans from
	echn(885c) (craft, art). Trade guilds were common in the ancient
world. Demetrius had probably organized this guild and provided
the capital for the enterprise.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:25-19:25

註釋:

 {Whom he gathered together} (hous sunathroisas). First
aorist active participle of sunathroiz(935c), old verb to assemble
together (athroos, a crowd), in the N.T. only here and  Ac
12:12 . {With the workmen of like occupation} (kai tous peri ta
toiauta ergatas). "And the workmen concerning such things,"
apparently those who made the marble and terra-cotta shrines who
would also be affected in the same way. It was a gathering of the
associated trades, not for a strike, for employer and employees
met together, but in protest against the preaching of Paul. {We
have our wealth} (h(8820)euporia h(886d)in estin). The wealth is to us
(dative of possession). This old word for wealth occurs here
alone in the N.T. It is from eu and poros, easy to pass
through, easy to accomplish, to be well off, wealthy, welfare,
weal, well-being, rich. Demetrius appeals to this knowledge and
self-interest of the artisans as the basis for their zeal for
Artemis, piety for revenue.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:26-19:26

註釋:

 {At Ephesus} (Ephesou). Genitive of place as also with
Asias (Asia). Cf. Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 494f. {This Paul}
(ho Paulos houtos). Contemptuous use of houtos. {Hath turned
away} (metest(8873)en). Changed, transposed. First aorist active
indicative, did change. Tribute to Paul's powers as a preacher
borne out by Luke's record in  19:10 . There may be an element of
exaggeration on the part of Demetrius to incite the workmen to
action, for the worship of Artemis was their wealth. Paul had cut
the nerve of their business. There had long been a Jewish colony
in Ephesus, but their protest against idolatry was as nothing
compared with Paul's preaching (Furneaux). {Which are made with
hands} (hoi dia cheir(936e) ginomenoi). Note the present tense,
made from time to time. No doubt Paul had put the point sharply
as in Athens ( Ac 17:29 ). Isaiah ( Isa 44:9-17 ) had pictured
graphically the absurdity of worshipping stocks and stones,
flatly forbidden by the Old Testament ( Ex 20:4  Ps 135:15-18 ).
The people identified their gods with the images of them and
Demetrius reflects that point of view. He was jealous of the
brand of gods turned out by his factory. The artisans would stand
by him on this point. It was a reflection on their work.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:27-19:27

註釋:

 {This our trade} (	outo to meros). Part, share, task,
job, trade. {Come into disrepute} (eis apelegmon elthein). Not
in the old writers, but in LXX and _Koin(825f). Literally,
reputation, exposure, censure, rejection after examination, and
so disrepute. Their business of making gods would lose caste as
the liquor trade (still called the trade in England) has done in
our day. They felt this keenly and so Demetrius names it first.
They felt it in their pockets. {Of the great goddess Artemis}
(	(8873) megal(8873) theas Artemidos). She was generally known as the
Great (h(8820)Megal(885c)). An inscription found at Ephesus calls her
"the greatest god" (h(8820)megist(8820)theos). The priests were eunuchs
and there were virgin priestesses and a lower order of slaves
known as temple-sweepers (
e(936b)oroi, verse  35 ). They had wild
orgiastic exercises that were disgraceful with their Corybantic
processions and revelries. {Be made of no account} (eis outhen
logisth(886e)ai). Be reckoned as nothing, first aorist passive
infinitive of logizomai and eis. {Should even be deposed of
her magnificence} (mellein te kai kathaireisthai t(8873)
megaleiot(8874)os aut(8873)). Note the present infinitive after
mellein, ablative case (so best MSS.) after kathaire(935c), to
take down, to depose, to deprive of. The word megaleiot(8873)
occurs also in  Lu 9:43  (the majesty of God) and in  2Pe 1:16 
of the transfiguration of Christ. It is already in the LXX and
Deissmann (_Light from the Ancient East_, p. 363) thinks that the
word runs parallel with terms used in the emperor-cult. {All Asia
and the world} hol(8820)(h(8829) Asia kai (h(8829) oikoumen(885c). See  11:28 
for same use of oikoumen(885c). An exaggeration, to be sure, but
Pausanias says that no deity was more widely worshipped. Temples
of Artemis have been found in Spain and Gaul. _Multitudo
errantium non efficit veritatem_ (Bengel). Even today heathenism
has more followers than Christianity. To think that all this
splendour was being set at naught by one man and a despised Jew
at that!

經文:

使徒行傳 19:28-19:28

註釋:

 {They were filled with wrath} (genomenoi plereis thumou).
Having become full of wrath. {Cried out} (ekrazon). Inchoative
imperfect, began to cry out and kept it up continuously.
Reiteration was characteristic of the orgiastic exercises. The
Codex Bezae adds after 	humou (wrath): Dramontes eis t(886e)
amphodon (running into the street), which they certainly did
after the speech of Demetrius. {Great is Artemis of the
Ephesians} (Megal(8820)h(8820)Artemis Ephesi(936e)). D (Codex Bezae) omits
h(885c) (the) and makes it read: "Great Artemis of the Ephesians."
This was the usual cry of the votaries in their orgies as the
inscriptions show, an ejaculatory outcry or prayer instead of an
argument as the other MSS. have it. That is vivid and natural
(Ramsay, _Church in the Roman Empire_, pp. 135ff.). Yet on this
occasion the artisans were making an argumentative protest and
plea against Paul. An inscription at Dionysopolis has "Great is
Apollo."

經文:

使徒行傳 19:29-19:29

註釋:

 2Co
8:19 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
8' or engs='2Co
8'
經文:

使徒行傳 19:30-19:30

註釋:

 {And when Paul was minded to enter in unto the people}
(Paulou de boulomenou eiselthein eis ton d(886d)on). Genitive
absolute. Plainly Paul wanted to face the howling mob, whether it
was the occasion pictured in  2Co 1:9  or not. "St. Paul was not
the man to leave his comrades in the lurch" (Knowling). {Suffered
him not} (ouk ei(936e) auton). Imperfect of ea(935c), common verb to
allow, what Gildersleeve called the negative imperfect
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 885), denoting resistance to pressure.
The more Paul insisted on going the more the disciples refused to
agree to it and they won.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:31-19:31

註釋:

 {Certain also of the chief officers of Asia} (	ines de kai
t(936e) Asiarch(936e)). These "Asiarchs" were ten officers elected by
cities in the province who celebrated at their own cost public
games and festivals (Page). Each province had such a group of men
chosen, as we now know from inscriptions, to supervise the funds
connected with the worship of the emperor, to preside at games
and festivals even when the temple services were to gods like
Artemis. Only rich men could act, but the position was eagerly
sought. {Being his friends} (ontes aut(9369) philoi). Evidently the
Asiarchs had a high opinion of Paul and were unwilling for him to
expose his life to a wild mob during the festival of Artemis.
They were at least tolerant toward Paul and his preaching. "It
was an Asiarch who at Smyrna resisted the cry of the populace to
throw Polycarp to the lions" (Furneaux). {Besought him}
(parekaloun auton). Imperfect active, showing that the
messengers sent had to insist over Paul's protest. "{Not to
adventure himself}" (m(8820)dounai heauton). It was a hazard, a
rash adventure "to give himself" (second aorist active infinitive
of did(936d)i). Just this sense of "adventure" with the idiom
occurs only here in the N.T., though in Polybius V., 14, 9. But
the phrase itself Paul uses of Jesus who gave himself for our
sins ( Ga 1:4  1Ti 2:6  Tit 2:14 ). It is not the first time that
friends had rescued Paul from peril ( Ac 9:25,30  17:10,14 ). The
theatre was no place for Paul. It meant certain death.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:32-19:32

註釋:

 {Some therefore cried one thing and some another} (alloi
men oun allo ti ekrazon). This classical use of allos allo
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 747) appears also in  2:12  21:34 .
Literally, "others cried another thing." The imperfect shows the
repetition (kept on crying) and confusion which is also
distinctly stated. {For the assembly was in confusion} ((886e) gar
h(8820)ekkl(8873)ia sunkechumen(885c)). The reason for the previous
statement. Periphrastic past perfect passive of sugche(932c)
sugchun(9320)(-unn(9329), to pour together, to commingle as in verse
 29  (sugchuse(9373)). It was not an "assembly" (ekkl(8873)ia, ek,
kale(935c), to call out), but a wholly irregular, disorganized mob in
a state (perfect tense) of confusion. There was "a lawful
assembly" (verse  39 ), but this mob was not one. Luke shows his
contempt for this mob (Furneaux). {Had come together}
(sunel(886c)utheisan). Past perfect active of sunerchomai. It was
an assembly only in one sense. For some reason Demetrius who was
responsible for the mob preferred now to keep in the background,
though he was known to be the ring-leader of the gathering (verse
 38 ). It was just a mob that shouted because others did.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:33-19:33

註釋:

 {And they brought Alexander out of the crowd} (ek de tou
ochlou sunebibasan Alexandron). The correct text (Aleph A B) has
this verb sunebibasan (from sunbibaz(935c), to put together)
instead of proebibasan (from probibaz(935c), to put forward). It
is a graphic word, causal of ain(935c), to go, and occurs in  Ac
16:10  Col 2:19  Eph 4:16 . Evidently some of the Jews grew
afraid that the mob would turn on the Jews as well as on the
Christians. Paul was a Jew and so was Aristarchus, one of the
prisoners. The Jews were as strongly opposed to idolatry as were
the Christians. {The Jews putting him forward} (probalont(936e)
auton t(936e) Ioudai(936e)). Genitive absolute of the second aorist
active participle of proball(935c), old verb to push forward as
leaves in the spring ( Lu 21:30 ). In the N.T. only in these two
passages. Alexandria had already disgraceful scenes of
Jew-baiting and there was real peril now in Ephesus with this
wild mob. So Alexander was pushed forward as the champion to
defend the Jews to the excited mob. He may be the same Alexander
the coppersmith who did Paul much evil ( 2Ti 4:14 ), against whom
Paul will warn Timothy then in Ephesus. "The Jews were likely to
deal in the copper and silver required for the shrines, so he may
have had some trade connexion with the craftsmen which would give
him influence" (Furneaux). {Beckoned with the hand} (kataseisas
t(886e) cheira). Old verb katasei(935c), to shake down, here the hand,
rapidly waving the hand up and down to get a hearing. In the N.T.
elsewhere only in  Ac 12:17  13:16  21:40  where "with the hand"
(	(8869) cheiri, instrumental case) is used instead of 	(886e) cheira
(the accusative). {Would have made a defence unto the people}
((8874)helen apologeisthai t(9369) d(886d)(9369)). Imperfect active, wanted to
make a defence, tried to, started to, but apparently never got
out a word. Apologeisthai (present middle infinitive, direct
middle, to defend oneself), regular word for formal apology, but
in N.T. only by Luke and Paul (twice in Gospel, six times in
Acts, and in  Ro 2:15  2Co 12:19 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 19:34-19:34

註釋:

 {When they perceived} (epignontes). Recognizing, coming
to know fully and clearly (epi-), second aorist (ingressive)
active participle of epigin(9373)k(935c). The masculine plural is left
as nominative absolute or pendens without a verb. The rioters
saw at once that Alexander was (estin, present tense retained
in indirect assertion) a Jew by his features. {An with one voice
cried out} (ph(936e)(8820)egeneto mia ek pant(936e) krazont(936e)). Anacoluthon
or construction according to sense. Literally, "one voice arose
from all crying." Krazont(936e) agrees in case (ablative) with
pant(936e), but Aleph A have krazontes. This loose construction
is not uncommon (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 436f.). Now at last
the crowd became unanimous (one voice) at the sight of a hated
Jew about to defend their attacks on the worship of Artemis. The
unanimity lasted "about the space of two hours" (hosei epi h(9372)as
duo), "as if for two hours." Their creed centred in this
prolonged yell: "Great is Artemis of the Ephesians" with which
the disturbance started (verse  28 ).

經文:

使徒行傳 19:35-19:35

註釋:

 {The town-clerk} (ho grammateus). Ephesus was a free city
and elected its own officers and the recorder or secretary was
the chief magistrate of the city, though the proconsul of the
province of Asia resided there. This officer is not a mere
secretary of another officer or like the copyists and students of
the law among the Jews, but the most influential person in
Ephesus who drafted decrees with the aid of the strat(8867)oi, had
charge of the city's money, was the power in control of the
assembly, and communicated directly with the proconsul.
Inscriptions at Ephesus give frequently this very title for their
chief officer and the papyri have it also. The precise function
varied in different cities. His name appeared on the coin at
Ephesus issued in his year of office. {Had quieted the multitude}
(katasteilas ton ochlon). First aorist active participle of
katastell(935c), to send down, arrange dress (Euripides), lower
(Plutarch), restrain (papyrus example), only twice in the N.T.
(here and verse  36 , be quiet), but in LXX and Josephus. He
evidently took the rostrum and his very presence as the city's
chief officer had a quieting effect on the billowy turmoil and a
semblance of order came. He waited, however, till the hubbub had
nearly exhausted itself (two hours) and did not speak till there
was a chance to be heard. {Saith} (ph(8873)in). Historical present
for vividness. {How that}. Merely participle ousan and
accusative polin in indirect discourse, no conjunction at all
(Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1040ff.), common idiom after
gin(9373)k(935c), to know. {Temple-keeper} (
e(936b)oron). Old word from

e(9373) (
aos), temple, and kore(935c), to sweep. Warden, verger,
cleaner of the temple, a sacristan. So in Xenophon and Plato.
Inscriptions so describe Ephesus as 
e(936b)oron t(8873) Artemidos as
Luke has it here and also applied to the imperial _cultus_ which
finally had several such temples in Ephesus. Other cities claimed
the same honour of being 
e(936b)oros, but it was the peculiar
boast of Ephesus because of the great temple of Artemis. A coin
of A.D. 65 describes Ephesus as 
e(936b)oros. There are papyri
examples of the term applied to individuals, one to Priene as

e(936b)oros of the temple in Ephesus (Moulton and Milligan,
_Vocabulary_). {And of the image which fell down from Jupiter}
(kai tou diopetous). Supply agalma (image), "the from
heaven-fallen image." From Zeus (Dios) and pet(935c) (pipt(932c)
pipet(935c)), to fall. Zeus (Jupiter) was considered lord of the sky
or heaven and that is the idea in diopetous here. The legend
about a statue fallen from heaven occurs concerning the statue of
Artemis at Tauris, Minerva at Athens, etc. Thus the recorder
soothed the vanity (Rackham) of the crowd by appeal to the
world-wide fame of Ephesus as sacristan of Artemis and of her
heaven-fallen image.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:36-19:36

註釋:

 {Cannot be gainsaid} (anantir(8874)(936e) oun ont(936e)). Genitive
absolute with oun (therefore). Undeniable (an, anti, r(8874)os),
verbal adjective. Occasionally in late Greek (Polybius, etc.),
only here in N.T., but adverb anantir(8874)(9373) in  Ac 10:29 . These
legends were accepted as true and appeased the mob. {Ye ought}
(deon estin). It is necessary. Periphrastic present indicative
instead of dei like  1Pe 1:6  1Ti 5:13f . {Be quiet}
(katestalmenous). Perfect passive participle of katastell(935c)
(see verse  35 ). {Rash} (propetes). Old adjective from pro
and pet(935c), to fall forward, headlong, precipitate. In the N.T.
only here and  2Ti 3:4 , though common in the _Koin(825f). Better
look before you leap.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:37-19:37

註釋:

 {Neither robbers of temples} (oute hierosulous). Common
word in Greek writers from hieron, temple, and sula(935c), to rob,
be guilty of sacrilege. The word is found also on inscriptions in
Ephesus. The Jews were sometimes guilty of this crime ( Ro
2:22 ), since the heathen temples often had vast treasures like
banks. The ancients felt as strongly about temple-robbing as
westerners used to feel about a horse-thief. {Nor blasphemers of
our goddess} (oute blasph(886d)ountas t(886e) theon h(886d)(936e)). Nor those
who blasphemed our goddess. That is to say, these men (Gaius and
Aristarchus) as Christians had so conducted themselves ( Col
4:5 ) that no charge could be placed against them either in act
(temple-robbery) or word (blasphemy). They had done a rash thing
since these men are innocent. Paul had used tact in Ephesus as in
Athens in avoiding illegalities.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:38-19:38

註釋:

 {Have a matter against any one} (echousin pros tina
logon). For this use of ech(9320)logon with pros see  Mt 5:32  Col 3:13 . The town-clerk names Demetrius and the craftsmen
(	echnitai) as the parties responsible for the riot. {The
courts are open} (agoraioi agontai). Supply h(886d)erai (days),
court days are kept, or sunodoi, court-meetings are now going
on, Vulgate _conventus forenses aguntur_. Old adjective from
agora (forum) marketplace where trials were held. Cf.  Ac
17:4 . There were regular court days whether they were in session
then or not. {And there are proconsuls} (kai anthupatoi eisin).
Asia was a senatorial province and so had proconsuls (general
phrase) though only one at a time, "a rhetorical plural"
(Lightfoot). Page quotes from an inscription of the age of Trajan
on an aqueduct at Ephesus in which some of Luke's very words
occur (
e(936b)oros, anthupatos, grammateus, d(886d)os). {Let them
accuse one another} (egkaleit(9373)an all(886c)ois). Present active
imperative of egkale(935c) (en, kale(935c)), old verb to call in one's
case, to bring a charge against, with the dative. Luke uses the
verb six times in Acts for judicial proceedings ( 19:38,40  23:28,29  26:2,7 ). The town-clerk makes a definite appeal to the
mob for orderly legal procedure as opposed to mob violence in a
matter where money and religious prejudice unite, a striking
rebuke to so-called lynch-law proceedings in lands today where
Christianity is supposed to prevail.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:39-19:39

註釋:

 {Anything about other matters} (	i peraiter(935c)). Most MSS.
here have 	i peri heter(936e), but B b Vulgate read 	i peraiter(935c)
as in Plato's Phaedo. Several papyri examples of it also. It is
comparative peraiteros of pera, beyond. Note also epi in
epiz(8874)eite. Charges of illegal conduct (Page) should be settled
in the regular legal way. But, if you wish to go further and pass
resolutions about the matter exciting you, "it shall be settled
in the regular assembly" (en t(9369) ennom(9369) ekkl(8873)i(8369)). "In the
lawful assembly," not by a mob like this. Wood (_Ephesus_) quotes
an inscription there with this very phrase "at every lawful
assembly" (kata p(8373)an ennomon ekkl(8873)ian). The Roman officials
alone could give the sanction for calling such a lawful or
regular assembly. The verb epilu(935c) is an old one, but in the
N.T. only here and  Mr 4:34  (which see) where Jesus privately
opened or disclosed the parables to the disciples. The papyri
give examples of the verb in financial transactions as well as of
the metaphorical sense. The solution will come in the lawful
assembly, not in a riot like this. See also  2Pe 1:20  where the
substantive epilusis occurs for disclosure or revelation
(prophecy).

經文:

使徒行傳 19:40-19:40

註釋:

 {For indeed we are in danger to be accused concerning this
day's riot} (kai gar kinduneuomen egkaleisthai stase(9373) peri t(8873)
s(886d)eron). The text is uncertain. The text of Westcott and Hort
means "to be accused of insurrection concerning today's
assembly." The peril was real. Kinduneuomen, from kindunos,
danger, peril. Old verb, but in the N.T. only here and  Lu 8:23  1Co 15:30 . {There being no cause for it} (m(8864)enos aitiou
huparchontos). Genitive absolute with aitios, common adjective
(cf. aitia, cause) though in N.T. only here and  Heb 5:9  Lu
23:4,14,22 . {And as touching it} (peri hou). "Concerning
which." But what? No clear antecedent, only the general idea.
{Give an account of this concourse} (apodounai logon peri t(8873)
sustroph(8873) taut(8873)). _Rationem reddere_. They will have to
explain matters to the proconsul. Sustroph(885c) (from sun,
together, streph(935c), to turn) is a late word for a conspiracy
( Ac 23:12 ) and a disorderly riot as here (Polybius). In  Ac
28:12  sustreph(935c) is used of gathering up a bundle of sticks and
of men combining in  Mt 17:22 . Seneca says that there was
nothing on which the Romans looked with such jealousy as a
tumultuous meeting.

經文:

使徒行傳 19:41-19:41

註釋:

 {Dismissed the assembly} (apelusen t(886e) ekkl(8873)ian). The
town-clerk thus gave a semblance of law and order to the mob by
formally dismissing them, this much to protect them against the
charge to which they were liable. This vivid, graphic picture
given by Luke has all the earmarks of historical accuracy. Paul
does not describe the incidents in his letters, was not in the
theatre in fact, but Luke evidently obtained the details from one
who was there. Aristarchus, we know, was with Luke in Caesarea
and in Rome and could have supplied all the data necessary.
Certainly both Gaius and Aristarchus were lively witnesses of
these events since their own lives were involved.

經文:

使徒行傳 20:1-20:1

註釋:

 {After the uproar was ceased} (meta to pausasthai ton
thorubon). Literally, after the ceasing (accusative of articular
aorist middle infinitive of pau(935c), to make cease) as to the
uproar (accusative of general reference). Noise and riot, already
in  Mt 26:5  27:24  Mr 5:38  14:2 ; and see in  Ac 21:34  24:18 .
Pictures the whole incident as bustle and confusion. {Took leave}
(aspamenos). First aorist middle participle of aspazomai, old
verb from a intensive and spa(935c), to draw, to draw to oneself
in embrace either in greeting or farewell. Here it is in farewell
as in  21:6 . Salutation in  21:7,19 . {Departed for to go into
Macedonia} (ex(886c)then poreuesthai eis Makedonian). Both verbs,
single act and then process. Luke here condenses what was
probably a whole year of Paul's life and work as we gather from
II Corinthians, one of Paul's "weighty and powerful" letters as
his enemies called them ( 2Co 10:10 ). "This epistle more than
any other is a revelation of S. Paul's own heart: it is his
spiritual autobiography and _apologia pro vita sua_."

經文:

使徒行傳 20:2-20:2

註釋:

 {Those parts} (	a mer(8820)ekeina). We have no way of knowing
why Luke did not tell of Paul's stay in Troas ( 2Co 2:12f. ) nor
of meeting Titus in Macedonia ( 2Co 2:13-7:16 ) nor of Paul's
visit to Illyricum ( Ro 15:19f. ) to give time for II Corinthians
to do its work ( 2Co 13 ), one of the most stirring experiences
in Paul's whole career when he opened his heart to the
Corinthians and won final victory in the church by the help of
Titus who also helped him round up the great collection in
Achaia. He wrote II Corinthians during this period after Titus
arrived from Corinth. The unity of II Corinthians is here
assumed. Paul probably met Luke again in Macedonia, but all this
is passed by except by the general phrase: "had given them much
exhortation" (parakalesas autous log(9369) poll(9369)). Literally,
"having exhorted them (the Macedonian brethren) with much talk"
(instrumental case). {Into Greece} (eis t(886e) Hellada). That is,
Achaia ( 18:12  19:21 ), and particularly Corinth, whither he had
at last come again after repeated attempts, pauses, and delays
( 2Co 13:1 ). Now at last the coast was clear and Paul apparently
had an open door in Corinth during these three months, so
completely had Titus at last done away with the opposition of the
Judaizers there.

經文:

使徒行傳 20:3-20:3

註釋:

 {When he had spent three months there} (poi(8873)as m(886e)as
treis). Literally, "having done three months," the same idiom in
 Ac 14:33  18:23  Jas 5:13 . During this period Paul may have
written Galatians as Lightfoot argued and certainly did Romans.
We do not have to say that Luke was ignorant of Paul's work
during this period, only that he did not choose to enlarge upon
it. {And a plot was laid against him by the Jews} (genomen(8873)
epiboul(8873) aut(9369) hupo t(936e) Ioudai(936e)). Genitive absolute, "a plot
by the Jews having come against him." Epiboul(885c) is an old word
for a plot against one. In the N.T. only in Acts ( 9:24  20:3,19  23:30 ). Please note that this plot is by the Jews, not the
Judaizers whom Paul discusses so vehemently in  2Co 10-13 . They
had given Paul much anguish of heart as is shown in I Cor. and in
 2Co 1-7 , but that trouble seems now past. It is Paul's old
enemies in Corinth who had cherished all these years their defeat
at the hands of Gallio ( Ac 18:5-17 ) who now took advantage of
Paul's plans for departure to compass his death if possible. {As
he was about to set sail for Syria} (mellonti anagesthai eis t(886e)
Surian). The participle mellonti agrees in case (dative) with
aut(9369). For the sense of intending see also verse  13 .
Anagesthai (present middle infinitive) is the common word for
putting out to sea (going up, they said, from land) as in
 13:13 . {He determined} (egeneto gn(936d)(8873)). The best MSS. here
read gn(936d)(8873) (predicate ablative of source like epiluse(9373),
 2Pe 1:20 , Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 514), not gn(936d)(885c)
(nominative). "He became of opinion." The Jews had heard of
Paul's plan to sail for Syria and intended in the hurly-burly
either to kill him at the docks in Cenchreae or to push him
overboard from the crowded pilgrim ship bound for the passover.
Fortunately Paul learned of their plot and so eluded them by
going through Macedonia. The Codex Bezae adds here that "the
Spirit bade him return into Macedonia."

經文:

使徒行傳 20:4-20:4

註釋:

 {Accompanied him} (suneipeto aut(9369)). Imperfect of
sunepomai, old and common verb, but only here in the N.T. The
singular is used agreeing with the first name mentioned
S(9370)atros and to be supplied with each of the others. Textus
Receptus adds here "into Asia" (achri t(8873) Asias, as far as
Asia), but the best documents (Aleph B Vulg. Sah Boh) do not have
it. As a matter of fact, Trophimus went as far as Jerusalem ( Ac
21:29 ) and Aristarchus as far as Rome ( 27:2  Col 4:10 ), The
phrase could apply only to Sopatros. It is not clear though
probable that Luke means to say that these seven brethren,
delegates of the various churches ( 2Co 8:19-23 ) started from
Corinth with Paul. Luke notes the fact that they accompanied
Paul,