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                       FIRST THESSALONIANS
                    FROM CORINTH A.D. 50 TO 51

                      BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION

        We cannot say that this is Paul's first letter to a
church, for in  2Th 2:2  he speaks of some as palming off letters
as his and in  2Th 3:17  he says that he appends his own
signature to every letter after dictating it to an amanuensis
( Ro 16:22 ). We know of one lost letter ( 1Co 5:11 ) and perhaps
another ( 2Co 2:3 ). But this is the earliest one that has come
down to us and it may even be the earliest New Testament book,
unless the Epistle of James antedates it or even Mark's Gospel.
We know, as already shown, that Paul was in Corinth and that
Timothy and Silas had just arrived from Thessalonica ( 1Th 3:6  Ac 18:5 ). They had brought supplies from the Macedonian churches
to supply Paul's need ( 2Co 11:9 ), as the church in Philippi did
once and again while Paul was in Thessalonica ( Php 4:15f. ).
Before Timothy and Silas came to Corinth Paul had to work
steadily at his trade as tent-maker with Aquila and Priscilla
( Ac 18:3 ) and could only preach in the synagogue on sabbaths,
but the rich stores from Macedonia released his hands and "Paul
devoted himself to the word" (suneicheto t(9369) log(9369) Paulos). He
gave himself wholly to preaching now. But Timothy and Silas
brought news of serious trouble in the church in Thessalonica.
Some of the disciples there had misunderstood Paul's preaching
about the second coming of Christ and had quit work and were
making a decided disturbance on the subject. Undoubtedly Paul had
touched upon eschatological matters while in Thessalonica. The
Jewish leaders at Thessalonica charged it against Paul and Silas
to the politarchs that they had preached another king, Jesus, in
place of Caesar. Paul had preached Jesus as King of the spiritual
kingdom which the Jews misrepresented to the politarchs as
treason against Caesar as the Sanhedrin had done to Pilate about
Jesus. Clearly Paul had said also that Jesus was going to come
again according to his own promise before his ascension. Some
asserted that Paul said Jesus was going to come right away and
drew their own inferences for idleness and fanaticism as some do
today. Strange as it may seem, there are scholars today who say
that Paul did believe and say that Jesus was going to come back
right away. They say this in spite of  2Th 2:1f.  where Paul
denies having ever said it. Undoubtedly Paul hoped for the early
return of Jesus as most of the early Christians did, but that is
a very different thing from setting a time for his coming. It is
open to us all to hope for the speedy return of Christ, but times
and seasons are with God and not with us. It is not open to us to
excuse our negligence and idleness as Christians because of such
a hope. That hope should serve as a spur to increased activity
for Christ in order to hasten his coming. So Paul writes this
group of Epistles to correct gross misapprehension and
misrepresentation of his preaching about last things
(eschatology). It is a rare preacher who has never been
misunderstood or misrepresented.

        There are excellent commentaries on the Thessalonian
Epistles .

On the Greek text one may note those by

Dibelius, _Handbuch zum N.T. Zweite Auflage_ (1925);
Dobschutz, _Meyer-Kommentar_ (1909);
Ellicott, _Crit. and Grammat. Comm._ (1884);
Findlay, _Cambridge Gk. Test._ (1904);
Frame, _Intern. Critical Comm._ (1912);
Lightfoot, _Notes on Epistles of Paul_ (1895);
Mayer, _Die Thessalonischerbriefe_ (1908);
Milligan, _St. Paul's Epistles to the Thess._ (1908);
Moffatt, _Expos. Gk. Test._ (1910);
Plummer, _First Thess._ (1908), _Second Thess._ (1908);
Wohlenberg, _Zahn-Komm. 2 aufl._ (1908).

On the English text note those by

Adeney, _New Century Bible_ (1907);
Denney, _Expos. Bible_ (1892);
Findlay, _Cambridge Bible_ (1891);
Hutchinson, _Lectures on I & II Thess._ (1883).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 {Paul, and Silvanus, and Timothy} (Paulos kai Silouanos kai
Timotheos). Nominative absolute as customary in letters. Paul
associates with himself Silvanus (Silas of Acts, spelled
Silbanos in D and the papyri), a Jew and Roman citizen, and
Timothy, son of Jewish mother and Greek father, one of Paul's
converts at Lystra on the first tour. They had both been with
Paul at Thessalonica, though Timothy is not mentioned by Luke in
Acts in Macedonia till Beroea ( Ac 17:14f. ). Timothy had joined
Paul in Athens ( 1Th 3:1f. ), had been sent back to Thessalonica,
and with Silas had rejoined Paul in Corinth ( 1Th 3:5  Ac 18:5,
2Co 1:19 ). Silas is the elder and is mentioned first, but
neither is in any sense the author of the Epistle any more than
Sosthenes is co-author of I Corinthians or Timothy of II
Corinthians, though Paul may sometimes have them in mind when he
uses "we" in the Epistle. Paul does not here call himself
"apostle" as in the later Epistles, perhaps because his position
has not been so vigorously attacked as it was later. Ellicott
sees in the absence of the word here a mark of the affectionate
relations existing between Paul and the Thessalonians. {Unto the
church of the Thessalonians} (	(8869) ekkl(8873)i(8369) Thessalonike(936e)).
The dative case in address. Note absence of the article with
Thessalonike(936e) because a proper name and so definite without
it. This is the common use of ekkl(8873)ia for a local body
(church). The word originally meant "assembly" as in  Ac 19:39 ,
but it came to mean an organization for worship whether assembled
or unassembled (cf.  Ac 8:3 ). The only superscription in the
oldest Greek manuscripts (Aleph B A) is Pros Thessalonikeis A
({To the Thessalonians First}). But probably Paul wrote no
superscription and certainly he would not write A to it before he
had written II Thessalonians (B). His signature at the close was
the proof of genuineness ( 2Th 3:17 ) against all spurious
claimants ( 2Th 2:2 ). Unfortunately the brittle papyrus on which
he wrote easily perished outside of the sand heaps and tombs of
Egypt or the lava covered ruins of Herculaneum. What a treasure
that autograph would be! {In God the Father and the Lord Jesus
Christ} (en the(9369) patri kai kuri(9369) J(8873)ou Christ(9369)). This church
is grounded in (en, with the locative case) and exists in the
sphere and power of {God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ}.
No article in the Greek, for both 	he(9369) patri and kuri(9369) J(8873)ou
Christ(9369) are treated as proper names. In the very beginning of
this first Epistle of Paul we meet his Christology. He at once
uses the full title, "Lord Jesus Christ," with all the
theological content of each word. The name "Jesus" (Saviour,  Mt
1:21 ) he knew, as the "Jesus of history," the personal name of
the Man of Galilee, whom he had once persecuted ( Ac 9:5 ), but
whom he at once, after his conversion, proclaimed to be "the
Messiah," (ho Christos,  Ac 9:22 ). This position Paul never
changed. In the great sermon at Antioch in Pisidia which Luke has
preserved ( Ac 13:23 ) Paul proved that God fulfilled his promise
to Israel by raising up "Jesus as Saviour" (s(9374)(8872)a I(8873)oun). Now
Paul follows the Christian custom by adding Christos (verbal
from chri(935c), to anoint) as a proper name to Jesus (Jesus Christ)
as later he will often say "Christ Jesus" ( Col 1:1 ). And he
dares also to apply kurios (Lord) to "Jesus Christ," the word
appropriated by Claudius (_Dominus_, Kurios) and other emperors
in the emperor-worship, and also common in the Septuagint for God
as in  Ps 32:1f.  (quoted by Paul in  Ro 4:8 ). Paul uses
Kurios of God ( 1Co 3:5 ) or of Jesus Christ as here. In fact,
he more frequently applies it to Christ when not quoting the Old
Testament as in  Ro 4:8 . And here he places "the Lord Jesus
Christ" in the same category and on the same plane with "God the
father." There will be growth in Paul's Christology and he will
never attain all the knowledge of Christ for which he longs ( Php
3:10-12 ), but it is patent that here in his first Epistle there
is no "reduced Christ" for Paul. He took Jesus as "Lord" when he
surrendered to Jesus on the Damascus Road: "And I said, What
shall I do, Lord? And the Lord said to me" ( Ac 22:10 ). It is
impossible to understand Paul without seeing clearly this first
and final stand for the Lord Jesus Christ. Paul did not get this
view of Jesus from current views of Mithra or of Isis or any
other alien faith. The Risen Christ became at once for Paul the
Lord of his life. {Grace to you and peace} (charis humin kai
eir(886e)(885c)). These words, common in Paul's Epistles, bear "the stamp
of Paul's experience" (Milligan). They are not commonplace
salutations, but the old words "deepened and spiritualised"
(Frame). The infinitive (chairein) so common in the papyri
letters and seen in the New Testament also ( Ac 15:23  23:26  Jas
1:1 ) here gives place to charis, one of the great words of the
New Testament (cf.  Joh 1:16f. ) and particularly of the Pauline
Epistles. Perhaps no one word carries more meaning for Paul's
messages than this word charis (from chair(935c), rejoice) from
which charizomai comes. {Peace} (eir(886e)(885c)) is more than the
Hebrew _shal(936d)_ so common in salutations. One recalls the "peace"
that Christ leaves to us ( Joh 14:27 ) and the peace of God that
passes all understanding ( Php 4:7 ). This introduction is brief,
but rich and gracious and pitches the letter at once on a high
plane.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 1:2-1:2

註釋:

 {We give thanks} (eucharistoumen). Late denominative verb
euchariste(935c) from eucharistos (grateful) and that from eu,
well and charizomai, to show oneself kind. See charis in
verse  1 . "The plural implies that all three missionaries prayed
together" (Moffatt). {Always} (pantote). Late word, rare in
LXX. So with euchariste(935c) in  2Th 1:3  2:13  1Co 1:4  Eph 5:20  Php 1:3 . Moffatt takes it to mean "whenever Paul was at his
prayers." Of course, he did not make audible prayer always, but
he was always in the spirit of prayer, "a constant attitude"
(Milligan), "in tune with the Infinite." {For you all} (peri
pant(936e) hum(936e)). Paul "encircled (peri, around) them all,"
including every one of them and the church as a whole. Distance
lends enchantment to the memory of slight drawbacks. Paul is fond
of this phrase "you all," particularly in Phil. ( Php 1:3,7 ).
{Making mention} (mneian poioumenoi). Paul uses this very idiom
in  Rom 1:9  Eph 1:16  Phm 1:4 . Milligan cites a papyrus example
of mneian poioumenoi in prayer (B. Y. U. 652, 5). Did Paul have
a prayer list of the Thessalonian disciples which he read over
with Silas and Timothy? {In} here is epi="in the time of our
prayers." "Each time that they are engaged in prayers the writers
mention the names of the converts" (Frame).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 1:3-1:3

註釋:

 2Pe
1:1,11 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Pe
1' or engs='2Pe
1'
經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 1:4-1:4

註釋:

 {Knowing} (eidotes). Second perfect active participle of
oida (eidon), a so-called causal participle=since we know,
the third participle with the principal verb eucharistoumen,
the Greek being fond of the circumstantial participle and
lengthening sentences thereby (Robertson, _Grammar_, P. 1128).
{Beloved by God} ((8867)ap(886d)enoi hupo [tou] theou). Perfect passive
participle of agapa(935c), the verb so common in the N.T. for the
highest kind of love. Paul is not content with the use of
adelphoi here (often in this Epistle as  2:1,14,17  3:7  4:1,10 ), but adds this affectionate phrase nowhere else in the
N.T. in this form (cf.  Jude 1:3 ) though in Sirach 45:1 and on
the Rosetta Stone. But in  2Th 2:13  he quotes "beloved by the
Lord" from  De 33:12 . The use of adelphoi for members of the
same brotherhood can be derived from the Jewish custom ( Ac
2:29,37 ) and the habit of Jesus ( Mt 12:48 ) and is amply
illustrated in the papyri for burial clubs and other orders and
guilds (Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_). {Your election}
(	(886e) eklog(886e) hum(936e)). That is the election of you by God. It is
an old word from eklegomai used by Jesus of his choice of the
twelve disciples ( Joh 15:16 ) and by Paul of God's eternal
selection ( Eph 1:4 ). The word eklog(885c) is not in the LXX and
only seven times in the N.T. and always of God's choice of men
( Ac 9:15  1Th 1:4  Ro 9:11  11:5,7,58  2Pe 1:10 ). The divine
eklog(885c) was manifested in the Christian qualities of verse  3 
(Moffatt).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 1:5-1:5

註釋:

 1Co
16:15 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
16' or engs='1Co
16'
經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 1:6-1:6

註釋:

 1Th
1:6 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
1' or engs='1Th
1'
經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 1:7-1:7

註釋:

 {So that ye became} (h(9373)te genesthai humas). Definite
result expressed by h(9373)te and the infinitive genesthai
(second aorist middle of ginomai) as is common in the _Koin(825f).
{An ensample} (	upon). So B D, but Aleph A C have 	upous
(plural). The singular looks at the church as a whole, the plural
as individuals like hum(8373). Tupos is an old word from 	upt(935c),
to strike, and so the mark of a blow, print as in John  20:25 .
Then the figure formed by the blow, image as in  Ac 7:43 . Then
the mould or form ( Ro 6:17  Ac 23:25 ). Then an example or
pattern as in  Ac 7:44 , to be imitated as here,  Php 3:17 , etc.
It was a great compliment for the church in Thessalonica to be
already a model for believers in Macedonia and Achaia. Our word
_type_ for printers is this same word with one of its meanings.
Note separate article with both Macedonia (	(8869) Makedoni(8369)) and
Achaia (	(8869) Achai(8369)) treated as separate provinces as they
were.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 1:8-1:8

註釋:

 {From you hath sounded forth} (aph' hum(936e) ex(8863)h(8874)ai).
Perfect passive indicative of ex(8863)he(935c), late compound verb (ex,
(8863)hos, (8863)h(932c) (8863)h(885c), our echo) to sound out of a trumpet or of
thunder, to reverberate like our echo. Nowhere else in the N.T.
So "from you" as a sounding board or radio transmitting station
(to use a modern figure). It marks forcibly "both the clear and
the persuasive nature of the logos tou Kuriou" (Ellicott). This
phrase, the word of the Lord, may be subjective with the Lord as
its author or objective with the Lord as the object. It is both.
It is a graphic picture with a pardonable touch of hyperbole
(Moffatt) for Thessalonica was a great commercial and political
centre for disseminating the news of salvation (on the Egnation
Way). {But in every place} (all' en panti top(9369)). In contrast
to Macedonia and Achaia. The sentence would naturally stop here,
but Paul is dictating rapidly and earnestly and goes on. {Your
faith to God-ward} (h(8820)pistis hum(936e) h(8820)pros ton theon).
Literally, {the faith of you that toward the God}. The repeated
article makes clear that their faith is now directed toward the
true God and not toward the idols from which they had turned
(verse  10 ). {Is gone forth} (exel(886c)uthen). Second perfect
active indicative of old verb exerchomai, to go out, state of
completion like ex(8863)h(8874)ai above. {So that we need not to speak
anything} (h(9373)te m(8820)chreian echein h(886d)(8373) lalein ti). H(9373)te
with the infinitive for actual result as in verse  7 . No vital
distinction between lalein (originally to chatter as of birds)
and legein, both being used in the _Koin(825f) for speaking and
preaching (in the N.T.).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 1:9-1:9

註釋:

 {They themselves} (autoi). The men of Macedonia,
voluntarily. {Report} (apaggellousin). Linear present active
indicative, keep on reporting. {What manner of entering in}
(hopoian eisodon). What sort of entrance, qualitative relative
in an indirect question. {We had} (eschomen). Second aorist
active (ingressive) indicative of the common verb ech(935c). {And
how} (kai p(9373)). Here the interrogative adverb p(9373) in this
part of the indirect question. This part about "them" (you) as
the first part about Paul. The verb epistreph(935c) is an old verb
for turning and is common in the Acts for Gentiles turning to
God, as here from idols, though not by Paul again in this sense.
In  Ga 4:9  Paul uses it for turning to the weak and beggarly
elements of Judaism. {From idols} (apo t(936e) eidol(936e)). Old word
from eidos (figure) for image or likeness and then for the
image of a heathen god (our _idol_). Common in the LXX in this
sense. In  Ac 14:15  Paul at Lystra urged the people {to turn
from these vain things to the living God} (apo tout(936e) t(936e)
matai(936e) epistrephein epi theon z(936e)ta), using the same verb
epistrephein. Here also Paul has a like idea, {to serve a
living and true God} (douleuein the(9369) z(936e)ti kai al(8874)hin(9369)). No
article, it is true, but should be translated "the living and
true God" (cf.  Ac 14:15 ). Not "dead" like the idols from which
they turned, but alive and genuine (al(8874)hinos, not al(8874)h(8873)).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 1:10-1:10

註釋:

 {To wait for his Son from heaven} (anamenein ton huion
autou ek t(936e) ouran(936e)). Present infinitive, like douleuein, and
so linear, to keep on waiting for. The hope of the second coming
of Christ was real and powerful with Paul as it should be with
us. It was subject to abuse then as now as Paul will have to show
in this very letter. He alludes to this hope at the close of each
chapter in this Epistle. {Whom he raised from the dead} (hon
(8867)eiren ek [t(936e)] nekr(936e)). Paul gloried in the fact of the
resurrection of Jesus from the dead of which fact he was himself
a personal witness. This fact is the foundation stone for all his
theology and it comes out in this first chapter. {Jesus which
delivereth us from the wrath to come} (I(8873)oun ton ruomenon h(886d)(8373)
ek t(8873) org(8873) t(8873) erchomen(8873)). It is the historic, crucified,
risen, and ascended Jesus Christ, God's Son, who delivers from
the coming wrath. He is our Saviour ( Mt 1:21 ) true to his name
Jesus. He is our Rescuer ( Ro 11:26 , ho ruomenos, from  Isa
59:20 ). It is eschatological language, this coming wrath of God
for sin ( 1Th 2:16  Ro 3:5  5:9  9:22  13:5 ). It was Paul's
allusion to the day of judgment with Jesus as Judge whom God had
raised from the dead that made the Athenians mock and leave him
( Ac 17:31f. ). But Paul did not change his belief or his
preaching because of the conduct of the Athenians. He is certain
that God's wrath in due time will punish sin. Surely this is a
needed lesson for our day. It was coming then and it is coming
now.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:1-2:1

註釋:

 {For yourselves know} (autoi gar oidate). This explanatory
gar takes up in verses  1-12  the allusion in  1:9  about the
"report" concerning the entrance (eisodon, way in, eis,
hodon), {unto you} (	(886e) pros hum(8373)). Note repeated article to
sharpen the point. This proleptic accusative is common enough. It
is expanded by the epexegetic use of the hoti clause {that it
hath not been found vain} (hoti ou ken(8820)gegonen). Literally,
{that it has not become empty}. Second perfect active (completed
state) of ginomai. Every pastor watches wistfully to see what
will be the outcome of his work. Bengel says: _Non inanis, sed
plena virtutis_. Cf.  1:5 . Kenos is hollow, empty, while
mataios is fruitless, ineffective. In  1Co 15:14,17  Paul
speaks of kenon to k(8872)ugma ({empty the preaching}) and mataia
h(8820)pistis ({vain the faith}). One easily leads to the other.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:2-2:2

註釋:

 {But having suffered before} (alla propathontes). Strong
adversative alla, antithesis to ken(885c). Appeal to his personal
experiences in Thessalonica known to them ({as ye know}, kath(9373)
oidate). Second aorist active participle of propasch(935c), old
compound verb, but here alone in the N.T. The force of pro-
(before) is carried over to the next verb. The participle may be
regarded as temporal (Ellicott) or concessive (Moffatt). {And
been shamefully entreated in Philippi} (kai hubristhentes en
Philippois). First aorist passive participle of hubriz(935c), old
verb, to treat insolently. "More than the bodily suffering it was
the personal indignity that had been offered to him as a Roman
citizen" (Milligan), for which account see  Ac 16:16-40 , an
interesting example of how Acts and the Epistles throw light on
each other. Luke tells how Paul resented the treatment accorded
to him as a Roman citizen and here Paul shows that the memory
still rankled in his bosom. {We waxed bold in our God}
(eparr(8873)iasametha en t(9369) the(9369) h(886d)(936e)). Ingressive first aorist
middle of parr(8873)iazomai, old deponent verb from parr(8873)ia
(full story, pan-, r(8873)ia). In his reply to Festus ( Ac 26:26 )
Paul uses parr(8873)iazomenos lal(935c), {being bold I speak}, while
here he has {we waxed bold to speak} (eparr(8873)iasametha
lal(8873)ai). The insult in Philippi did not close Paul's mouth, but
had precisely the opposite effect "in our God." It was not wild
fanaticism, but determined courage and confidence in God that
spurred Paul to still greater boldness in Thessalonica, {unto
you} (pros hum(8373)), be the consequences what they might, {the
gospel of God in much conflict}, (	o euaggelion tou theou en
poll(9369) ag(936e)i). This figure of the athletic games (ag(936e)) may
refer to outward conflict like  Php 1:30  or inward anxiety ( Col
2:1 ). He had both in Thessalonica.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:3-2:3

註釋:

 {Exhortation} (parakl(8873)is). Persuasive discourse, calling
to one's side, for admonition, encouragement, or comfort. {Not of
error} (ouk ek plan(8873)). This word is same as plana(935c), to lead
astray ( 2Ti 3:13 ) like Latin _errare_. Passive idea of {error}
here rather than deceit. That is seen in {nor in guile} (oude en
dol(9369)) from del(935c), to catch with bait. Paul is keenly sensitive
against charges against the correctness of his message and the
purity of his life. {Nor of uncleanness} (oude ex akatharsias).
"This disclaimer, startling as it may seem, was not unneeded
amidst the impurities consecrated by the religions of the day"
(Lightfoot). There was no necessary connection in the popular
mind between religion and morals. The ecstatic initiations in
some of the popular religions were grossly sensual.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:4-2:4

註釋:

 1Co
4:5 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
4' or engs='1Co
4'
經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:5-2:5

註釋:

 2Co
1:23 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
1' or engs='2Co
1'
經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:6-2:6

註釋:

 {Nor seeking glory of men} (oute z(8874)ountes ex anthr(9370)(936e)
doxan). "Upon the repudiation of covetousness follows naturally
the repudiation of worldly ambition" (Milligan). See  Ac 20:19  2Co 4:5  Eph 4:2 . This third disclaimer is as strong as the
other two. Paul and his associates had not tried to extract
praise or glory out of (ex) men. {Neither from you nor from
others} (oute aph' hum(936e) oute aph' all(936e)). He widens the
negation to include those outside of the church circles and
changes the preposition from ex (out of) to apo (from). {When
we might have been burdensome, as apostles of Christ} (dunamenoi
en barei einai h(9373) Christou apostoloi). Westcott and Hort put
this clause in verse  7 . Probably a concessive participle,
{though being able to be in a position of weight} (either in
matter of finance or of dignity, or a burden on your funds or
"men of weight" as Moffatt suggests). Milligan suggests that Paul
"plays here on the double sense of the phrase" like the Latin
proverb: _Honos propter onus_. So he adds, including Silas and
Timothy, {as Christ's apostles}, as missionaries clearly, whether
in the technical sense or not (cf.  Ac 14:4,14  2Co 8:23  11:13  Ro 16:7  Php 2:25  Re 2:2 ). They were entitled to pay as
"Christ's apostles" (cf.  1Co 9  2Co 11:7ff. ), though they had
not asked for it.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:7-2:7

註釋:

 2Co
3:13ff. 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
3' or engs='2Co
3'
經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:8-2:8

註釋:

 {Even so, being affectionately desirous of you} (hout(9373)
omeiromenoi hum(936e)). Clearly the correct text rather than
himeiromenoi from himeir(935c), old verb to long for. But the verb
homeiromai (Westcott and Hort _om_., smooth breathing) occurs
nowhere else except MSS. in  Job 3:21  Ps 62:2  (Symmachus) and
the Lycaonian sepulchral inscription (4th cent. A.D.) about the
sorrowing parents homeiromenoi peri paidos, {greatly desiring
their son} (Moulton and Milligan, _Vocabulary_). Moulton suggests
that it comes from a root smer, remember, and that o- is a
derelict preposition o like o-duromai, o-kell(932c) (932d)keanos.
Wohlenberg (Zahn, _Kommentar_) calls the word "a term of
endearment," "derived from the language of the nursery"
(Milligan). {We were well pleased} ((8875)dokoumen). Imperfect
active of eudoke(935c), common verb in later Greek and in N.T. (see
on  Mt 3:17 ), picturing Paul's idea of their attitude while in
Thessalonica. Paul often has it with the infinitive as here. {To
impart} (metadounai). Second aorist active infinitive of
metadid(936d)i, old verb to share with (see on  Lu 3:11 ). Possible
zeugma with {souls} (psuchas), though Lightfoot renders
"lives." Paul and his associates held nothing back. {Because ye
were become very dear to us} (dioti agap(8874)oi h(886d)in egen(8874)h(8874)e).
Note dioti (double cause, dia, hoti, for that), use of
ginomai again for become, and dative h(886d)in with verbal
agap(8874)oi, beloved and so dear. A beautiful picture of the
growth of Paul's affection for them as should be true with every
pastor.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:9-2:9

註釋:

 {Travail} (mochthon). Old word for difficult labour, harder
than kopos (toil). In the N.T. only here,  2Th 3:8  2Co 11:27 .
Note accusative case here though genitive with mn(886d)oneu(935c) in
 1:3 . {Night and day} (
uktos kai h(886d)eras). Genitive case,
both by day and by night, perhaps beginning before dawn and
working after dark. So in  3:10 . {That we might not burden any
of you} (pros to m(8820)epibar(8873)ai tina hum(936e)). Use of pros with
the articular infinitive to express purpose (only four times by
Paul). The verb epibare(935c) is late, but in the papyri and
inscriptions for laying a burden (aros) on (epi-) one. In
N.T. only here and  2Th 3:8  2Co 2:5 . Paul boasted of his
financial independence where he was misunderstood as in
Thessalonica and Corinth ( 2Co 9-12 ), though he vindicated his
right to remuneration. {We preached} (ek(8872)uxamen). {We
heralded} (from k(8872)ux, herald) to you, common verb for preach.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:10-2:10

註釋:

 {How holily and righteously and unblameably} (h(9373) hosi(9373)
kai dikai(9373) kai amempt(9373)). Paul calls the Thessalonians and God
as witnesses (martures) to his life toward you the believers
(humin tois pisteuousin) dative of personal interest. He
employs three common adverbs that show how holily toward God and
how righteously toward men so that they did not blame him and his
associates in either respect. So there is a reason for each
adverb. All this argues that Paul spent a considerable time in
Thessalonica, more than the three sabbaths mentioned by Luke. The
pastor ought to live so that his life will bear close inspection.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:11-2:11

註釋:

 {As a father with his own children} (h(9373) pat(8872) tekna
heautou). Change from the figure of the mother-nurse in verse
 7 . There is ellipse of a principal verb with the participles
parakalountes, paramuthoumenoi, marturoumenoi. Lightfoot
suggests enouthetoumen (we admonished) or egen(8874)h(886d)en (we
became). The three participles give three phases of the
minister's preaching (exhorting, encouraging or consoling,
witnessing or testifying). They are all old verbs, but only the
first (parakale(935c)) is common in the N.T.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:12-2:12

註釋:

 {To the end that} (eis to). Final use of eis and the
articular infinitive, common idiom in the papyri and Paul uses
eis to and the infinitive fifty times (see again in  3:2 ),
some final, some sub-final, some result (Robertson, _Grammar_,
pp. 989-91). {Walk worthily of God} (peripatein axi(9373) tou
theou). Present infinitive (linear action), and genitive case
with adverb axi(9373) as in  Col 1:10  (cf.  Php 1:27  Eph 4:1 ),
like a preposition. {Calleth} (kalountos). Present active
participle, keeps on calling. Some MSS. have kalesantos,
called. {Kingdom} (asileian) here is the future consummation
because of glory (doxan) as in  2Th 1:5  1Co 6:9  15:50  Ga
5:21  2Ti 4:1,18 ), but Paul uses it for the present kingdom of
grace also as in  1Co 4:20  Ro 14:17  Col 1:13 .

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:13-2:13

註釋:

 {And for this cause we also} (kai dia touto kai h(886d)eis).
Note kai twice. We as well as you are grateful for the way the
gospel was received in Thessalonica. {Without ceasing}
(adialeipt(9373)). Late adverb for which see on  1:2  and for
eucharistoumen see on 氣:2|. {The word of the message} (logon
ako(8873)). Literally, {the word of} hearing, as in Sir. 42:1 and
 Heb 4:2  ho logos t(8873) ako(8873), the word marked by hearing
(genitive case), the word which you heard. Here with 	ou theou
(of God) added as a second descriptive genitive which Paul
expands and justifies. {Ye received it so} (paralabontes) and
{accepted or welcomed it} (edexasthe) so, {not as the word of
men} (ou logou anthr(9370)(936e)), {but as the word of God} (alla
logon theou), {as it is in truth} (kath(9373) al(8874)h(9373) estin). This
last clause is literally, {as it truly is}. Paul had not a doubt
that he was proclaiming God's message. Should any preacher preach
his doubts if he has any? God's message can be found and Paul
found it. {Worketh in you} (energeitai en humin). Perhaps
middle voice of energe(935c) (en, ergon, work) late verb, not in
ancient Greek or LXX, but in papyri and late writers (Polybius,
etc.) and in N.T. only by Paul and James. If it is passive, as
Milligan thinks, it means "is set in operation," as Polybius has
it. The idea then is that the word of God is set in operation in
you that believe.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:14-2:14

註釋:

 {Imitators of the churches of God which are in Judea}
(mim(8874)ai t(936e) ekkl(8873)i(936e) tou theou t(936e) ous(936e) en t(8869) Ioudai(8369)). On
mim(8874)ai see on 氣:5|. "This passage, implying an affectionate
admiration of the Jewish churches on the part of St. Paul, and
thus entirely bearing out the impression produced by the
narrative in the Acts, is entirely subversive of the theory
maintained by some and based on a misconception of  Ga 2 , and by
the fiction of the Pseudo-Clementines, of the feud existing
between St. Paul and the Twelve" (Lightfoot). {In Christ Jesus}
(en Christ(9369) I(8873)ou). It takes this to make a _Christian_ church
of God. Note order here {Christ Jesus} as compared with {Jesus
Christ} in  1:1,3 . {Ye also--even as they} (kai humeis--kai
autoi). Note kai twice (correlative use of kai).
{Countrymen} (sumphulet(936e)). Fellow-countrymen or tribesmen.
Late word that refers primarily to Gentiles who no doubt joined
the Jews in Thessalonica who instigated the attacks on Paul and
Silas so that it "was taken up by the native population, without
whose co-operation it would have been powerless" (Lightfoot).
{Own} (idi(936e)) here has apparently a weakened force. Note hupo
here with the ablative both with sumphulet(936e) and Ioudai(936e)
after the intransitive epathete (suffered). The persecution of
the Christians by the Jews in Judea was known everywhere.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:15-2:15

註釋:

 {Who both killed the Lord Jesus and the prophets} (	(936e) kai
ton Kurion apokteinant(936e) I(8873)oun kai tous proph(8874)as). First
aorist active participle of apoktein(935c). Vivid justification of
his praise of the churches in Judea. The Jews killed the prophets
before the Lord Jesus who reminded them of their guilt ( Mt
23:29 ). Paul, as Peter ( Ac 2:23 ), lays the guilt of the death
of Christ on the Jews. {And drove us out} (kai h(886d)(8373)
ekdi(9378)ant(936e)). An old verb to drive out or banish, to chase out
as if a wild beast. Only here in N.T. It is Paul's vivid
description of the scene told in  Ac 17:5ff.  when the rabbis and
the hoodlums from the agora chased him out of Thessalonica by the
help of the politarchs. {Please not God} (The(9369) m(8820)areskont(936e)).
The rabbis and Jews thought that they were pleasing God by so
doing as Paul did when he ravaged the young church in Jerusalem.
But Paul knows better now. {And are contrary to all men} (kai
pasin anthr(9370)ois enanti(936e)). Dative case with the adjective
enanti(936e) (old and common word, face to face, opposite). It
seems like a bitter word about Paul's countrymen whom he really
loved ( Ro 9:1-5  10:1-6 ), but Paul knew only too well the
middle wall of partition between Jew and Gentile as he shows in
 Eph 2  and which only the Cross of Christ can break down.
Tacitus (_Hist_. V. 5) says that the Jews are _adversus omnes
alios hostile odium_.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:16-2:16

註釋:

 {Forbidding us} (k(936c)uont(936e) h(886d)(8373)). Explanatory participle
of the idea in enanti(936e). They show their hostility to Paul at
every turn. Right here in Corinth, where Paul is when he writes,
they had already shown venomous hostility toward Paul as Luke
makes plain ( Ac 18:6ff. ). They not simply oppose his work among
the Jews, but also to the Gentiles (ethnesi, nations outside of
the Abrahamic covenant as they understood it). {That they may be
saved} (hina s(9374)h(9373)in). Final use of hina with first aorist
passive subjunctive of s(937a)(935c) old verb to save. It was the only
hope of the Gentiles, Christ alone and not the mystery-religions
offered any real hope. {To fill up their sins alway} (eis to
anapl(8872)(9373)ai aut(936e) tas hamartias pantote). Another example of
eis to and the infinitive as in verse  12 . It may either be
God's conceived plan to allow the Jews to go on and fill up
(anapl(8872)(9373)ai, note ana, fill up full, old verb) or it may be
the natural result from the continual (pantote) sins of the
Jews. {Is come} (ephthasen). First aorist (timeless aorist)
active indicative of phthan(935c) which no longer means to come
before as in  1Th 4:15  where alone in the N.T. it retains the
old idea of coming before. Some MSS. have the perfect active
ephthaken, prophetic perfect of realization already. Frame
translates it: "But the wrath has come upon them at last." This
is the most likely meaning of eis telos. Paul vividly foresees
and foretells the final outcome of this attitude of hate on the
part of the Jews. _Tristis exitus_, Bengel calls it. Paul speaks
out of a sad experience.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:17-2:17

註釋:

 {Being bereaved of you} (aporphanisthentes aph' hum(936e)).
First aorist passive participle of the rare compound verb
(aporphaniz(935c), in Aeschylus, but nowhere else in N.T.).
Literally, {being orphaned from you} (aph' hum(936e), ablative
case). Paul changes the figure again (	rophos or mother nurse
in verse  7 , 
(8870)ios or babe in verse  7 , pat(8872) or father in
verse  11 ) to {orphan} (orphanos). He refers to the period of
separation from them, {for a short season} (pros kairon h(9372)as)
for a season of an hour. This idiom only here in N.T., but pros
kairon in  Lu 8:13  and pros h(9372)an in  2Co 7:8 . But it has
seemed long to Paul. Precisely how long he had been gone we do
not know, some months at any rate. {In presence, not in heart}
(pros(9370)(9369) ou kardi(8369)). Locative case. Pros(9370)on, old word
(pros, ops, in front of the eye, face) for face, look, person.
Literally, {in face or person}. His heart was with them, though
they no longer saw his face. Heart, originally kardia, is the
inner man, the seat of the affections and purposes, not always in
contrast with intellect (
ous). "Out of sight, not out of mind"
(Rutherford). {Endeavoured the more exceedingly} (perissoter(9373)
espoudasamen). Ingressive aorist active indicative of
spoudaz(935c), old word to hasten (from spoud(882c) speud(935c)). {We
became zealous}. Comparative adverb perissoter(9373) from
perisson, more abundantly than before being orphaned from you.
{Your face} (	o pros(9370)on hum(936e)). Cf. his {face} above. {With
great desire} (en poll(8869) epithumi(8369)). {In much longing}
(epithumia from epi and 	humos, epithume(935c), to run after,
to yearn after, whether good or bad).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:18-2:18

註釋:

 {Because} (dioti). As in  2:8 . {We would fain have come
to you} ((8874)hel(8873)amen elthein pros humas). First aorist active
indicative of 	hel(935c). Literally, {we desired to come to you. I
Paul} (eg(9320)men Paulos). Clear example of literary plural
(8874)helesamen with singular pronoun eg(935c). Paul uses his own name
elsewhere also as in  2Co 10:1  Ga 5:2  Col 1:23  Eph 3:1  Phm
1:19 . {Once and again} (kai hapax kai dis). {Both once and
twice} as in  Php 4:16 . Old idiom in Plato. {And Satan hindered
us} (kai enekopsen h(886d)as ho Satanas). Adversative use of kai=
but or and yet. First aorist active indicative of enkopt(935c), late
word to cut in, to hinder. Milligan quotes papyrus example of
third century, B.C. Verb used to cut in a road, to make a road
impassable. So Paul charges Satan with cutting in on his path.
Used by Paul in  Ac 24:4  Ga 5:7  and passive enekoptom(886e) in
 Ro 15:22  1Pe 3:7 . This hindrance may have been illness,
opposition of the Jews in Corinth, what not.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 2:19-2:19

註釋:

 {Crown of glorying} (stephanos kauch(8873)e(9373)). When a king or
conqueror came on a visit he was given a chaplet of glorying.
Paul is answering the insinuation that he did not really wish to
come. {At his coming} (en t(8869) autou parousi(8369)). This word
parousia is untechnical (just _presence_ from pareimi) in
 2Th 2:9  1Co 16:17  2Co 7:6f.  10:10  Php 1:26  2:12 . But here
(also  1Th 3:13  4:15  5:23  2Th 2:1,8  1Co 15:23 ) we have the
technical sense of the second coming of Christ. Deissmann (_Light
from the Ancient East_, pp. 372ff.) notes that the word in the
papyri is almost technical for the arrival of a king or ruler who
expects to receive his "crown of coming." The Thessalonians, Paul
says, will be his crown, glory, joy when Jesus comes.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 3:1-3:1

註釋:

 {When we could no longer forbear} (m(886b)eti stegontes).
Steg(935c) is old verb to cover from steg(885c), roof ( Mr 2:4 ), to
cover with silence, to conceal, to keep off, to endure as here
and  1Co 9:12  13:7 . In the papyri in this sense (Moulton and
Milligan's _Vocabulary_). M(886b)eti usual negative with participle
in the _Koin(825f) rather than ouketi. {We thought it good}
((8875)dok(8873)amen). Either literary plural as in  2:18  or Paul and
Silas as more likely. If so, both Timothy and Silas came to
Athens ( Ac 17:15f. ), but Timothy was sent ({we sent},
epempsamen, verse  2 ) right back to Thessalonica and later
Paul sent Silas on to Beroea or Thessalonica (verse  5 , {I
sent}, epempsa). Then both Silas and Timothy came from
Macedonia to Corinth ( Ac 18:5 ). {Alone} (monoi). Including
Silas. {God's minister} (diakonon tou theou). See on 烘t 22:13|
for this interesting word, here in general sense not technical
sense of deacon. Some MSS. have {fellow-worker} (sunergon).
Already {apostle} in  2:7  and now {brother, minister} (and
possibly {fellow-worker}).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 3:3-3:3

註釋:

 {That no man be moved} (	o m(8864)ena sainesthai). Epexegetical
articular infinitive in accusative case of general reference.
Sain(935c) is old word to wag the tail, to flatter, beguile and this
sense suits here (only N.T. example). The sense of "moved" or
troubled or disheartened is from siainesthai the reading of F G
and found in the papyri. {We are appointed} (keimetha). Present
middle, used here as passive of 	ith(886d)i. We Christians are set
{hereunto} (eis touto) to be beguiled by tribulations. We must
resist.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 3:4-3:4

註釋:

 {We told you beforehand} (proelegomen humin). Imperfect
active, we used to tell you beforehand. Old verb, rare in N.T.
(only in Paul). {That we are to suffer persecution} (hoti
mellomen thlibesthai). Mell(935c) and present passive infinitive.
Not mere prediction, but God's appointed will as it turned out in
Thessalonica.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 3:5-3:5

註釋:

 {That I might know} (eis to gn(936e)ai). Paul's common idiom
(verse  2 ), eis to and the infinitive of purpose (second
aorist ingressive active of gin(9373)k(935c), come to know). {Lest by
any means the tempter had tempted you} (m(8820)p(9373) epeirasen hum(8373)
ho peiraz(936e)). Findlay takes this as a question with negative
answer, but most likely negative final clause with m(8820)p(9373) about
a past action with aorist indicative according to the classic
idiom as in  Ga 2:2  (m(8820)p(9373)--edramon) and  Ga 4:11  after verb
of fearing (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 988). It is a fear that the
thing may turn out to be so about the past. {Should be}
(gen(8874)ai). Here the usual construction appears (aorist
subjunctive with m(8820)p(9373)) about the future.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 3:6-3:6

註釋:

 {Even now} (arti). Just now, Timothy having come
(elthontos Timotheou, genitive absolute). Why Silas is not
named is not clear, unless he had come from Beroea or elsewhere
in Macedonia. {Glad tidings of} (euaggelisamenou). First aorist
middle participle of the verb for evangelizing (gospelizing).
{Good remembrance} (mneian). Same word used by Paul  1:2 .
{Longing to see us} (epipothountes h(886d)(8373) idein). Old and strong
verb, epi-, directive, to long after. Mutual longing that
pleased Paul ("we also you").

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 3:7-3:7

註釋:

 {Over you} (eph' humin). Epi with the locative, the basis
on which the "comfort" rests. {In} (epi). Locative case again
with epi. {Distress} (anagk(8869)). {Physical necessity}, common
sense in late Greek, choking (agch(932c) angor), and {crushing}
trouble (	hlipsis, thlib(935c)).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 3:8-3:8

註釋:

 {If ye stand fast} (ean humeis st(886b)ete). Condition of first
class, ean and present active indicative (correct text, not
st(886b)(8874)e subj.) of st(886b)(935c), late form from perfect hest(886b)a of
hist(886d)i, to place.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 3:9-3:9

註釋:

 {Render again unto God} (	(9369) the(9369) antapodounai). Second
aorist active infinitive of double compound verb ant-apodid(936d)i,
to give back (apo) in return for (anti). Old verb rare in
N.T., but again in  2Th 1:6 . {For you} (peri hum(936e)). Around
(concerning) you, while in verse  2  huper (over is used for
"concerning your faith." {For} (epi). Basis again as cause or
ground for the joy. {Wherewith we joy} (h(8869) chairomen).
Probably cognate accusative h(886e) with chairomen attracted to
locative char(8369) ( Mt 2:10 ).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 3:10-3:10

註釋:

 {Exceedingly} (huperekperissou). Double compound adverb,
only in  1Th 3:10  5:13  (some MSS. -(9373)). Like piling Ossa on
Pelion, periss(9373), abundantly, ek perissou, out of bounds,
huperekperissou, more than out of bounds (overflowing all
bounds). {And perfect} (kai katartisai). First aorist active
articular infinitive of purpose (eis to idein--kai) of
katartiz(935c), to mend nets ( Mt 4:21 ) or men ( Ga 6:1 ) repair.
Chiefly late. {That which is lacking in} (	a huster(886d)ata). The
shortcomings, the lacks or left-overs ( Col 1:24 ). From
hustere(935c) (husteron), to be late.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 3:11-3:11

註釋:

 2Th
2:17 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Th
2' or engs='2Th
2'
經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 3:12-3:12

註釋:

 {The Lord} (ho Kurios). The Lord Jesus. Paul prays to
Christ. {Make you to increase} (humas pleonasai). First aorist
active optative (wish for future) of pleonaz(935c), late verb from
pleon (more), {to superabound}. {And abound} (perisseusai).
First aorist active optative (wish for future) of perisseu(935c)
from perissos, old verb, to be over (common in N.T.). It is
hard to see much difference between the two verbs.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 3:13-3:13

註釋:

 {To the end he may stablish} (eis to st(8872)ixai). Another
example of eis and the articular infinitive of purpose. Same
idiom in  3:2 . From st(8872)iz(935c), from st(8872)igx, a support.
{Unblameable} (amemptous). Old compound adjective (a
privative and verbal of memphomai, to blame). Rare in N.T.
Predicate position here. Second coming of Christ again.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:1-4:1

註釋:

 2Th
3:1 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Th
3' or engs='2Th
3'
經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:2-4:2

註釋:

 {What charge} (	inas paraggelias). Plural, charges or
precepts, command ( Ac 16:24 ), prohibition ( Ac 5:28 ), right
living ( 1Ti 1:5 ). Military term in Xenophon and Polybius.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:3-4:3

註釋:

 {Your sanctification} (ho hagiasmos hum(936e)). Found only in
the Greek Bible and ecclesiastical writers from hagiaz(935c) and
both to take the place of the old words hagiz(932c) hagismos with
their technical ideas of consecration to a god or goddess that
did not include holiness in life. So Paul makes a sharp and
pointed stand here for the Christian idea of sanctification as
being "the will of God" (apposition) and as further explained by
the epexegetic infinitive {that ye abstain from fornication}
(apechesthai humas apo t(8873) porneias). Pagan religion did not
demand sexual purity of its devotees, the gods and goddesses
being grossly immoral. Priestesses were in the temples for the
service of the men who came.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:4-4:4

註釋:

 {That each one of you know how} (eidenai hekaston hum(936e)).
Further epexegetic infinitive (second perfect active), learn how
and so know how (learn the habit of purity). {To possess himself
of his own vessel} (	o heautou skeuos ktasthai). Present middle
infinitive of ktaomai, to acquire, not kekt(8873)thai, to
possess. But what does Paul mean by "his own vessel"? It can only
mean his own body or his own wife. Objections are raised against
either view, but perhaps he means that the man shall acquire his
own wife "in sanctification and honour," words that elevate the
wife and make it plain that Paul demands sexual purity on the
part of men (married as well as unmarried). There is no double
standard here. When the husband comes to the marriage bed, he
should come as a chaste man to a chaste wife.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:5-4:5

註釋:

 {Not in the passion of lust} (m(8820)en pathei epithumias).
Plain picture of the wrong way for the husband to come to
marriage. {That know not God} (	a m(8820)eidota ton theon). Second
perfect participle of oida. The heathen knew gods as licentious
as they are themselves, but not God. One of the reasons for the
revival of paganism in modern life is professedly this very thing
that men wish to get rid of the inhibitions against
licentiousness by God.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:6-4:6

註釋:

 {That no man transgress} (	o m(8820)huperbainein). Old verb to
go beyond. Final use of 	o (accusative of general reference)
and the infinitive (negative m(885c)), parallel to apechesthai and
eidenai ktasthai above. {And wrong his brother} (kai
pleonektein ton adelphon autou). To take more, to overreach, to
take advantage of, to defraud. {In the matter} (en t(9369)
pragmati). The delicacy of Paul makes him refrain from plainer
terms and the context makes it clear enough as in  2Co 7:11 
(	(9369) pragmati). {An avenger} (ekdikos). Regular term in the
papyri for legal avenger. Modern men and women need to remember
that God is the avenger for sexual wrongs both in this life and
the next.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:7-4:7

註釋:

 {Not for uncleanness, but in sanctification} (epi
akatharsi(8369) all' en hagiasm(9369)). Sharp contrast made still
sharper by the two prepositions epi (on the basis of) and en
(in the sphere of). God has "called" us all for a decent sex life
consonant with his aims and purposes. It was necessary for Paul
to place this lofty ideal before the Thessalonian Christians
living in a pagan world. It is equally important now.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:8-4:8

註釋:

 {Therefore} (	oigaroun). This old triple compound particle
(	oi, gar, oun) is in the N.T. only here and  Heb 12:1 . Paul
applies the logic of the case. {He that rejecteth} (ho
athet(936e)). This late verb (Polybius and LXX) is from a-thetos
(a privative and verbal of 	ith(886d)i, to proscribe a thing, to
annul it. {But God} (alla ton theon). Paul sees this clearly
and modern atheists see it also. In order to justify their
licentiousness they do not hesitate to set aside God.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:9-4:9

註釋:

 {Concerning love of the brethren} (peri t(8873) philadelphias).
Late word, love of brothers or sisters. In profane Greek (one
papyrus example) and LXX the word means love of those actually
kin by blood, but in the N.T. it is the kinship in the love of
Christ as here. {Are taught by God} (	heodidaktoi este). Only
here and ecclesiastical writers. Passive verbal adjective in
-tos from didask(935c) as if 	heo- in ablative case like
didaktoi theou ( Joh 6:45 ). {To love one another} (eis to
agap(8369)n all(886c)ous). Another example of eis to and the
infinitive. Only those taught of God keep on loving one another,
love neighbours and even enemies as Jesus taught ( Mt 5:44 ).
Note the use of agapa(935c), not phile(935c).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:10-4:10

註釋:

 {Ye do it} (poieite auto). The auto refers to 	o
agap(8369)n all(886c)ous (to love one another). Delicate praise.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:11-4:11

註釋:

 {That ye study to be quiet} (philotimeisthai h(8873)uchazein).
First infinitive dependent on parakaloumen (verse  10 , we
exhort you), the second on philotimeisthai (old verb from
philotimos, fond of honour, philos, tim(885c)). The notion of
ambition appears in each of the three N.T. examples ( 1Th 4:11  2Co 5:9  Ro 5:20 ), but it is ambition to do good, not evil. The
word ambition is Latin (_ambitio_ from _ambo, ire_), to go on
both sides to accomplish one's aims and often evil). A preacher
devoid of ambition lacks power. There was a restless spirit in
Thessalonica because of the misapprehension of the second coming.
So Paul urges an ambition to be quiet or calm, to lead a quiet
life, including silence ( Ac 11:18 ). {To do your own business}
(prassein ta idia). Present infinitive like the others, to have
the habit of attending to their own affairs (	a idia). This
restless meddlesomeness here condemned Paul alludes to again in
 2Th 3:11  in plainer terms. It is amazing how much wisdom people
have about other people's affairs and so little interest in their
own. {To work with your own hands} (ergazesthai tais chersin
hum(936e)). Instrumental case (chersin). Paul gave a new dignity
to manual labour by precept and example. There were "pious"
idlers in the church in Thessalonica who were promoting trouble.
He had commanded them when with them.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:12-4:12

註釋:

 {That ye may walk honestly} (hina peripat(8874)e eusch(886d)on(9373)).
Present subjunctive (linear action). Old adverb from eusch(886d)(936e)
(eu, sch(886d)a, Latin _habitus_, graceful figure), becomingly,
decently. In N.T. only here and  Ro 13:13 . This idea includes
honest financial transactions, but a good deal more. People
outside the churches have a right to watch the conduct of
professing Christians in business, domestic life, social life,
politics.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:13-4:13

註釋:

 {We would not have} (ou thelomen). We do not wish. {You
ignorant} (humas agnoein). Old word, not to know (a
privative, gno-, root of gin(9373)k(935c)). No advantage in ignorance
of itself. {Concerning them that fall asleep} (peri t(936e)
koim(936d)en(936e)). Present passive (or middle) participle (Aleph B)
rather than the perfect passive kekoim(886d)en(936e) of many later MSS.
From old koima(935c), to put to sleep. Present tense gives idea of
repetition, from time to time fall asleep. Greeks and Romans used
this figure of sleep for death as Jesus does ( Joh 11:11 ) and
N.T. generally (cf. our word _cemetery_). Somehow the
Thessalonians had a false notion about the dead in relation to
the second coming. {Even as the rest which have no hope} (kath(9373)
hoi loipoi hoi m(8820)echontes elpida). This picture of the
hopelessness of the pagan world about the future life is amply
illustrated in ancient writings and particularly by inscriptions
on tombs (Milligan). Some few pagans clung to this hope, but most
had none.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:14-4:14

註釋:

 {For if we believe} (ei gar pisteuomen). Condition of
first class, assuming the death and resurrection of Jesus to be
true. {In Jesus} (dia tou I(8873)ou). Literally, through or by
means of Jesus. It is amphibolous in position and can be taken
either with 	ous koim(8874)hentas (that are fallen asleep in or
through Jesus) like hoi koim(8874)hentes en Christ(9369) in  1Co 15:18 
and probably correct or with axei (through Jesus with God).
{With him} (sun aut(9369)). Together with Jesus. Jesus is the
connecting link (dia) for those that sleep (koim(8874)hentas
first aorist passive, but with middle sense) and their
resurrection.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:15-4:15

註釋:

 {By the word of the Lord} (en log(9369) Kuriou). We do not
know to what word of the Lord Jesus Paul refers, probably Paul
meaning only the point in the teaching of Christ rather than a
quotation. He may be claiming a direct revelation on this
important matter as about the Lord's Supper in  1Co 11:23 . Jesus
may have spoken on this subject though it has not been preserved
to us (cf.  Mr 9:1 ). {Ye that are alive} (h(886d)eis hoi z(936e)tes).
Paul here includes himself, but this by no means shows that Paul
knew that he would be alive at the Parousia of Christ. He was
alive, not dead, when he wrote. {Shall in no wise precede} (ou
m(8820)phthas(936d)en). Second aorist active subjunctive of phthan(935c),
to come before, to anticipate. This strong negative with ou m(885c)
(double negative) and the subjunctive is the regular idiom
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 929). Hence there was no ground for
uneasiness about the dead in Christ.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:16-4:16

註釋:

 {With a shout} (en keleusmati). Note this so-called
instrumental use of en. Old word, here only in N.T., from
keleu(935c), to order, command (military command). Christ will come
as Conqueror. {With the voice of the archangel} (en ph(936e)(8869)
archaggelou). Further explanation of keleusmati (command). The
only archangel mentioned in N.T. is Michael in  Jude 1:9 . But
note absence of article with both ph(936e)(8869) and archaggelou. The
reference may be thus indefinite. {With the trump of God} (en
salpiggi theou). Trumpet. See same figure in  1Co 15:52 . {The
dead in Christ shall rise first} (hoi nekroi en Christ(9369)
anast(8873)ontai pr(9374)on). {First} here refers plainly to the fact
that, so far from the dead in Christ having no share in the
Parousia, they will rise before those still alive are changed.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:17-4:17

註釋:

 {Then} (epeita). The next step, not the identical time
(	ote), but immediately afterwards. {Together with them} (hama
sun autois). Note both hama (at the same time) and sun
(together with) with the associative instrumental case autois
(the risen saints). {Shall be caught up} (harpag(8873)ometha).
Second future passive indicative of harpaz(935c), old verb to seize,
to carry off like Latin _rapio_. {To meet the Lord in the air}
(eis apant(8873)in tou Kuriou eis aera). This special Greek idiom
is common in the LXX like the Hebrew, but Polybius has it also
and it occurs in the papyri (Moulton, _Proleg_., p. 14, n. 3).
This rapture of the saints (both risen and changed) is a glorious
climax to Paul's argument of consolation. {And so} (kai
hout(9373)). This is the outcome, to be forever with the Lord,
whether with a return to earth or with an immediate departure for
heaven Paul does not say. To be with Christ is the chief hope of
Paul's life ( 1Th 5:10  Php 1:23  Col 3:4  2Co 5:8 ).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 4:18-4:18

註釋:

 {With these words} (en tois logois toutois). In these
words. They were a comfort to the Thessalonians as they still
comfort the people of God.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:1-5:1

註釋:

 {But concerning the times and the seasons} (peri de t(936e)
chron(936e) kai t(936e) kair(936e)). See both words used also in  Tit 1:2f .
Chronos is rather an extended period and kairos a definite
space of time.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:2-5:2

註釋:

 {Know perfectly} (akrib(9373) oidate). Accurately know, not
"the times and the seasons," but their own ignorance. {As a thief
in the night} (h(9373) klept(8873) en nukti). As a thief at night,
suddenly and unexpectedly. Reminiscence of the word of Jesus ( Mt
24:43  Lu 12:39 ), used also in  2Pe 3:10  Re 3:3  16:15 .
{Cometh} (erchetai). Prophetic or futuristic present tense.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:3-5:3

註釋:

 {When they are saying} (hotan leg(9373)in). Present active
subjunctive picturing these false prophets of {peace and safety}
like  Eze 13:10  (Peace, and there is no peace). Asphaleia only
in N.T. in  Lu 1:4  (which see);  Ac 5:23  and here. {Sudden
destruction} (aiphnidios olethros). Olethros old word from
ollumi, to destroy. See also  2Th 1:9 . Aiphnidios, old
adjective akin to aphn(935c) and in N.T. only here and  Lu 21:34 
where Westcott and Hort spell it ephnidios. {Cometh upon them}
(autois epistatai). Unaspirated form instead of the usual
ephistatai (present middle indicative) from ephist(886d)i perhaps
due to confusion with epistamai. {As travail upon a woman with
child} (h(9373)per h(8820)(9364)in t(8869) en gastri echous(8869)). Earlier form
(9364)is for birth-pang used also by Jesus ( Mr 13:8  Mt 24:8 ).
Technical phrase for pregnancy, {to the one who has it in belly}
(cf.  Mt 1:18  of Mary). {They shall in no wise escape} (ou m(880a)ekphug(9373)in). Strong negative like that in  4:15  ou m(885c) (double
negative) and the second aorist active subjunctive.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:4-5:4

註釋:

 {As a thief} (h(9373) klept(8873)). As in verse  2 , but A B
Bohairic have kleptas (thieves), turning the metaphor round.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:5-5:5

註釋:

 {Sons of light} (huioi ph(9374)os), {sons of day} (huioi
h(886d)eras). Chiefly a translation Hebraism (Deissmann, _Bible
Studies_, pp. 161ff.). Cf. words of Jesus in  Lu 16:8  and Paul
in  Eph 5:9 . He repeats the same idea in turning from "ye" to
"we" and using 
uktos (night) and skotous (darkness),
predicate genitives.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:6-5:6

註釋:

 {So then} (ara oun). Two inferential particles, accordingly
therefore, as in  2Th 2:15  and only in Paul in N.T. {Let us not
sleep} (m(8820)katheud(936d)en). Present active subjunctive (volitive),
let us not go on sleeping. {Let us watch} (gr(8867)or(936d)en). Present
active subj. (volitive) again, let us keep awake (late verb
gr(8867)ore(935c) from perfect egr(8867)ora). {Be sober} (
(8870)h(936d)en).
Present active subjunctive (volitive). Old verb not to be drunk.
In N.T. only in figurative sense, to be calm, sober-minded. Also
in verse  8  with the metaphor of drunkenness in contrast.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:7-5:7

註釋:

 {They that be drunken are drunken in the night} (hoi
methuskomenoi nuktos methuousin). No need of "be" here, they
that are drunken. No real difference in meaning between
methusk(935c) and methu(935c), to be drunk, except that methusk(935c)
(inceptive verb in -sk(935c)) means to get drunk. {Night} (
uktos,
genitive by night) is the favourite time for drunken revelries.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:8-5:8

註釋:

 {Putting on the breastplate of faith and love} (endusamenoi
th(9372)aka piste(9373) kai agap(8873)). First aorist (ingressive) middle
participle of endu(935c). The same figure of breastplate in  Eph
6:14 , only there "of righteousness." The idea of watchfulness
brings the figure of a sentry on guard and armed to Paul's mind
as in  Ro 13:12  "the weapons of light." The word 	h(9372)ax
(breastplate) is common in the LXX. {For a helmet, the hope of
salvation} (perikephalaian elpida s(9374)(8872)ias). Same figure in
 Eph 6:17  and both like  Isa 59:17 . Late word meaning around
(peri) the head (kephal(885c)) and in Polybius, LXX, and in the
papyri. S(9374)(8872)ias is objective genitive.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:9-5:9

註釋:

 {But unto the obtaining of salvation through our Lord Jesus
Christ} (alla eis peripoi(8873)in s(9374)(8872)ias dia tou Kuriou h(886d)(936e)
I(8873)ou Christou). The difficult word here is peripoi(8873)in which
may be passive, God's possession as in  1Pe 2:9 , or active,
obtaining, as in  2Th 2:14 . The latter is probably the idea
here. We are to keep awake so as to fulfil God's purpose
(etheto, appointed, second aorist middle indicative of
	ith(886d)i) in calling us. That is our hope of final victory
(salvation in this sense).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:10-5:10

註釋:

 {For us} (peri h(886d)(936e)). {Around us}. So Westcott and Hort,
but huper (over, in behalf of) as in many MSS. These
prepositions often interchanged in N.T. MSS. {Whether we wake or
sleep} (eite gr(8867)or(936d)en eite katheud(936d)en). Alternative
condition of third class with present subjunctive, though
eante--eante more usual conjunction (Robertson, _Grammar_, P.
1017). Used here of life and death, not as metaphor. {That we
should live together with him} (hina hama sun aut(9369) z(8873)(936d)en).
First aorist active subjunctive constative aorist covering all
life (now and hereafter) together with (hama sun as in  5:17 )
Jesus.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:11-5:11

註釋:

 1Co
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4'
經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:12-5:12

註釋:

 {Them that labour among you} (	ous kopi(936e)tas en humin).
Old word for toil even if weary. {And are over you in the Lord}
(kai proistamenous hum(936e) en Kuri(9369)). Same article with this
participle. Literally, those who stand in front of you, your
leaders in the Lord, the presbyters or bishops and deacons. Get
acquainted with them and follow them. {And admonish you} (kai
nouthetountas humas). Old verb from 
outhet(8873) and this from

ous (mind) and 	ith(886d)i, to put. Putting sense into the heads
of people. A thankless, but a necessary, task. The same article
connects all three participles, different functions of the same
leaders in the church.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:13-5:13

註釋:

 {And to esteem them} (kai h(8867)eisthai). Get acquainted with
them and esteem the leaders. The idlers in Thessalonica had
evidently refused to follow their leaders in church activities.
We need wise leadership today, but still more wise following. An
army of captains and colonels never won a battle.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:14-5:14

註釋:

 {Admonish the disorderly} (
outheteite tous ataktous). Put
sense into the unruly mob who break ranks (a privative and
	aktos, verbal adjective of 	ass(935c), to keep military order).
Recall the idlers from the market-place used against Paul ( Ac
17:5 ). This is a challenging task for any leader. {Encourage the
fainthearted} (paramutheisthe tous oligopsuchous). Old verb to
encourage or console as in  Joh 11:31 , though not so common in
N.T. as parakale(935c), the compound adjective (oligos, little or
small, psuch(885c), soul), small-souled, little-souled, late word in
LXX. The verb oligopsuche(935c) occurs in the papyri. Local
conditions often cause some to lose heart and wish to drop out,
be quitters. These must be held in line. {Support the weak}
(antechesthe t(936e) asthen(936e)). Middle voice with genitive of
antech(935c), old verb, in N.T. only in middle, to cling to, to hold
on to (with genitive). The weak are those tempted to sin
(immorality, for instance). {Be long-suffering toward all}
(makrothumeite pros pantas). These disorderly elements try the
patience of the leaders. Hold out with them. What a wonderful
ideal Paul here holds up for church leaders!

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:15-5:15

註釋:

 {See to it that no one render unto any one evil for evil}
(horate m(8820)tis kakon anti kakou apod(9369)). Note m(885c) with the
aorist subjunctive (negative purpose) apod(9369) from apodid(936d)i,
to give back. Retaliation, condemned by Jesus ( Mt 5:38-42 ) and
by Paul in  Ro 12:17 , usually takes the form of "evil for evil,"
rather than "good for good" (kalon anti kalou). Note idea of
exchange in anti. {Follow after} (di(936b)ete). Keep up the chase
(di(936b)(935c)) after the good.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:18-5:18

註釋:

 {In everything give thanks} (en panti eucharisteite).
There is a silver lining to every cloud. God is with us whatever
befalls us. It is God's will that we find joy in prayer in Christ
Jesus in every condition of life.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:19-5:19

註釋:

 {Quench not the spirit} (	o pneuma m(8820)sbennute). M(885c) with
the present imperative means to stop doing it or not to have the
habit of doing it. It is a bold figure. Some of them were trying
to put out the fire of the Holy Spirit, probably the special
gifts of the Holy Spirit as verse  20  means. But even so the
exercise of these special gifts ( 1Co 12-14  2Co 12:2-4  Ro
12:6-9 ) was to be decently (eusch(886d)on(9373),  1Th 4:12 ) and in
order (kata taxin,  1Co 14:40 ) and for edification (pros
oikodom(886e),  1Co 14:26 ). Today, as then, there are two extremes
about spiritual gifts (cold indifference or wild excess). It is
not hard to put out the fire of spiritual fervor and power.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:20-5:20

註釋:

 {Despise not prophesyings} (proph(8874)eias m(8820)exoutheneite).
Same construction, stop counting as nothing (exouthene(935c),
outhen=ouden), late form in LXX. Plutarch has exoudeniz(935c).
Plural form proph(8874)eias (accusative). Word means
{forth-telling} (pro-ph(886d)i) rather than {fore-telling} and is
the chief of the spiritual gifts ( 1Co 14 ) and evidently
depreciated in Thessalonica as in Corinth later.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:21-5:21

註釋:

 {Prove all things} (panta [de] dokimazete). Probably de
(but) is genuine. Even the gift of prophecy has to be tested
( 1Co 12:10  14:29 ) to avoid error. Paul shows fine balance
here. {Hold fast that which is good} (	o kalon katechete). Keep
on holding down the beautiful (noble, morally beautiful). Present
imperative kat-ech(935c) (perfective use of kata- here).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:22-5:22

註釋:

 {Abstain from every form of evil} (apo pantos eidous
pon(8872)ou apechesthe). Present middle (direct) imperative of
ap-ech(935c) (contrast with kat-ech(935c)) and preposition apo
repeated with ablative as in  1Th 4:3 . Note use of pon(8872)ou
here for evil without the article, common enough idiom. Eidos
(from eidon) naturally means look or appearance as in  Lu 3:23  9:29  Joh 5:37  2Co 5:7 . But, if so taken, it is not semblance
as opposed to reality (Milligan). The papyri give several
examples of eidos in the sense of class or kind and that idea
suits best here. Evil had a way of showing itself even in the
spiritual gifts including prophecy.

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:23-5:23

註釋:

 {The God of peace} (ho theos t(8873) eir(886e)(8873)). The God
characterized by peace in his nature, who gladly bestows it also.
Common phrase (Milligan) at close of Paul's Epistles ( 2Co 13:11  Ro 15:33  16:20  Php 4:9 ) and {the Lord of peace} in  2Th 3:6 .
{Sanctify you} (hagiasai hum(8373)). First aorist active optative
in a wish for the future. New verb in LXX and N.T. for the old
hagiz(935c), to render or to declare holy (hagios), to consecrate,
to separate from things profane. {Wholly} (holoteleis).
Predicate adjective in plural (holos, whole, 	elos, end), not
adverb holotel(9373). Late word in Plutarch, Hexapla, and in
inscription A.D. 67 (Moulton and Milligan, _Vocabulary_). Here
alone in N.T. Here it means the whole of each of you, every part
of each of you, "through and through" (Luther), qualitatively
rather than quantitatively. {Your spirit and soul and body}
(hum(936e) to pneuma kai h(8820)psuch(8820)kai to s(936d)a). Not necessarily
trichotomy as opposed to dichotomy as elsewhere in Paul's
Epistles. Both believers and unbelievers have an inner man (soul
psuch(885c), mind 
ous, heart kardia, the inward man ho es(930a)anthr(9370)os) and the outer man (s(936d)a, ho ex(9320)anthr(9370)os). But the
believer has the Holy Spirit of God, the renewed spirit of man
( 1Co 2:11  Ro 8:9-11 ). {Be preserved entire} (holokl(8872)on
t(8872)(8874)hei(885c)). First aorist passive optative in wish for the
future. Note singular verb and singular adjective (neuter)
showing that Paul conceives of the man as "an undivided whole"
(Frame), prayer for the consecration of both body and soul (cf.
 1Co 6 ). The adjective holokl(8872)on is in predicate and is an
old form and means complete in all its parts (holos, whole,
kl(8872)os, lot or part). There is to be no deficiency in any part.
Teleios (from 	elos, end) means final perfection. {Without
blame} (amempt(9373)). Old adverb (a privative, memptos, verbal
of memphomai, to blame) only in I Thess. in N.T. ( 2:10  3:13  5:23 ). Milligan notes it in certain sepulchral inscriptions
discovered in Thessalonica. {At the coming} (en t(8869) parousi(8369)).
The Second Coming which was a sustaining hope to Paul as it
should be to us and mentioned often in this Epistle (see on
氧:19|).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:24-5:24

註釋:

 {Faithful} (pistos). God, he means, who calls and will
carry through ( Php 1:6 ).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:25-5:25

註釋:

 {Pray for us} (proseuchesthe [kai] peri h(886d)(936e)). He has
made his prayer for them. He adds this "human touch" (Frame) and
pleads for the prayers of his converts ( 2Th 3:1  Col 4:2f. ).
Probably kai also is genuine (B D).

經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:26-5:26

註釋:

 1Co
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經文:

帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:27-5:27

註釋:

 {I adjure you by the Lord} (enorkiz(9320)humas ton Kurion).
Late compound for old horkiz(935c) ( Mr 5:7 ), to put one on oath,
with two accusatives (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 483f.). Occurs in
inscriptions. {That this epistle be read unto all the brethren}
(anagn(9373)th(886e)ai t(886e) epistol(886e) pasin tois adelphois). First
aorist passive infinitive of anagin(9373)k(935c) with accusative of
general reference in an indirect command. Clearly Paul wrote for
the church as a whole and wished the epistles read aloud at a
public meeting. In this first epistle we see the importance that
he attaches to his epistles.

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