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經文:

哥林多前書 1:1-1:1

註釋:

 {Called to be an apostle} (kl(8874)os apostolos). Verbal
adjective kl(8874)os from kale(935c), without einai, to be.
Literally, {a called apostle} ( Ro 1:1 ), not so-called, but one
whose apostleship is due not to himself or to men ( Ga 1:1 ), but
to God, {through the will of God} (dia thel(886d)atos tou theou).
The intermediate (dia, duo, two) agent between Paul's not being
Christ's apostle and becoming one was God's will (	hel(886d)a,
something willed of God), God's command ( 1Ti 1:1 ). Paul knows
that he is not one of the twelve apostles, but he is on a par
with them because, like them, he is chosen by God. He is an
apostle of Jesus Christ or Christ Jesus (MSS. vary here, later
epistles usually Christ Jesus). The refusal of the Judaizers to
recognize Paul as equal to the twelve made him the more careful
to claim his position. Bengel sees here Paul's denial of mere
human authority in his position and also of personal merit:
_Namque mentione Dei excluditur auctoramentum humanum, mentione
Voluntatis Dei, meritum Pauli_. {Our brother} (ho adelphos).
Literally, the brother, but regular Greek idiom for our brother.
This Sosthenes, now with Paul in Ephesus, is probably the same
Sosthenes who received the beating meant for Paul in Corinth ( Ac
18:17 ). If so, the beating did him good for he is now a follower
of Christ. He is in no sense a co-author of the Epistle, but
merely associated with Paul because they knew him in Corinth. He
may have been compelled by the Jews to leave Corinth when he, a
ruler of the synagogue, became a Christian. See  1Th 1:1  for the
mention of Silas and Timothy in the salutation. Sosthenes could
have been Paul's amanuensis for this letter, but there is no
proof of it.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:2-1:2

註釋:

 {The church of God} (	(8869) ekkl(8873)i(8369) tou theou). Belonging to
God, not to any individual or faction, as this genitive case
shows. In  1Th 1:1  Paul wrote "the church of the Thessalonians
in God" (en the(9369)), but "the churches of God" in  1Th 2:14 .
See same idiom in  1Co 10:32  11:16,22  15:9  2Co 1:1  Ga 1:13 ,
etc. {Which is in Corinth} (	(8869) ous(8869) en Korinth(9369)). See on  Ac
13:1  for idiom. It is God's church even in Corinth, "_laetum et
ingens paradoxon_" (Bengel). This city, destroyed by Mummius B.C.
146, had been restored by Julius Caesar a hundred years later,
B.C. 44, and now after another hundred years has become very rich
and very corrupt. The very word "to Corinthianize" meant to
practise vile immoralities in the worship of Aphrodite (Venus).
It was located on the narrow Isthmus of the Peloponnesus with two
harbours (Lechaeum and Cenchreae). It had schools of rhetoric and
philosophy and made a flashy imitation of the real culture of
Athens. See  Ac 18  for the story of Paul's work here and now the
later developments and divisions in this church will give Paul
grave concern as is shown in detail in I and II Corinthians. All
the problems of a modern city church come to the front in
Corinth. They call for all the wisdom and statesmanship in Paul.
{That are sanctified} (h(8867)iasmenois). Perfect passive
participle of hagiaz(935c), late form for hagiz(935c), so far found
only in the Greek Bible and in ecclesiastical writers. It means
to make or to declare hagion (from hagos, awe, reverence, and
this from haz(935c), to venerate). It is significant that Paul uses
this word concerning the {called saints} or {called to be saints}
(kl(8874)ois hagiois) in Corinth. Cf. kl(8874)os apostolos in  1:1 .
It is because they are sanctified {in Christ Jesus} (en Christ(9369)
I(8873)ou). He is the sphere in which this act of consecration takes
place. Note plural, construction according to sense, because
ekkl(8873)ia is a collective substantive. {With all that call upon}
(sun p(8373)in tois epikaloumenois). Associative instrumental case
with sun rather than kai (and), making a close connection
with "saints" just before and so giving the Corinthian Christians
a picture of their close unity with the brotherhood everywhere
through the common bond of faith. This phrase occurs in the LXX
( Ge 12:8  Zec 13:9 ) and is applied to Christ as to Jehovah
( 2Th 1:7,9,12  Php 2:9,10 ). Paul heard Stephen pray to Christ
as Lord ( Ac 7:59 ). Here "with a plain and direct reference to
the Divinity of our Lord" (Ellicott). {Their Lord and ours}
(aut(936e) kai h(886d)(936e)). This is the interpretation of the Greek
commentators and is the correct one, an afterthought and
expansion (epanorth(9373)is) of the previous "our," showing the
universality of Christ.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:3-1:3

註釋:

 Identical language of  2Th 1:2  save absence of h(886d)(936e)
(our), Paul's usual greeting. See on 氣Th 1:1|.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:4-1:4

註釋:

 {I thank my God} (eucharist(9320)t(9369) the(9369)). Singular as in  Ro
1:8  Php 1:3  Phm 1:4 , but plural in  1Th 1:2  Col 1:3 . The
grounds of Paul's thanksgivings in his Epistles are worthy of
study. Even in the church in Corinth he finds something to thank
God for, though in II Cor. there is no expression of thanksgiving
because of the acute crisis in Corinth nor is there any in
Galatians. But Paul is gracious here and allows his general
attitude (always, pantote) concerning (peri, around) the
Corinthians to override the specific causes of irritation. {For
the grace of God which was given to you in Christ Jesus} (epi
t(8869) chariti tou theou t(8869) dotheis(8869) humin en Christ(9369) I(8873)ou).
Upon the basis of (epi) God's grace, not in general, but
specifically given (dotheis(8869), first aorist passive participle
of did(936d)i), in the sphere of (en as in verse  2 ) Christ
Jesus.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:5-1:5

註釋:

 {That} (hoti). Explicit specification of this grace of God
given to the Corinthians. Paul points out in detail the unusual
spiritual gifts which were their glory and became their peril
(chapters  1Co 12-14 ). {Ye were enriched in him} (eploutisth(8874)e
en aut(9369)). First aorist passive indicative of ploutiz(935c), old
causative verb from ploutos, wealth, common in Attic writers,
dropped out for centuries, reappeared in LXX. In N.T. only three
times and alone in Paul ( 1Co 1:5  2Co 6:10,11 ). The Christian
finds his real riches in Christ, one of Paul's pregnant phrases
full of the truest mysticism. {In all utterance and all
knowledge} (en panti log(9369) kai pas(8869) gn(9373)ei). One detail in
explanation of the riches in Christ. The outward expression
(log(9369)) here is put before the inward knowledge (gn(9373)ei)
which should precede all speech. But we get at one's knowledge by
means of his speech. Chapters  1Co 12-14  throw much light on
this element in the spiritual gifts of the Corinthians (the gift
of tongues, interpreting tongues, discernment) as summed up in
 1Co 13:1,2 , the greater gifts of  12:31 . It was a marvellously
endowed church in spite of their perversions.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:6-1:6

註釋:

 {Even as} (kath(9373)). In proportion as ( 1Th 1:5 ) and so
inasmuch as ( Php 1:7  Eph 1:4 ). {The testimony of Christ} (	o
marturion tou Christou). Objective genitive, the testimony to or
concerning Christ, the witness of Paul's preaching. {Was
confirmed in you} (ebebai(9374)h(8820)en humin). First aorist passive
of ebaio(935c), old verb from ebaios and that from ain(935c), to
make to stand, to make stable. These special gifts of the Holy
Spirit which they had so lavishly received (ch.  1Co 12 ) were
for that very purpose.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:7-1:7

註釋:

 {So that ye come behind in no gift} (h(9373)te humas m(880a)hustereisthai en m(8864)eni charismati). Consecutive clause with
h(9373)te and the infinitive and the double negative. Come behind
(hustereisthai) is to be late (husteros), old verb seen
already in  Mr 10:21  Mt 19:20 . It is a wonderful record here
recorded. But in  2Co 8:7-11  9:1-7  Paul will have to complain
that they have not paid their pledges for the collection, pledges
made over a year before, a very modern complaint. {Waiting for
the revelation} (apekdechomenous t(886e) apokalupsin). This double
compound is late and rare outside of Paul ( 1Co 1:7  Ga 5:5  Ro
8:19,23,25  Php 3:20 ),  1Pe 3:20  Heb 9:28 . It is an eager
expectancy of the second coming of Christ here termed revelation
like the eagerness in prosdechomenoi in  Tit 2:13  for the same
event. "As if that attitude of expectation were the highest
posture that can be attained here by the Christian" (F.W.
Robertson).

經文:

哥林多前書 1:8-1:8

註釋:

 {Shall confirm} (ebai(9373)ei). Direct reference to the same
word in verse  6 . The relative hos (who) points to Christ.
{Unto the end} (he(9373) telous). End of the age till Jesus comes,
final preservation of the saints. {That ye be unreproveable}
(anegkl(8874)ous). Alpha privative and egkale(935c), to accuse, old
verbal, only in Paul in N.T. Proleptic adjective in the predicate
accusative agreeing with humas (you) without h(9373)te and the
infinitive as in  1Th 3:13  5:23  Php 3:21 . "Unimpeachable, for
none will have the right to impeach" (Robertson and Plummer) as
Paul shows in  Ro 8:33  Col 1:22,28 .

經文:

哥林多前書 1:9-1:9

註釋:

 {God is faithful} (pistos ho theos). This is the ground of
Paul's confidence as he loves to say ( 1Th 5:24  1Co 10:13  Ro
8:36  Php 1:16 ). God will do what he has promised. {Through
whom} (di' hou). God is the agent (di') of their call as in
 Ro 11:36  and also the ground or reason for their call (di'
hon) in  Heb 2:10 . {Into the fellowship} (eis koin(936e)ian). Old
word from koin(936e)os, partner for partnership, participation as
here and  2Co 13:13f.  Php 2:1  3:10 . Then it means fellowship
or intimacy as in  Ac 2:42  Ga 2:9  2Co 6:14  1Jo 1:3,7 . And
particularly as shown by contribution as in  2Co 8:4  9:13  Php
1:5 . It is high fellowship with Christ both here and hereafter.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:10-1:10

註釋:

 1Th
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經文:

哥林多前書 1:11-1:11

註釋:

 1Co
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16'
經文:

哥林多前書 1:12-1:12

註釋:

 {Now this I mean} (leg(9320)de touto). Explanatory use of
leg(935c). Each has his party leader. Apoll(935c) is genitive of
Apoll(9373) ( Ac 18:24 ), probably abbreviation of Apoll(936e)ius as
seen in Codex Bezae for  Ac 18:24 . See on Acts for discussion of
this "eloquent Alexandrian" (Ellicott), whose philosophical and
oratorical preaching was in contrast "with the studied plainness"
of Paul ( 1Co 2:1  2Co 10:10 ). People naturally have different
tastes about styles of preaching and that is well, but Apollos
refused to be a party to this strife and soon returned to Ephesus
and refused to go back to Corinth ( 1Co 16:12 ). C(8870)h(835c) is the
genitive of C(8870)h(8373), the Aramaic name given Simon by Jesus ( Joh
1:42 ), Petros in Greek. Except in  Ga 2:7,8  Paul calls him
Cephas. He had already taken his stand with Paul in the Jerusalem
Conference ( Ac 15:7-11  Ga 2:7-10 ). Paul had to rebuke him at
Antioch for his timidity because of the Judaizers ( Ga 2:11-14 ),
but, in spite of Baur's theory, there is no evidence of a schism
in doctrine between Paul and Peter. If  2Pe 3:15f.  be accepted
as genuine, as I do, there is proof of cordial relations between
them and  1Co 9:5  points in the same direction. But there is no
evidence that Peter himself visited Corinth. Judaizers came and
pitted Peter against Paul to the Corinthian Church on the basis
of Paul's rebuke of Peter in Antioch. These Judaizers made bitter
personal attacks on Paul in return for their defeat at the
Jerusalem Conference. So a third faction was formed by the use of
Peter's name as the really orthodox wing of the church, the
gospel of the circumcision. {And I of Christ} (eg(9320)de
Christou). Still a fourth faction in recoil from the partisan
use of Paul, Apollos, Cephas, with "a spiritually proud
utterance" (Ellicott) that assumes a relation to Christ not true
of the others. "Those who used this cry arrogated the common
watchword as their _peculium_" (Findlay). This partisan use of
the name of Christ may have been made in the name of unity
against the other three factions, but it merely added another
party to those existing. In scouting the names of the other
leaders they lowered the name and rank of Christ to their level.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:13-1:13

註釋:

 2Th
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2' or engs='2Th
2'
經文:

哥林多前書 1:14-1:14

註釋:

 {I thank God} (eucharist(9320)t(9369) the(9369)). See verse  4 ,
though uncertain if 	(9369) the(9369) is genuine here. {Save Crispus
and Gaius} (ei m(8820)Krispon kai Gaion). Crispus was the ruler of
the synagogue in Corinth before his conversion ( Ac 18:8 ), a
Roman cognomen, and Gaius a Roman praenomen, probably the host of
Paul and of the whole church in Corinth ( Ro 16:23 ), possibly
though not clearly the hospitable Gaius of  3Jo 1:5,6 . The
prominence and importance of these two may explain why Paul
baptized them.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:15-1:15

註釋:

 {Lest any man should say} (hina m(8820)tis eip(8869)). Certainly
sub-final hina again or contemplated result as in  7:29  Joh
9:2 . Ellicott thinks that already some in Corinth were laying
emphasis on the person of the baptizer whether Peter or some one
else. It is to be recalled that Jesus himself baptized no one
( Joh 4:2 ) to avoid this very kind of controversy. And yet there
are those today who claim Paul as a sacramentalist, an impossible
claim in the light of his words here.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:16-1:16

註釋:

 {Also the household of Stephanas} (kai ton Stephan(830a)oikon). Mentioned as an afterthought. Robertson and Plummer
suggest that Paul's amanuensis reminded him of this case. Paul
calls him a first-fruit of Achaia ( 1Co 16:15 ) and so earlier
than Crispus and he was one of the three who came to Paul from
Corinth ( 16:17 ), clearly a family that justified Paul's
personal attention about baptism. {Besides} (loipon).
Accusative of general reference, "as for anything else." Added to
make clear that he is not meaning to omit any one who deserves
mention. See also  1Th 4:1  1Co 4:2  2Co 13:11  2Ti 4:8 .
Ellicott insists on a sharp distinction from 	o loipon "as for
the rest" ( 2Th 3:1  Php 3:1  4:8  Eph 6:10 ). Paul casts no
reflection on baptism, for he could not with his conception of it
as the picture of the new life in Christ ( Ro 6:2-6 ), but he
clearly denies here that he considers baptism essential to the
remission of sin or the means of obtaining forgiveness.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:17-1:17

註釋:

 {For Christ sent me not to baptize} (ou gar apesteilen me
Christos baptizein). The negative ou goes not with the
infinitive, but with apesteilen (from apostell(932c) apostolos,
apostle). {For Christ did not send me to be a baptizer} (present
active infinitive, linear action) like John the Baptist. {But to
preach the gospel} (alla euaggelizesthai). This is Paul's idea
of his mission from Christ, as Christ's apostle, to be {a
gospelizer}. This led, of course, to baptism, as a result, but
Paul usually had it done by others as Peter at Caesarea ordered
the baptism to be done, apparently by the six brethren with him
( Ac 10:48 ). Paul is fond of this late Greek verb from
euaggelion and sometimes uses both verb and substantive as in
 1Co 15:1  "the gospel which I gospelized unto you." {Not in
wisdom of words} (ouk en sophi(8369) logou). Note ou, not m(885c)
(the subjective negative), construed with apesteilen rather
than the infinitive. Not in wisdom of speech (singular).
Preaching was Paul's forte, but it was not as a pretentious
philosopher or professional rhetorician that Paul appeared before
the Corinthians ( 1Co 2:1-5 ). Some who followed Apollos may have
been guilty of a fancy for external show, though Apollos was not
a mere performer and juggler with words. But the Alexandrian
method as in Philo did run to dialectic subtleties and luxuriant
rhetoric (Lightfoot). {Lest the cross of Christ should be made
void} (hina m(8820)ken(9374)h(8869) ho stauros tou Christou). Negative
purpose (hina m(885c)) with first aorist passive subjunctive,
effective aorist, of keno(935c), old verb from kenos, to make
empty. In Paul's preaching the Cross of Christ is the central
theme. Hence Paul did not fall into the snare of too much
emphasis on baptism nor into too little on the death of Christ.
"This expression shows clearly the stress which St. Paul laid on
the death of Christ, not merely as a great moral spectacle, and
so the crowning point of a life of self-renunciation, but as in
itself the ordained instrument of salvation" (Lightfoot).

經文:

哥林多前書 1:18-1:18

註釋:

 Ep 2:5 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Ep' or engs='Ep'
經文:

哥林多前書 1:19-1:19

註釋:

 {I will destroy} (apol(935c)). Future active indicative of
apollumi. Attic future for apoles(935c). Quotation from  Isa
29:14  (LXX). The failure of worldly statesmanship in the
presence of Assyrian invasion Paul applies to his argument with
force. The wisdom of the wise is often folly, the understanding
of the understanding is often rejected. There is such a thing as
the ignorance of the learned, the wisdom of the simple-minded.
God's wisdom rises in the Cross sheer above human philosophizing
which is still scoffing at the Cross of Christ, the consummation
of God's power.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:20-1:20

註釋:

 {Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the
disputer of this world?} (Pou sophos; pou grammateus; pou
sunz(8874)(8874)(8873) tou ai(936e)os toutou;). Paul makes use of  Isa 33:18 
without exact quotation. The sudden retreat of Sennacherib with
the annihilation of his officers. "On the tablet of Shalmaneser
in the Assyrian Gallery of the British Museum there is a
surprisingly exact picture of the scene described by Isaiah"
(Robertson and Plummer). Note the absence of the Greek article in
each of these rhetorical questions though the idea is clearly
definite. Probably sophos refers to the Greek philosopher,
grammateus to the Jewish scribe and sunz(8874)(8874)(8873) suits both the
Greek and the Jewish disputant and doubter ( Ac 6:9  9:29  17:18  28:29 ). There is a note of triumph in these questions. The word
sunz(8874)(8874)(8873) occurs here alone in the N.T. and elsewhere only in
Ignatius, Eph. 18 quoting this passage, but the papyri give the
verb sunz(8874)e(935c) for disputing (questioning together). {Hath not
God made foolish?} (ouchi em(9372)anen ho theos;). Strong negative
form with aorist active indicative difficult of precise
translation, "Did not God make foolish?" The old verb m(9372)ain(935c)
from m(9372)os, foolish, was to be foolish, to act foolish, then to
prove one foolish as here or to make foolish as in  Ro 1:22 . In
 Mt 5:13  Lu 14:34  it is used of salt that is tasteless. {World}
(kosmou). Synonymous with ai(936e) (age), orderly arrangement,
then the non-Christian cosmos.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:21-1:21

註釋:

 {Seeing that} (epeid(885c)). Since (epei and d(885c)) with
explanatory gar. {Through its wisdom} (dia t(8873) sophias).
Article here as possessive. The two wisdoms contrasted. {Knew not
God} (ouk egn(935c)). Failed to know, second aorist (effective)
active indicative of gin(9373)k(935c), solemn dirge of doom on both
Greek philosophy and Jewish theology that failed to know God. Has
modern philosophy done better? There is today even a godless
theology (Humanism). "Now that God's wisdom has reduced the
self-wise world to ignorance" (Findlay). {Through the foolishness
of the preaching} (dia t(8873) m(9372)ias tou k(8872)ugmatos). Perhaps
"proclamation" is the idea, for it is not k(8872)uxis, the act of
heralding, but k(8872)ugma, the message heralded or the
proclamation as in verse  23 . The metaphor is that of the herald
proclaiming the approach of the king ( Mt 3:1  4:17 ). See also
k(8872)ugma in  1Co 2:4  2Ti 4:17 . The proclamation of the Cross
seemed foolishness to the wiseacres then (and now), but it is
consummate wisdom, God's wisdom and good-pleasure (eudok(8873)an).
The foolishness of preaching is not the preaching of foolishness.
{To save them that believe} (s(9373)ai tous pisteuontas). This is
the heart of God's plan of redemption, the proclamation of
salvation for all those who trust Jesus Christ on the basis of
his death for sin on the Cross. The mystery-religions all offered
salvation by initiation and ritual as the Pharisees did by
ceremonialism. Christianity reaches the heart directly by trust
in Christ as the Saviour. It is God's wisdom.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:22-1:22

註釋:

 {Seeing that} (epeid(885c)). Resumes from verse  21 . The
structure is not clear, but probably verses  23,24  form a sort
of conclusion or apodosis to verse  22  the protasis. The
resumptive, almost inferential, use of de like alla in the
apodosis is not unusual. {Ask for signs} (s(886d)eia aitousin). The
Jews often came to Jesus asking for signs ( Mt 12:38  16:1  Joh
6:30 ). {Seek after wisdom} (sophian z(8874)ousin). "The Jews
claimed to _possess_ the truth: the Greeks were seekers,
_speculators_" (Vincent) as in  Ac 17:23 .

經文:

哥林多前書 1:23-1:23

註釋:

 {But we preach Christ crucified} (h(886d)eis de k(8872)ussomen
Christon estaur(936d)enon). Grammatically stated as a partial result
(de) of the folly of both Jews and Greeks, actually in sharp
contrast. We proclaim, "we do not discuss or dispute"
(Lightfoot). Christ (Messiah) as crucified, as in  2:2  Ga 3:1 ,
"not a sign-shower nor a philosopher" (Vincent). Perfect passive
participle of stauro(935c). {Stumbling-block} (skandalon). Papyri
examples mean trap or snare which here tripped the Jews who
wanted a conquering Messiah with a world empire, not a condemned
and crucified one ( Mt 27:42  Lu 24:21 ). {Foolishness}
(m(9372)ian). Folly as shown by their conduct in Athens ( Ac
17:32 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 1:24-1:24

註釋:

 {But to them that are called} (autois de tois kl(8874)ois).
Dative case, to the called themselves. {Christ} (Christon).
Accusative case repeated, object of k(8872)ussomen, both {the power
of God} (	heou dunamin) and {the wisdom of God} (	heou
sophian). No article, but made definite by the genitive. Christ
crucified is God's answer to both Jew and Greek and the answer is
understood by those with open minds.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:25-1:25

註釋:

 {The foolishness of God} (	o m(9372)on tou theou). Abstract
neuter singular with the article, the foolish act of God (the
Cross as regarded by the world). {Wiser than men} (soph(9374)eron
t(936e) anthr(9370)(936e)). Condensed comparison, wiser than the wisdom of
men. Common Greek idiom ( Mt 5:20  Joh 5:36 ) and quite forcible,
brushes all men aside. {The weakness of God} (	o asthenes tou
theou). Same idiom here, {the weak act of God}, as men think,
{is stronger} (ischuroteron). The Cross seemed God's defeat. It
is conquering the world and is the mightiest force on earth.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:26-1:26

註釋:

 {Behold} (lepete). Same form for imperative present
active plural and indicative. Either makes sense as in  Joh 5:39 
eraunate and  14:1  pisteuete. {Calling} (kl(8873)in). The act
of calling by God, based not on the external condition of those
called (kl(8874)oi, verse  2 ), but on God's sovereign love. It is
a clinching illustration of Paul's argument, an _argumentum ad
hominen_. {How that} (hoti). Explanatory apposition to
kl(8873)in. {After the flesh} (kata sarka). According to the
standards of the flesh and to be used not only with sophoi
(wise, philosophers), but also dunatoi (men of dignity and
power), eugeneis (noble, high birth), the three claims to
aristocracy (culture, power, birth). {Are called}. Not in the
Greek, but probably to be supplied from the idea in kl(8873)in.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:27-1:27

註釋:

 {God chose} (exelexato ho theos). First aorist middle of
ekleg(935c), old verb to pick out, to choose, the middle for
oneself. It expands the idea in kl(8873)in (verse  26 ). Three
times this solemn verb occurs here with the purpose stated each
time. Twice the same purpose is expressed, {that he might put to
shame} (hina kataischun(8869), first aorist active subjunctive with
hina of old verb kataischun(935c), perfective use of kata). The
purpose in the third example is {that he might bring to naught}
(hina katarg(8873)(8869), make idle, argos, rare in old Greek, but
frequent in Paul). The contrast is complete in each paradox: {the
foolish things} (	a m(9372)a), {the wild men} (	ous sophous);
{the weak things} (	a asthen(885c)), {the strong things} (	a
ischura); {the things that are not} (	a m(8820)onta), {and that
are despised} (	a exouthen(886d)ena, considered nothing, perfect
passive participle of exouthene(935c)), {the things that are} (	a
onta). It is a studied piece of rhetoric and powerfully put.

經文:

哥林多前書 1:29-1:29

註釋:

 2Co
4:7 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
4' or engs='2Co
4'
經文:

哥林多前書 1:30-1:30

註釋:

 Co 2:2f. 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Co' or engs='Co'
經文:

哥林多前書 1:31-1:31

註釋:

 {That} (hina). Probably ellipse (gen(8874)ai to be supplied)
as is common in Paul's Epistles ( 2Th 2:3  2Co 8:13  Ga 1:20  2:9  Ro 4:16  13:1  15:3 ). Some explain the imperative
kauchasth(935c) as an anacoluthon. The shortened quotation is from
 Jer 9:24 . Deissmann notes the importance of these closing
verses concerning the origin of Paul's congregations from the
lower classes in the large towns as "one of the most important
historical witnesses to Primitive Christianity" (_New Light on
the N.T._, p. 7; _Light from the Ancient East_, pp. 7, 14, 60,
142).

經文:

哥林多前書 2:1-2:1

註釋:

 {Not with excellency of speech or of wisdom} (ou kath'
huperoch(886e) logou (8820)sophias). Huperoch(885c) is an old word from the
verb huperech(935c) ( Php 4:7 ) and means preeminence, rising above.
In N.T. only here and  1Ti 2:2  of magistrates. It occurs in
inscriptions of Pergamum for persons of position (Deissmann,
_Bible Studies_, p. 255). Here it means excess or superfluity,
"not in excellence of rhetorical display or of philosophical
subtlety" (Lightfoot). {The mystery of God} (	o must(8872)ion tou
theou). So Aleph A C Copt. like  2:7 , but B D L P read
marturion like  1:6 . Probably {mystery} is correct. Christ
crucified is the mystery of God ( Col 2:2 ). Paul did not
hesitate to appropriate this word in common use among the mystery
religions, but he puts into it his ideas, not those in current
use. It is an old word from mue(935c), to close, to shut, to
initiate ( Php 4:12 ). This mystery was once hidden from the ages
( Col 1:26 ), but is now made plain in Christ ( 1Co 2:7  Ro
16:25f. ). The papyri give many illustrations of the use of the
word for secret doctrines known only to the initiated (Moulton
and Milligan's _Vocabulary_).

經文:

哥林多前書 2:2-2:2

註釋:

 {For I determined not to know anything among you} (ou gar
ekrina ti eidenai en humin). Literally, "For I did not decide to
know anything among you." The negative goes with ekrina, not
with 	i. Paul means that he did not think it fit or his
business to know anything for his message beyond this "mystery of
God." {Save Jesus Christ} (ei m(8820)I(8873)oun Christon). Both the
person and the office (Lightfoot). I had no intent to go beyond
him and in particular, {and him crucified} (kai touton
estaur(936d)enon). Literally, {and this one as crucified} (perfect
passive participle). This phase in particular ( 1:18 ) was
selected by Paul from the start as the centre of his gospel
message. He decided to stick to it even after Athens where he was
practically laughed out of court. The Cross added to the
scandalon of the Incarnation, but Paul kept to the main track
on coming to Corinth.

經文:

哥林多前書 2:3-2:3

註釋:

 {I was with you} (egenom(886e) pros humas). Rather, "I came to
you" (not (886e), was). "I not only eschewed all affectation of
cleverness or grandiloquence, but I went to the opposite extreme
of diffidence and nervous self-effacement" (Robertson and
Plummer). Paul had been in prison in Philippi, driven out of
Thessalonica and Beroea, politely bowed out of Athens. It is a
human touch to see this shrinking as he faced the hard conditions
in Corinth. It is a common feeling of the most effective
preachers. Cool complacency is not the mood of the finest
preaching. See phobos (fear) and 	romos (trembling) combined
in  2Co 7:15  Php 2:12  Eph 6:5 .

經文:

哥林多前書 2:4-2:4

註釋:

 {Not in persuasive words of wisdom} (ouk en pithois sophias
logois). This looks like a false disclaimer or mock modesty, for
surely the preacher desires to be persuasive. This adjective
pithos (MSS. peithos) has not yet been found elsewhere. It
seems to be formed directly from peith(935c), to persuade, as
pheidos (phidos) is from pheidomai, to spare. The old Greek
form pithanos is common enough and is used by Josephus (_Ant_.
VIII. 9. 1) of "the plausible words of the lying prophet" in  1Ki
13 . The kindred word pithanologia occurs in  Col 2:4  for the
specious and plausible Gnostic philosophers. And gullible people
are easy marks for these plausible pulpiteers. Corinth put a
premium on the veneer of false rhetoric and thin thinking. {But
in demonstration} (all' en apodeixei). In contrast with the
{plausibility} just mentioned. This word, though an old one from
apodeiknumi, to show forth, occurs nowhere else in the New
Testament. {Spirit} (pneuma) here can be the Holy Spirit or
inward spirit as opposed to superficial expression and {power}
(dunamis) is moral power rather than intellectual acuteness
(cf.  1:18 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 2:5-2:5

註釋:

 {That your faith should not stand} (hina h(8820)pistis hum(936e) m(880a)(8869)). Purpose of God, but m(8820)(8869) is "not be" merely. The only
secure place for faith to find a rest is in God's power, not in
the wisdom of men. One has only to instance the changing theories
of men about science, philosophy, religion, politics to see this.
A sure word from God can be depended on.

經文:

哥林多前書 2:6-2:6

註釋:

 {Among the perfect} (en tois teleiois). Paul is not here
drawing a distinction between exoteric and esoteric wisdom as the
Gnostics did for their initiates, but simply to the necessary
difference in teaching for babes ( 3:1 ) and adults or grown men
(common use of 	eleios for relative perfection, for adults, as
is in  1Co 14:20  Php 3:15  Eph 4:13  Heb 5:14 ). Some were
simply old babes and unable in spite of their years to digest
solid spiritual food, "the ample teaching as to the Person of
Christ and the eternal purpose of God. Such 'wisdom' we have in
the Epistles to the Ephesians and the Colossians especially, and
in a less degree in the Epistle to the Romans. This 'wisdom' is
discerned in the Gospel of John, as compared with the other
Evangelists" (Lightfoot). These imperfect disciples Paul wishes
to develop into spiritual maturity. {Of this world} (	ou ai(936e)os
toutou). This age, more exactly, as in  1:20 . This wisdom does
not belong to the passing age of fleeting things, but to the
enduring and eternal (Ellicott). {Which are coming to naught}
(	(936e) katargoumen(936e)). See on 氣:28|. Present passive participle
genitive plural of katarge(935c). The gradual nullification of these
"rulers" before the final and certain triumph of the power of
Christ in his kingdom.

經文:

哥林多前書 2:7-2:7

註釋:

 {God's wisdom in a mystery} (	heou sophian en must(8872)i(9369)).
Two points are here sharply made. It is God's wisdom (note
emphatic position of the genitive 	heou) in contrast to the
wisdom of this age. Every age of the world has a conceit of its
own and it is particularly true of this twentieth century, but
God's wisdom is eternal and superior to the wisdom of any age or
time. God's wisdom is alone absolute. See on 氧:1| for mystery.
It is not certain whether {in a mystery} is to be taken with
{wisdom} or {we speak}. The result does not differ greatly,
probably with {wisdom}, so long a secret and now at last revealed
( Col 1:26  2Th 2:7 ). {That hath been hidden} (	(886e)
apokekrummen(886e)). See  Ro 16:25  Col 1:26  Eph 3:5 . Articular
perfect passive participle of apokrupt(935c), more precisely
defining the indefinite sophian (wisdom). {Foreordained before
the worlds} (pro(9372)isen pro t(936e) ai(936e)(936e)). This relative clause
(h(886e)) defines still more closely God's wisdom. Note pro with
both verb and substantive (ai(936e)(936e)). Constative aorist of God's
elective purpose as shown in Christ crucified ( 1Co 1:18-24 ).
"It was no afterthought or change of plan" (Robertson and
Plummer). {Unto our glory} (eis doxan h(886d)(936e)). "The glory of
inward enlightenment as well as of outward exaltation"
(Lightfoot).

經文:

哥林多前書 2:8-2:8

註釋:

 {Knoweth} (egn(936b)en). Has known, has discerned, perfect
active indicative of gin(9373)k(935c). They have shown amazing ignorance
of God's wisdom. {For had they known it} (ei gar egn(9373)an).
Condition of the second class, determined as unfulfilled, with
aorist active indicative in both condition (egn(9373)an) and
conclusion with an (ouk an estaur(9373)an). Peter in the great
sermon at Pentecost commented on the "ignorance" (kata agnoian)
of the Jews in crucifying Christ ( Ac 3:17 ) as the only hope for
repentance on their part ( Ac 3:19 ). {The Lord of glory} (	on
Kurion t(8873) dox(8873)). Genitive case dox(8873), means characterized by
glory, "bringing out the contrast between the indignity of the
Cross ( Heb 12:2 ) and the majesty of the Victim ( Lu 22:69  23:43 )" (Robertson and Plummer). See  Jas 2:1  Ac 7:2  Eph 1:17  Heb 9:5 .

經文:

哥林多前書 2:9-2:9

註釋:

 {But as it is written} (alla kath(9373) gegraptai). Elliptical
sentence like  Rom 15:3  where gegonen (it has happened) can be
supplied. It is not certain where Paul derives this quotation as
Scripture. Origen thought it a quotation from the _Apocalypse of
Elias_ and Jerome finds it also in the _Ascension of Isaiah_. But
these books appear to be post-Pauline, and Jerome denies that
Paul obtained it from these late apocryphal books. Clement of
Rome finds it in the LXX text of  Isa 64:4  and cites it as a
Christian saying. It is likely that Paul here combines freely
 Isa 64:4  65:17  52:15  in a sort of catena or free chain of
quotations as he does in  Ro 3:10-18 . There is also an
anacoluthon for ha (which things) occurs as the direct object
(accusative) with eiden (saw) and (886b)ousan (heard), but as the
subject (nominative) with aneb(885c) (entered, second aorist active
indicative of anabain(935c), to go up). {Whatsoever} (hosa). A
climax to the preceding relative clause (Findlay). {Prepared}
(h(8874)oimasen). First aorist active indicative of hetoimaz(935c).
The only instance where Paul uses this verb of God, though it
occurs of final glory ( Lu 2:31  Mt 20:23  25:34  Mr 10:40  Heb
11:16 ) and of final misery ( Mt 25:41 ). But here undoubtedly
the dominant idea is the present blessing to these who love God
( 1Co 1:5-7 ). {Heart} (kardian) here as in  Ro 1:21  is more
than emotion. The Gnostics used this passage to support their
teaching of esoteric doctrine as Hegesippus shows. Lightfoot
thinks that probably the apocryphal _Ascension of Isaiah_ and
_Apocalypse of Elias_ were Gnostic and so quoted this passage of
Paul to support their position. But the next verse shows that
Paul uses it of what is now {revealed} and made plain, not of
mysteries still unknown.

經文:

哥林多前書 2:10-2:10

註釋:

 {But unto us God revealed them} (h(886d)in gar apekalupsen ho
theos). So with gar B 37 Sah Cop read instead of de of Aleph
A C D. "De is superficially easier; gar intrinsically better"
(Findlay). Paul explains why this is no longer hidden, "for God
revealed unto us" the wonders of grace pictured in verse  9 . We
do not have to wait for heaven to see them. Hence we can utter
those things hidden from the eye, the ear, the heart of man. This
revelation (apekalupsen, first aorist active indicative) took
place, at "the entry of the Gospel into the world," not "when we
were admitted into the Church, when we were baptized" as
Lightfoot interprets it. {Through the Spirit} (dia tou
pneumatos). The Holy Spirit is the agent of this definite
revelation of grace, a revelation with a definite beginning or
advent (constative aorist), an unveiling by the Spirit where
"human ability and research would not have sufficed" (Robertson
and Plummer), "according to the revelation of the mystery" ( Ro
16:25 ), "the revelation given to Christians as an event that
began a new epoch in the world's history" (Edwards). {Searcheth
all things} (panta eraun(8369)). This is the usual form from A.D. 1
on rather than the old ereuna(935c). The word occurs (Moulton and
Milligan's _Vocabulary_) for a professional searcher's report and
eraun(8874)ai, searchers for customs officials. "The Spirit is the
organ of understanding between man and God" (Findlay). So in  Ro
8:27  we have this very verb erauna(935c) again of God's searching
our hearts. The Holy Spirit not merely investigates us, but he
searches "even the deep things of God" (kai ta bath(8820)tou
theou). _Profunda Dei_ (Vulgate). Cf. "the deep things of Satan"
( Re 2:24 ) and Paul's language in  Ro 11:33  "Oh the depth of
the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God." Paul's point is
simply that the Holy Spirit fully comprehends the depth of God's
nature and his plans of grace and so is fully competent to make
the revelation here claimed.

經文:

哥林多前書 2:11-2:11

註釋:

 {Knoweth} (oiden, egn(936b)en). Second perfect of root id-,
to see and so know, first perfect of gin(9373)k(935c), to know by
personal experience, has come to know and still knows. See First
John for a clear distinction in the use of oida and gin(9373)k(935c).
{The spirit of man that is in him} (	o pneuma tou anthr(9370)ou to
en aut(9369)). The self-consciousness of man that resides in the man
or woman (generic term for mankind, anthr(9370)os). {The Spirit of
God} (	o pneuma tou theou). Note the absence of 	o en aut(9369).
It is not the mere self-consciousness of God, but the personal
Holy Spirit in his relation to God the Father. Paul's analogy
between the spirit of man and the Spirit of God does not hold
clear through and he guards it at this vital point as he does
elsewhere as in  Ro 8:26  and in the full Trinitarian benediction
in  2Co 13:13 . Pneuma in itself merely means breath or wind as
in  Joh 3:8 . To know accurately Paul's use of the word in every
instance calls for an adequate knowledge of his theology, and
psychology. But the point here is plain. God's Holy Spirit is
amply qualified to make the revelation claimed here in verses
 6-10 .

經文:

哥林多前書 2:12-2:12

註釋:

 1Co
11:4 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
11' or engs='1Co
11'
經文:

哥林多前書 2:13-2:13

註釋:

 {Which things also we speak} (ha kai laloumen). This
onomatopoetic verb lale(935c) (from la-la), to utter sounds. In
the papyri the word calls more attention to the form of utterance
while leg(935c) refers more to the substance. But lale(935c) in the
N.T. as here is used of the highest and holiest speech.
Undoubtedly Paul employs the word purposely for the utterance of
the revelation which he has understood. That is to say, there is
revelation (verse  10 ), illumination (verse  12 ), and
inspiration (verse  13 ). Paul claims therefore the help of the
Holy Spirit for the reception of the revelation, for the
understanding of it, for the expression of it. Paul claimed this
authority for his preaching ( 1Th 4:2 ) and for his epistles
( 2Th 3:14 ). {Not in words which man's wisdom teacheth} (ouk en
didaktois anthr(9370)in(8873) sophias logois). Literally, "not in words
taught by human wisdom." The verbal adjective didaktois (from
didask(935c), to teach) is here passive in idea and is followed by
the ablative case of origin or source as in  Joh 6:45 , esontai
pantes didaktoi theou (from  Isa 54:13 ), "They shall all be
taught by God." The ablative in Greek, as is well known, has the
same form as the genitive, though quite different in idea
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 516). So then Paul claims the help of
the Holy Spirit in the utterance (laloumen) of the words,
"which the Spirit teacheth (en didaktois pneumatos), "in words
taught by the Spirit" (ablative pneumatos as above). Clearly
Paul means that the help of the Holy Spirit in the utterance of
the revelation extends to the words. No theory of inspiration is
here stated, but it is not _mere_ human wisdom. Paul's own
Epistles bear eloquent witness to the lofty claim here made. They
remain today after nearly nineteen centuries throbbing with the
power of the Spirit of God, dynamic with life for the problems of
today as when Paul wrote them for the needs of the believers in
his time, the greatest epistles of all time, surcharged with the
energy of God. {Comparing spiritual things with spiritual}
(pneumatikois pneumatika sunkrinontes). Each of these words is
in dispute. The verb sunkrin(935c), originally meant to combine, to
join together fitly. In the LXX it means to interpret dreams ( Ge
40:8,22  41:12 ) possibly by comparison. In the later Greek it
may mean to compare as in  2Co 10:12 . In the papyri Moulton and
Milligan (_Vocabulary_) give it only for "decide," probably after
comparing. But "comparing," in spite of the translations, does
not suit well here. So it is best to follow the original meaning
to combine as do Lightfoot and Ellicott. But what gender is
pneumatikois? Is it masculine or neuter like pneumatika? If
masculine, the idea would be "interpreting (like LXX) spiritual
truths to spiritual persons" or "matching spiritual truths with
spiritual persons." This is a possible rendering and makes good
sense in harmony with verse  14 . If pneumatikois be taken as
neuter plural (associative instrumental case after sun in
sunkrinontes), the idea most naturally would be, "combining
spiritual ideas (pneumatika) with spiritual words"
(pneumatikois). This again makes good sense in harmony with the
first part of verse  13 . On the whole this is the most natural
way to take it, though various other possibilities exist.

經文:

哥林多前書 2:14-2:14

註釋:

 {Now the natural man} (psuchikos de anthr(9370)os). Note
absence of article here, "A natural man" (an unregenerate man).
Paul does not employ modern psychological terms and he exercises
variety in his use of all the terms here present as pneuma and
pneumatikos, psuch(885c) and psuchikos, sarx and sarkinos and
sarkikos. A helpful discussion of the various uses of these
words in the New Testament is given by Burton in his _New
Testament Word Studies_, pp. 62-68, and in his {Spirit, Soul, and
Flesh}. The papyri furnish so many examples of sarx, pneuma,
and psuch(885c) that Moulton and Milligan make no attempt at an
exhaustive treatment, but give a few miscellaneous examples to
illustrate the varied uses that parallel the New Testament.
Psuchikos is a qualitative adjective from psuch(885c) (breath of
life like anima, life, soul). Here the Vulgate renders it by
_animalis_ and the German by _sinnlich_, the original sense of
animal life as in  Jude 1:19  Jas 3:15 . In  1Co 15:44,46  there
is the same contrast between psuchikos and pneumatikos as
here. The psuchikos man is the unregenerate man while the
pneumatikos man is the renewed man, born again of the Spirit of
God. {Receiveth not} (ou dechetai). Does not accept, rejects,
refuses to accept. In  Ro 8:7  Paul definitely states the
inability (oude gar dunatai) of the mind of the flesh to
receive the things of the Spirit untouched by the Holy Spirit.
Certainly the initiative comes from God whose Holy Spirit makes
it possible for us to accept the things of the Spirit of God.
They are no longer "foolishness" (m(9372)ia) to us as was once the
case ( 1:23 ). Today one notes certain of the _intelligentsia_
who sneer at Christ and Christianity in their own blinded
ignorance. {He cannot know them} (ou dunatai gn(936e)ai). He is not
able to get a knowledge (ingressive second aorist active
infinitive of gin(9373)k(935c)). His helpless condition calls for pity
in place of impatience on our part, though such an one usually
poses as a paragon of wisdom and commiserates the deluded
followers of Christ. {They are spiritually judged} (pneumatik(9373)
anakrinetai). Paul and Luke are fond of this verb, though
nowhere else in the N.T. Paul uses it only in I Corinthians. The
word means a sifting process to get at the truth by investigation
as of a judge. In  Ac 17:11  the Beroeans scrutinized the
Scriptures. These psuchikoi men are incapable of rendering a
decision for they are unable to recognize the facts. They judge
by the psuch(885c) (mere animal nature) rather than by the pneuma
(the renewed spirit).

經文:

哥林多前書 2:15-2:15

註釋:

 2Co
4:4 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
4' or engs='2Co
4'
經文:

哥林多前書 2:16-2:16

註釋:

 {For who hath known the mind of the Lord} (Tis gar egn(930a)noun Kuriou;). Quotation from  Isa 40:13 . {That he should
instruct him} (hos sunbibasei auton). This use of hos
(relative {who}) is almost consecutive (result). The
pneumatikos man is superior to others who attempt even to
instruct God himself. See on 涉c 9:22; 16:10| for sunbibaz(935c), to
make go together. {But we have the mind of Christ} (h(886d)eis de
noun Christou echomen). As he has already shown (verses  6-13 ).
Thus with the mind (
ous. Cf.  Php 2:5  Ro 8:9,27 ). Hence Paul
and all pneumatikoi men are superior to those who try to shake
their faith in Christ, the mystery of God. Paul can say, "I know
him whom I have believed." "I believe; therefore I have spoken."

經文:

哥林多前書 3:1-3:1

註釋:

 1Co
2:6 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
2' or engs='1Co
2'
經文:

哥林多前書 3:2-3:2

註釋:

 {I fed you with milk, not with meat} (gala humas epotisa, ou
br(936d)a). Note two accusatives with the verb, epotisa, first
aorist active indicative of potiz(935c), as with other causative
verbs, that of the person and of the thing. In the LXX and the
papyri the verb often means to irrigate. Br(936d)a does not mean
meat (flesh) as opposed to bread, but all solid food as in "meats
and drinks" ( Heb 9:7 ). It is a zeugma to use epotisa with
r(936d)a. Paul did not glory in making his sermons thin and
watery. Simplicity does not require lack of ideas or dulness. It
is pathetic to think how the preacher has to clip the wings of
thought and imagination because the hearers cannot go with him.
But nothing hinders great preaching like the dulness caused by
sin on the part of auditors who are impatient with the high
demands of the gospel.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:3-3:3

註釋:

 {For ye are yet carnal} (eti gar sarkikoi este).
Sarkikos, unlike sarkinos, like ikos formations, means
adapted to, fitted for the flesh (sarx), one who lives
according to the flesh (kata sarka). Paul by psuchikos
describes the unregenerate man, by pneumatikos the regenerate
man. Both classes are sarkinoi made in flesh, and both may be
sarkikoi though the pneumatikoi should not be. The
pneumatikoi who continue to be sarkinoi are still babes
(
(8870)ioi), not adults (	eleioi), while those who are still
sarkikoi (carnal) have given way to the flesh as if they were
still psuchikoi (unregenerate). It is a bold and cutting
figure, not without sarcasm, but necessary to reveal the
Corinthians to themselves. {Jealousy and strife} (z(886c)os kai
eris). Zeal (z(886c)os from ze(935c), to boil) is not necessarily
evil, but good if under control. It may be not according to
knowledge ( Ro 10:2 ) and easily becomes jealousy (same root
through the French _jaloux_) as zeal. Ardour may be like the
jealousy of God ( 2Co 11:2 ) or the envy of men ( Ac 5:17 ).
Eris is an old word, but used only by Paul in N.T. (see on 氣Co
1:11|). Wrangling follows jealousy. These two voices of the
spirit are to Paul proof that the Corinthians are still
sarkikoi and walking according to men, not according to the
Spirit of Christ.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:4-3:4

註釋:

 {For when one saith} (hotan gar leg(8869) tis). Indefinite
temporal clause with the present subjunctive of repetition
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 972). Each instance is a case in point
and proof abundant of the strife. {Of Paul} (Paulou). Predicate
genitive, belong to Paul, on Paul's side. {Of Apollos}
(Apoll(935c)). Same genitive, but the form is the so-called Attic
second declension. See the nominative Apoll(9373) in verse  5 .
{Men} (anthr(9370)oi). Just mere human creatures (anthr(9370)oi,
generic term for mankind), in the flesh (sarkinoi), acting like
the flesh (sarkikoi), not pneumatikoi, as if still
psuchikoi. It was a home-thrust. Paul would not even defend his
own partisans.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:5-3:5

註釋:

 {What then?} (	i oun;). He does not say 	is (who), but
	i (what), neuter singular interrogative pronoun. {Ministers}
(diakonoi). Not leaders of parties or sects, but merely
servants through whom ye believed. The etymology of the word
Thayer gives as dia and konis "raising dust by hastening." In
the Gospels it is the servant ( Mt 20:26 ) or waiter ( Joh 2:5 ).
Paul so describes himself as a minister ( Col 1:23,25 ). The
technical sense of deacon comes later ( Php 1:1  1Ti 3:8,12 ).
{As the Lord gave to him} (h(9373) ho Kurios ed(936b)en). Hence no
minister of the Lord like Apollos and Paul has any basis for
pride or conceit nor should be made the occasion for faction and
strife. This idea Paul enlarges upon through chapters  1Co 3  4 
and it is made plain in chapter  1Co 12 .

經文:

哥林多前書 3:6-3:6

註釋:

 {I planted} (eg(9320)ephuteusa). First aorist active indicative
of old verb phuteu(935c). This Paul did as Luke tells us in  Ac
18:1-18 . {Apollos watered} (Apoll(9373) epotisen). Apollos
irrigated the church there as is seen in  Ac 18:24-19:1 . Another
aorist tense as in verse  2 . {But God gave the increase} (alla
ho theos (8875)xanen). Imperfect tense here (active indicative) for
the continuous blessing of God both on the work of Paul and
Apollos, co-labourers with God in God's field (verse  9 ).
Reports of revivals sometimes give the glory to the evangelist or
to both evangelist and pastor. Paul gives it all to God. He and
Apollos cooperated as successive pastors.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:7-3:7

註釋:

 {So then neither--neither--but} (H(9373)te oute--oute--all').
Paul applies his logic relentlessly to the facts. He had asked
{what} (	i) is Apollos or Paul (verse  5 ). The answer is here.
{Neither is anything} (	i) {the one who plants nor the one who
waters}. God is the whole and we are not anything.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:8-3:8

註釋:

 {Are one} (hen eisin). The neuter singular again (hen,
not heis) as with the interrogative 	i and the indefinite
	i. By this bold metaphor which Paul expands he shows how the
planter and the waterer work together. If no one planted, the
watering would be useless. If no one watered, the planting would
come to naught as the dreadful drouth of 1930 testifies while
these words are written. {According to his own labour} (kata ton
idion kopon). God will bestow to each the reward that his labour
deserves. That is the pay that the preacher is sure to receive.
He may get too little or too much here from men. But the due
reward from God is certain and it will be adequate however
ungrateful men may be.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:9-3:9

註釋:

 {God's fellow-workers} (	heou sunergoi). This old word
(co-workers of God) has a new dignity here. God is the major
partner in the enterprise of each life, but he lets us work with
him. Witness the mother and God with the baby as the product.
{God's husbandry} (	heou ge(9372)gion). God's tilled land (g(882c)
ergon). The farmer works with God in God's field. Without the
sun, the rains, the seasons the farmer is helpless. {God's
building} (	heou oikodom(885c)). God is the Great Architect. We work
under him and carry out the plans of the Architect. It is
building (oikos, house, dem(935c), to build). Let us never forget
that God sees and cares what we do in the part of the building
where we work for him.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:10-3:10

註釋:

 {As a wise masterbuilder} (h(9373) sophos architekt(936e)). Paul
does not shirk his share in the work at Corinth with all the sad
outcome there. He absolves Apollos from responsibility for the
divisions. He denies that he himself is to blame. In doing so he
has to praise himself because the Judaizers who fomented the
trouble at Corinth had directly blamed Paul. It is not always
wise for a preacher to defend himself against attack, but it is
sometimes necessary. Factions in the church were now a fact and
Paul went to the bottom of the matter. God gave Paul the grace to
do what he did. This is the only New Testament example of the old
and common word architekt(936e), our architect. Tekt(936e) is from
	ikt(935c), to beget, and means a begetter, then a worker in wood or
stone, a carpenter or mason ( Mt 13:55  Mr 6:3 ). Archi- is an
old inseparable prefix like archaggelos (archangel),
archepiscopos (archbishop), archiereus (chiefpriest).
Architekt(936e) occurs in the papyri and inscriptions in an even
wider sense than our use of architect, sometimes of the chief
engineers. But Paul means to claim primacy as pastor of the
church in Corinth as is true of every pastor who is the architect
of the whole church life and work. All the workmen (	ektones,
carpenters) work under the direction of the architect (Plato,
_Statesman_, 259). "As a wise architect I laid a foundation"
(	hemelion eth(886b)a). Much depends on the wisdom of the architect
in laying the foundation. This is the technical phrase ( Lu 6:48  14:29 ), a cognate accusative for 	hemelion. The substantive
	hemelion is from the same root 	he as eth(886b)a (	i-th(886d)i).
We cannot neatly reproduce the idiom in English. "I placed a
placing" does only moderately well. Paul refers directly to the
events described by Luke in  Ac 18:1-18 . The aorist eth(886b)a is
the correct text, not the perfect 	etheika. {Another buildeth
thereon} (allos epoikodomei). Note the preposition epi with
the verb each time ( 10,11,12,14 ). The successor to Paul did not
have to lay a new foundation, but only to go on building on that
already laid. It is a pity when the new pastor has to dig up the
foundation and start all over again as if an earthquake had come.
{Take heed how he buildeth thereon} (lepet(9320)p(9373) epoikodomei).
The carpenters have need of caution how they carry out the plans
of the original architect. Successive architects of great
cathedrals carry on through centuries the original design. The
result becomes the wonder of succeeding generations. There is no
room for individual caprice in the superstructure.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:11-3:11

註釋:

 {Other foundation} (	hemelion allon). The gender of the
adjective is here masculine as is shown by allon. If neuter, it
would be allo. It is masculine because Paul has Christ in mind.
It is not here heteron a different kind of gospel (heteron
euaggelion,  Ga 1:6  2Co 11:4 ) which is not another (allo,
 Ga 1:7 ) in reality. But another Jesus ( 2Co 11:4 , allon
I(8873)oun) is a reflection on the one Lord Jesus. Hence there is no
room on the platform with Jesus for another Saviour, whether
Buddha, Mahomet, Dowie, Eddy, or what not. Jesus Christ is the
one foundation and it is gratuitous impudence for another to
assume the role of Foundation. {Than that which is laid, which is
Christ Jesus} (para ton keimenon, hos estin I(8873)ous Christos).
Literally, "alongside (para) the one laid (keimenon),"
already laid (present middle participle of keimai, used here as
often as the perfect passive of 	ith(886d)i in place of
	etheimenon). Paul scouts the suggestion that one even in the
interest of so-called "new thought" will dare to lay beside Jesus
another foundation for religion. And yet I have seen an article
by a professor in a theological seminary in which he advocates
regarding Jesus as a landmark, not as a goal, not as a
foundation. Clearly Paul means that on this one true foundation,
Jesus Christ, one must build only what is in full harmony with
the Foundation which is Jesus Christ. If one accuses Paul of
narrowness, it can be replied that the architect has to be narrow
in the sense of building here and not there. A broad foundation
will be too thin and unstable for a solid and abiding structure.
It can be said also that Paul is here merely repeating the claim
of Jesus himself on this very subject when he quoted  Ps
118:22f.  to the members of the Sanhedrin who challenged his
authority ( Mr 11:10f.  Mt 21:42-45  Lu 20:17f. ). Apostles and
prophets go into this temple of God, but Christ Jesus is the
chief corner stone (akrog(936e)aios,  Eph 2:20 ). All believers are
living stones in this temple ( 1Pe 2:5 ). But there is only one
foundation possible.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:12-3:12

註釋:

 {Gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble}
(chrusion, argurion, lithous timious, xula, chorton, kalam(886e)).
The durable materials are three (gold, silver, marble or precious
stones), perishable materials (pieces of wood, hay, stubble), "of
a palace on the one hand, of a mud hut on the other" (Lightfoot).
Gold was freely used by the ancients in their palaces. Their
marble and granite pillars are still the wonder and despair of
modern men. The wooden huts had hay (chortos, grass, as in  Mr
6:39 ) and stubble (kalam(885c), old word for stubble after the
grain is cut, here alone in the N.T., though in LXX as  Ex 5:12 )
which were employed to hold the wood pieces together and to
thatch the roof. It is not made clear whether Paul's metaphor
refers to the persons as in God's building in verse  9  or to the
character of the teaching as in verse  13 . Probably both ideas
are involved, for look at the penalty on shoddy work (verse  15 )
and shoddy men (verse  17 ). The teaching may not always be
vicious and harmful. It may only be indifferent and worthless. A
co-worker with God in this great temple should put in his very
best effort.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:13-3:13

註釋:

 {The day} (h(8820)h(886d)era). The day of judgment as in  1Th 5:4 
(which see),  Ro 13:12  Heb 10:25 . The work (ergon) of each
will be made manifest. There is no escape from this final
testing. {It is revealed in fire} (en puri apokaluptetai).
Apparently "the day" is the subject of the verb, not the work,
not the Lord. See  2Th 1:8  2:8 . This metaphor of fire was
employed in the O.T. ( Da 7:9f.  Mal 4:1 ) and by John the
Baptist ( Mt 3:12  Lu 3:16f. ). It is a metaphor that must not be
understood as purgatorial, but simple testing (Ellicott) as every
fire tests ({the fire itself will test}, 	o pur auto dokimasei)
the quality of the material used in the building, {of what sort
it is} (hopoion estin), qualitative relative pronoun. Men today
find, alas, that some of the fireproof buildings are not
fireproof when the fire actually comes.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:14-3:14

註釋:

 {If any man's work shall abide} (ei tinos to ergon menei).
Condition of the first class with future indicative, determined
as fulfilled, assumed as true. When the fire has done its work,
what is left? That is the fiery test that the work of each of us
must meet. Suitable reward ( Mt 20:8 ) will come for the work
that stands this test (gold, silver, precious stones)

經文:

哥林多前書 3:15-3:15

註釋:

 {Shall be burned} (kataka(8873)etai). First-class condition
again, assumed as true. Second future (late form) passive
indicative of katakai(935c), to burn down, old verb. Note perfective
use of preposition kata, shall be burned down. We usually say
"burned up," and that is true also, burned up in smoke. {He shall
suffer loss} (z(886d)i(9374)h(8873)etai). First future passive indicative
of z(886d)i(935c), old verb from z(886d)ia (damage, loss), to suffer loss.
In  Mt 16:26  Mr 8:36  Lu 9:25  the loss is stated to be the
man's soul (psuch(886e)) or eternal life. But here there is no such
total loss as that. The man's work (ergon) is burned up
(sermons, lectures, books, teaching, all dry as dust). {But he
himself shall be saved} (autos de s(9374)h(8873)etai). Eternal
salvation, but not by purgatory. His work is burned up completely
and hopelessly, but he himself escapes destruction because he is
really a saved man a real believer in Christ. {Yet so as through
fire} (hout(9373) de h(9373) dia puros). Clearly Paul means with his
work burned down (verse  15 ). It is the tragedy of a fruitless
life, of a minister who built so poorly on the true foundation
that his work went up in smoke. His sermons were empty froth or
windy words without edifying or building power. They left no mark
in the lives of the hearers. It is the picture of a wasted life.
The one who enters heaven by grace, as we all do who are saved,
yet who brings no sheaves with him. There is no garnered grain
the result of his labours in the harvest field. There are no
souls in heaven as the result of his toil for Christ, no
enrichment of character, no growth in grace.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:16-3:16

註釋:

 {Ye are a temple of God} (
aos theou este). Literally, a
sanctuary (
aos, not hieron, the sacred enclosure, but the
holy place and the most holy place) of God. The same picture of
building as in verse  9  (oikodom(885c)), only here the sanctuary
itself. {Dwelleth in you} (en humin oikei). The Spirit of God
makes his home (oikei) in us, not in temples made with hands
( Ac 7:48  17:24 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 3:17-3:17

註釋:

 {Destroyeth} (phtheirei). The outward temple is merely the
symbol of God's presence, the Shechinah (the Glory). God makes
his home in the hearts of his people or the church in any given
place like Corinth. It is a terrible thing to tear down
ruthlessly a church or temple of God like an earthquake that
shatters a building in ruins. This old verb phtheir(935c) means to
corrupt, to deprave, to destroy. It is a gross sin to be a
church-wrecker. There are actually a few preachers who leave
behind them ruin like a tornado in their path. {Him shall God
destroy} (phtherei touton ho theos). There is a solemn
repetition of the same verb in the future active indicative. The
condition is the first class and is assumed to be true. Then the
punishment is certain and equally effective. The church-wrecker
God will wreck. What does Paul mean by "will destroy"? Does he
mean punishment here or hereafter? May it not be both? Certainly
he does not mean annihilation of the man's soul, though it may
well include eternal punishment. There is warning enough here to
make every pastor pause before he tears a church to pieces in
order to vindicate himself. {Holy} (hagios). Hence deserves
reverential treatment. It is not the building or house of which
Paul speaks as "the sanctuary of God" (	on naon tou theou), but
the spiritual organization or organism of God's people in whom
God dwells, "which temple ye are" (hoitines este humeis). The
qualitative relative pronoun hoitines is plural to agree with
humeis (ye) and refers to the holy temple just mentioned. The
Corinthians themselves in their angry disputes had forgotten
their holy heritage and calling, though this failing was no
excuse for the ringleaders who had led them on. In  6:19  Paul
reminds the Corinthians again that the body is the temple
(
aos, sanctuary) of the Holy Spirit, which fact they had
forgotten in their immoralities.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:18-3:18

註釋:

 {Let no man deceive himself} (M(8864)eis heauton exapat(935c)). A
warning that implied that some of them were guilty of doing it
(m(885c) and the present imperative). Excited partisans can easily
excite themselves to a pious phrenzy, hypnotize themselves with
their own supposed devotion to truth. {Thinketh that he is wise}
(dokei sophos einai). Condition of first class and assumed to
be true. Predicate nominative sophos with the infinitive to
agree with subject of dokei (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1038).
Paul claimed to be "wise" himself in verse  10  and he desires
that the claimant to wisdom may become wise (hina gen(8874)ai
sophos, purpose clause with hina and subjunctive) by becoming
a fool (m(9372)os genesth(935c), second aorist middle imperative of
ginomai) as this age looks at him. This false wisdom of the
world ( 1:18-20,23  2:14 ), this self-conceit, has led to strife
and wrangling. Cut it out.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:19-3:19

註釋:

 {Foolishness with God} (m(9372)ia para t(9369) the(9369)). Whose
standard does a church (temple) of God wish, that of this world
or of God? The two standards are not the same. It is a pertinent
inquiry with us all whose idea rules in our church. Paul quotes
 Job 5:13 . {That taketh} (ho drassomenos). Old verb
drassomai, to grasp with the hand, is used here for the less
vivid word in the LXX katalamban(936e). It occurs nowhere else in
the N.T., but appears in the papyri to lay hands on. Job is
quoted in the N.T. only here and in  Ro 11:35  and both times
with variations from the LXX. This word occurs in Ecclesiasticus
26:7; 34:2. In  Ps 2:12  the LXX has draxasthe paideias, lay
hold on instruction. {Craftiness} (panourgi(8369)). The panourgos
man is ready for any or all work (if bad enough). So it means
versatile cleverness (Robertson and Plummer), _astutia_
(Vulgate).

經文:

哥林多前書 3:20-3:20

註釋:

 {And again} (kai palin). Another confirmatory passage from
 Ps 94:11 . {Reasonings} (dialogismous). More than
_cogitationes_ (Vulgate), sometimes disputations ( Php 2:14 ).
Paul changes "men" of LXX to wise (soph(936e)) in harmony with the
Hebrew context. {Vain} (mataioi). Useless, foolish, from
mat(885c), a futile attempt.

經文:

哥林多前書 3:21-3:21

註釋:

 {Wherefore let no one glory in men} (h(9373)te m(8864)eis
kauchasth(9320)en anthr(9370)ois). The conclusion (h(9373)te) from the
self-conceit condemned. This particle here is merely inferential
with no effect on the construction (h(9373)+te = and so) any more
than oun would have, a paratactic conjunction. There are thirty
such examples of h(9373)te in the N.T., eleven with the imperative
as here (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 999). The spirit of glorying in
party is a species of self-conceit and inconsistent with glorying
in the Lord ( 1:31 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 3:22-3:22

註釋:

 {Yours} (hum(936e)). Predicate genitive, belong to you. All
the words in this verse and  23  are anarthrous, though not
indefinite, but definite. The English reproduces them all
properly without the definite article except kosmos (the
world), and even here just world will answer. Proper names do not
need the article to be definite nor do words for single objects
like world, life, death. Things present (enest(9374)a, second
perfect participle of enist(886d)i) and things to come divide two
classes. Few of the finer points of Greek syntax need more
attention than the absence of the article. We must not think of
the article as "omitted" (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 790). The
wealth of the Christian includes all things, all leaders, past,
present, future, Christ, and God. There is no room for partisan
wrangling here.

經文:

哥林多前書 4:1-4:1

註釋:

 {Ministers of Christ} (hup(8872)etas Christou). Paul and all
ministers (diakonous) of the New Covenant ( 1Co 3:5 ) are
under-rowers, subordinate rowers of Christ, only here in Paul's
Epistles, though in the Gospels ( Lu 4:20  the attendant in the
synagogue) and the Acts ( Ac 13:5 ) of John Mark. The {so}
(hout(9373)) gathers up the preceding argument ( 3:5-23 ) and
applies it directly by the {as} (h(9373)) that follows. {Stewards
of the mysteries of God} (oikonomous must(8872)i(936e) theou). The
steward or house manager (oikos, house, 
em(935c), to manage, old
word) was a slave (doulos) under his lord (kurios,  Lu
12:42 ), but a master ( Lu 16:1 ) over the other slaves in the
house (menservants paidas, maidservants paidiskas  Lu
12:45 ), an overseer (epitropos) over the rest ( Mt 20:8 ).
Hence the under-rower (hup(8872)et(8873)) of Christ has a position of
great dignity as steward (oikonomos) of the mysteries of God.
Jesus had expressly explained that the mysteries of the kingdom
were open to the disciples ( Mt 13:11 ). They were entrusted with
the knowledge of some of God's secrets though the disciples were
not such apt pupils as they claimed to be ( Mt 13:51  16:8-12 ).
As stewards Paul and other ministers are entrusted with the
mysteries (see on 氣Co 2:7| for this word) of God and are
expected to teach them. "The church is the oikos ( 1Ti 3:15 ),
God the oikodespot(8873) ( Mt 13:52 ), the members the oikeioi
( Ga 6:10  Eph 2:19 )" (Lightfoot). Paul had a vivid sense of the
dignity of this stewardship (oikonomia) of God given to him
( Col 1:25  Eph 1:10 ). The ministry is more than a mere
profession or trade. It is a calling from God for stewardship.

經文:

哥林多前書 4:2-4:2

註釋:

 {Here} (h(9364)e). Either here on earth or in this matter. It
is always local. {Moreover} (loipon). Like loipon in  1:16 
which see, accusative of general reference, as for what is left,
besides. {It is required} (z(8874)eitai). It is sought. Many MSS.
read z(8874)eite, ye seek, an easy change as ai and e came to
be pronounced alike (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 186). {That a man
be found faithful} (hina pistos tis heureth(8869)). Non-final use
of hina with first aorist passive subjunctive of heurisk(935c),
the result of the seeking (z(8874)e(935c)). Fidelity is the essential
requirement in all such human relationships, in other words,
plain honesty in handling money like bank-clerks or in other
positions of trust like public office.

經文:

哥林多前書 4:3-4:3

註釋:

 {But with me} (emoi de). The ethical dative of personal
relation and interest, "as I look at my own case." Cf.  Php
1:21 . {It is a very small thing} (eis elachiston estin). This
predicate use of eis is like the Hebrew, but it occurs also in
the papyri. The superlative elachiston is elative, very little,
not the true superlative, least. "It counts for very little with
me." {That I should be judged of you} (hina huph' hum(936e)
anakrith(935c)). Same use of hina as in verse  2 . For the verb
(first aorist passive subjunctive of anakrin(935c)) see on 氣Co
2:14f|. Paul does not despise public opinion, but he denies "the
competency of the tribunal" in Corinth (Robertson and Plummer) to
pass on his credentials with Christ as his Lord. {Or of man's
judgement} ((8820)hupo anthr(9370)in(8873) h(886d)eras). Or "by human day," in
contrast to the Lord's Day (_der Tag_) in  3:13 . "_That_ is the
tribunal which the Apostle recognizes; a _human_ tribunal he does
not care to satisfy" (Robertson and Plummer). {Yea, I judge not
mine own self} (all' oude emauton anakrin(935c)). Alla here is
confirmatory, not adversative. "I have often wondered how it is
that every man sets less value on his own opinion of himself than
on the opinion of others" (M. Aurelius, xii. 4. Translated by
Robertson and Plummer). Paul does not even set himself up as
judge of himself.

經文:

哥林多前書 4:4-4:4

註釋:

 {For I know nothing against myself} (ouden gar emaut(9369)
sunoida). Not a statement of fact, but an hypothesis to show the
unreliability of mere complacent self-satisfaction. Note the use
of sunoida (second perfect active indicative with dative
(disadvantage) of the reflexive pronoun) for guilty knowledge
against oneself (cf.  Ac 5:2  12:12  14:6 ). {Yet} (all').
Adversative use of alla. {Am I not hereby justified} (ouk en
tout(9369) dedikai(936d)ai). Perfect passive indicative of state of
completion. Failure to be conscious of one's own sins does not
mean that one is innocent. Most prisoners plead "not guilty." Who
is the judge of the steward of the mysteries of God? It is the
Lord "that judgeth me" (ho anakrin(936e) me). Probably, who
examines me and then passes on my fidelity (pistos in verse
 2 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 4:5-4:5

註釋:

 {Wherefore} (h(9373)te). As in  3:21  which see. {Judge
nothing} (m(8820)ti krinete). Stop passing judgment, stop
criticizing as they were doing. See the words of Jesus in  Mt
7:1 . The censorious habit was ruining the Corinthian Church.
{Before the time} (pro kairou). The day of the Lord in  3:13 .
"Do not therefore anticipate the great judgment (krisis) by any
preliminary investigation (anakrisis) which must be futile and
incomplete" (Lightfoot). {Until the Lord come} (he(9373) an elth(8869)
ho kurios). Common idiom of he(9373) and the aorist subjunctive
with or without an for a future event. Simple futurity, but
held forth as a glorious hope, the Second Coming of the Lord
Jesus as Judge. {Who will both bring to light} (hos kai
ph(9374)isei). Future indicative of this late verb (in papyri also)
from ph(9373) (light), to turn the light on the hidden things of
darkness. {And make manifest} (kai phaner(9373)ei). (Ionic and
late) causative verb phanero(935c) from phaneros. By turning on
the light the counsels of all hearts stand revealed. {His praise}
(ho epainos). The praise (note article) due him from God ( Ro
2:29 ) will come to each then (	ote) and not till then.
Meanwhile Paul will carry on and wait for the praise from God.

經文:

哥林多前書 4:6-4:6

註釋:

 {I have in a figure transferred} (metesch(886d)atisa). First
aorist active (not perfect) indicative of meta-sch(886d)atiz(935c), used
by Plato and Aristotle for changing the form of a thing (from
meta, after, and sch(886d)a, form or habit, like Latin _habitus_
from ech(935c) and so different from morph(885c) as in  Php 2:7  Ro
12:2 ). For the idea of refashioning see Field, _Notes_, p. 169f.
and Preisigke, _Fachworter_). Both Greek and Latin writers
(Quintilian, Martial) used sch(886d)a for a rhetorical artifice.
Paul's use of the word (in Paul only in N.T.) appears also
further in  2Co 11:13-15  where the word occurs three times,
twice of the false apostles posing and passing as apostles of
Christ and ministers of righteousness, and once of Satan as an
angel of light, twice with eis and once with h(9373). In  Php
3:21  the word is used for the change in the body of our
humiliation to the body of glory. But here it is clearly the
rhetorical figure for a veiled allusion to Paul and Apollos "for
your sakes" (dia humas). {That in us ye may learn} (hina en
h(886d)in math(8874)e). Final clause with hina and the second aorist
active subjunctive of manthan(935c), to learn. As an object lesson
in our cases (en h(886d)in). It is no more true of Paul and Apollos
than of other ministers, but the wrangles in Corinth started
about them. So Paul boldly puts himself and Apollos to the fore
in the discussion of the principles involved. {Not to go beyond
the things which are written} (	o M(8820)huper ha gegraptai). It is
difficult to reproduce the Greek idiom in English. The article
	o is in the accusative case as the object of the verb
math(8874)e (learn) and points at the words "M(8820)huper ha
gegraptai," apparently a proverb or rule, and elliptical in form
with no principal verb expressed with m(885c), whether "think"
(Auth.) or "go" (Revised). There was a constant tendency to
smooth out Paul's ellipses as in  2Th 2:3  1Co 1:26,31 .
Lightfoot thinks that Paul may have in mind O.T. passages quoted
in  1Co 1:19,31  3:19,20 . {That ye be not puffed up} (hina m(880a)phusiousthe). Sub-final use of hina (second use in this
sentence) with notion of result. It is not certain whether
phusiousthe (late verb form like phusia(932c) phusa(935c), to blow up,
to inflate, to puff up), used only by Paul in the N.T., is
present indicative with hina like z(886c)oute in  Ga 4:17  (cf.
hina gin(9373)komen in  1Jo 5:20 ) or the present subjunctive by
irregular contraction (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 203, 342f.),
probably the present indicative. Phusio(935c) is from phusis
(nature) and so meant to make natural, but it is used by Paul
just like phusa(935c) or phusia(935c) (from phusa, a pair of
bellows), a vivid picture of self-conceit. {One for the one
against the other} (heis huper tou henos kata tou heterou).
This is the precise idea of this idiom of partitive apposition.
This is the rule with partisans. They are "for" (huper) the one
and "against" (kata, down on, the genitive case) the other
(	ou heterou, not merely another or a second, but the different
sort, heterodox).

經文:

哥林多前書 4:7-4:7

註釋:

 {Maketh thee to differ} (se diakrinei). Distinguishes thee,
separates thee. Diakrin(935c) means to sift or separate between
(dia) as in  Ac 15:9  (which see) where metaxu is added to
make it plainer. All self-conceit rests on the notion of
superiority of gifts and graces as if they were self-bestowed or
self-acquired. {Which thou didst not receive} (ho ouk elabes).
"Another home-thrust" (Robertson and Plummer). Pride of
intellect, of blood, of race, of country, of religion, is thus
shut out. {Dost thou glory} (kauchasai). The original second
person singular middle ending -sai is here preserved with
variable vowel contraction, kauchaesai=kauchasai (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 341). Paul is fond of this old and bold verb for
boasting. {As if thou hadst not received it} (h(9373) m(8820)lab(936e)).
This neat participial clause (second aorist active of lamban(935c))
with h(9373) (assumption) and negative m(885c) punctures effectually
the inflated bag of false pride. What pungent questions Paul has
asked. Robertson and Plummer say of Augustine, "Ten years before
the challenge of Pelagius, the study of St. Paul's writings, and
especially of this verse and of  Ro 9:16 , had crystallized in
his mind the distinctively Augustinian doctrines of man's total
depravity, of irresistible grace, and of absolute
predestination." Human responsibility does exist beyond a doubt,
but there is no foundation for pride and conceit.

經文:

哥林多前書 4:8-4:8

註釋:

 2Co
8:9 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
8' or engs='2Co
8'
經文:

哥林多前書 4:9-4:9

註釋:

 {Hath set forth us the apostles last} (h(886d)as tous apostolous
eschatous apedeixen). The first aorist active indicative of
apodeiknumi, old verb to show, to expose to view or exhibit
(Herodotus), in technical sense (cf.  2Th 2:4 ) for gladiatorial
show as in eth(8872)iomach(8873)a ( 1Co 15:32 ). In this grand pageant
Paul and other apostles come last (eschatous, predicate
accusative after apedeixen) as a grand finale. {As men doomed
to die} (h(9373) epithanatious). Late word, here alone in N.T. The
LXX (Bel and the Dragon 31) has it for those thrown daily to the
lions. Dionysius of Halicarnassus (_A.R_. vii. 35) uses it of
those thrown from the Tarpeian Rock. The gladiators would say
_morituri salutamus_. All this in violent contrast to the kingly
Messianic pretensions of the Corinthians. {A spectacle}
(	heatron). Cf.  Heb 11:33-40 . The word, like our theatre,
means the place of the show ( Ac 19:29,31 ). Then, it means the
spectacle shown there (	heama or 	hea), and, as here, the man
exhibited as the show like the verb 	heatrizomenoi, made a
spectacle ( Heb 10:33 ). Sometimes it refers to the spectators
(	heatai) like our "house" for the audience. Here the
spectators include "the world, both to angels and men" (	(9369)
kosm(9369) kai aggelois kai anthr(9370)ois), dative case of personal
interest.

經文:

哥林多前書 4:10-4:10

註釋:

 {We--you} (h(886d)eis--humeis). Triple contrast in keenest
ironical emphasis. "The three antitheses refer respectively to
teaching, demeanour, and worldly position" (Robertson and
Plummer). The apostles were fools for Christ's sake ( 2Co 4:11  Php 3:7 ). They made "union with Christ the basis of worldly
wisdom" (Vincent). There is change of order (chiasm) in the third
ironical contrast. They are over strong in pretension. Endoxos,
illustrious, is one of the 103 words found only in Luke and Paul
in the N.T. Notion of display and splendour.

經文:

哥林多前書 4:11-4:11

註釋:

 {Even unto this present hour} (achri t(8873) arti h(9372)as).
Arti (just now, this very minute) accents the continuity of the
contrast as applied to Paul. Ten verbs and four participles from
 11-13  give a graphic picture of Paul's condition in Ephesus
when he is writing this epistle. {We hunger} (pein(936d)en), {we
thirst} (dips(936d)en), {are naked} (gumniteuomen), late verb for
scant clothing from gumn(8874)(8873), {are buffeted}
(kolaphizometha), to strike a blow with the fist from
kolaphos and one of the few N.T. and ecclesiastical words and
see on 烘t 26:67|, {have no certain dwelling place}
(astatoumen) from astatos, strolling about and only here save
Anthol. Pal. and Aquila in  Isa 58:7 . Field in _Notes_, p. 170
renders  1Co 4:11  "and are vagabonds" or spiritual hobos.

經文:

哥林多前書 4:12-4:12

註釋:

 2Co
11:7 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
11' or engs='2Co
11'
經文:

哥林多前書 4:13-4:13

註釋:

 {Being defamed we intreat} (dusph(886d)oumenoi parakaloumen).
The participle dusph(886d)oumenoi is an old verb (in I Macc. 7:41)
to use ill, from dusph(886d)os, but occurs here only in the N.T.
Paul is opening his very heart now after the keen irony above.
{As the filth of the world} (h(9373) perikatharmata tou kosmou).
Literally, sweepings, rinsings, cleansings around, dust from the
floor, from perikathair(935c), to cleanse all around (Plato and
Aristotle) and so the refuse thrown off in cleansing. Here only
in the N.T. and only twice elsewhere. Katharma was the refuse
of a sacrifice. In  Pr 21:18  perikatharma occurs for the
scapegoat. The other example is Epictetus iii. 22,78, in the same
sense of an expiatory offering of a worthless fellow. It was the
custom in Athens during a plague to throw to the sea some wretch
in the hope of appeasing the gods. One hesitates to take it so
here in Paul, though Findlay thinks that possibly in Ephesus Paul
may have heard some such cry like that in the later martyrdoms
_Christiani ad leones_. At any rate in  1Co 15:32  Paul says "I
fought with wild beasts" and in  2Co 1:9  "I had the answer of
death." Some terrible experience may be alluded to here. The word
shows the contempt of the Ephesian populace for Paul as is shown
in  Ac 19:23-41  under the influence of Demetrius and the
craftsmen. {The offscouring of all things} (pant(936e) perips(886d)a).
Late word, here only in N.T., though in Tob. 5:18. The word was
used in a formula at Athens when victims were flung into the sea,
perips(886d)a h(886d)(936e) genou (Became a perips(886d)a for us), in the
sense of expiation. The word merely means scraping around from
peripsa(935c), offscrapings or refuse. That is probably the idea
here as in Tob. 5:18. It came to have a complimentary sense for
the Christians who in a plague gave their lives for the sick. But
it is a bold figure here with Paul of a piece with
perikatharmata.

經文:

哥林多前書 4:14-4:14

註釋:

 {To shame you} (entrep(936e)). Literally, shaming you (present
active participle of entrep(935c)), old verb to turn one on himself
either middle or with reflexive pronoun and active, but the
reflexive heautois is not expressed here. See on 氧Th 3:14|.
The harsh tone has suddenly changed.

經文:

哥林多前書 4:15-4:15

註釋:

 {To admonish} (
outhet(936e)). Literally, admonishing (present
active participle of 
outhete(935c)). See on 氣Th 5:12,14|. {For
though ye should have} (ean gar ech(8874)e). Third-class condition
undetermined, but with prospect of being determined (ean and
present subjunctive), "for if ye have." {Tutors} (paidag(9367)ous).
This old word (pais, boy, ag(9367)os, leader) was used for the
guide or attendant of the child who took him to school as in  Ga
3:24  (Christ being the schoolmaster) and also as a sort of tutor
who had a care for the child when not in school. The papyri
examples (Moulton and Milligan, _Vocabulary_) illustrate both
aspects of the paedagogue. Here it is the "tutor in Christ" who
is the Teacher. These are the only two N.T. examples of the
common word. {I begot you} (humas egenn(8873)a). Paul is their
{spiritual father} in Christ, while Apollos and the rest are
their {tutors} in Christ.

經文:

哥林多前書 4:16-4:16

註釋:

 {Be ye imitators of me} (mim(8874)ai mou ginesthe). "Keep on
becoming (present middle imperative) imitators of me (objective
genitive)." Mim(8874)(8873) is an old word from mimeomai, to copy, to
mimic (mimos). Paul stands for his rights as their spiritual
father against the pretensions of the Judaizers who have turned
them against him by the use of the names of Apollos and Cephas.

經文:

哥林多前書 4:17-4:17

註釋:

 1Co
14:33 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
14' or engs='1Co
14'
經文:

哥林多前書 4:18-4:18

註釋:

 {Some are puffed up} (ephusi(9374)h(8873)an). First aorist
(effective) passive indicative of phusio(935c) which see on verse
泰|. {As though I were not coming to you} (h(9373) m(8820)erchomenou mou
pros humas). Genitive absolute with particle (assuming it as so)
with m(885c) as negative.

經文:

哥林多前書 4:19-4:19

註釋:

 2 Co 1 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2 Co' or engs='2 Co'
經文:

哥林多前書 4:21-4:21

註釋:

 {With a rod} (en rabd(9369)). The so-called instrumental use
of en like the Hebrew ( 1Sa 17:43 ). The shepherd leaned on his
rod, staff, walking stick. The paedagogue had his rod also.
{Shall I come?} (elth(933b)). Deliberative subjunctive. Paul gives
them the choice. They can have him as their spiritual father or
as their paedagogue with a rod.

經文:

哥林多前書 5:1-5:1

註釋:

 {Actually} (hol(9373)). Literally, wholly, altogether, like
Latin _omnino_ and Greek pant(9373) ( 1Co 9:22 ). So papyri have it
for "really" and also for "generally" or "everywhere" as is
possible here. See also  6:7 . With a negative it has the sense
of "not at all" as in  15:29  Mt 5:34  the only N.T. examples,
though a common word. {It is reported} (akouetai). Present
passive indicative of akou(935c), to hear; so literally, it is
heard. "Fornication is heard of among you." Probably the
household of Chloe ( 1:11 ) brought this sad news (Ellicott).
{And such} (kai toiaut(885c)). Climactic qualitative pronoun showing
the revolting character of this particular case of illicit sexual
intercourse. Porneia is sometimes used ( Ac 15:20,29 ) of such
sin in general and not merely of the unmarried whereas moicheia
is technically adultery on the part of the married ( Mr 7:21 ).
{As is not even among the Gentiles} (h(8874)is oude en tois
ethnesin). Height of scorn. The Corinthian Christians were
actually trying to win pagans to Christ and living more loosely
than the Corinthian heathen among whom the very word
"Corinthianize" meant to live in sexual wantonness and license.
See Cicero _pro Cluentio_, v. 14. {That one of you hath his
father's wife} (h(9373)te gunaika tina tou patros echein). "So as
(usual force of h(9373)te) for one to go on having (echein,
present infinitive) a wife of the (his) father." It was probably
a permanent union (concubine or mistress) of some kind without
formal marriage like  Joh 4:8 . The woman probably was not the
offender's mother (step-mother) and the father may have been dead
or divorced. The Jewish law prescribed stoning for this crime
( Le 18:8  22:11  De 22:30 ). But the rabbis (Rabbi Akibah)
invented a subterfuge in the case of a proselyte to permit such a
relation. Perhaps the Corinthians had also learned how to split
hairs over moral matters in such an evil atmosphere and so to
condone this crime in one of their own members. Expulsion Paul
had urged in  2Th 3:6  for such offenders.

經文:

哥林多前書 5:2-5:2

註釋:

 {And ye are puffed up} (kai humeis pephusi(936d)enoi este).
Emphatic position of humeis (you). It may be understood as a
question. Perfect passive periphrastic indicative of the same
verb phusio(935c) used already of the partisans in Corinth
( 4:6,19,20 ). Those of the same faction with this scoundrel
justified his rascality. {Did not rather mourn} (kai ouchi
mallon epenth(8873)ate). Possibly question also and note strong
negative form ouchi, which favours it. The very least that they
could have done (mallon rather than be puffed up) was to mourn
for shame (penthe(935c), old verb for lamentation) as if for one
dead. {That he might be taken away} (hina arth(8869)). The
sub-final use of hina of desired result ( 1:15 ) so common in
the _Koin(825f). First aorist passive subjunctive of air(935c), to lift
up, to carry off. Decent self-respect should have compelled the
instant expulsion of the man instead of pride in his rascality.

經文:

哥林多前書 5:3-5:3

註釋:

 {For I verily} (eg(9320)men gar). Emphatic statement of Paul's
own attitude of indignation, eg(935c) in contrast with humeis. He
justifies his demand for the expulsion of the man. {Being absent}
(ap(936e)) Although absent (concessive participle) and so of
par(936e) though present. Each with locative case (	(9369) s(936d)ati, t(9369)
pneumati). {Have already judged} ((8864)(8820)kekrika). Perfect active
indicative of krin(935c). I have already decided or judged, as
though present (h(9373) par(936e)). Paul felt compelled to reach a
conclusion about the case and in a sentence of much difficulty
seems to conceive an imaginary church court where the culprit has
been tried and condemned. There are various ways of punctuating
the clauses in this sentence in verses  3-5 . It is not merely
Paul's individual judgment. The genitive absolute clause in verse
 4 , {ye being gathered together} (sunachthent(936e) hum(936e), first
aorist passive participle of sunag(935c), in regular assembly) {and
my spirit} (kai tou emou pneumatos) with the assembly (he
means) {and meeting in the name of our Lord Jesus} (en t(9369)
onomati tou Kuriou [h(886d)(936e)] I(8873)ou) with the power of the Lord
Jesus (sun t(8869) dunamei tou Kuriou h(886d)(936e) I(8873)ou), though this
clause can be taken with the infinitive to deliver
(paradounai). It makes good syntax and sense taken either way.
The chief difference is that, if taken with "gathered together"
(sunachthent(936e)) Paul assumes less apostolic prerogative to
himself. But he did have such power and used it against Elymas
( Ac 13:8ff. ) as Peter did against Ananias and Sapphira ( Ac
5:1ff. ).

經文:

哥林多前書 5:5-5:5

註釋:

 {To deliver such an one unto Satan} (paradounai ton toiouton
t(9369) Satan(8369)). We have the same idiom in  1Ti 1:20  used of
Hymenius and Alexander. In  2Co 12:7  Paul speaks of his own
physical suffering as a messenger (aggelos) of Satan. Paul
certainly means expulsion from the church (verse  2 ) and
regarding him as outside of the commonwealth of Israel ( Eph
2:11f. ). But we are not to infer that expulsion from the local
church means the damnation of the offender. The wilful offenders
have to be expelled and not regarded as enemies, but admonished
as brothers ( 2Th 3:14f. ). {For the destruction of the flesh}
(eis olethron t(8873) sarkos). Both for physical suffering as in
the case of Job ( Job 2:6 ) and for conquest of the fleshly sins,
remedial punishment. {That the spirit may be saved} (hina to
pneuma s(9374)h(8869)). The ultimate purpose of the expulsion as
discipline. Note the use of 	o pneuma in contrast with sarx
as the seat of personality (cf.  3:15 ). Paul's motive is not
merely vindictive, but the reformation of the offender who is not
named here nor in  2Co 2:5-11  if the same man is meant, which is
very doubtful. The final salvation of the man in the day of
Christ is the goal and this is to be attained not by condoning
his sin.

經文:

哥林多前書 5:6-5:6

註釋:

 {Not good} (ou kalon). Not beautiful, not seemly, in view
of this plague spot, this cancer on the church. They needed a
surgical operation at once instead of boasting and pride (puffed
up). Kauch(886d)a is the thing gloried in. {A little leaven
leaveneth the whole lump} (mikra zum(8820)holon to phurama zumoi).
This proverb occurs _verbatim_ in  Ga 5:9 . Zum(885c) (leaven) is a
late word from ze(935c), to boil, as is zumo(935c), to leaven. The
contraction is regular (-oei=oi) for the third person singular
present indicative. See the parables of Jesus for the pervasive
power of leaven ( Mt 13:33 ). Some of the members may have argued
that one such case did not affect the church as a whole, a
specious excuse for negligence that Paul here answers. The
emphasis is on the "little" (mikra, note position). Lump
(phurama from phura(935c), to mix, late word, in the papyri mixing
a medical prescription) is a substance mixed with water and
kneaded like dough. Compare the pervasive power of germs of
disease in the body as they spread through the body.

經文:

哥林多前書 5:7-5:7

註釋:

 {Purge out} (ekkatharate). First aorist (effective) active
imperative of ekkathair(935c), old verb to cleanse out (ek), to
clean completely. Aorist tense of urgency, do it now and do it
effectively before the whole church is contaminated. This turn to
the metaphor is from the command to purge out the old (palaian,
now old and decayed) leaven before the passover feast ( Ex
12:15f.  13:7  Zep 1:12 ). Cf. modern methods of disinfection
after a contagious disease. {A new lump} (
eon phurama). Make a
fresh start as a new community with the contamination removed.
Neos is the root for 
eaniskos, a young man, not yet old
(g(8872)aios). So new wine (oinon neon  Mt 9:17 ). Kainos is
fresh as compared with the ancient (palaios). See the
distinction in  Col 3:10  Eph 4:22ff.  2Co 5:17 . {Unleavened}
(azumoi). Without (a privative) leaven, the normal and ideal
state of Christians. Rare word among the ancients (once in
Plato). They are a new creation (kain(8820)ktisis), "exemplifying
Kant's maxim that you should treat a man as if he were what you
would wish him to be" (Robertson and Plummer). {For our passover
also hath been sacrificed, even Christ} (kai gar to pascha h(886d)(936e)
etuth(8820)Christos). First aorist passive indicative of 	hu(935c), old
verb to sacrifice. Euphony of consonants, 	h to 	 because of
-th(885c). Reference to the death of Christ on the Cross as the
Paschal Lamb (common use of pascha as  Mr 14:12  Lu 22:7 ), the
figure used long before by the Baptist of Jesus ( Joh 1:29 ).
Paul means that the Lamb was already slain on Calvary and yet you
have not gotten rid of the leaven.

經文:

哥林多前書 5:8-5:8

註釋:

 {Wherefore let us keep the feast} (h(9373)te heortaz(936d)en).
Present active subjunctive (volitive). Let us keep on keeping the
feast, a perpetual feast (Lightfoot), and keep the leaven out. It
is quite possible that Paul was writing about the time of the
Jewish passover, since it was before pentecost ( 1Co 16:8 ). But,
if so, that is merely incidental, and his language here is not a
plea for the observance of Easter by Christians. {With the leaven
of malice and wickedness} (en zum(8869) kakias kai pon(8872)ias).
Vicious disposition and evil deed. {With the unleavened bread of
sincerity and truth} (en azumois eilikrinias kai al(8874)heias). No
word for "bread." The plural of azumois may suggest "elements"
or "loaves." Eilikrinia (sincerity) does not occur in the
ancient Greek and is rare in the later Greek. In the papyri it
means probity in one example. The etymology is uncertain. Boisacq
inclines to the notion of heil(885c) or hel(885c), sunlight, and
krin(935c), to judge by the light of the sun, holding up to the
light. Al(8874)heia (truth) is a common word from al(8874)h(8873) (true)
and this from a privative and l(8874)h(935c) (lathein, lanthan(935c), to
conceal or hide) and so unconcealed, not hidden. The Greek idea
of truth is out in the open. Note  Ro 1:18  where Paul pictures
those who are holding down the truth in unrighteousness.

經文:

哥林多前書 5:9-5:9

註釋:

 {I wrote unto you in my epistle} (egrapsa humin en t(8869)
epistol(8869)). Not the epistolary aorist, but a reference to an
epistle to the Corinthians earlier than this one (our First
Corinthians), one not preserved to us. What a "find" it would be
if a bundle of papyri in Egypt should give it back to us? {To
have no company with fornicators} (m(8820)sunanamignusthai
pornois). Present middle infinitive with m(885c) in an indirect
command of a late double compound verb used in the papyri to mix
up with (sun-ana-mignusthai, a mi verb). It is in the N.T.
only here and verse  11  2Th 3:14  which see. It is used here
with the associative instrumental case (pornois, from pera(932c)
pern(886d)i, to sell, men and women who sell their bodies for lust).
It is a pertinent question today how far modern views try to put
a veneer over the vice in men and women.

經文:

哥林多前書 5:10-5:10

註釋:

 {Not altogether} (ou pant(9373)). Not absolutely, not in all
circumstances. Paul thus puts a limitation on his prohibition and
confines it to members of the church. He has no jurisdiction over
the outsiders (this world, 	ou kosmou toutou). {The covetous}
(	ois pleonektais). Old word for the over-reachers, those
avaricious for more and more (pleon, ech(935c), to have more). In
N.T. only here,  6:10  Eph 5:5 . It always comes in bad company
(the licentious and the idolaters) like the modern gangsters who
form a combination of liquor, lewdness, lawlessness for money and
power. {Extortioners} (harpaxin). An old adjective with only
one gender, rapacious ( Mt 7:15  Lu 18:11 ), and as a substantive
robber or extortioner (here and  6:10 ). Bandits, hijackers,
grafters they would be called today. {Idolaters}
(eid(936c)olatrais). Late word for hirelings (latris) of the
idols (eid(936c)on), so our very word idolater. See  6:9  10:7  Eph
5:5  Re 21:8  22:15 . Nageli regards this word as a Christian
formation. {For then must ye needs} (epei (9370)heilete oun). This
neat Greek idiom of epei with the imperfect indicative
((9370)heilete, from opheil(935c), to be under obligation) is really
the conclusion of a second-class condition with the condition
unexpressed (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 965). Sometimes an is
used also as in  Heb 10:2 , but with verbs of obligation or
necessity an is usually absent as here (cf.  Heb 9:20 ). The
unexpressed condition here would be, "if that were true"
(including fornicators, the covetous, extortioners, idolaters of
the outside world). Ara means in that case.

經文:

哥林多前書 5:11-5:11

註釋:

 {But now I write unto you} (
un de egrapsa humin). This is
the epistolary aorist referring to this same epistle and not to a
previous one as in verse  9 . As it is (when you read it) I did
write unto you. {If any man that is named a brother be} (ean tis
adelphos onomazomenos (8869)). Condition of the third class, a
supposable case. {Or a reviler or a drunkard} ((8820)loidoros (880a)methusos). Loidoros occurs in Euripides as an adjective and in
later writings. In N.T. only here and  6:10 . For the verb see
 1Co 4:12 . Methusos is an old Greek word for women and even
men (cf. paroinos, of men,  1Ti 3:3 ). In N.T. only here and
 6:10 . Cf.  Ro 13:13 . Deissmann (_Light from the Ancient East_,
p. 316) gives a list of virtues and vices on counters for Roman
games that correspond remarkably with Paul's list of vices here
and in  6:10 . Chrysostom noted that people in his day complained
of the bad company given by Paul for revilers and drunkards as
being men with more "respectable" vices! {With such a one, no,
not to eat} (	(9369) toiout(9369) m(8864)e sunesthiein). Associative
instrumental case of 	oiout(9369) after sunesthiein, "not even to
eat with such a one." Social contacts with such "a brother" are
forbidden

經文:

哥林多前書 5:12-5:12

註釋:

 {For what have I to do?} (	i gar moi;). "For what is it to
me (dative) to judge those without (	ous exo)?" They are
outside the church and not within Paul's jurisdiction. God passes
judgment on them.

經文:

哥林多前書 5:13-5:13

註釋:

 {Put away the wicked man} (exarate ton pon(8872)on). By this
quotation from  De 17:7  Paul clinches the case for the expulsion
of the offender ( 5:2 ). Note ex twice and effective aorist
tense.


經文:

哥林多前書 6:1-6:1

註釋:

 {Dare any of you?} (	olm(8369) tis hum(936e);). Does any one of you
dare? Rhetorical question with present indicative of 	olma(935c),
old verb from 	olma, daring. Bengel: _grandi verbo notatur
laesa majestas Christianorum_.  "The word is an argument in
itself" (Robertson and Plummer). Apparently Paul has an actual
case in mind as in chapter  1Co 5  though no name is called.
{Having a matter against his neighbour} (pragma ech(936e) pros ton
heteron). Forensic sense of pragma (from prass(935c), to do, to
exact, to extort as in  Lu 3:13 ), a case, a suit (Demosthenes
1020, 26), with the other or the neighbour as in  10:24  14:17  Ga 6:4  Ro 2:1 . {Go to law} (krinesthai). Present middle or
passive (ch.  Ro 3:4 ) in the same forensic sense as krith(886e)ai
in  Mt 5:40 . Krit(8873), judge, is from this verb. {Before the
unrighteous} (epi t(936e) adik(936e)). This use of epi with the
genitive for "in the presence of" is idiomatic as in  2Co 7:14 ,
epi Titou, in the case of Titus. The Jews held that to bring a
lawsuit before a court of idolaters was blasphemy against the
law. But the Greeks were fond of disputatious lawsuits with each
other. Probably the Greek Christians brought cases before pagan
judges.

經文:

哥林多前書 6:2-6:2

註釋:

 {Shall judge the world} (	on kosmon krinousin). Future
active indicative. At the last day with the Lord Jesus ( Mt
19:28  Lu 22:30 ). {Are ye unworthy to judge the smallest
matters?} (anaxioi este krit(8872)i(936e) elachist(936e);). Anaxios is an
old word (an and axios), though only here in the N.T. There
is dispute as to the meaning of krit(8872)ia here and in verse  4 ,
old word, but nowhere else in N.T. save in  Jas 2:6 . Naturally,
like other words in -t(8872)ion (akroat(8872)ion, auditorium,  Ac
25:23 ), this word means the place where judgment is rendered, or
court. It is common in the papyri in the sense of tribunal. In
the _Apost. Const_. ii. 45 we have m(8820)erchesth(9320)epi krit(8872)ion
ethnikon (Let him not come before a heathen tribunal). Hence
here it would mean, "Are ye unworthy of the smallest tribunals?"
That is, of sitting on the smallest tribunals, of forming courts
yourselves to settle such things?

經文:

哥林多前書 6:3-6:3

註釋:

 {How much more, things that pertain to this life?} (M(8874)i ge
bi(9374)ika;). The question expects the answer no and ge adds
sharp point to Paul's surprised tone, "Need I so much as say?" It
can be understood also as ellipsis, "let me not say" (m(8874)ige
leg(935c)), not to say. Bi(9374)ika occurs first in Aristotle, but is
common afterwards. In the papyri it is used of business matters.
It is from ios (manner of life in contrast to z(9388), life
principle).

經文:

哥林多前書 6:4-6:4

註釋:

 {If then ye have to judge things pertaining to this life}
(i(9374)ika men oun krit(8872)ia ean ech(8874)e). Note emphatic position
(proleptic) of i(9374)ika krit(8872)ia (tribunals pertaining to this
life, as above). "If ye have tribunals pertaining to this life"
(condition of third class, ean ech(8874)e). If kathizete (do ye
set) is indicative and interrogative, then by "who are of no
account in the church" (	ous exouthen(886d)enous en t(8869) ekkl(8873)i(8369))
Paul means the heathen as in verse  1 . If kathizete be
imperative, then Paul means the least esteemed members of the
church for such unwished for work. It is a harsh term for the
heathen, but one of indignation toward Christians.

經文:

哥林多前書 6:5-6:5

註釋:

 {I say this to move you to shame} (pros entrop(886e) humin
leg(935c)). Old word entrop(885c) from entrep(935c), to turn in ( 1Co 4:14 
which see). In N.T. only here and  15:34 . {One wise man}
(sophos). From sarcasm to pathos Paul turns. {Does there not
exist} (eni, short form for enesti)? With double negative
ouk--oudeis, expecting the answer yes. Surely {one} such man
exists in the church. {Who} (hos). Almost consecutive in idea,
of such wisdom that he will be able. {To decide between his
brethren} (diakrinai ana meson tou adelphou autou). Krinai is
to judge or decide (first aorist active infinitive of krin(935c) and
dia (two) carries on the idea of between. Then ana meson
makes it still plainer, in the midst as {arbitrator} between
brother and brother like ana meson emou kai sou ( Ge 23:15 ).
It is even so a condensed expression with part of it unexpressed
(ana meson kai tou adelphou autou) between brother and his
brother. The use of adelphos has a sharp reflection on them for
their going to heathen judges to settle disputes between brothers
in Christ.

經文:

哥林多前書 6:6-6:6

註釋:

 {And that before unbelievers} (kai touto epi apist(936e)).
Climactic force of kai. The accusative of general reference
with 	outo. "That there should be disputes about i(9374)ika is
bad; that Christian should go to law with Christian is worse;
that Christians should do this before unbelievers is worst of
all" (Robertson and Plummer).

經文:

哥林多前書 6:7-6:7

註釋:

 {Nay, already it is altogether a defect among you} ((8864)(8820)men
oun hol(9373) h(8874)t(886d)a humin estin). "Indeed therefore there is to
you already (to begin with, (8864)(885c), before any question of courts)
wholly defeat." H(8874)t(886d)a (from h(8874)taomai) is only here,  Ro
11:12  Isa 31:8  and ecclesiastical writers. See h(8874)taomai
(from h(8874)t(936e), less) in  2Co 12:13  2Pe 2:19f.  Nik(885c) was
victory and h(8874)ta defeat with the Greeks. It is defeat for
Christians to have lawsuits (krimata, usually decrees or
judgments) with one another. This was proof of the failure of
love and forgiveness ( Col 3:13 ). {Take wrong} (adikeisthe).
Present middle indicative, of old verb adike(935c) (from adikos,
not right). Better undergo wrong yourself than suffer {defeat} in
the matter of love and forgiveness of a brother. {Be defrauded}
(apostereisthe). Permissive middle again like adikeisthe.
Allow yourselves to be robbed (old verb to deprive, to rob)
rather than have a lawsuit.

經文:

哥林多前書 6:8-6:8

註釋:

 {Nay, but ye yourselves do wrong and defraud} (alla humeis
adikeite kai apostereite). "But (adversative alla, on the
contrary) you (emphatic) do the wronging and the robbing" (active
voices) "and that your brethren" (kai touto adelphous). Same
idiom as at close of verse  6 . The very climax of wrong-doings,
to stoop to do this with one's brethren in Christ.

經文:

哥林多前書 6:9-6:9

註釋:

 {The unrighteous} (adikoi). To remind them of the verb
adike(935c) just used. {The Kingdom of God} (	heou basileian).
Precisely, God's kingdom. {Be not deceived} (m(8820)plan(8373)the).
Present passive imperative with negative m(885c). Do not be led
astray by plausible talk to cover up sin as mere animal
behaviourism. Paul has two lists in verses  9,10 , one with
repetition of oute, neither (fornicators, idolaters,
adulterers, effeminate, or malakoi, abusers of themselves with
men or arsenokoitai or sodomites as in  1Ti 1:10  a late word
for this horrid vice, thieves, covetous), the other with ou not
(drunkards, revilers, extortioners). All these will fall short of
the kingdom of God. This was plain talk to a city like Corinth.
It is needed today. It is a solemn roll call of the damned even
if some of their names are on the church roll in Corinth whether
officers or ordinary members.

經文:

哥林多前書 6:11-6:11

註釋:

 {And such were some of you} (kai tauta tines (8874)e). A sharp
homethrust. Literally, "And these things (	auta, neuter plural)
were ye (some of you)." The horror is shown by 	auta, but by
	ines Paul narrows the picture to some, not all. But that was
in the past ((8874)e, imperfect indicative) like  Ro 6:17 . Thank
God the blood of Jesus does cleanse from such sins as these. But
do not go back to them. {But ye were washed} (apelousasthe).
First aorist middle indicative, not passive, of apolou(935c). Either
direct middle, ye washed yourselves, or indirect middle, as in
 Ac 22:16 , ye washed your sins away (force of apo). This was
their own voluntary act in baptism which was the outward
expression of the previous act of God in cleansing
(h(8867)iasth(8874)e, ye were sanctified or cleansed before the
baptism) and justified (edikai(9374)h(8874)e, ye were put right with
God before the act of baptism). "These twin conceptions of the
Christian state in its beginning appear commonly in the reverse
order" (Findlay). The outward expression is usually mentioned
before the inward change which precedes it. In this passage the
Trinity appear as in the baptismal command in  Mt 28:19 .

經文:

哥林多前書 6:12-6:12

註釋:

 {Lawful} (exestin). Apparently this proverb may have been
used by Paul in Corinth (repeated in  10:23 ), but not in the
sense now used by Paul's opponents. The "all things" do not
include such matters as those condemned in chapter  1Co 5  6:1-11 . Paul limits the proverb to things not immoral, things
not wrong _per se_. But even here liberty is not license. {But
not all things are expedient} (all' ou panta sumpherei). Old
word sumpherei, bears together for good and so worthwhile. Many
things, harmless in themselves in the abstract, do harm to others
in the concrete. We live in a world of social relations that
circumscribe personal rights and liberties. {But I will not be
brought under the power of any} (all ouk eg(9320)exousiasth(8873)omai
hupo tinos). Perhaps a conscious play on the verb exestin for
exousiaz(935c) is from exousia and that from exestin. Verb from
Aristotle on, though not common (Dion. of Hal., LXX and
inscriptions). In N.T. only here,  7:4  Lu 22:25 . Paul is
determined not to be a slave to anything harmless in itself. He
will maintain his self-control. He gives a wholesome hint to
those who talk so much about personal liberty.

經文:

哥林多前書 6:13-6:13

註釋:

 {But God shall bring to nought both it and them} (ho de
theos kai taut(886e) kai tauta katarg(8873)ei). Another proverb about
the adaptation of the belly (koilia) and food (r(936d)ata, not
just flesh), which had apparently been used by some in Corinth to
justify sexual license (fornication and adultery). These Gentiles
mixed up matters not alike at all (questions of food and
sensuality). " We have traces of this gross moral confusion in
the circumstances which dictated the Apostolic Letter ( Ac
15:23-29 ), where things wholly diverse are combined, as
directions about meats to be avoided and a prohibition of
fornication" (Lightfoot). Both the belly (	aut(886e)) and the foods
(	auta) God will bring to an end by death and change. {But the
body is not for fornication, but for the Lord, and the Lord for
the body} (	o de s(936d)a ou t(8869) pornei(8369) alla t(9369) kuri(9369), kai ho
kurios t(9369) s(936d)ati). Paul here boldly shows the fallacy in the
parallel about appetite of the belly for food. The human body has
a higher mission than the mere gratification of sensual appetite.
Sex is of God for the propagation of the race, not for
prostitution. Paul had already stated that God dwells in us as
the sanctuary of the Holy Spirit ( 3:16f. ). This higher function
of the body he here puts forward against the debased Greek
philosophy of the time which ignored completely Paul's idea, "the
body for the Lord and the Lord for the body" (dative of personal
interest in both cases). "The Lord Jesus and porneia contested
for the bodies of Christian men; loyal to him they must renounce
_that_, yielding to _that_ they renounce him" (Findlay).

經文:

哥林多前書 6:14-6:14

註釋:

 {Will raise up us} (h(886d)as exegerei). Future active
indicative of exegeir(935c) though the MSS. vary greatly, some
having the present and some even the aorist. But the resurrection
of the body gives added weight to Paul's argument about the
dignity and destiny of the body (_quanta dignitas_, Bengel) which
should not be prostituted to sensuality.

經文:

哥林多前書 6:15-6:15

註釋:

 {Members of Christ} (mel(8820)Christou). Old word for limbs,
members. Even the Stoics held the body to be common with the
animals (Epictetus, _Diss_. l. iii. 1) and only the reason like
the gods. Without doubt some forms of modern evolution have
contributed to the licentious views of animalistic sex
indulgence, though the best teachers of biology show that in the
higher animals monogamy is the rule. The body is not only adapted
for Christ (verse  13 ), but it is a part of Christ, in vital
union with him. Paul will make much use of this figure further on
( 12:12-31  Eph 4:11-16  5:30 ). {Shall I then take away?} (aras
oun;). First aorist active participle of air(935c), old verb to
snatch, carry off like Latin _rapio_ (our rape). {Make}
(poi(8873)(935c)). Can be either future active indicative or first
aorist active subjunctive (deliberative). Either makes good
sense. The horror of deliberately taking "members of Christ" and
making them "members of a harlot" in an actual union staggers
Paul and should stagger us. {God forbid} (m(8820)genoito). Optative
second aorist in a negative wish for the future. {May it not
happen!} The word "God" is not here. The idiom is common in
Epictetus though rare in the LXX. Paul has it thirteen times and
Luke once ( Lu 20:16 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 6:16-6:16

註釋:

 {One body} (hen s(936d)a). With the harlot. That union is for
the harlot the same as with the wife. The words quoted from  Ge
2:24  describing the sexual union of husband and wife, are also
quoted and explained by Jesus in  Mt 19:5f.  which see for
discussion of the translation Hebraism with use of eis. {Saith
he} (ph(8873)in). Supply either ho theos (God) or h(8820)graph(885c)
(the Scripture).

經文:

哥林多前書 6:17-6:17

註釋:

 {One spirit} (hen pneuma). With the Lord, the inner vital
spiritual union with the Lord Jesus ( Eph 4:4  5:30 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 6:18-6:18

註釋:

 {Flee} (pheugete). Present imperative. Have the habit of
fleeing without delay or parley. Note abruptness of the asyndeton
with no connectives. Fornication violates Christ's rights in our
bodies (verses  13-17 ) and also ruins the body itself. {Without
the body} (ektos tou s(936d)atos). Even gluttony and drunkenness
and the use of dope are sins wrought on the body, not "within the
body" (entos tou s(936d)atos) in the same sense as fornication.
Perhaps the dominant idea of Paul is that fornication, as already
shown, breaks the mystic bond between the body and Christ and
hence the fornicator (ho porneu(936e)) {sins against his own body}
(eis to idion s(936d)a hamartanei) in a sense not true of other
dreadful sins. The fornicator takes his body which belongs to
Christ and unites it with a harlot. In fornication the body is
the instrument of sin and becomes the subject of the damage
wrought. In another sense fornication brings on one's own body
the two most terrible bodily diseases that are still incurable
(gonorrhea and syphilis) that curse one's own body and transmit
the curse to the third and fourth generation. Apart from the high
view given here by Paul of the relation of the body to the Lord
no possible father or mother has the right to lay the hand of
such terrible diseases and disaster on their children and
children's children. The moral and physical rottenness wrought by
immorality defy one's imagination.

經文:

哥林多前書 6:19-6:19

註釋:

 {Your body is a temple} (	o s(936d)a hum(936e) naos estin). A
sanctuary as in  3:16  which see. Our spirits dwell in our bodies
and the Holy Spirit dwells in our spirits. Some of the Gnostics
split hairs between the sins of the body and fellowship with God
in the spirit. Paul will have none of this subterfuge. One's body
is the very shrine for the Holy Spirit. In Corinth was the temple
to Aphrodite in which fornication was regarded as consecration
instead of desecration. Prostitutes were there as priestesses of
Aphrodite, to help men worship the goddess by fornication. {Ye
are not your own} (ouk este heaut(936e)). Predicate genitive. Ye do
not belong to yourselves, even if you could commit fornication
without personal contamination or self-violation. Christianity
makes unchastity dishonour in both sexes. There is no double
standard of morality. Paul's plea here is primarily to men to be
clean as members of Christ's body.

經文:

哥林多前書 6:20-6:20

註釋:

 {For ye were bought with a price} ((8867)orasth(8874)e gar tim(8873)).
First aorist passive indicative of agoraz(935c), old verb to buy in
the marketplace (agora). With genitive of price. Paul does not
here state the price as Peter does in  1Pe 1:19  (the blood of
Christ) and as Jesus does in  Mt 20:28  (his life a ransom). The
Corinthians understood his meaning. {Glorify God therefore in
your body} (doxasate d(8820)ton theon en t(9369) s(936d)ati hum(936e)).
Passionate conclusion to his powerful argument against sexual
uncleanness. D(885c) is a shortened form of (8864)(885c) and is an urgent
inferential particle. See on 烊u 2:15|. Paul holds to his high
ideal of the destiny of the body and urges glorifying God in it.
Some of the later Christians felt that Paul's words could be
lightened a bit by adding "and in your spirits which are his,"
but these words are found only in late MSS. and are clearly not
genuine. Paul's argument stands four-square for the dignity of
the body as the sanctuary of the Holy Spirit united to the Lord
Jesus.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:1-7:1

註釋:

 {Now concerning the things whereof ye wrote} (peri de h(936e)
egrapsate). An ellipsis of peri tout(936e), the antecedent of
peri h(936e), is easily supplied as in papyri. The church had
written Paul a letter in which a number of specific problems
about marriage were raised. He answers them _seriatim_. The
questions must be clearly before one in order intelligently to
interpret Paul's replies. The first is whether a single life is
wrong. Paul pointedly says that it is not wrong, but good
(kalon). One will get a one-sided view of Paul's teaching on
marriage unless he keeps a proper perspective. One of the marks
of certain heretics will be forbidding to marry ( 1Ti 4:3 ). Paul
uses marriage as a metaphor of our relation to Christ ( 2Co 11:2  Ro 7:4  Eph 5:28-33 ). Paul is not here opposing marriage. He is
only arguing that celibacy may be good in certain limitations.
The genitive case with haptesthai (touch) is the usual
construction.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:2-7:2

註釋:

 {Because of fornications} (dia tas porneias). This is not
the only reason for marriage, but it is a true one. The main
purpose of marriage is children. Mutual love is another. The
family is the basis of all civilization. Paul does not give a low
view of marriage, but is merely answering questions put to him
about life in Corinth.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:3-7:3

註釋:

 {Render the due} (	(886e) opheil(886e) apodidot(935c)). Marriage is not
simply not wrong, but for many a duty. Both husband and wife have
a mutual obligation to the other. "This dictum defends marital
intercourse against rigorists, as that of ver.  1  commends
celibacy against sensualists" (Findlay).

經文:

哥林多前書 7:4-7:4

註釋:

 {The wife} (h(8820)gun(885c)). The wife is mentioned first, but the
equality of the sexes in marriage is clearly presented as the way
to keep marriage undefiled ( Heb 13:4 ). "In wedlock separate
ownership of the person ceases" (Robertson and Plummer).

經文:

哥林多前書 7:5-7:5

註釋:

 {Except it be by consent for a season} (ei m(8874)i [an] ek
sumph(936e)ou pros kairon). If an is genuine, it can either be
regarded as like ean though without a verb or as loosely added
after ei m(8874)i and construed with it. {That ye may give
yourselves unto prayer} (hina scholas(8874)e t(8869) proseuch(8869)). First
aorist active subjunctive of scholaz(935c), late verb from schol(885c),
leisure (our "school"), and so to have leisure (punctiliar act
and not permanent) for prayer. Note private devotions here. {That
Satan tempt you not} (hina m(8820)peiraz(8869)). Present subjunctive,
that Satan may not keep on tempting you. {Because of your
incontinency} (dia t(886e) akrasian [hum(936e)]). A late word from
Aristotle on for akrateia from akrat(8873) (without self-control,
a privative and krate(935c), to control, common old word). In N.T.
only here and  Mt 23:25  which see.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:6-7:6

註釋:

 {By way of permission} (kata sungn(936d)(886e)). Old word for
pardon, concession, indulgence. _Secundum indulgentiam_
(Vulgate). Only here in N.T., though in the papyri for pardon.
The word means "knowing together," understanding, agreement, and
so concession. {Not of commandment} (ou kat' epitag(886e)). Late
word (in papyri) from epitass(935c), old word to enjoin. Paul has
not commanded people to marry. He has left it an open question.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:7-7:7

註釋:

 {Yet I would} (	hel(9320)de). "But I wish." Followed by
accusative and infinitive (anthr(9370)ous einai). This is Paul's
personal preference under present conditions ( 7:26 ). {Even as I
myself} (h(9373) kai emauton). This clearly means that Paul was not
then married and it is confirmed by  9:5 . Whether he had been
married and was now a widower turns on the interpretation of  Ac
26:10  "I cast my vote." If this is taken literally (the obvious
way to take it) as a member of the Sanhedrin, Paul was married at
that time. There is no way to decide. {His own gift from God}
(idion charisma ek theou). So each must decide for himself. See
on 氣:7| for charisma, a late word from charizomai.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:8-7:8

註釋:

 {To the unmarried and to the widows} (	ois agamois kai tais
ch(8872)ais). It is possible that by "the unmarried" (masculine
plural) the apostle means only men since widows are added and
since virgins receive special treatment later (verse  25 ) and in
verse  32  ho agamos is the unmarried man. It is hardly likely
that Paul means only widowers and widows and means to call
himself a widower by h(9373) kag(935c) (even as I). After discussing
marital relations in verses  2-7  he returns to the original
question in verse  1  and repeats his own personal preference as
in verse  7 . He does not say that it is _better_ to be
unmarried, but only that it is _good_ (kalon as in verse  1 )
for them to remain unmarried. Agamos is an old word and in N.T.
occurs only in this passage. In verses  11, 34  it is used of
women where the old Greeks would have used anandros, without a
husband.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:9-7:9

註釋:

 {But if they have not continency} (ei de ouk
egkrateuontai). Condition of the first class, assumed as true.
Direct middle voice egkrateuontai, hold themselves in, control
themselves. {Let them marry} (gam(8873)at(9373)an). First aorist
(ingressive) active imperative. Usual _Koin(825f) form in -t(9373)an
for third plural. {Better} (kreitton). Marriage is better than
continued sexual passion. Paul has not said that celibacy is
{better} than marriage though he has justified it and expressed
his own personal preference for it. The metaphorical use of
purousthai (present middle infinitive) for sexual passion is
common enough as also for grief ( 2Co 11:29 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 7:10-7:10

註釋:

 {To the married} (	ois gegam(886b)osin). Perfect active
participle of game(935c), old verb, to marry, and still married as
the tense shows. {I give charge} (paraggell(935c)). Not mere wish as
in verses  7,8 . {Not I, but the Lord} (ouk eg(9320)alla ho
kurios). Paul had no commands from Jesus to the unmarried (men
or women), but Jesus had spoken to the married (husbands and
wives) as in  Mt 5:31f.  19:3-12  Mr 10:9-12  Lu 16:18 . The
Master had spoken plain words about divorce. Paul reenforces his
own inspired command by the command of Jesus. In  Mr 10:9  we
have from Christ: "What therefore God joined together let not man
put asunder" (m(8820)chorizet(935c)). {That the wife depart not from her
husband} (gunaika apo andros m(8820)choristh(886e)ai). First aorist
passive infinitive (indirect command after paraggell(935c)) of
choriz(935c), old verb from adverbial preposition ch(9372)is,
separately, apart from, from. Here used of divorce by the wife
which, though unusual then, yet did happen as in the case of
Salome (sister of Herod the Great) and of Herodias before she
married Herod Antipas. Jesus also spoke of it ( Mr 10:12 ). Now
most of the divorces are obtained by women. This passive
infinitive is almost reflexive in force according to a constant
tendency in the _Koin(825f) (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 817).

經文:

哥林多前書 7:11-7:11

註釋:

 {But and if she depart} (ean de kai ch(9372)isth(8869)). Third
class condition, undetermined. If, in spite of Christ's clear
prohibition, she get separated (ingressive passive subjunctive),
{let her remain unmarried} (menet(9320)agamos). Paul here makes no
allowance for remarriage of the innocent party as Jesus does by
implication. {Or else be reconciled to her husband} ((8820)t(9369) andri
katallag(8874)(935c)). Second aorist (ingressive) passive imperative of
katallass(935c), old compound verb to exchange coins as of equal
value, to reconcile. One of Paul's great words for reconciliation
with God ( 2Co 5:18-20  Ro 5:10 ). Diallass(935c) ( Mt 5:24  which
see) was more common in the older Greek, but katallass(935c) in the
later. The difference in idea is very slight, dia- accents
notion of exchange, kat- the perfective idea (complete
reconciliation). Dative of personal interest is the case of
andri. This sentence is a parenthesis between the two
infinitives ch(9372)isth(886e)ai and aphienai (both indirect commands
after paraggell(935c)). {And that the husband leave not his wife}
(kai andra m(8820)aphienai). This is also part of the Lord's
command ( Mr 10:11 ). Apolu(935c) occurs in Mark of the husband's
act and aphienai here, both meaning to send away. Bengel
actually stresses the difference between ch(9372)isth(886e)ai of the
woman as like _separatur_ in Latin and calls the wife "pars
ignobilior" and the husband "nobilior." I doubt if Paul would
stand for that extreme.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:12-7:12

註釋:

 {But to the rest say I, not the Lord} (	ois de loipois leg(930a)eg(932c) ouch ho Kurios). Paul has no word about marriage from Jesus
beyond the problem of divorce. This is no disclaimer of
inspiration. He simply means that here he is not quoting a
command of Jesus. {An unbelieving wife} (gunaika apiston). This
is a new problem, the result of work among the Gentiles, that did
not arise in the time of Jesus. The form apiston is the same as
the masculine because a compound adjective. Paul has to deal with
mixed marriages as missionaries do today in heathen lands. The
rest (hoi loipoi) for Gentiles ( Eph 2:3 ) we have already had
in  1Th 4:13  5:6  which see. The Christian husband married his
wife when he himself was an unbeliever. The word apistos
sometimes means unfaithful ( Lu 12:46 ), but not here (cf.  Joh
20:27 ). {She is content} (suneudokei). Late compound verb to
be pleased together with, agree together. In the papyri. {Let him
not leave her} (m(8820)aphiet(9320)aut(886e)). Perhaps here and in verses
 11,13  aphi(886d)i should be translated "put away" like apolu(935c)
in  Mr 10:1 . Some understand aphi(886d)i as separation from bed
and board, not divorce.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:13-7:13

註釋:

 {Which hath an unbelieving husband} (h(8874)is echei andra
apiston). Relative clause here, while a conditional one in verse
 12  (ei tis, if any one). Paul is perfectly fair in stating
both sides of the problem of mixed marriages.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:14-7:14

註釋:

 {Is sanctified in the wife} (h(8867)iastai en t(8869) gunaiki).
Perfect passive indicative of hagiaz(935c), to set apart, to hallow,
to sanctify. Paul does not, of course, mean that the unbelieving
husband is saved by the faith of the believing wife, though Hodge
actually so interprets him. Clearly he only means that the
marriage relation is sanctified so that there is no need of a
divorce. If either husband or wife is a believer and the other
agrees to remain, the marriage is holy and need not be set aside.
This is so simple that one wonders at the ability of men to get
confused over Paul's language. {Else were your children unclean}
(epei ara ta tekna akatharta). The common ellipse of the
condition with epei: "since, accordingly, if it is otherwise,
your children are illegitimate (akatharta)." If the relations
of the parents be holy, the child's birth must be holy also (not
illegitimate). "He is not assuming that the child of a Christian
parent would be baptized; that would spoil rather than help his
argument, for it would imply that the child was not hagios till
it was baptized. The verse throws no light on the question of
infant baptism" (Robertson and Plummer).

經文:

哥林多前書 7:15-7:15

註釋:

 {Is not under bondage} (ou dedoul(9374)ai). Perfect passive
indicative of doulo(935c), to enslave, has been enslaved, does not
remain a slave. The believing husband or wife is not at liberty
to separate, unless the disbeliever or pagan insists on it.
Wilful desertion of the unbeliever sets the other free, a case
not contemplated in Christ's words in  Mt 5:32  19:9 . Luther
argued that the Christian partner, thus released, may marry
again. But that is by no means clear, unless the unbeliever
marries first. {But God hath called us in peace} (en de eir(886e)(8869)
kekl(886b)en h(886d)as or humas). Perfect active indicative of
kale(935c), permanent call in the sphere or atmosphere of peace. He
does not desire enslavement in the marriage relation between the
believer and the unbeliever.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:16-7:16

註釋:

 {For how knowest thou?} (	i gar oidas;). But what does
Paul mean? Is he giving an argument _against_ the believer
accepting divorce or _in favour_ of doing so? The syntax allows
either interpretation with ei (if) after oidas. Is the idea
in ei (if) _hope_ of saving the other or _fear_ of not saving
and hence peril in continuing the slavery of such a bondage? The
latter idea probably suits the context best and is adopted by
most commentators. And yet one hesitates to interpret Paul as
_advocating_ divorce unless strongly insisted on by the
unbeliever. There is no problem at all unless the unbeliever
makes it. If it is a hopeless case, acquiescence is the only wise
solution. But surely the believer ought to be sure that there is
no hope before he agrees to break the bond. Paul raises the
problem of the wife first as in verse  10 .

經文:

哥林多前書 7:17-7:17

註釋:

 {Only} (ei m(885c)). This use of ei m(885c) as an elliptical
condition is very common ( 7:5  Ga 1:7,19  Ro 14:14 ), "except
that" like pl(886e). Paul gives a general principle as a limitation
to what he has just said in verse  15 . "It states the general
principle which determines these questions about marriage, and
this is afterwards illustrated by the cases of circumcision and
slavery" (Robertson and Plummer). He has said that there is to be
no compulsory slavery between the believer and the disbeliever
(the Christian and the pagan). But on the other hand there is to
be no reckless abuse of this liberty, no license. {As the Lord
hath distributed to each man} (hekast(9369) h(9373) memeriken ho
kurios). Perfect active indicative of meriz(935c), old verb from
meros, apart. Each has his lot from the Lord Jesus, has his
call from God. He is not to seek a rupture of the marriage
relation if the unbeliever does not ask for it. {And so ordain I}
(kai hout(9373) diatassomai). Military term, old word, to arrange
in all the churches (distributed, dia-). Paul is conscious of
authoritative leadership as the apostle of Christ to the
Gentiles.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:18-7:18

註釋:

 {Let him not become uncircumcized} (m(8820)epispasth(935c)).
Present middle imperative of epispa(935c), old verb to draw on. In
LXX (I Macc. 1:15) and Josephus (_Ant_. XII, V. I) in this sense.
Here only in N.T. The point is that a Jew is to remain a Jew, a
Gentile to be a Gentile. Both stand on an equality in the
Christian churches. This freedom about circumcision illustrates
the freedom about Gentile mixed marriages.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:19-7:19

註釋:

 {But the keeping of the commandments of God} (alla t(8872)(8873)is
entol(936e) theou). Old word in sense of watching ( Ac 4:3 ). Paul's
view of the worthlessness of circumcision or of uncircumcision is
stated again in  Ga 5:6  6:15  Ro 2:25-29  (only the inward or
spiritual Jew counts).

經文:

哥林多前書 7:20-7:20

註釋:

 {Wherein he was called} (h(8869) ekl(8874)h(885c)). When he was called
by God and saved, whether a Jew or a Gentile, a slave or a
freeman.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:21-7:21

註釋:

 {Wast thou called being a bondservant?} (doulos
ekl(8874)h(8873);). First aorist passive indicative. Wast thou, a slave,
called? {Care not for it} (m(8820)soi melet(935c)). "Let it not be a
care to thee." Third person singular (impersonal) of melei, old
verb with dative soi. It was usually a fixed condition and a
slave could be a good servant of Christ ( Col 3:22  Eph 6:5  Tit
2:9 ), even with heathen masters. {Use it rather} (mallon
chr(8873)ai). Make use of what? There is no "it" in the Greek. Shall
we supply eleutheri(8369) (instrumental case after chr(8873)ai or
doulei(8369))? Most naturally eleutheri(8369), freedom, from
eleutheros, just before. In that case ei kai is not taken as
although, but kai goes with dunasai, "But if thou canst also
become free, the rather use your opportunity for freedom." On the
whole this is probably Paul's idea and is in full harmony with
the general principle above about mixed marriages with the
heathen. Chr(8873)ai is second person singular aorist middle
imperative of chraomai, to use, old and common verb.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:22-7:22

註釋:

 {The Lord's freedman} (apeleutheros Kuriou).
Apeleutheros is an old word for a manumitted slave,
eleutheros from erchomai, to go and so go free, ap- from
bondage. Christ is now the owner of the Christian and Paul
rejoices to call himself Christ's slave (doulos). But Christ
set us free from sin by paying the ransom (lutron) of his life
on the Cross ( Mt 20:28  Ro 8:2  Ga 5:1 ). Christ is thus the
_patronus_ of the _libertus_ who owes everything to his
_patronus_. He is no longer the slave of sin ( Ro 6:6,18 ), but a
slave to God ( Ro 6:22 ). {Likewise the freeman when called is
Christ's slave} (homoi(9373) ho eleutheros kl(8874)heis doulos estin
Christou). Those who were not slaves, but freemen, when
converted, are as much slaves of Christ as those who were and
still were slaves of men. All were slaves of sin and have been
set free from sin by Christ who now owns them all.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:23-7:23

註釋:

 {Ye were bought with a price} (	im(8873) (8867)orasth(8874)e). See on
泰:20| for this very phrase, here repeated. Both classes (slaves
and freemen) were purchased by the blood of Christ. {Become not
bondservants of men} (m(8820)ginesthe douloi anthr(9370)(936e)). Present
middle imperative of ginomai with negative m(885c). Literally,
stop becoming slaves of men. Paul here clearly defines his
opposition to human slavery as an institution which comes out so
powerfully in the Epistle to Philemon. Those already free from
human slavery should not become enslaved.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:24-7:24

註釋:

 {With God} (para the(9369)). There is comfort in that. Even a
slave can have God at his side by remaining at God's side.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:25-7:25

註釋:

 {I have no commandment of the Lord} (epitag(886e) Kuriou ouk
ech(935c)). A late word from epitass(935c), old Greek verb to enjoin, to
give orders to. Paul did have (verse  10 ) a command from the
Lord as we have in Matthew and Mark. It was quite possible for
Paul to know this command of Jesus as he did other sayings of
Jesus ( Ac 20:35 ) even if he had as yet no access to a written
gospel or had received no direct revelation on the subject from
Jesus ( 1Co 11:23 ). Sayings of Jesus were passed on among the
believers. But Paul had no specific word from Jesus on the
subject of virgins. They call for special treatment, young
unmarried women only Paul means ( 7:25,28,34,36-38 ) and not as
in  Re 14:4  (metaphor). It is probable that in the letter
( 7:1 ) the Corinthians had asked about this problem. {But I give
my judgment} (gn(936d)(886e) de did(936d)i). About mixed marriages
( 12-16 ) Paul had the command of Jesus concerning divorce to
guide him. Here he has nothing from Jesus at all. So he gives no
"command," but only "a judgment," a deliberately formed decision
from knowledge ( 2Co 8:10 ), not a mere passing fancy. {As one
that hath obtained mercy of the Lord to be faithful} (h(9373)
(886c)e(886d)enos hupo kuriou pistos einai). Perfect passive participle
of elee(935c), old verb to receive mercy (eleos). Pistos is
predicate nominative with infinitive einai. This language, so
far from being a disclaimer of inspiration, is an express claim
to help from the Lord in the forming of this duly considered
judgment, which is in no sense a command, but an inspired
opinion.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:26-7:26

註釋:

 {I think therefore} (
omiz(9320)oun). Paul proceeds to express
therefore the previously mentioned judgment (gn(936d)(886e)) and calls
it his opinion, not because he is uncertain, but simply because
it is not a command, but advice. {By reason of the present
distress} (dia t(886e) enest(9373)an anagk(886e)). The participle
enest(9373)an is second perfect active of enist(886d)i and means
"standing on" or "present" (cf.  Ga 1:4  Heb 9:9 ). It occurs in
 2Th 2:2  of the advent of Christ as not "present." Whether Paul
has in mind the hoped for second coming of Jesus in this verse we
do not certainly know, though probably so. Jesus had spoken of
those calamities which would precede his coming ( Mt 24:8ff. )
though Paul had denied saying that the advent was right at hand
( 2Th 2:2 ). Anagk(885c) is a strong word (old and common), either
for external circumstances or inward sense of duty. It occurs
elsewhere for the woes preceding the second coming ( Lu 21:23 )
and also for Paul's persecutions ( 1Th 3:7  2Co 6:4  12:10 ).
Perhaps there is a mingling of both ideas here. {Namely}. This
word is not in the Greek. The infinitive of indirect discourse
(huparchein) after 
omiz(935c) is repeated with recitative hoti,
"That the being so is good for a man" (hoti kalon anthr(9370)(9369) to
hout(9373) einai). The use of the article 	o with einai compels
this translation. Probably Paul means for one (anthr(9370)(9369),
generic term for man or woman) to remain as he is whether married
or unmarried. The copula estin is not expressed. He uses
kalon (good) as in  7:1 .

經文:

哥林多前書 7:27-7:27

註釋:

 {Art thou bound to a wife?} (dedesai gunaiki;). Perfect
passive indicative of de(935c), to bind, with dative case gunaiki.
Marriage bond as in  Ro 7:2 . {Seek not to be loosed} (m(8820)z(8874)ei
lusin). Present active imperative with negative m(885c), "Do not be
seeking release" (lusin) from the marriage bond, old word, here
only in N.T. {Seek not a wife} (m(8820)z(8874)ei gunaika). Same
construction, Do not be seeking a wife. Bachelors as well as
widowers are included in lelusai (loosed, perfect passive
indicative of lu(935c)). This advice of Paul he only urges "because
of the present necessity" (verse  26 ). Whether he held on to
this opinion later one does not know. Certainly he gives the
noblest view of marriage in  Eph 5:22-33 . Paul does not present
it as his opinion for all men at all times. Men feel it their
duty to seek a wife.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:28-7:28

註釋:

 {But and if thou marry} (ean de kai gam(8873)(8869)s). Condition
of the third class, undetermined with prospect of being
determined, with the ingressive first aorist (late form) active
subjunctive with ean: "But if thou also commit matrimony or get
married," in spite of Paul's advice to the contrary. {Thou hast
not sinned} (ouch h(886d)artes). Second aorist active indicative of
hamartan(935c), to sin, to miss a mark. Here either Paul uses the
timeless (gnomic) aorist indicative or by a swift transition he
changes the standpoint (proleptic) in the conclusion from the
future (in the condition) to the past. Such mixed conditions are
common (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1020, 1023). Precisely the same
construction occurs with the case of the virgin (parthenos)
except that the old form of the first aorist subjunctive
(g(886d)(8869)) occurs in place of the late gam(8873)(8869) above. The MSS.
interchange both examples. There is no special point in the
difference in the forms. {Shall have tribulation in the flesh}
(	hlipsin t(8869) sarki hexousin). Emphatic position of 	hlipsin
(pressure). See  2Co 12:7  skolops t(8869) sarki (thorn in the
flesh). {And I would spare you} (eg(9320)de hum(936e) pheidomai).
Possibly conative present middle indicative, I am trying to spare
you like agei in  Ro 2:4  and dikaiousthe in  Ga 5:4 .

經文:

哥林多前書 7:29-7:29

註釋:

 {But this I say} (	outo de ph(886d)i. Note ph(886d)i here rather
than leg(935c) (verses  8,12 ). A new turn is here given to the
argument about the present necessity. {The time is shortened}
(ho kairos sunestalmenos estin). Perfect periphrastic passive
indicative of sustell(935c), old verb to place together, to draw
together. Only twice in the N.T., here and  Ac 5:6  which see.
Found in the papyri for curtailing expenses. Calvin takes it for
the shortness of human life, but apparently Paul pictures the
foreshortening of time (opportunity) because of the possible
nearness of and hope for the second coming. But in Philippians
Paul faces death as his fate ( Php 1:21-26 ), though still
looking for the coming of Christ ( 3:20 ). {That henceforth} (	o
loipon hina). Proleptic position of 	o loipon before hina
and in the accusative of general reference and hina has the
notion of result rather than purpose (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
997). {As though they had none} (h(9373) m(8820)echontes). This use of
h(9373) with the participle for an assumed condition is regular and
m(885c) in the _Koin(825f) is the normal negative of the participle. So
the idiom runs on through verse  31 .

經文:

哥林多前書 7:30-7:30

註釋:

 {As though they possessed not} (h(9373) m(8820)katechontes). See
this use of katech(935c), old verb to hold down ( Lu 14:9 ), to keep
fast, to possess, in  2Co 6:10 . Paul means that all earthly
relations are to hang loosely about us in view of the second
coming.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:31-7:31

註釋:

 {Those that use the world} (hoi chr(936d)enoi ton kosmon). Old
verb chraomai, usually with the instrumental case, but the
accusative occurs in some Cretan inscriptions and in late writers
according to a tendency of verbs to resume the use of the
original accusative (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 468). {As not
abusing it} (h(9373) m(8820)katachr(886d)enoi). Perfective use of kata in
composition, old verb, but here only in N.T., to use up, use to
the full. Papyri give examples of this sense. This is more likely
the idea than "abusing" it. {For the fashion of this world
passeth away} (paragei gar to sch(886d)a tou kosmou toutou). Cf.
 1Jo 2:17 . Sch(886d)a is the _habitus_, the outward appearance,
old word, in N.T. only here and  Php 2:7f . Paragei (old word)
means "passes along" like a moving panorama (movie show!). Used
of Jesus passing by in Jericho ( Mt 20:30 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 7:32-7:32

註釋:

 {Free from cares} (amerimnous). Old compound adjective
(a privative and merimna, anxiety). In N.T. only here and  Mt
28:14  which see. {The things of the Lord} (	a tou Kuriou). The
ideal state (so as to the widow and the virgin in verse  33 ),
but even the unmarried do let the cares of the world choke the
word ( Mr 4:19 ). {How he may please the Lord} (p(9373) ares(8869) t(9369)
Kuri(9369)). Deliberative subjunctive with p(9373) retained in an
indirect question. Dative case of Kuri(9369). Same construction in
verse  33  with p(9373) ares(8869) t(8869) gunaiki (his wife) and in  34 
p(9373) ares(8869) t(9369) andri (her husband).

經文:

哥林多前書 7:34-7:34

註釋:

 {And there is a difference also between the wife and the
virgin} (kai memeristai kai h(8820)gun(8820)kai h(8820)parthenos). But the
text here is very uncertain, almost hopelessly so. Westcott and
Hort put kai memeristai in verse  33  and begin a new sentence
with kai h(8820)gun(885c) and add h(8820)agamos after h(8820)gun(885c), meaning
"the widow and the virgin each is anxious for the things of the
Lord" like the unmarried man (ho agamos, bachelor or widow) in
verse  32 . Possibly so, but the MSS. vary greatly at every
point. At any rate Paul's point is that the married woman is more
disposed to care for the things of the world. But, alas, how many
unmarried women (virgins and widows) are after the things of the
world today and lead a fast and giddy life.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:35-7:35

註釋:

 {For your own profit} (pros to hum(936e) aut(936e) sumphoron). Old
adjective, advantageous, with neuter article here as substantive,
from verb sumpher(935c). In N.T. here only and  10:33 . Note
reflexive plural form hum(936e) aut(936e). {Not that I may cast a snare
upon you} (ouch hina brochon humin epibal(935c)). Brochon is a
noose or slip-knot used for lassoing animals, old word, only here
in N.T. Papyri have an example "hanged by a noose." Epibal(935c) is
second aorist active subjunctive of epiball(935c), old verb to cast
upon. Paul does not wish to capture the Corinthians by lasso and
compel them to do what they do not wish about getting married.
{For that which is seemly} (pros to eusch(886d)on). Old adjective
(eu, well, sch(886d)(936e), shapely, comely, from sch(886d)a, figure).
For the purpose of decorum. {Attend upon the Lord}
(euparedron). Adjective construed with pros to, before, late
word (Hesychius) from eu, well, and paredros, sitting beside,
"for the good position beside the Lord" (associative instrumental
case of Kuri(9369)). Cf. Mary sitting at the feet of Jesus ( Lu
10:39 ). {Without distraction} (aperispast(9373)). Late adverb
(Polybius, Plutarch, LXX) from the adjective aperispastos
(common in the papyri) from a privative and perispa(935c), to draw
around ( Lu 10:40 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 7:36-7:36

註釋:

 {That he behaveth himself unseemly} (asch(886d)onein). Old
verb, here only in N.T., from asch(886d)(936e) ( 1Co 12:23 ), from a
privative and sch(886d)a. Occurs in the papyri. Infinitive in
indirect discourse after 
omizei (thinks) with ei (condition
of first class, assumed as true). {If she be past the flower of
her age} (ean (8869) huperakmos). Old word, only here in N.T., from
huper (over) and akm(885c) (prime or bloom of life), past the
bloom of youth, _superadultus_ (Vulgate). Compound adjective with
feminine form like masculine. Apparently the Corinthians had
asked Paul about the duty of a father towards his daughter old
enough to marry. {If need so requireth} (kai hout(9373) opheilei
ginesthai). "And it ought to happen." Paul has discussed the
problem of marriage for virgins on the grounds of expediency. Now
he faces the question where the daughter wishes to marry and
there is no serious objection to it. The father is advised to
consent. Roman and Greek fathers had the control of the marriage
of their daughters. "My marriage is my father's care; it is not
for me to decide about that" (Hermione in Euripides'
_Andromache_, 987). {Let them marry} (gameit(9373)an). Present
active plural imperative (long form).

經文:

哥林多前書 7:37-7:37

註釋:

 {To keep his own virgin daughter} (	(8872)ein t(886e) heautou
parthenon). This means the case when the virgin daughter does
not wish to marry and the father agrees with her, {he shall do
well} (kal(9373) poi(8873)ei).

經文:

哥林多前書 7:38-7:38

註釋:

 {Doeth well} (kal(9373) poiei). So Paul commends the father
who gives his daughter in marriage (gamizei). This verb
gamiz(935c) has not been found outside the N.T. See on 烘t 22:30|.
{Shall do better} (kreisson poi(8873)ei). In view of the present
distress ( 7:26 ) and the shortened time ( 7:29 ). And yet, when
all is said, Paul leaves the whole problem of getting married an
open question to be settled by each individual case.

經文:

哥林多前書 7:39-7:39

註釋:

 {For so long time as her husband liveth} (eph' hoson
chronon z(8869) ho an(8872) aut(8873)). While he lives (	(9369) z(936e)ti andri)
Paul says in  Ro 7:2 . This is the ideal and is pertinent today
when husbands meet their ex-wives and wives meet their
ex-husbands. There is a screw loose somewhere. Paul here treats
as a sort of addendum the remarriage of widows. He will discuss
it again in  1Ti 5:9-13  and then he will advise younger widows
to marry. Paul leaves her free here also to be married again,
"only in the Lord" (monon en Kuri(9369)). Every marriage ought to
be "in the Lord." {To be married} (gam(8874)h(886e)ai) is first aorist
passive infinitive followed by the dative relative h(9369) with
unexpressed antecedent 	out(9369).

經文:

哥林多前書 7:40-7:40

註釋:

 {Happier} (makari(9374)er(835c)). Comparative of makarios used in
the Beatitudes ( Mt 5:3ff. ). {After my judgment} (kata t(886e) em(886e)
gn(936d)(886e)). The same word used in verse  25 , not a command. {I
think} (dok(935c)). From doke(935c), not 
omiz(935c) of verse  26 . But he
insists that he has "the spirit of God" (pneuma theou) in the
expression of his inspired judgment on this difficult,
complicated, tangled problem of marriage. But he has discharged
his duty and leaves each one to decide for himself.

經文:

哥林多前書 8:1-8:1

註釋:

 {Now concerning things sacrificed to idols} (peri de t(936e)
eid(936c)othut(936e)). Plainly the Corinthians had asked also about this
problem in their letter to Paul ( 7:1 ). This compound adjective
(eid(936c)on, idol, 	hutos, verbal adjective from 	hu(935c), to
sacrifice) is still found only in the N.T. and ecclesiastical
writers, not so far in the papyri. We have seen this problem
mentioned in the decision of the Jerusalem Conference ( Ac 15:29  21:25 ). The connection between idolatry and impurity was very
close, especially in Corinth. See both topics connected in  Re
2:14,20 . By eid(936c)othuta was meant the portion of the flesh
left over after the heathen sacrifices. The heathen called it
hierothuton ( 1Co 10:28 ). This leftover part "was either eaten
sacrificially, or taken home for private meals, or sold in the
markets" (Robertson and Plummer). What were Christians to do
about eating such portions either buying in the market or eating
in the home of another or at the feast to the idol? Three
questions are thus involved and Paul discusses them all. There
was evidently difference of opinion on the subject among the
Corinthian Christians. Aspects of the matter come forward not
touched on in the Jerusalem Conference to which Paul does not
here allude, though he does treat it in  Ga 2:1-10 . There was
the more enlightened group who acted on the basis of their
superior knowledge about the non-existence of the gods
represented by the idols. {Ye know that we all have knowledge}
(oidamen hoti pantes gn(9373)in echomen). This may be a quotation
from the letter (Moffatt, _Lit. of N.T._, p. 112). Since their
conversion to Christ, they know the emptiness of idol-worship.
Paul admits that all Christians have this knowledge (personal
experience, gn(9373)is), but this problem cannot be solved by
knowledge.

經文:

哥林多前書 8:2-8:2

註釋:

 {Puffeth up} (phusioi). From phusio(935c) (present indicative
active). See on 氦:6|. Pride may be the result, not edification
(oikodomei) which comes from love. Note article (h(885c)) with
both gn(9373)is and agap(885c), making the contrast sharper. See on
氣Th 5:11| for the verb oikodome(935c), to build up. Love is the
solution, not knowledge, in all social problems. {That he knoweth
anything} (egn(936b)enai ti). Perfect active infinitive in indirect
discourse after dokei (condition of first class with ei). So
"has acquired knowledge" (cf.  3:18 ), has gone to the bottom of
the subject. {He knoweth not yet} (oup(9320)egn(935c)). Second aorist
active indicative, timeless aorist, summary (punctiliar)
statement of his ignorance. {As he ought to know} (kath(9373) dei
gn(936e)ai). Second aorist active infinitive, ingressive aorist
(come to know). Newton's remark that he was only gathering
pebbles on the shore of the ocean of truth is pertinent. The
really learned man knows his ignorance of what lies beyond.
Shallow knowledge is like the depth of the mud hole, not of the
crystal spring.

經文:

哥林多前書 8:3-8:3

註釋:

 {The same is known of him} (houtos egn(9373)tai hup' autou).
Loving God (condition of first class again) is the way to come to
know God. It is not certain whether houtos refers to the man
who loves God or to God who is loved. Both are true. God knows
those that are his ( 2Ti 2:19  Ex 33:12 ). Those who know God are
known of God ( Ga 4:9 ). We love God because he first loved us
( 1Jo 4:19 ). But here Paul uses both ideas and both verbs.
Egn(9373)tai is perfect passive indicative of gin(9373)k(935c), an abiding
state of recognition by (hup') God. No one is acquainted with
God who does not love him ( 1Jo 4:8 ). God sets the seal of his
favour on the one who loves him. So much for the principle.

經文:

哥林多前書 8:4-8:4

註釋:

 {No idol is anything in the world} (ouden eid(936c)on en
kosm(9369)). Probably correct translation, though no copula is
expressed. On eid(936c)on (from eidos), old word, see on 涉c
7:41; 15:20; 1Th 1:9|. The idol was a mere picture or symbol of a
god. If the god has no existence, the idol is a non-entity. This
Gentile Christians had come to know as Jews and Jewish Christians
already knew. {No God but one} (oudeis theos ei m(8820)heis). This
Christians held as firmly as Jews. The worship of Jesus as God's
Son and the Holy Spirit does not recognize three Gods, but one
God in three Persons. It was the worship of Mary the Mother of
Jesus that gave Mahomet his cry: "Allah is One." The cosmos, the
ordered universe, can only be ruled by one God ( Ro 1:20 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 8:5-8:5

註釋:

 {For though there be} (kai gar eiper eisi). Literally, "For
even if indeed there are" (a concessive clause, condition of
first class, assumed to be true for argument's sake). {Called
gods} (legomenoi theoi). So-called gods, reputed gods. Paul
denied really the existence of these so-called gods and held that
those who worshipped idols (non-entities) in reality worshipped
demons or evil spirits, agents of Satan ( 1Co 10:19-21 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 8:6-8:6

註釋:

 {Yet to us there is one God, the Father} (all' h(886d)in heis
theos ho pat(8872)). B omits all' here, but the sense calls for it
anyhow in this apodosis, a strong antithesis to the protasis
({even if at least}, kai eiper). {Of whom} (ex hou). As the
source (ex) of the universe (	a panta as in  Ro 11:36  Col
1:16f. ) and also our goal is God (eis auton) as in  Ro 11:36 
where di' autou is added whereas here di' hou (through whom)
and di' autou (through him) point to Jesus Christ as the
intermediate agent in creation as in  Col 1:15-20  Joh 1:3f .
Here Paul calls Jesus {Lord} (Kurios) and not {God} (	heos),
though he does apply that word to him in  Ro 9:5  Tit 2:13  Col
2:9  Ac 20:28 .

經文:

哥林多前書 8:7-8:7

註釋:

 {Howbeit in all men there is not that knowledge} (all' ouk
en pasin h(8820)gn(9373)is). The knowledge (h(8820)gn(9373)is) of which Paul
is speaking. Knowledge has to overcome inheritance and
environment, prejudice, fear, and many other hindrances. {Being
used until now to the idol} (	(8869) sun(8874)hei(8369) he(9373) arti tou
eid(936c)ou). Old word sun(8874)heia from sun(8874)h(8873) (sun, (8874)hos),
accustomed to, like Latin _consuetudo_, intimacy. In N.T. only
here and  Joh 18:39  1Co 11:16 . It is the force of habit that
still grips them when they eat such meat. They eat it "as an idol
sacrifice" (h(9373) eid(936c)othuton), though they no longer believe in
idols. The idol-taint clings in their minds to this meat. {Being
weak} (asthen(8873) ousa). "It is defiled, not by the partaking of
polluted food, for food cannot pollute ( Mr 7:18f.  Lu 11:41 ),
but by the doing of something which the unenlightened conscience
does not allow" (Robertson and Plummer). For this great word
suneid(8873)is (conscientia, knowing together, conscience) see on
涉c 23:1|. It is important in Paul's Epistles, Peter's First
Epistle, and Hebrews. Even if unenlightened, one must act
according to his conscience, a sensitive gauge to one's spiritual
condition. Knowledge breaks down as a guide with the weak or
unenlightened conscience. For asthen(8873), weak (lack of strength)
see on 烘t 26:41|. {Defiled} (molunetai). Old word molun(935c), to
stain, pollute, rare in N.T. ( 1Ti 3:9  Re 3:4 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 8:8-8:8

註釋:

 {Will not commend} (ou parast(8873)ei). Future active
indicative of parist(886d)i, old word to present as in  Ac 1:3  Lu
2:22  Col 1:28 . Food (r(936d)a) will not give us an entree to God
for commendation or condemnation, whether meat-eaters or
vegetarians. {Are we the worse} (husteroumetha). Are we left
behind, do we fall short. Both conditions are of the third class
(ean m(882c) ean) undetermined. {Are we the better}
(perisseuometha). Do we overflow, do we have excess of credit.
Paul here disposes of the pride of knowledge (the enlightened
ones) and the pride of prejudice (the unenlightened). Each was
disposed to look down upon the other, the one in scorn of the
other's ignorance, the other in horror of the other's heresy and
daring.

經文:

哥林多前書 8:9-8:9

註釋:

 {Take heed} (lepete). A warning to the enlightened. {Lest
by any means} (m(8820)p(9373)). Common construction after verbs of
caution or fearing, m(8820)p(9373) with aorist subjunctive gen(8874)ai.
{This liberty of yours} (h(8820)exousia hum(936e) haut(885c)). Exousia,
from exestin, means a grant, allowance, authority, power,
privilege, right, liberty. It shades off easily. It becomes a
battle cry, personal liberty does, to those who wish to indulge
their own whims and appetites regardless of the effect upon
others. {A stumbling-block to the weak} (proskomma tois
asthenesin). Late word from proskopt(935c), to cut against, to
stumble against. So an obstacle for the foot to strike. In  Ro
14:13  Paul uses skandalon as parallel with proskomma. We do
not live alone. This principle applies to all social relations in
matters of law, of health, of morals. _Noblesse oblige_. The
enlightened must consider the welfare of the unenlightened, else
he does not have love.

經文:

哥林多前書 8:10-8:10

註釋:

 {If a man see thee which hast knowledge sitting at meat in
an idol's temple} (ean gar tis id(8869) [se] ton echonta gn(9373)in en
eid(936c)ei(9369) katakeimenon). Condition of third class, a possible
case. Paul draws the picture of the enlightened brother
exercising his "liberty" by eating in the idol's temple. Later he
will discuss the peril to the man's own soul in this phase of the
matter ( 10:14-22 ), but here he considers only the effect of
such conduct on the unenlightened or weak brother. This bravado
at a sacrificial banquet is in itself idolatrous as Paul will
show. But our weak brother will be emboldened
(oikodom(8874)h(8873)etai, future passive indicative, will be built up)
to go on and do what he still believes to be wrong, to eat things
sacrificed to idols (eis to ta eid(936c)othuta esthiein). Alas, how
often that has happened. Defiance is flung in the face of the
unenlightened brother instead of loving consideration.

經文:

哥林多前書 8:11-8:11

註釋:

 {Through thy knowledge} (en t(8869) s(8869) gn(9373)ei). Literally, in
thy knowledge. Surely a poor use to put one's superior knowledge.
{Perisheth} (apollutai). Present middle indicative of the
common verb apollumi, to destroy. Ruin follows in the wake of
such daredevil knowledge. {For whose sake Christ died} (di' hon
Christos apethanen). Just as much as for the enlightened brother
with his selfish pride. The accusative (hon) with di' gives
the reason, not the agent as with the genitive in  8:6  (di'
hou). The appeal to the death (apethanen, second aorist active
indicative of apothn(8873)k(935c)) of Christ is the central fact that
clinches Paul's argument.

經文:

哥林多前書 8:12-8:12

註釋:

 {Wounding their conscience} (	uptontes aut(936e) t(886e)
suneid(8873)in). Old verb 	upt(935c), to smite with fist, staff, whip.
The conscience is sensitive to a blow like that, a slap in the
face. {Ye sin against Christ} (eis Christon hamartanete). That
fact they were overlooking. Jesus had said to Saul that he was
persecuting him when he persecuted his disciples ( Ac 9:5 ). One
may wonder if Paul knew the words of Jesus in  Mt 25:40 , "ye did
it unto me."

經文:

哥林多前書 8:13-8:13

註釋:

 {Meat} (r(936d)a). Food it should be, not flesh (krea).
{Maketh my brother to stumble} (skandalizei ton adelphon mou).
Late verb (LXX and N.T.) to set a trap-stick ( Mt 5:29 ) or
stumbling-block like proskomma in verse  9  (cf.  Ro
14:13,21 ). Small boys sometimes set snares for other boys, not
merely for animals to see them caught. {I will eat no flesh for
evermore} (ou m(8820)phag(9320)krea eis ton ai(936e)a). The strong double
negative ou m(885c) with the second aorist subjunctive. Here Paul
has {flesh} (krea) with direct reference to the flesh offered
to idols. Old word, but in N.T. only here and  Ro 14:21 . This is
Paul's principle of love (verse  2 ) applied to the matter of
eating meats offered to idols. Paul had rather be a vegetarian
than to lead his weak brother to do what he considered sin. There
are many questions of casuistry today that can only be handled
wisely by Paul's ideal of love.

經文:

哥林多前書 9:1-9:1

註釋:

 2Co
12:1ff. 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
12' or engs='2Co
12'
經文:

哥林多前書 9:2-9:2

註釋:

 {Yet at least I am to you} (alla ge humin eimi). An
_argumentum ad hominem_ and a pointed appeal for their support.
Note use of alla ge in the apodosis (cf.  8:6 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 9:3-9:3

註釋:

 {My defence} (h(8820)em(8820)apologia). Original sense, not idea of
apologizing as we say. See on 涉c 22:1; 25:16|. Refers to what
precedes and to what follows as illustration of  8:13 . {To them
that examine me} (	ois eme anakrinousin). See on 氣Co 2:15;
4:3|. The critics in Corinth were "investigating" Paul with sharp
eyes to find faults. How often the pastor is under the critic's
spy-glass.

經文:

哥林多前書 9:4-9:4

註釋:

 {Have we no right?} (M(8820)ouk echomen exousian;). Literary
plural here though singular in  1-3 . The m(885c) in this double
negative expects the answer "No" while ouk goes with the verb
echomen. "Do we fail to have the right?" Cf.  Ro 10:18f. 
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1173).

經文:

哥林多前書 9:5-9:5

註釋:

 {Have we no right?} (M(8820)ouk echomen exousian;). Same idiom.
{To lead about a wife that is a believer?} (adelph(886e) gunaika
periagein;). Old verb periag(935c), intransitive in  Ac 13:11 . Two
substantives in apposition, a sister a wife, a common Greek
idiom. This is a plea for the support of the preacher's wife and
children. Plainly Paul has no wife at this time. {And Cephas}
(kai K(8870)h(8373)). Why is he singled out by name? Perhaps because of
his prominence and because of the use of his name in the
divisions in Corinth ( 1:12 ). It was well known that Peter was
married ( Mt 8:14 ). Paul mentions James by name in  Ga 1:19  as
one of the Lord's brothers. All the other apostles were either
married or had the right to be.

經文:

哥林多前書 9:6-9:6

註釋:

 {Have we not a right to forbear working?} (ouk echomen
exousian m(8820)ergazesthai;). By (885c) (or) Paul puts the other side
about Barnabas (the only allusion since the dispute in  Ac
15:39 , but in good spirit) and himself. Perhaps (Hofmann) Paul
has in mind the fact that in the first great mission tour ( Ac
13  14 ), Barnabas and Paul received no help from the church in
Antioch, but were left to work their way along at their own
charges. It was not till the Philippian Church took hold that
Paul had financial aid ( Php 4:15 ). Here both negatives have
their full force. Literally, Do we not have (ouk echomen,
expecting the affirmative reply) the right not (m(885c), negative of
the infinitive ergazesthai) to do manual labour (usual meaning
of ergazomai as in  4:12 )?" There was no more compulsion on
Paul and Barnabas to support themselves than upon the other
workers for Christ. They renounced no rights in being voluntarily
independent.

經文:

哥林多前書 9:7-9:7

註釋:

 {What soldier ever serveth?} (	is strateuetai pote;). "Who
ever serves as a soldier?" serves in an army (stratos). Present
middle of old verb strateu(935c). {At his own charges} (idiois
ops(936e)iois). This late word ops(936e)ion (from opson, cooked meat
or relish with bread, and (936e)eomai, to buy) found in Menander,
Polybius, and very common in papyri and inscriptions in the sense
of rations or food, then for the soldiers' wages (often
provisions) or the pay of any workman. So of the wages of sin
( Ro 6:23 ). Paul uses lab(936e) ops(936e)ion (receiving wages, the
regular idiom) in  2Co 11:8 . See Moulton and Milligan,
_Vocabulary_; Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, pp. 148,266; _Light
from the Ancient East_, p. 168. To give proof of his right to
receive pay for preaching Paul uses the illustrations of the
soldier (verse  7 ), the husbandman (verse  7 ), the shepherd
(verse  7 ), the ox treading out the grain ( 8 ), the ploughman
(verse  10 ), the priests in the temple ( 13 ), proof enough in
all conscience, and yet not enough for some churches who even
today starve their pastors in the name of piety. {Who planteth a
vineyard?} (	is phuteuei ampel(936e)a;). Ampel(936e) no earlier than
Diodorus, but in LXX and in papyri. Place of vines (ampelos),
meaning of ending -(936e). {Who feedeth a flock?} (	is poimainei
poimn(886e);). Cognate accusative, both old words. Paul likens the
pastor to a soldier, vinedresser, shepherd. He contends with the
world, he plants churches, he exercises a shepherd's care over
them (Vincent).

經文:

哥林多前書 9:8-9:8

註釋:

 {Do I speak these things after the manner of men?} (M(8820)kata
anthr(9370)on tauta lal(933b)). Negative answer expected. Paul uses
kata anthr(9370)on six times ( 1Co 3:3  9:8  15:32  Gal 1:11  3:15  Ro 3:5 ). The illustrations from human life are pertinent, but he
has some of a higher order, from Scripture. {The law also} (kai
ho nomos). Perhaps objection was made that the Scripture does
not support the practice of paying preachers. That objection is
still made by the stingy.

經文:

哥林多前書 9:9-9:9

註釋:

 {Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the corn}
(ou phim(9373)eis boun alo(936e)ta). Quotation from  De 25:4 .
Prohibition by ou and the volitive future indicative. Phimo(935c),
to muzzle (from phimos, a muzzle for dogs and oxen), appears
first in Aristophanes (_Clouds_, 592) and not again till LXX and
N.T., though in the papyri also. Evidently a vernacular word,
perhaps a slang word. See metaphorical use in  Mt 22:12,34 .
Alo(936e)ta is present active participle of the old verb aloa(935c),
occurs in the N.T. only here (and verse  10 ) and  1Ti 5:18 
where it is also quoted. It is probably derived from halos or
halon, a threshing-floor, or the disc of a shield or of the sun
and moon. The Egyptians according to the monuments, used oxen to
thresh out the grain, sometimes donkeys, by pulling a drag over
the grain. The same process may be found today in Andalusia,
Italy, Palestine. A hieroglyphic inscription at Eileithyas reads:

        "Thresh ye yourselves, O oxen,
         Measures of grain for yourselves,
         Measures of grain for your masters."

Note m(8820)melei expects the negative answer, impersonal verb with
dative and genitive cases (	heoi, God, o(936e), oxen).
{Altogether} (pant(9373)). But here probably with the notion of
doubtless or assuredly. The editors differ in the verse divisions
here. The Canterbury Version puts both these questions in verse
 10 , the American Standard the first in verse  9 , the second in
verse  10 .

經文:

哥林多前書 9:10-9:10

註釋:

 {He that plougheth} (ho arotri(936e)). Late verb arotria(935c),
to plough, for the old aro(935c) from arotron (plough), in LXX and
rare in papyri. {In hope of partaking} (ep' elpidi tou
metechein). The infinitive alo(8369)n is not repeated nor is
opheilei though it is understood, "He that thresheth ought to
thresh in hope of partaking." He that ploughs hardly refers to
the ox at the plough as he that threshes does. The point is that
all the workers (beast or man) share in the fruit of the toil.

經文:

哥林多前書 9:11-9:11

註釋:

 {Is it a great matter?} (mega;). The copula estin has to
be supplied. Note two conditions of first class with ei, both
assumed to be true. On pneumatika and sarkika see on 氧:14;
3:3|. This point comes out sharply also in  Ga 6:6 .

經文:

哥林多前書 9:12-9:12

註釋:

 1Co
13:7 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
13' or engs='1Co
13'
經文:

哥林多前書 9:13-9:13

註釋:

 {Sacred things} (	a hiera). {Of the temple} (	ou
hierou). Play on the same word hierou (sacred). See  Nu
18:8-20  for the details. This is a very pertinent illustration.
{They which wait upon the altar} (hoi t(9369) thusiast(8872)i(9369)
paredreuontes). Old word paredreu(935c), to sit beside, from
par--edros, like Latin _assidere_, and so constant attendance.
Only here in the N.T. Locative case 	husiast(8872)i(9369), late word
found so far only in LXX, Philo, Josephus, N.T., and
ecclesiastical writers. See on 烘t 5:23|.

經文:

哥林多前書 9:14-9:14

註釋:

 {Even so did the Lord ordain} (hout(9373) kai ho Kurios
dietaxen). Just as God gave orders about the priests in the
temple, so did the Lord Jesus give orders for those who preach
the gospel to live out of the gospel (ek tou euaggeliou z(8869)n).
Evidently Paul was familiar with the words of Jesus in  Mt 10:10  Lu 10:7f.  either in oral or written form. He has made his
argument for the minister's salary complete for all time.

經文:

哥林多前書 9:15-9:15

註釋:

 {For it were good for me to die, than that any man should
make my glorying void} (kalon gar moi mallon apothanein (8820)to
kauch(886d)a mou oudeis ken(9373)ei). The tangled syntax of this
sentence reflects the intensity of Paul's feeling on the subject.
He repeats his refusal to use his privileges and rights to a
salary by use of the present perfect middle indicative
(kechr(886d)ai). By the epistolary aorist (egrapsa) he explains
that he is not now hinting for a change on their part towards him
in the matter, "in my case" (en emoi). Then he gives his reason
in vigorous language without a copula ((886e), were): "For good for
me to die rather than," but here he changes the construction by a
violent anacoluthon. Instead of another infinitive (ken(9373)ai)
after (885c) (than) he changes to the future indicative without
hoti or hina, "No one shall make my glorying void," viz., his
independence of help from them. Keno(935c) is an old verb, from
kenos, empty, only in Paul in N.T. See on 氣Co 1:17|.

經文:

哥林多前書 9:16-9:16

註釋:

 {For if I preach} (ean gar euaggeliz(936d)ai). Third class
condition, supposable case. Same construction in verse  16  (ean
m(885c)). {For necessity is laid upon me} (anagk(8820)gar moi
epikeitai). Old verb, lies upon me (dative case moi). Jesus
had called him ( Ac 9:6,15  Ga 1:15f.  Ro 1:14 ). He could do no
other and deserves no credit for doing it. {Woe is me} (ouai gar
moi). Explaining the anagk(885c) (necessity). Paul had to heed the
call of Christ that he had heard. He had a real call to the
ministry. Would that this were the case with every modern
preacher.

經文:

哥林多前書 9:17-9:17

註釋:

 {Of mine own will} (hek(936e)) {--not of mine own will}
(ak(936e)). Both common adjectives, but only here in N.T. save
hek(936e), also in  Ro 8:20 . The argument is not wholly clear.
Paul's call was so clear that he certainly did his work
{willingly} and so had a reward (see on 烘t 6:1| for misthos);
but the only {reward} that he had for his willing work (Marcus
Dods) was to make the gospel {free of expense} (adapanon, verse
 18 , rare word, here only in N.T., once in inscription at
Priene). This was his misthos. It was glorying (kauch(886d)a, to
be able to say so as in  Ac 20:33f. ). {I have a stewardship
intrusted to me} (oikonomian pepisteumai). Perfect passive
indicative with the accusative retained. I have been intrusted
with a stewardship and so would go on with my task like any
oikonomos (steward) even if ak(936e) (unwilling).

經文:

哥林多前書 9:18-9:18

註釋:

 {So as not to use to the full} (eis to m(880a)katachr(8873)asthai). Eis to for purpose with articular infinitive
and perfective use of kata (as in  7:31 ) with chr(8873)asthai
(first aorist middle infinitive).

經文:

哥林多前書 9:19-9:19

註釋:

 {I brought myself under bondage} (emauton edoul(9373)a).
Voluntary bondage, I enslaved myself to all, though free.
Causative verb in -o(935c) (doulo(935c), from doulos). The more
(	ous pleionas). Than he could have done otherwise. Every
preacher faces this problem of his personal attitude and conduct.
Note kerd(8873)(935c) (as in verses  20,21,22 , but once hina kerdan(935c)
in  21 , regular liquid future of kerdain(935c)) with hina is
probably future active indicative ( Jas 4:13 ), though Ionic
aorist active subjunctive from kerda(935c) is possible ( Mt 18:15 ).
"He refuses payment in money that he may make the greater gain in
souls" (Edwards).

經文:

哥林多前書 9:20-9:20

註釋:

 {As a Jew} (h(9373) Ioudaios). He was a Jew and was not
ashamed of it ( Ac 18:18  21:26 ). {Not being myself under the
law} (m(8820)(936e) autos hupo nomon). He was emancipated from the law
as a means of salvation, yet he knew how to speak to them because
of his former beliefs and life with them ( Ga 4:21 ). He knew how
to put the gospel to them without compromise and without offence.

經文:

哥林多前書 9:21-9:21

註釋:

 {To them that are without law} (	ois anomois). The
heathen, those outside the Mosaic law ( Ro 2:14 ), not lawless
( Lu 22:37  Ac 2:23  1Ti 1:9 ). See how Paul bore himself with
the pagans ( Ac 14:15  17:23  24:25 ), and how he quoted heathen
poets. "Not being an outlaw of God, but an inlaw of Christ"
(Evans, Estius has it _exlex, inlex_, m(8820)(936e) anomos theou, all'
ennomos Christou). The genitive case of 	heou and Christou
(specifying case) comes out better thus, for it seems unusual
with anomos and ennomos, both old and regular adjectives.

經文:

哥林多前書 9:22-9:22

註釋:

 1Th
5:14 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
5' or engs='1Th
5'
經文:

哥林多前書 9:23-9:23

註釋:

 {That I may be a joint partaker thereof} (hina sunkoin(936e)os
autou gen(936d)ai). Literally, That I may become co-partner with
others in the gospel. The point is that he may be able to share
the gospel with others, his evangelistic passion. Sunkoin(936e)os
is a compound word (sun, together with, koin(936e)os, partner or
sharer). We have two genitives with it in  Php 1:7 , though en
and the locative is used in  Re 1:9 . It is found only in the
N.T. and a late papyrus. Paul does not wish to enjoy the gospel
just by himself.

經文:

哥林多前書 9:24-9:24

註釋:

 {In a race} (en stadi(9369)). Old word from hist(886d)i, to
place. A stated or fixed distance, 606 3/4 feet, both masculine
stadioi ( Mt 14:24  Lu 24:13 ) and neuter as here. Most of the
Greek cities had race-courses for runners like that at Olympia.
{The prize} (	o brabeion). Late word, in inscriptions and
papyri. Latin _brabeum_. In N. T. only here and  Php 3:14 . The
victor's prize which only one could receive. {That ye may attain}
(hina katalab(8874)e). Final use of hina and perfective use of
kata- with lab(8874)e (effective aorist active subjunctive, grasp
and hold). Old verb katalamban(935c) and used in  Php 3:12ff .

經文:

哥林多前書 9:25-9:25

註釋:

 2Ti
4:7 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ti
4' or engs='2Ti
4'
經文:

哥林多前書 9:26-9:26

註釋:

 {So} (hout(9373)). Both with 	rech(935c) (run) and pukteu(935c)
(fight). {As not uncertainly} (h(9373) ouk ad(886c)(9373)). Instead of
exhorting them further Paul describes his own conduct as a runner
in the race. He explains hout(9373). Ad(886c)(9373) old adverb, only here
in N.T. His objective is clear, with Christ as the goal ( Php
3:14 ). He kept his eye on Christ as Christ watched him. {Fight}
(pukteu(935c)). Paul changes the metaphor from the runner to the
boxer. Old verb (only here in N.T.) from pukt(8873) (pugilist) and
that from pugm(885c) (fist). See on 烘r 7:3|). {As not beating the
air} (h(9373) ouk aera der(936e)). A boxer did this when practising
without an adversary (cf. doing "the daily dozen") and this was
called "shadow-fighting" (skiamachia). He smote something more
solid than air. Probably ou negatives aera, though it still
occurs with the participle as a strong and positive negative.

經文:

哥林多前書 9:27-9:27

註釋:

 {But I buffet my body} (alla hup(9370)iaz(9320)mou to s(936d)a). In
Aristophanes, Aristotle, Plutarch, from hup(9370)ion, and that from
hupo and ops (in papyri), the part of the face under the
eyes, a blow in the face, to beat black and blue. In N.T. only
here and  Lu 18:5  which see. Paul does not, like the Gnostics,
consider his sarx or his s(936d)a sinful and evil. But "it is
like the horses in a chariot race, which must be kept well in
hand by whip and rein if the prize is to be secured" (Robertson
and Plummer). The boxers often used boxing gloves (cestus, of
ox-hide bands) which gave telling blows. Paul was not willing for
his body to be his master. He found good as the outcome of this
self-discipline ( 2Co 12:7  Ro 8:13  Col 2:23  3:5 ). {And bring
it into bondage} (kai doulag(9367)(935c)). Late compound verb from
doulag(9367)os, in Diodorus Siculus, Epictetus and substantive in
papyri. It is the metaphor of the victor leading the vanquished
as captive and slave. {Lest by any means} (m(8820)p(9373)). Common
conjunction for negative purpose with subjunctive as here
(gen(936d)ai, second aorist middle). {After that I have preached to
others} (allois k(8872)(9678)as). First aorist active participle of
k(8872)uss(935c) (see on 氣:23|), common verb to preach, from word
k(8872)ux (herald) and that is probably the idea here. A k(8872)ux at
the games announced the rules of the game and called out the
competitors. So Paul is not merely a herald, but a competitor
also. {I myself should be rejected} (autos adokimos gen(936d)ai).
Literally, "I myself should become rejected." Adokimos is an
old adjective used of metals, coin, soil ( Heb 6:8 ) and in a
moral sense only by Paul in N.T. ( 1Co 9:27  2Co 13:5-7  Ro 1:28  Tit 1:16  2Ti 3:8 ). It means not standing the test (dokimos
from dokimaz(935c)). Paul means rejected for the {prize}, not for
the entrance to the race. He will fail to win if he breaks the
rules of the game ( Mt 7:22f. ). What is the prize before Paul?
Is it that {reward} (misthos) of which he spoke in verse  18 ,
his glorying of preaching a free gospel? So Edwards argues. Most
writers take Paul to refer to the possibility of his rejection in
his personal salvation at the end of the race. He does not claim
absolute perfection ( Php 3:12 ) and so he presses on. At the end
he has serene confidence ( 2Ti 4:7 ) with the race run and won.
It is a humbling thought for us all to see this wholesome fear
instead of smug complacency in this greatest of all heralds of
Christ.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:1-10:1

註釋:

 {For} (gar). Correct text, not de. Paul appeals to the
experience of the Israelites in the wilderness in confirmation of
his statement concerning himself in  9:26f.  and as a powerful
warning to the Corinthians who may be tempted to flirt with the
idolatrous practices of their neighbours. It is a real, not an
imaginary peril. {All under the cloud} (pantes hupo t(886e)
nephel(886e)). They all marched under the pillar of cloud by day
( Ex 13:21  14:19 ) which covered the host ( Nu 14:14  Ps
95:39 ). This mystic cloud was the symbol of the presence of the
Lord with the people.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:2-10:2

註釋:

 {Were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea}
(pantes eis ton M(9375)s(886e) ebaptisanto en t(8869) nephel(8869) kai en t(8869)
thalass(8869)). The picture is plain enough. The mystic cloud
covered the people while the sea rose in walls on each side of
them as they marched across. B K L P read ebaptisanto
(causative first aorist middle, got themselves baptized) while
Aleph A C D have ebaptisth(8873)an (first aorist passive, were
baptized). The immersion was complete for all of them in the sea
around them and the cloud over them. Moses was their leader then
as Christ is now and so Paul uses eis concerning the relation
of the Israelites to Moses as he does of our baptism in relation
to Christ ( Ga 3:27 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 10:3-10:3

註釋:

 {The same spiritual meat} (	o auto pneumatikon br(936d)a).
Westcott and Hort needlessly bracket to auto. Br(936d)a is food,
not just flesh. The reference is to the manna ( Ex 16:13ff. )
which is termed "spiritual" by reason of its supernatural
character. Jesus called himself the true bread from heaven ( Joh
6:35 ) which the manna typified.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:4-10:4

註釋:

 {For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them}
(epinon ek pneumatik(8873) akolouthous(8873) petras). Change to the
imperfect epinon shows their continual access to the
supernatural source of supply. The Israelites were blessed by the
water from the rock that Moses smote at Rephidim ( Ex 17:6 ) and
at Kadesh ( Nu 20:11 ) and by the well of Beer ( Nu 21:16 ). The
rabbis had a legend that the water actually followed the
Israelites for forty years, in one form a fragment of rock
fifteen feet high that followed the people and gushed out water.
Baur and some other scholars think that Paul adopts this
"Rabbinical legend that the water-bearing Rephidim rock journeyed
onwards with the Israelites" (Findlay). That is hard to believe,
though it is quite possible that Paul alludes to this fancy and
gives it a spiritual turn as a type of Christ in allegorical
fashion. Paul knew the views of the rabbis and made use of
allegory on occasion ( Ga 4:24 ). {And the rock was Christ} (h(880a)petra de (886e) ho Christos). He definitely states here in symbolic
form the preexistence of Christ. But surely "we must not disgrace
Paul by making him say that the pre-incarnate Christ followed the
march of Israel in the shape of a lump of rock" (Hofmann). He
does mean that Christ was the source of the water which saved the
Israelites from perishing (Robertson and Plummer) as he is the
source of supply for us today.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:5-10:5

註釋:

 {With most of them} (en tois pleiosin aut(936e)). "A mournful
understatement," for only two (Caleb and Joshua) actually reached
the Promised Land ( Nu 14:30-32 ). All the rest were rejected or
adokimoi ( 9:27 ). {Were overthrown} (katestr(9374)h(8873)an). First
aorist passive indicative of katastr(936e)numi, old compound verb,
to stretch or spread down as of a couch, to lay low (Euripides),
as if by a hurricane. Powerful picture of the desolation wrought
by the years of disobedience and wanderings in the desert by this
verb quoted from  Nu 14:16 .

經文:

哥林多前書 10:6-10:6

註釋:

 {Were our examples} (	upoi h(886d)(936e) egen(8874)h(8873)an). More
exactly, examples for us (objective genitive h(886d)(936e), not
subjective genitive, of us). The word 	upoi (our types) comes
from 	upt(935c), to strike, and meant originally the mark of a blow
as the print of the nails ( Joh 20:25 ), then a figure formed by
a blow like images of the gods ( Ac 7:43 ), then an example to be
imitated ( 1Pe 5:3  1Ti 4:12  1Th 1:7  2Th 3:9 ), or to be
avoided as here, and finally a type in a doctrinal sense ( Ro
5:14  Heb 9:24 ). {To the intent we should not lust after} (eis
to m(8820)einai h(886d)as epithum(8874)as). Purpose expressed by eis with
the articular infinitive 	o einai and the accusative of general
reference with epithum(8874)as (lusters) in the predicate.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:7-10:7

註釋:

 {Neither be ye idolaters} (m(8864)e eid(936c)olatrai ginesthe).
Literally, stop becoming idolaters, implying that some of them
had already begun to be. The word eid(936c)olatr(8873) seems to be a
Christian formation to describe the Christian view. Eating 	a
eid(936c)othuta might become a stepping-stone to idolatry in some
instances. {Drink} (pein). Short form for piein, sometimes
even pin occurs (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 204). {To play}
(paizein). This old verb to play like a child occurs nowhere
else in the N.T., but is common in the LXX and it is quoted here
from  Ex 32:6 . In idolatrous festivals like that witnessed by
Moses when he saw the people singing and dancing around the
golden calf ( Ex 32:18f. ).

經文:

哥林多前書 10:8-10:8

註釋:

 {Neither let us commit fornication} (m(8864)e porneu(936d)en).
More exactly, And let us cease practicing fornication as some
were already doing ( 1Co 6:11  7:2 ). The connection between
idolatry and fornication was very close (see Jowett, _Epistles of
Paul_, II, p. 70) and see about Baal-Peor ( Nu 25:1-9 ). It was
terribly true of Corinth where prostitution was part of the
worship of Aphrodite. {In one day} (mi(8369) h(886d)er(8369)). An item that
adds to horror of the plague in  Nu 25:9  where the total number
is 24,000 instead of 23,000 as here for one day.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:9-10:9

註釋:

 {Neither let us tempt the Lord} (m(8864)e ekpeiraz(936d)en ton
Kurion). So the best MSS. instead of Christ. This compound
occurs in LXX and in N.T. always about Christ (here and  Mt 4:7  Lu 4:12  10:25 ). Let us cease sorely (ek-) tempting the Lord
by such conduct. {And perished by the serpents} (kai hupo t(936e)
ophe(936e) ap(936c)lunto). Vivid imperfect middle (cf. aorist middle
ap(936c)onto in verse  10 ), were perishing day by day. The story
is told in  Nu 21:6 . The use of hupo for agent with the
intransitive middle of apollumi is regular. Note the Ionic
uncontracted genitive plural ophe(936e) rather than oph(936e).

經文:

哥林多前書 10:10-10:10

註釋:

 {Neither murmur ye} (m(8864)e gogguzete). Implying that some
of them were murmuring. For this late picturesque onomatopoetic
verb see on 烘t 20:11|. The reference seems to be to  Nu 16:41f. 
after the punishment of Korah. {By the destroyer} (hupo tou
olothreutou). This word, from olothreu(935c) (late verb from
olethros, destruction) occurs only here, so far as known. The
reference is to the destroying angel of  Ex 12:23  (ho
olothreu(936e)).

經文:

哥林多前書 10:11-10:11

註釋:

 {Now these things happened unto them} (	auta de sunebainon
ekeinois). Imperfect tense because they happened from time to
time. {By way of example} (	upik(9373)). Adverb in sense of 	upoi
in verse  6 . Only instance of the adverb except in
ecclesiastical writers after this time, but adjective 	upikos
occurs in a late papyrus. {For our admonition} (pros nouthesian
h(886d)(936e)). Objective genitive (h(886d)(936e)) again. Nouthesia is late
word from 
outhete(935c) (see on 涉c 20:31; 1Th 5:12,14|) for
earlier 
outhet(8873)is and 
outhetia. {The ends of the ages have
come} (	a tel(8820)t(936e) ai(936e)(936e) kat(886e)t(886b)en). Cf.  Heb 9:26  h(880a)sunteleia t(936e) ai(936e)(936e), the consummation of the ages (also  Mt
13:40 ). The plural seems to point out how one stage succeeds
another in the drama of human history. Kat(886e)t(886b)en is perfect
active indicative of katanta(935c), late verb, to come down to (see
on 涉c 16:1|). Does Paul refer to the second coming of Christ as
in  7:26 ? In a sense the ends of the ages like a curtain have
come down to all of us.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:12-10:12

註釋:

 {Lest he fall} (m(8820)pes(8869)). Negative purpose with m(885c) and
second aorist active subjunctive of pipt(935c).

經文:

哥林多前書 10:13-10:13

註釋:

 {Hath taken} (eil(8870)hen). Perfect active indicative of
lamban(935c). {But such as man can bear} (ei m(8820)anthr(9370)inos).
Except a human one. Old adjective meaning falling to the lot of
man. {Above that ye are able} (huper ho dunasthe). Ellipsis,
but plain. There is comfort in that God is faithful, trustworthy
(pistos). {The way of escape} (	(886e) ekbasin). "The way out" is
always there right along with (sun) the temptation. This old
word only here in N.T. and  Heb 13:7  about death. It is cowardly
to yield to temptation and distrustful of God.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:14-10:14

註釋:

 {Wherefore} (dioper). Powerfully Paul applies the example
of the Israelites to the perilous state of the Corinthians about
idolatry. See on verse 浪| for word eid(936c)olatreia.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:15-10:15

註釋:

 2Co
11:19 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
11' or engs='2Co
11'
經文:

哥林多前書 10:16-10:16

註釋:

 {The cup of blessing} (	o pot(8872)ion t(8873) eulogias). The cup
over which we pronounce a blessing as by Christ at the
institution of the ordinance. {A communion of the blood of
Christ} (koin(936e)ia tou haimatos tou Christou). Literally, a
participation in (objective genitive) the blood of Christ. The
word koin(936e)ia is an old one from koin(936e)os, partner, and so
here and  Php 2:1  3:10 . It can mean also fellowship ( Ga 2:9 )
or contribution ( 2Co 8:4  Php 1:5 ). It is, of course, a
spiritual participation in the blood of Christ which is
symbolized by the cup. Same meaning for koin(936e)ia in reference
to "the body of Christ." {The bread which we break} (	on arton
hon kl(936d)en). The loaf. Inverse attraction of the antecedent
(arton) to the case (accusative) of the relative (hon)
according to classic idiom (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 488).
Artos probably from ar(935c), to join or fit (flour mixed with
water and baked). The mention of the cup here before the bread
does not mean that this order was observed for see the regular
order of bread and then cup in  11:24-27 .

經文:

哥林多前書 10:17-10:17

註釋:

 {One bread} (heis artos). One loaf. {Who are many} (hoi
polloi). The many. {We all} (hoi pantes). We the all, the
whole number, hoi pantes being in apposition with the subject
{we} (h(886d)eis unexpressed). {Partake} (metechomen). Have a
part with or in, share in. See on 消:12; Heb 2:14; 5:13|
(partaking of milk). {Of the one bread} (	ou henos artou). Of
the one loaf, the article 	ou referring to one loaf already
mentioned. {One body} (hen s(936d)a). Here the mystical spiritual
body of Christ as in  12:12f. , the spiritual kingdom or church
of which Christ is head ( Col 1:18  Eph 5:23 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 10:18-10:18

註釋:

 {After the flesh} (kata sarka). The literal Israel, the
Jewish people, not the spiritual Israel (Isra(886c) kata pneuma)
composed of both Jews and Gentiles, the true children of faith
( Ro 2:28  9:8  Gal 3:7 ). {Communion with the altar} (koin(936e)oi
tou thusiast(8872)iou). Same idea in koin(936e)oi participators in,
partners in, sharers in (with objective genitive). The word
	husiast(8872)ion is from late verb 	husiaz(935c), to offer sacrifice,
and that from 	husia, sacrifice, and that from 	hu(935c), common
verb to slay, to sacrifice (verse  20 ). The Israelites who offer
sacrifices have a spiritual participation in the altar.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:19-10:19

註釋:

 {A thing sacrificed to idols} (eid(936c)othuton). See on 涉c
15:29; 1Co 8:1,4|. {Idol} (eid(936c)on). Image of a god. See on 涉c
7:41; 15:20; 1Co 8:4,7|.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:20-10:20

註釋:

 {But I say that} (all' hoti). The verb ph(886d)i (I say)
must be repeated from verse  19  before hoti. {To demons, and
not to God} (daimoniois kai ou the(9369)). Referring to LXX text of
 De 32:17 . It is probable that by ou the(9369) Paul means "to a
no-god" as also in  De 32:21  ep' ouk ethnei (by a no-people).
This is Paul's reply to the heathen who claimed that they
worshipped the gods represented by the images and not the mere
wood or stone or metal idols. The word daimonia is an adjective
daimonios from daim(936e), an inferior deity, and with same idea
originally, once in this sense in N.T. ( Ac 17:18 ). Elsewhere in
N.T. it has the notion of evil spirits as here, those spiritual
forces of wickedness ( Eph 6:12 ) that are under the control of
Satan. The word daimonia, so common in the Gospels, occurs in
Paul's writings only here and  1Ti 4:1 . Demonology is a deep and
dark subject here pictured by Paul as the explanation of
heathenism which is a departure from God ( Ro 1:19-23 ) and a
substitute for the worship of God. It is a terrible indictment
which is justified by the licentious worship associated with
paganism then and now.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:21-10:21

註釋:

 {Ye cannot} (ou dunasthe). Morally impossible to drink
the Lord's cup and the cup of demons, to partake of the Lord's
table and the table of demons. {Of the table of the Lord}
(	rapez(8873) Kuriou). No articles, but definite idea. Trapeza is
from 	etra (four) and peza (a foot), four-footed. Here
{table} means, as often, what is on the table. See  Lu 22:30 
where Jesus says "at my table" (epi t(8873) trapez(8873) mou),
referring to the spiritual feast hereafter. Here the reference is
plainly to the Lord's Supper (Kuriakon deipnon,  1Co 11:20 ).
See allusions in O.T. to use of the table in heathen idol feasts
( Isa 65:11  Jer 7:18  Eze 16:18f.  23:41 ). The altar of
burnt-offering is called the table of the Lord in  Mal 1:7 
(Vincent).

經文:

哥林多前書 10:22-10:22

註釋:

 {Provoke to jealousy} (paraz(886c)oumen). The very word used
in  De 32:21  of the insolence of the old Israelites. Quoted in
 Ro 10:19 . Such double-dealing now will do this very thing.
{Stronger than he} (ischuroteroi autou). Comparative adjective
followed by the ablative.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:23-10:23

註釋:

 See on 泰:12| for {lawful} (exestin) and {expedient}
(sumpherei). {Edify not} (ouk oikodomei). Build up.
Explanation of {expedient} (sumpherei).

經文:

哥林多前書 10:24-10:24

註釋:

 {Let no man seek his own} (m(8864)eis to heautou z(8874)eit(935c)).
This is Paul's rule for social relations ( 1Co 13:5  Ga 6:2  Ro
14:7  15:2  Php 2:1ff. ) and is the way to do what is expedient
and what builds up. {His neighbour's good} (	o tou heterou).
Literally, "the affair of the other man." Cf. 	on heteron in
 Ro 13:8  for this idea of heteros like ho pl(8873)ion (the nigh
man, the neighbour) in  Ro 15:2 . This is loving your neighbour
as yourself by preferring your neighbour's welfare to your own
( Php 2:4 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 10:25-10:25

註釋:

 {In the shambles} (en makell(9369)). Only here in N.T. A
transliterated Latin word _macellum_, possibly akin to maceria
and the Hebrew word for enclosure, though occurring in Ionic and
Laconian and more frequent in the Latin. It occurs in Dio Cassius
and Plutarch and in the papyri and inscriptions for "the
provision market." Deissmann (_Light from the Ancient East_, p.
276) says: "In the Macellum at Pompeii we can imagine to
ourselves the poor Christians buying their modest pound of meat
in the Corinthian Macellum ( 1Co 10:25 ), with the same life-like
reality with which the Diocletian maximum tariff called up the
picture of the Galilean woman purchasing her five sparrows."
{Asking no questions for conscience sake} (m(8864)en anakrinontes
dia t(886e) suneid(8873)in). As to whether a particular piece of meat
had been offered to idols before put in the market. Only a part
was consumed in the sacrifices to heathen gods. The rest was sold
in the market. Do not be over-scrupulous. Paul here champions
liberty in the matter as he had done in  8:4 .

經文:

哥林多前書 10:26-10:26

註釋:

 This verse gives the reason for Paul's advice. It is a
quotation from  Ps 24:1  and was a common form of grace before
meals. {Fulness} (pl(8872)(936d)a). Old word from pl(8872)o(935c), to fill,
here that with which a thing is filled, whatever fills the earth.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:27-10:27

註釋:

 {Biddeth you} (kalei humas). To a general banquet, but
not to a temple feast ( 8:10 ) which is prohibited. If a pagan
invites Christians to their homes to a banquet, one is to act
like a gentleman.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:28-10:28

註釋:

 {But if any man say unto you} (ean de tis humin eip(8869)).
Condition of third class. Suppose at such a banquet a "weak"
brother makes the point to you: "This hath been offered in
sacrifice" (	outo hierothuton estin). Hierothuton, late word
in Plutarch, rare in inscriptions and papyri, only here in N.T.
{Eat not} (m(8820)esthiete). Present imperative with m(885c)
prohibiting the habit of eating then. Pertinent illustration to
the point of doing what is expedient and edifying. {That shewed
it} (	on m(886e)usanta). First aorist active articular participle
(accusative case because of dia) from m(886e)u(935c), old verb, to
point out, to disclose. See  Lu 20:37 .

經文:

哥林多前書 10:29-10:29

註釋:

 {For why is my liberty judged by another conscience?}
(hina ti gar h(8820)eleutheria mou krinetai hupo all(8873)
suneid(8873)e(9373);). Supply gen(8874)ai (deliberative subjunctive) after
	i. Paul deftly puts himself in the place of the strong brother
at such a banquet who is expected to conform his conscience to
that of the weak brother who makes the point about a particular
piece of meat. It is an abridgment of one's personal liberty in
the interest of the weak brother. Two individualities clash. The
only reason is love which builds up ( 8:2  and all of chapter
 1Co 13 ). There is this eternal collision between the forces of
progress and reaction. If they work together, they must consider
the welfare of each other.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:30-10:30

註釋:

 Paul carries on the supposed objective to his principle of
love. Why incur the risk of being evil spoken of
(lasph(886d)oumai) for the sake of maintaining one's liberty? Is
it worth it? See  Ro 14:6  where Paul justifies the conscience of
one who eats the meat and of one who does not. Saying grace over
food that one should not eat seems inconsistent. We have this
very word _blaspheme_ in English.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:31-10:31

註釋:

 {To the glory of God} (eis doxan theou). This is the
ruling motive in the Christian's life, not just having his own
way about whims and preferences.

經文:

哥林多前書 10:32-10:32

註釋:

 {Give no occasion of stumbling} (aproskopoi). Late word
and in papyri, only three times in N.T. (here;  Php 1:10  Ac
24:16 ). See on 涉cts 24:16|. Here in active sense, not tripping
others by being a stumbling-block, as in Sirach 32:21, but
passive in  Ac 24:16 .

經文:

哥林多前書 10:33-10:33

註釋:

 {Mine own profit} (	o emoutou sumpheron). Old word from
sumpher(935c), to bear together, and explains use of verb in verse
 23 . {That they may be saved} (hina s(9374)h(9373)in). First aorist
passive subjunctive of s(937a)(935c), to save, with hina purpose
clause with same high motive as in  9:22 . This is the ruling
passion of Paul in his dealings with men.


經文:

哥林多前書 11:1-11:1

註釋:

 {Imitators of me} (mim(8874)ai mou). In the principle of
considerate love as so clearly shown in chapters  1Co 8-10  and
in so far as (kath(9373)) Paul is himself an imitator of Christ.
The preacher is a leader and is bound to set an example or
pattern (	upos) for others ( Tit 2:7 ). This verse clearly
belongs to the preceding chapter and not to chapter 11.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:2-11:2

註釋:

 {Hold fast the traditions} (	as paradoseis katechete).
Hold down as in  15:2 . Paradosis (tradition) from paradid(936d)i
(pared(936b)a, first aorist active indicative) is an old word and
merely something handed on from one to another. The thing handed
on may be bad as in  Mt 15:2f.  (which see) and contrary to the
will of God ( Mr 7:8f. ) or it may be wholly good as here. There
is a constant conflict between the new and the old in science,
medicine, law, theology. The obscurantist rejects all the new and
holds to the old both true and untrue. New truth must rest upon
old truth and is in harmony with it.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:3-11:3

註釋:

 {But I would have you know} (	hel(9320)de humas eidenai). But
I wish you to know, censure in contrast to the praise in verse
 2 . {The head of Christ is God} (kephal(8820)tou Christou ho
theos). Rather, God is the head of Christ, since kephal(885c) is
anarthrous and predicate.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:4-11:4

註釋:

 {Having his head covered} (kata kephal(8873) ech(936e)).
Literally, having a veil (kalumma understood) down from the
head (kephal(8873) ablative after kata as with kata in  Mr
5:13  Ac 27:14 ). It is not certain whether the Jews at this time
used the _tallith_, "a four-corned shawl having fringes
consisting of eight threads, each knotted five times" (Vincent)
as they did later. Virgil (_Aeneid_ iii., 545) says: "And our
heads are shrouded before the altar with a Phrygian vestment."
The Greeks (both men and women) remained bareheaded in public
prayer and this usage Paul commends for the men.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:5-11:5

註釋:

 {With her head unveiled} (akatakalupt(9369) t(8869) kephal(8869)).
Associative instrumental case of manner and the predicative
adjective (compound adjective and feminine form same as
masculine), "with the head unveiled." Probably some of the women
had violated this custom. "Amongst Greeks only the hetairai, so
numerous in Corinth, went about unveiled; slave-women wore the
shaven head--also a punishment of the adulteress" (Findlay). Cf.
 Nu 5:18 . {One and the same thing as if she were shaven} (hen
kai to auto t(8869) exur(886d)en(8869)). Literally, "One and the same thing
with the one shaven" (associative instrumental case again,
Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 530). Perfect passive articular
participle of the verb xura(935c), later form for the old xure(935c).
It is public praying and prophesying that the Apostle here has in
mind. He does not here condemn the act, but the breach of custom
which would bring reproach. A woman convicted of adultery had her
hair shorn ( Isa 7:20 ). The Justinian code prescribed shaving
the head for an adulteress whom the husband refused to receive
after two years. Paul does not tell Corinthian Christian women to
put themselves on a level with courtesans.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:6-11:6

註釋:

 {Let her also be shorn} (kai keirasth(935c)). Aorist middle
imperative of keir(935c), to shear (as sheep). Let her cut her hair
close. A single act by the woman. {If it is a shame} (ei de
aischron). Condition of first class assumed to be true.
Aischron is old adjective from aischos, bareness, disgrace.
Clearly Paul uses such strong language because of the effect on a
woman's reputation in Corinth by such conduct that proclaimed her
a lewd woman. Social custom varied in the world then as now, but
there was no alternative in Corinth. {To be shorn or shaven} (	o
keirasthai kai xurasthai). Articular infinitives subject of
copula estin understood, keirasthai first aorist middle,
xurasthai present middle. Note change in tense. {Let her be
veiled} (katakaluptesth(935c)). Present middle imperative of old
compound kata-kalupt(935c), here alone in N.T. Let her cover up
herself with the veil (down, kata, the Greek says, the veil
hanging down from the head).

經文:

哥林多前書 11:7-11:7

註釋:

 {The image and glory of God} (eik(936e) kai doxa theou).
Anarthrous substantives, but definite. Reference to  Ge 1:28  2:26  whereby man is made directly in the image (eik(936e)) of God.
It is the moral likeness of God, not any bodily resemblance.
Ellicott notes that man is the glory (doxa) of God as the crown
of creation and as endowed with sovereignty like God himself.
{The glory of the man} (doxa andros). Anarthrous also, man's
glory. In  Ge 2:26  the LXX has anthr(9370)os (Greek word for both
male and female), not an(8872) (male) as here. But the woman
(gun(885c)) was formed from the man (an(8872)) and this priority of
the male (verse  8 ) gives a certain superiority to the male. On
the other hand, it is equally logical to argue that woman is the
crown and climax of all creation, being the last.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:9-11:9

註釋:

 {For the woman} (dia t(886e) gunaika). Because of (dia with
accusative case) the woman. The record in Genesis gives the man
(an(8872)) as the origin (ek) of the woman and the reason for
(dia) the creation (ektisth(885c), first aorist passive of
ktiz(935c), old verb to found, to create, to form) of woman.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:10-11:10

註釋:

 {Ought} (opheilei). Moral obligation therefore (dia
touto, rests on woman in the matter of dress that does not (ouk
opheilei in verse  7 ) rest on the man. {To have a sign of
authority} (exousian echein). He means s(886d)eion exousias
(symbol of authority) by exousian, but it is the sign of
authority of the man over the woman. The veil on the woman's head
is the symbol of the authority that the man with the uncovered
head has over her. It is, as we see it, more a sign of subjection
(hypotag(8873),  1Ti 2:10 ) than of authority (exousias).
{Because of the angels} (dia tous aggelous). This startling
phrase has caused all kinds of conjecture which may be dismissed.
It is not preachers that Paul has in mind, nor evil angels who
could be tempted ( Ge 6:1f. ), but angels present in worship (cf.
 1Co 4:9  Ps 138:1 ) who would be shocked at the conduct of the
women since the angels themselves veil their faces before Jehovah
( Isa 6:2 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 11:11-11:11

註釋:

 {Howbeit} (pl(886e)). This adversative clause limits the
preceding statement. Each sex is incomplete without (ch(9372)is,
apart from, with the ablative case) the other. {In the Lord} (en
Kuri(9369)). In the sphere of the Lord, where Paul finds the
solution of all problems.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:12-11:12

註釋:

 {Of} (ek) {--by} (dia). Ever since the first creation
man has come into existence by means of (dia with genitive) the
woman. The glory and dignity of motherhood. Cf. _The Fine Art of
Motherhood_ by Ella Broadus Robertson.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:13-11:13

註釋:

 {Is it seemly?} (prepon estin;). Periphrastic present
indicative rather than prepei. See on 烘t 3:15|. Paul appeals
to the sense of propriety among the Corinthians.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:14-11:14

註釋:

 {Nature itself} (h(8820)phusis aut(885c)). He reenforces the
appeal to custom by the appeal to nature in a question that
expects the affirmative answer (oude). Phusis, from old verb
phu(935c), to produce, like our word nature (Latin _natura_), is
difficult to define. Here it means native sense of propriety (cf.
 Ro 2:14 ) in addition to mere custom, but one that rests on the
objective difference in the constitution of things.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:15-11:15

註釋:

 {Have long hair} (kom(8369)). Present active subjunctive of
koma(935c) (from kom(885c), hair), old verb, same contraction
(-a(8869)=(8369)) as the indicative (aei = (8369)), but subjunctive here
with ean in third class condition. Long hair is a glory to a
woman and a disgrace to a man (as we still feel). The long-haired
man! There is a papyrus example of a priest accused of letting
his hair grow long and of wearing woollen garments. {For a
covering} (anti peribolaiou). Old word from periball(935c) to
fling around, as a mantle ( Heb 1:12 ) or a covering or veil as
here. It is not in the place of a veil, but answering to (anti,
in the sense of anti in  Joh 1:16 ), as a permanent endowment
(dedotai, perfect passive indicative).

經文:

哥林多前書 11:16-11:16

註釋:

 {Contentious} (philoneikos). Old adjective (philos,
neikos), fond of strife. Only here in N.T. If he only existed in
this instance, the disputatious brother. {Custom} (sun(8874)heian).
Old word from sun(8874)h(8873) (sun, (8874)hos), like Latin _consuetudo_,
intercourse, intimacy. In N.T. only here and  8:7  which see. "In
the sculptures of the catacombs the women have a close-fitting
head-dress, while the men have the hair short" (Vincent).

經文:

哥林多前書 11:17-11:17

註釋:

 {This} (	outo). Probably the preceding one about the
head-dress of women, and transition to what follows. {I praise
you not} (ouk epain(935c)). In contrast to the praise in  11:2 .
{For the better} (eis to kreisson). Neuter articular
comparative of kratus, but used as comparative of kalos,
good. Attic form kreitton. {For the worse} (eis to h(8873)son).
Old comparative from h(886b)a, softly, used as comparative of
kakos, bad. In N.T. only here and  2Co 12:15 .

經文:

哥林多前書 11:18-11:18

註釋:

 {First of all} (pr(9374)on men). There is no antithesis
(deuteron de, secondly, or epeita de, in the next place)
expressed. This is the primary reason for Paul's condemnation and
the only one given. {When ye come together in the church}
(sunerchomen(936e) h(886d)(936e) en ekkl(8873)i(8369)). Genitive absolute. Here
ekkl(8873)ia has the literal meaning of assembly. {Divisions}
(schismata). Accusative of general reference with the
infinitive huparchein in indirect discourse. Old word for
cleft, rent, from schiz(935c). Example in papyri for splinter of
wood. See on  1:10 . Not yet formal cleavages into two or more
organizations, but partisan divisions that showed in the
love-feasts and at the Lord's Supper. {Partly} (meros ti).
Accusative of extent (to some part) like panta in  10:33 . He
could have said ek merous as in  13:9 . The rumours of strife
were so constant (I keep on hearing, akou(935c)).

經文:

哥林多前書 11:19-11:19

註釋:

 {Must be} (dei einai). Since moral conditions are so bad
among you (cf. chapters 1 to 6). Cf.  Mt 18:7 . {Heresies}
(haireseis). The schisms naturally become {factions} or
{parties}. Cf. strifes (erides) in  1:11 . See on 涉c 15:5| for
haireseis, a choosing, taking sides, holding views of one
party, heresy (our word). "Heresy is theoretical schism, schism
practical heresy." Cf.  Tit 3:10  2Pe 2:1 . In Paul only here and
 Ga 5:20 . {That} (hina). God's purpose in these factions makes
{the proved ones} (hoi dokimoi) become {manifest} (phaneroi).
"These haireseis are a magnet attracting unsound and unsettled
minds" (Findlay). It has always been so. Instance so-called
Christian Science, Russellism, New Thought, etc., today.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:20-11:20

註釋:

 {To eat the Lord's Supper} (Kuriakon deipnon phagein).
Kuriakos, adjective from Kurios, belonging to or pertaining
to the Lord, is not just a biblical or ecclesiastical word, for
it is found in the inscriptions and papyri in the sense of
imperial (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 358), as
imperial finance, imperial treasury. It is possible that here the
term applies both to the Agap(885c) or Love-feast (a sort of church
supper or club supper held in connection with, before or after,
the Lord's Supper) and the Eucharist or Lord's Supper. Deipnon,
so common in the Gospels, only here in Paul. The selfish conduct
of the Corinthians made it impossible to eat a Lord's Supper at
all.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:21-11:21

註釋:

 {Taketh before} (prolambanei). Before others. Old verb to
take before others. It was conduct like this that led to the
complete separation between the Love-feast and the Lord's Supper.
It was not even a common meal together (koinon deipnon), not to
say a Lord's deipnon. It was a mere {grab-game}. {This one is
hungry} (hos de pein(8369)). Demonstrative hos. Nothing is left
for him at the love-feast. {Another is drunken} (hos de
methuei). Such disgusting conduct was considered shameful in
heathen club suppers. "Hungry poor meeting intoxicated rich, at
what was supposed to be a supper of the Lord" (Robertson and
Plummer). On methu(935c), to be drunk, see on 烘t 24:49; Ac 2:15|.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:22-11:22

註釋:

 {What? Have ye not houses?} (M(8820)gar oikias ouk echete;)
The double negative (m(882d)-ouk) in the single question is like
the idiom in  9:4f.  which see. M(885c) expects a negative answer
while ouk negatives the verb echete. "For do you fail to have
houses?" Paul is not approving gluttony and drunkenness but only
expressing horror at their sacrilege (despising, kataphroneite)
of the church of God. {That have not} (	ous m(8820)echontas). Not
those without houses, but those who have nothing, "the have-nots"
(Findlay) like  2Co 8:12 , in contrast with hoi echontes "the
haves" (the men of property). {What shall I say to you?} (	i
eip(9320)humin;) Deliberative subjunctive that well expresses Paul's
bewilderment.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:23-11:23

註釋:

 {For I received of the Lord} (ego gar parelabon apo tou
Kuriou). Direct claim to revelation from the Lord Jesus on the
origin of the Lord's Supper. Luke's account ( Lu 22:17-20 ) is
almost identical with this one. He could easily have read I
Corinthians before he wrote his Gospel. See  15:3  for use of
both parelabon and pared(936b)a. Note para in both verbs. Paul
received the account from (para--apo) the Lord and passed it on
from himself to them, a true paradosis (tradition) as in
 11:2 . {He was betrayed} (paredideto). Imperfect passive
indicative (irregular form for paredidoto, Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 340). Same verb as pared(936b)a (first aorist active
indicative just used for "I delivered").

經文:

哥林多前書 11:24-11:24

註釋:

 {When he had given thanks} (eucharist(8873)as). First aorist
active participle of euchariste(935c) from which word our word
Eucharist comes, common late verb (see on 氣:14|). {Which is for
you} (	o huper hum(936e)). Kl(936d)enon (broken) of the Textus
Receptus (King James Version) is clearly not genuine. Luke ( Lu
22:19 ) has didomenon (given) which is the real idea here. As a
matter of fact the body of Jesus was not broken ( Joh 19:36 ).
The bread was broken, but not the body of Jesus. {In remembrance
of me} (eis t(886e) em(886e) anamn(8873)in). The objective use of the
possessive pronoun em(886e). Not my remembrance of you, but your
remembrance of me. Anamn(8873)is, from anamimn(8873)k(935c), to remind or
to recall, is an old word, but only here in N.T. save  Lu 22:19 
which see.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:25-11:25

註釋:

 {After supper} (meta to deipn(8873)ai). Meta and the
articular aorist active infinitive, "after the dining" (or the
supping) as in  Lu 22:20 . {The new covenant} (h(8820)kain(880a)diath(886b)(885c)). For diath(886b)(885c) see on 烘t 26:28|. For kainos see on
烊u 5:38; 22:20|. The position of estin before en t(9369) haimati
(in my blood) makes it a secondary or additional predicate and
not to be taken just with diath(886b)(885c) (covenant or will). {As oft
as ye drink it} (hosakis an pin(8874)e). Usual construction for
general temporal clause of repetition (an and the present
subjunctive with hosakis). So in verse  26 .

經文:

哥林多前書 11:26-11:26

註釋:

 {Till he come} (achri hou elth(8869)). Common idiom (with or
without an) with the aorist subjunctive for future time
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 975). In  Lu 22:18  we have he(9373) hou
elth(8869). The Lord's Supper is the great preacher (kataggellete)
of the death of Christ till his second coming ( Mt 26:29 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 11:27-11:27

註釋:

 {Unworthily} (anaxi(9373)). Old adverb, only here in N.T.,
not genuine in verse  29 . Paul defines his meaning in verse
 29f . He does not say or imply that we ourselves must be
"worthy" (axioi) to partake of the Lord's Supper. No one would
ever partake on those terms. Many pious souls have abstained from
observing the ordinance through false exegesis here. {Shall be
guilty} (enochos estai). Shall be held guilty as in  Mt 5:21f. 
which see. Shall be guilty of a crime committed against the body
and blood of the Lord by such sacrilege (cf.  Heb 6:6  10:29 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 11:28-11:28

註釋:

 {Let a man prove himself} (dokimazet(9320)anthr(9370)os heauton).
Test himself as he would a piece of metal to see if genuine. Such
examination of one's motives would have made impossible the
disgraceful scenes in verses  20ff .

經文:

哥林多前書 11:29-11:29

註釋:

 {If he discern not the body} (m(8820)diakrin(936e) to s(936d)a).
So-called conditional use of the participle, "not judging the
body." Thus he eats and drinks judgment (krima) on himself. The
verb dia-krin(935c) is an old and common word, our {dis-cri-minate},
to distinguish. Eating the bread and drinking the wine as symbols
of the Lord's body and blood in death probes one's heart to the
very depths.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:30-11:30

註釋:

 {And not a few sleep} (kai koim(936e)tai hikanoi). Sufficient
number (hikanoi) are already asleep in death because of their
desecration of the Lord's table. Paul evidently had knowledge of
specific instances. A few would be too many.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:31-11:31

註釋:

 {But if we discerned ourselves} (ei de heautous
diekrinomen). This condition of the second class, determined as
unfulfilled, assumes that they had not been judging themselves
discriminatingly, else they would not be judged (ekrinometha).
Note distinction in the two verbs.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:32-11:32

註釋:

 2Ti
2:25 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ti
2' or engs='2Ti
2'
經文:

哥林多前書 11:33-11:33

註釋:

 {Wait one for another} (all(886c)ous ekdechesthe). As in  Joh
5:3  Ac 17:16 . That is common courtesy. Wait in turn. Vulgate
has _invicem expectate_.

經文:

哥林多前書 11:34-11:34

註釋:

 {At home} (en oik(9369)). If so hungry as all that (verse
 22 ). {The rest} (	a loipa). He has found much fault with this
church, but he has not told all. {I will set in order}
(diataxomai). Not even Timothy and Titus can do it all.
{Whensoever I come} (h(9373) an elth(935c)). Common idiom for temporal
clause of future time (conjunction like h(9373) with an and
aorist subjunctive elth(935c)).

經文:

哥林多前書 12:1-12:1

註釋:

 {Now concerning spiritual gifts} (peri de t(936e)
pneumatik(936e)). Clearly one of the items asked about in the letter
to Paul ( 7:1 ) and introduced precisely as the problem of meats
offered to idols ( 8:1 ). This question runs to the end of
chapter 14. Plainly much trouble had arisen in Corinth in the
exercise of these gifts.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:2-12:2

註釋:

 {Ye were led away} (apagomenoi). The copula (8874)e is not
expressed (common ellipsis) with the participle (periphrastic
imperfect passive), but it has to be supplied to make sense. Some
scholars would change hote (when) to pote (once) and so
remove the difficulty. {Unto those dumb idols} (pros ta eid(936c)a
ta aph(936e)a). "Unto the idols the dumb." See  Ps 95:5-7  for the
voicelessness (a-ph(936e)a, old adjective, without voice, ph(936e)(885c))
of the idols. Pagans were led astray by demons ( 1Co 10:19f. ).
{Howsoever ye might be led} (h(9373) an (8867)esthe). Rather, "as often
as ye were led." For this use of h(9373) an for the notion of
repetition, regular _Koin(825f) idiom, see Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
974. Cf. hopou an in  Mr 6:56 .

經文:

哥林多前書 12:3-12:3

註釋:

 {Wherefore I give you to understand} (dio gn(9372)iz(9320)humin).
Causative idea (only in Aeschylus in old Greek) in papyri (also
in sense of recognize) and N.T., from root gn(935c) in gin(9373)k(935c), to
know. {Speaking in the Spirit of God} (en pneumati theou
lal(936e)). Either sphere or instrumentality. No great distinction
here between lale(935c) (utter sounds) and leg(935c) (to say). {Jesus
is anathema} (anathema I(8873)ous). On distinction between
anathema (curse) and anath(886d)a (offering  Lu 21:5 ) see
discussion there. In LXX anath(886d)a means a thing devoted to God
without being redeemed, doomed to destruction ( Le 27:28f.  Jos
6:17  7:12 ). See  1Co 16:22  Ga 1:8f.  Ro 9:3 . This blasphemous
language against Jesus was mainly by the Jews ( Ac 13:45  18:6 ).
It is even possible that Paul had once tried to make Christians
say Anathema I(8873)ous ( Ac 26:11 ). {Jesus is Lord} (Kurios
I(8873)ous). The term Kurios, as we have seen, is common in the
LXX for God. The Romans used it freely for the emperor in the
emperor worship. "Most important of all is the early
establishment of a polemical parallelism between the cult of
Christ and the cult of Caesar in the application of the term
Kurios, 'lord.' The new texts have here furnished quite
astonishing revelations" (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient
East_, p. 349). Inscriptions, ostraca, papyri apply the term to
Roman emperors, particularly to Nero when Paul wrote this very
letter (_ib._, p. 353f.): "One with 'Nero Kurios' quite in the
manner of a formula (without article, like the 'Kurios Jesus' in
 1Co 12:3 ." "The battle-cries of the spirits of error and of
truth contending at Corinth" (Findlay). One is reminded of the
demand made by Polycarp that he say Kurios Caesar and how each
time he replied Kurios I(8873)ous. He paid the penalty for his
loyalty with his life. Lighthearted men today can say "Lord
Jesus" in a flippant or even in an irreverent way, but no Jew or
Gentile then said it who did not mean it.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:4-12:4

註釋:

 {Diversities} (diaireseis). Old word for distinctions,
differences, distributions, from diaire(935c), to distribute, as
diairoun (dividing, distributing) in verse  11 . Only here in
the N.T. {Of gifts} (charismat(936e)). Late word and chiefly in
Paul (cf.  Ro 12:6 ) in N.T. (except  1Pe 4:19 ), but some
examples in papyri. It means a favour (from charizomai)
bestowed or received without any merit as in  Ro 1:11 .

經文:

哥林多前書 12:5-12:5

註釋:

 {Of ministrations} (diakoni(936e)). This old word is from
diakonos and has a general meaning of service as here ( Ro
11:13 ) and a special ministration like that of Martha ( Lu
10:40 ) and the collection ( 1Co 16:15  2Co 8:4 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 12:6-12:6

註釋:

 {Of workings} (energ(886d)at(936e)). Late word, here only in N.T.,
the effect of a thing wrought (from energe(935c), to operate,
perform, energize). Paul uses also the late kindred word
energeia ( Col 1:29  2:12 ) for efficiency. {Who worketh all
things in all} (ho energ(936e) ta panta en pasin). Paul is not
afraid to say that God is the Energy and the Energizer of the
Universe. "I say that the magnet floats in space by the will of
God" (Dr. W. R. Whitney, a world figure in science). This is his
philosophic and scientific theory of the Cosmos. No one has shown
Paul's philosophy and science to be wrong. Here he is speaking
only of spiritual gifts and results as a whole, but he applies
this principle to the universe (	a panta) in  Col 1:16  (of
Christ) and in  Ro 11:36  (of God). Note the Trinity in these
verses: the same Spirit (verse  4 ), the same Lord (Jesus) in
verse  5 , the same God (the Father) in verse  6 .

經文:

哥林多前書 12:7-12:7

註釋:

 {Manifestation} (phaner(9373)is). Late word, in papyri, in
N.T. only here and  2Co 4:2 , from phanero(935c), to make manifest
(phaneros). Each instance of the whole (verse  6 ) is
repeatedly given (didotai, present passive indicative of
did(936d)i). {To profit withal} (pros to sumpheron). See on
 6:12  10:23,33  for Paul's guiding principle in such matters.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:8-12:8

註釋:

 {To one} (h(9369) men). Demonstrative hos with men in
dative case, to this one. The distribution or correlation is
carried on by all(9369) de (verses  8,9,10 ), heter(9369) de (verses
 9,10 ) for variety, nine manifestations of the Spirit's work in
verses  8-10 . {The Word of wisdom} (logos sophias). Old words.
Logos is reason, then speech. Wisdom is intelligence, then
practical action in accord with it. Here it is speech full of
God's wisdom ( 2:7 ) under the impulse of the Spirit of God. This
gift is placed first (revelation by the Spirit). {The word of
knowledge} (logos gn(9373)e(9373)). This gift is insight (illumination)
according to (kata) the same Spirit.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:9-12:9

註釋:

 {Faith} (pistis). Not faith of surrender, saving faith,
but wonder-working faith like that in  13:2  ( Mt 17:20  21:21 ).
Note here en t(9369) aut(9369) pneumati (in the same Spirit) in
contrast with dia and kata in verse  8 . {Gifts of healings}
(charismata iamat(936e)). Iama, old word from iaomai, common in
LXX, in N.T. only in this chapter. It means acts of healing as in
 Ac 4:30  (cf.  Jas 5:14 ) and  Lu 7:21  (of Jesus). Note en
here as just before.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:10-12:10

註釋:

 {Workings of miracles} (energ(886d)ata duname(936e)). Workings of
powers. Cf. energ(936e) dunameis in  Ga 3:5  Heb 2:4  where all
three words are used (s(886d)eia, signs, 	erata, wonders,
dunameis, powers). Some of the miracles were not healings as
the blindness on Elymas the sorcerer. {Prophecy} (proph(8874)eia).
Late word from proph(8874)(8873) and proph(886d)i, to speak forth. Common
in papyri. This gift Paul will praise most (chapter  1Co 14 ).
Not always prediction, but a speaking forth of God's message
under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. {Discernings of spirits}
(diakriseis pneumat(936e)). Diakrisis is old word from diakrin(935c)
(see  11:29 ) and in N.T. only here;  Ro 14:1  Heb 5:14 . A most
needed gift to tell whether the gifts were really of the Holy
Spirit and supernatural (cf. so-called "gifts" today) or merely
strange though natural or even diabolical ( 1Ti 4:1  1Jo 4:1f. ).
{Divers kinds of tongues} (gen(8820)gl(9373)s(936e)). No word for "divers"
in the Greek. There has arisen a great deal of confusion
concerning the gift of tongues as found in Corinth. They prided
themselves chiefly on this gift which had become a source of
confusion and disorder. There were varieties (kinds, gen(885c)) in
this gift, but the gift was essentially an ecstatic utterance of
highly wrought emotion that edified the speaker ( 14:4 ) and was
intelligible to God ( 14:2,28 ). It was not always true that the
speaker in tongues could make clear what he had said to those who
did not know the tongue ( 14:13 ): It was not mere gibberish or
jargon like the modern "tongues," but in a real language that
could be understood by one familiar with that tongue as was seen
on the great Day of Pentecost when people who spoke different
languages were present. In Corinth, where no such variety of
people existed, it required an interpreter to explain the tongue
to those who knew it not. Hence Paul placed this gift lowest of
all. It created wonder, but did little real good. This is the
error of the Irvingites and others who have tried to reproduce
this early gift of the Holy Spirit which was clearly for a
special emergency and which was not designed to help spread the
gospel among men. See on 涉c 2:13-21; 10:44-46; 19:6|. {The
interpretation of tongues} (herm(886e)eia gl(9373)s(936e)). Old word, here
only and  14:26  in N.T., from herm(886e)eu(935c) from Herm(8873) (the god
of speech). Cf. on dierm(886e)eu(935c) in  Lu 24:27  Ac 9:36 . In case
there was no one present who understood the particular tongue it
required a special gift of the Spirit to some one to interpret it
if any one was to receive benefit from it.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:11-12:11

註釋:

 {Worketh} (energei). The same word that was used in verse
 6  of God. {Severally} (idi(8369)). Separately. {Even as he will}
(kath(9373) bouletai). Hence there is no occasion for conceit,
pride, or faction ( 4:7 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 12:12-12:12

註釋:

 {So also is Christ} (hout(9373) kai ho Christos). One would
naturally expect Paul here to say hout(9373) kai to s(936d)a tou
Christou (so also is the body of Christ). He will later call
Christ the Head of the Body the Church as in  Col 1:18,24  Eph
5:23,30 . Aristotle had used s(936d)a of the state as the body
politic. What Paul here means is Christ as the Head of the Church
has a body composed of the members who have varied gifts and
functions like the different members of the human body. They are
all vitally connected with the Head of the body and with each
other. This idea he now elaborates in a remarkable manner.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:13-12:13

註釋:

 {Were we all baptized into one body} (h(886d)eis pantes eis
hen s(936d)a ebaptisth(886d)en). First aorist passive indicative of
aptiz(935c) and so a reference to a definite past event with each
of them of different races, nations, classes, when each of them
put on the outward badge of service to Christ, the symbol of the
inward changes already wrought in them by the Holy Spirit ( Ga
3:27  Ro 6:2ff. ). {And were all made to drink of one Spirit}
(kai pantes hen pneuma epotisth(886d)en). First aorist passive
indicative of potiz(935c), old verb, to give to drink. The
accusative hen pneuma is retained in the passive as often with
verbs that in the active take two accusatives. The reference is
to a definite act in the past, probably to the inward experience
of the Holy Spirit symbolized by the act of baptism.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:14-12:14

註釋:

 {Is not one member} (ouk estin hen melos). The point
sounds like a truism, but it is the key to the whole problem of
church life both local and general. Vincent refers to the fable
of the body and the members by Menenius Agrippa (Livy, II, 32),
but it was an old parable. Socrates pointed out how absurd it
would be if feet and hands should work against one another when
God made them to cooperate (Xen., _Mem_. II. iii. 18). Seneca
alludes to it as does Marcus Aurelius and Marcus Antoninus.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:15-12:15

註釋:

 {If the foot shall say} (ean eip(8869) ho pous). Condition of
third class (ean and second aorist subjunctive eip(8869)). In
case the foot say. {I am not of the body} (ouk eimi ek tou
s(936d)atos). I am independent of the body, not dependent on the
body. {It is not therefore not of the body} (ou para touto ouk
estin ek tou s(936d)atos). Thinking or saying so does not change the
fact. Para touto here means "alongside of this" (cf. IV Macc.
10:19) and so "because of," a rare use (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
616). The two negatives (ou--ouk) do not here destroy one
another. Each retains its full force.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:16-12:16

註釋:

 Points explained precisely as in verse  15 .

經文:

哥林多前書 12:17-12:17

註釋:

 {If the whole body were an eye} (ei holon to s(936d)a
ophthalmos). The eye is the most wonderful organ and supremely
useful ( Nu 10:31 ), the very light of the body ( Lu 11:34 ). And
yet how grotesque it would be if there were nothing else but a
great round rolling eye! A big "I" surely! {The smelling} (h(880a)osphr(8873)is). Old word from osphrainomai, to smell. Here alone
in N.T.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:18-12:18

註釋:

 {But now} (
un de). But as things are, in contrast to
that absurdity. {Hath God set} (ho theos etheto). Second aorist
middle indicative. God did it and of himself. {Even as it pleased
him} (kath(9373) (8874)hel(8873)en). Why challenge God's will? Cf.  Ro
9:20 .

經文:

哥林多前書 12:19-12:19

註釋:

 {One member} (hen melos). Paul applies the logic of verse
 17  to any member of the body. The application to members of the
church is obvious. It is particularly pertinent in the case of a
"church boss."

經文:

哥林多前書 12:20-12:20

註釋:

 {Many members, but one body} (polla mel(882c) hen de s(936d)a).
The argument in a nutshell, in one epigram.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:21-12:21

註釋:

 {Cannot say} (ou dunatai eipein). And be truthful. The
superior organs need the inferior ones (the eye, the hand, the
head, the feet).

經文:

哥林多前書 12:22-12:22

註釋:

 {Nay, much rather} (alla poll(9369) mallon). Adversative
sense of alla, on the contrary. So far from the more dignified
members like the eye and the head being independent of the
subordinate ones like the hands and feet, they are "much more"
(_argumentum a fortiori_, "by much more" poll(9369) mallon,
instrumental case) in need of therm. {Those members of the body
which seem to be more feeble are necessary} (	a dokounta mel(880a)tou s(936d)atos asthenestera huparchein anagkaia estin). Things are
not always what they seem. The vital organs (heart, lungs, liver,
kidneys) are not visible, but life cannot exist without them.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:23-12:23

註釋:

 {We bestow} (peritithemen). Literally, We place around as
if a garland ( Mr 15:17 ) or a garment ( Mt 27:28 ). {More
abundant comeliness} (eusch(886d)osun(886e) perissoteran). One need
only mention the mother's womb and the mother's breast to see the
force of Paul's argument here. The word, common in old Greek,
from eusch(886d)(936e) (eu, well, sch(886d)a, figure), here only in
N.T. One may think of the coal-miner who digs under the earth for
the coal to keep us warm in winter. So asch(886d)(936e) (deformed,
uncomely), old word, here only in N.T., but see  7:36  for
asch(886d)one(935c).

經文:

哥林多前書 12:24-12:24

註釋:

 {Tempered the body together} (sunekerasen to s(936d)a). First
aorist active indicative of sunkerannumi, to mix together, old
word, but in N.T. only here and  Heb 4:2 . Plato used this very
word of the way God compounded (sunekerasato) the various
elements of the body in creating soul and body. Paul rejects the
idea of the later Gnostics that matter is evil and the physical
organs degrading. He gives a noble picture of the body with its
wonderful organs planned to be the temple of God's Spirit
( 6:19 ) in opposition to the Epicurean sensualists in Corinth.
{To that part which lacked} (	(9369) husteroumen(9369)). It is a true
instinct that gives superior honour to the unseen organs of life.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:25-12:25

註釋:

 {That there should be no schism} (hina m(8820)(8869) schisma).
Purpose of God in his plan for the body. Trouble in one organ
affects the whole body. A headache may be due to trouble
elsewhere and usually is. {Have the same care} (	o auto
merimn(9373)in). The very verb merimna(935c) used by Jesus of our
anxiety ( Mt 6:27,31 ). Paul here personifies the parts of the
body as if each one is anxious for the others. The modern
knowledge of the billions of cells in the body co-working for the
whole confirms Paul's argument.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:26-12:26

註釋:

 {Suffer with it} (sunpaschei). Medical term in this sense
in Hippocrates and Galen. In N.T only here and  Ro 8:17  (of our
suffering with Christ). One of Solon's Laws allowed retaliation
by any one for another's injuries. Plato (_Republic_, V, 462)
says the body politic "feels the hurt" as the whole body feels a
hurt finger. {Rejoice with it} (sunchairei). This is
fortunately true also. One may tingle with joy all over the body
thanks to the wonderful nervous system and to the relation
between mind and matter. See  13:6  for joy of love with truth.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:27-12:27

註釋:

 {Severally} (ek merous). See  Ro 11:25  apo merous (in
part). Each has his own place and function in the body of Christ.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:28-12:28

註釋:

 {God hath set some} (hous men etheto ho theos). See verse
 18  for etheto ho theos. Note middle voice (for his own use).
Paul begins as if he means to say hous men apostolous, hous de
proph(8874)as (some apostles, some prophets), but he changes the
construction and has no hous de, but instead pr(9374)on, deuteron,
epeita (first, second, then, etc.). {In the church} (en t(8869)
ekkl(8873)i(8369)). The general sense of ekkl(8873)ia as in  Mt 16:18  and
later in  Col 1:18,24  Eph 5:23,32  Heb 12:23 . See list also in
 Eph 4:11 . See on 烘t 10:2| for apostolous, the official title
given the twelve by Jesus, and claimed by Paul though not one of
the twelve. {Prophets} (proph(8874)as). For-speakers for God and
Christ. See the list of prophets and teachers in  Ac 13:1  with
Barnabas first and Saul last. Prophets are needed today if men
will let God's Spirit use them, men moved to utter the deep
things of God. {Teachers} (didaskalous). Old word from
didask(935c), to teach. Used to the Baptist ( Lu 3:12 ), to Jesus
( Joh 3:10  13:13 ), and of Paul by himself along with
apostolos ( 1Ti 2:7 ). It is a calamity when the preacher is no
longer a teacher, but only an exhorter. See  Eph 4:11 . {Then
miracles} (epeita dunameis). Here a change is made from the
concrete to the abstract. See the reverse in  Ro 12:7 . See these
words (dunameis, iam(8874)(936e), gl(9373)s(936e)) in verses  9,10  with
gl(9373)s(936e), last again. But these two new terms (helps,
governments). {Helps} (antil(886d)pseis). Old word, from
antilambanomai, to lay hold of. In LXX, common in papyri, here
only in N.T. Probably refers to the work of the deacons, help
rendered to the poor and the sick. {Governments} (kubern(8873)eis).
Old word from kuberna(935c) (cf. Kubern(8874)(8873) in  Ac 27:11 ) like
Latin _gubernare_, our govern. So a governing. Probably Paul has
in mind bishops (episcopoi) or elders (presbuteroi), the
outstanding leaders (hoi proistamenoi in  1Th 5:12  Ro 12:8 ;
hoi h(8867)oumenoi in  Ac 15:22  Heb 13:7,17,24 ). Curiously
enough, these two offices (pastors and deacons) which are not
named specifically are the two that survive today. See  Php 1:1 
for both officers.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:29-12:29

註釋:

 {Are all} (m(8820)pantes). The m(885c) expects a negative answer
with each group.

經文:

哥林多前書 12:30-12:30

註釋:

 {Do all interpret?} (m(8820)pantes dierm(886e)euousin?). He adds
this query to the list in  28 , but it is in  10 .

經文:

哥林多前書 12:31-12:31

註釋:

 1Jo
4:7 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
4' or engs='1Jo
4'
經文:

哥林多前書 13:1-13:1

註釋:

 {With the tongues} (	ais gl(9373)sais). Instrumental case.
Mentioned first because really least and because the Corinthians
put undue emphasis on this gift. Plato (_Symposium_, 197) and
many others have written on love, but Paul has here surpassed
them all in this marvellous prose-poem. It comes like a sweet
bell right between the jangling noise of the gifts in chapters 12
and 14. It is a pity to dissect this gem or to pull to pieces
this fragrant rose, petal by petal. Fortunately Paul's language
here calls for little comment, for it is the language of the
heart. "The greatest, strongest, deepest thing Paul ever wrote"
(Harnack). The condition (ean and present subjunctive, lal(930a)kai m(8820)ech(935c), though the form is identical with present
indicative) is of the third class, a supposable case. {But have
not love} (agap(886e) de m(8820)ech(935c)). This is the _crux_ of the
chapter. Love is the way _par excellence_ of  12:31 . It is not
yet clearly certain that agap(885c) (a back-formation from agapa(935c))
occurs before the LXX and the N.T. Plutarch used agap(8873)is.
Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 198) once suspected it on an
inscription in Pisidia. It is still possible that it occurs in
the papyri (Prayer to Isis). See _Light from the Ancient East_,
p. 75 for details. The rarity of agap(885c) made it easier for
Christians to use this word for Christian love as opposed to
er(9373) (sexual love). See also Moffatt's Love in the N.T. (1930)
for further data. The word is rare in the Gospels, but common in
Paul, John, Peter, Jude. Paul does not limit agap(885c) at all (both
toward God and man). Charity (Latin _caritas_) is wholly
inadequate. "Intellect was worshipped in Greece, and power in
Rome; but where did St. Paul learn the surpassing beauty of
love?" (Robertson and Plummer). Whether Paul had ever seen Jesus
in the flesh, he knows him in the spirit. One can substitute
Jesus for love all through this panegyric. {I am become}
(gegona). Second perfect indicative in the conclusion rather
than the usual future indicative. It is put vividly, "I am
already become." Sounding brass (chalchos (8863)h(936e)). Old words.
Brass was the earliest metal that men learned to use. Our word
_echoing_ is (8863)h(936e), present active participle. Used in  Lu
21:25  of the roaring of the sea. Only two examples in N.T.
{Clanging cymbal} (kumbalon alalazon). Cymbal old word, a
hollow basin of brass. Alalaz(935c), old onomatopoetic word to ring
loudly, in lament ( Mr 5:38 ), for any cause as here. Only two
N.T. examples.

經文:

哥林多前書 13:2-13:2

註釋:

 The ecstatic gifts (verse  1 ) are worthless. Equally so are
the teaching gifts (prophecy, knowledge of mysteries, all
knowledge). Crasis here in kan=kai ean. Paul is not condemning
these great gifts. He simply places love above them and essential
to them. Equally futile is wonder-working faith "so as to remove
mountains" (h(9373)te or(8820)methistanein) without love. This may have
been a proverb or Paul may have known the words of Jesus ( Mt
17:20  21:21 ). {I am nothing} (outhen eimi). Not outheis,
nobody, but an absolute zero. This form in 	h rather than d
(ouden) had a vogue for a while (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 219).

經文:

哥林多前書 13:3-13:3

註釋:

 {Bestow to feed} (Ps(936d)is(935c)). First aorist active
subjunctive of ps(936d)iz(935c), to feed, to nourish, from ps(936d)os,
morsel or bit, and so to feed, by putting a morsel into the mouth
like infant (or bird). Old word, but only here in N.T. {To be
burned} (hina kauth(8873)(936d)ai). First future passive subjunctive
(Textus Receptus), but D kauth(8873)omai (future passive indicative
of kai(935c), old word to burn). There were even some who courted
martyrdom in later years (time of Diocletian). This Byzantine
future subjunctive does not occur in the old MSS. (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 876). Aleph A B here read kauch(8873)(936d)ai, first
aorist middle subjunctive of kauchaomai (so Westcott and Hort),
"that I may glory." This is correct. {It profiteth me nothing}
(ouden (9370)heloumai). Literally, I am helped nothing. Ouden in
the accusative case retained with passive verb. See two
accusatives with (9370)hele(935c) in  14:6 . Verb is old and from
ophelos (profit).

經文:

哥林多前書 13:4-13:4

註釋:

 Verses  4-7  picture the character or conduct of love in
marvellous rhapsody. {Suffereth long} (makrothumei). Late
_Koin(825f) word (Plutarch) from makros, long, 	humos, passion,
ardour. Cf.  Jas 5:7f . {Is kind} (chr(8873)teuetai). From
chr(8873)tos (useful, gracious, kind) and that from chraomai, to
use. Not found elsewhere save in Clement of Rome and Eusebius.
"Perhaps of Paul's coining" (Findlay). Perhaps a vernacular word
ready for Paul. Gentle in behaviour. {Envieth not} (ou z(886c)oi).
Present active indicative of z(886c)o(935c) (contraction oei=oi, same
as subjunctive and optative forms). Bad sense of z(886c)os from
ze(935c), to boil, good sense in  12:31 . Love is neither jealous
nor envious (both ideas). {Vaunteth not itself} (ou
perpereuetai). From perperos, vainglorious, braggart
(Polybius, Epictetus) like Latin _perperus_. Only here in N.T.
and earliest known example. It means play the braggart. Marcus
Anton. V. 5 uses it with areskeuomai, to play the toady. {Is
not puffed up} (ou phusioutai). Present direct middle
indicative of phusio(935c) from phusis (late form for phusa(932c)
phusia(935c) from phusa, bellows), to puff oneself out like a pair
of bellows. This form in Herodas and Menander. Is not arrogant.
See on 氦:6|.

經文:

哥林多前書 13:5-13:5

註釋:

 {Doth not behave itself unseemly} (ouk asch(886d)onei). Old
verb from asch(886d)(936e) ( 12:23 ). In N.T. only here and  7:36 . Not
indecent. {Seeketh not its own} (ou z(8874)ei ta heaut(8873)). Its own
interests ( 10:24,33 ). {Is not provoked} (ou paroxunetai). Old
word. In N.T. only here and  Ac 17:16  which see. Irritation or
sharpness of spirit. And yet Paul felt it in Athens
(exasperation) and he and Barnabas had paroxusmos (paroxysm) in
Antioch ( 15:39 ). See good sense of paroxusmos in  Heb 10:24 .
{Taketh not account of evil} (ou logizetai to kakon). Old verb
from logos, to count up, to take account of as in a ledger or
note-book, "the evil" (	o kakon) done to love with a view to
settling the account.

經文:

哥林多前書 13:6-13:6

註釋:

 {Rejoiceth not in unrighteousness} (ou chairei). See  Ro
1:32  for this depth of degradation. There are people as low as
that whose real joy is in the triumph of evil. {But rejoiceth
with the truth} (sunchairei de t(8869) al(8874)hei(8369)). Associative
instrumental case after sun- in composition. Truth personified
as opposed to unrighteousness ( 2Th 2:12  Ro 2:8 ). Love is on
the side of the angels. Paul returns here to the positive side of
the picture (verse  4 ) after the remarkable negatives.

經文:

哥林多前書 13:7-13:7

註釋:

 1Pe
4:8 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Pe
4' or engs='1Pe
4'
經文:

哥林多前書 13:8-13:8

註釋:

 {Love never faileth} (H(8820)agap(8820)oudepote piptei). New turn
for the perpetuity of love. Piptei correct text, not
ekpiptei, as in  Lu 16:17 . Love survives everything. {They
shall be done away} (katarg(8874)h(8873)ontai). First future passive of
katarge(935c). Rare in old Greek, to make idle (argos),
inoperative. All these special spiritual gifts will pass. It is
amazing how little of human work lasts. {They shall cease}
(pausontai). Future middle indicative of pau(935c), to make cease.
They shall make themselves cease or automatically cease of
themselves.

經文:

哥林多前書 13:9-13:9

註釋:

 {In part} (ek merous). See on 氣2:27|. As opposed to the
whole.

經文:

哥林多前書 13:10-13:10

註釋:

 {That which is perfect} (	o teleion). The perfect, the
full-grown (	elos, end), the mature. See on 氧:6|. Hotan
elth(8869) is second aorist subjunctive with hotan, temporal
clause for indefinite future time.

經文:

哥林多前書 13:11-13:11

註釋:

 {A child} (
(8870)ios). See on 氨:1| for 
(8870)ios in contrast
with 	eleios (adult). {I spake} (elaloun). Imperfect active,
I used to talk. {I felt} (ephronoun). Imperfect active, I used
to think. Better, I used to understand. {I thought}
(elogizom(886e)). Imperfect middle, I used to reason or calculate.
{Now that I am become} (hote gegona). Perfect active indicative
gegona, I have become a man (an(8872)) and remain so ( Eph
4:14 ). {I have put away} (kat(8872)g(886b)a). Perfect active
indicative. I have made inoperative (verse  8 ) for good.

經文:

哥林多前書 13:12-13:12

註釋:

 {In a mirror} (di' esoptrou). By means of a mirror
(esoptron, from opt(935c), old word, in papyri). Ancient mirrors
were of polished metal, not glass, those in Corinth being famous.
{Darkly} (en ainigmati). Literally, in an enigma. Old word from
ainissomai, to express obscurely. This is true of all ancient
mirrors. Here only in N.T., but often in LXX. "To see a friend's
face in a cheap mirror would be very different from looking at
the friend" (Robertson and Plummer). {Face to face} (pros(9370)on
pros pros(9370)on). Note triple use of pros which means facing one
as in  Joh 1:1 . Pros(9370)on is old word from pros and ops,
eye, face. {Shall I know} (epign(9373)omai). I shall fully (epi-)
know. Future middle indicative as gin(9373)k(935c) (I know) is present
active and epegn(9373)th(886e) (I was fully known) is first aorist
passive (all three voices).

經文:

哥林多前書 13:13-13:13

註釋:

 {Abideth} (menei). Singular, agreeing in number with
pistis (faith), first in list. {The greatest of these} (meiz(936e)
tout(936e)). Predicative adjective and so no article. The form of
meiz(936e) is comparative, but it is used as superlative, for the
superlative form megistos had become rare in the _Koin(825f)
(Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 667ff.). See this idiom in  Mt 11:11  18:1  23:11 . The other gifts pass away, but these abide forever.
Love is necessary for both faith and hope. Does not love keep on
growing? It is quite worth while to call attention to Henry
Drummond's famous sermon _The Greatest Thing in the World_ and to
Dr. J.D. Jones's able book _The Greatest of These_. Greatest, Dr.
Jones holds, because love is an attribute of God.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:1-14:1

註釋:

 {Follow after love} (di(936b)ete t(886e) agap(886e)). As if a
veritable chase. Paul comes back to the idea in  12:31  (same use
of z(886c)oute) and proves the superiority of prophecy to the other
spiritual gifts not counting faith, hope, love of  13:13 . {But
rather that ye may prophesy} (mallon de hina proph(8874)eu(8874)e).
Distinct aim in view as in verse  5 . Old verb from proph(8874)(8873),
common in N.T. Present subjunctive, "that ye may keep on
prophesying."

經文:

哥林多前書 14:2-14:2

註釋:

 {For no man understandeth} (oudeis gar akouei). Literally,
hears, gets the sense, understands. Verb akou(935c) used either of
hearing the sound only or getting the idea (cf.  Ac 9:7  22:9 ).
{Mysteries} (must(8872)ia). Unexplained mysteries ( 1Co 2:7 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 14:3-14:3

註釋:

 {Edification} (oikodom(886e)). Building up. {Comfort}
(parakl(8873)in). Encouragement, calling to one's side.
{Consolation} (paramuthian). Old word (from para, muthos,
paramutheomai  1Th 2:12  which see, a stimulating word), nowhere
else in N.T., but paramuthion in  Php 2:1  with parakl(8873)is as
here. Edification, cheer, incentive in these words.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:4-14:4

註釋:

 {The church} (ekkl(8873)ian). No article, literally, "a
church" (local use). Not h(8820)ekkl(8873)ia.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:5-14:5

註釋:

 {Except he interpret} (ektos ei m(8820)dierm(886e)eu(8869)).
Pleonastic combination of ektos (preposition except) and ei
m(885c) (if not, unless) as in  15:2  1Ti 5:19 . For use of ei with
subjunctive rather than ean see  Php 3:12  (common enough in
the _Koin(825f), Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1017f., condition of third
class). On the verb see on 氣2:30; Lu 24:27; Ac 9:36|. {Receive}
(lab(8869)). Second aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive of
lamban(935c), may get edification.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:6-14:6

註釋:

 {If I come} (ean elth(935c)). Third class condition, supposable
case (aorist subjunctive). {What shall I profit you} (	i humas
(9370)hel(8873)(935c)). Two accusatives with this verb (see  13:3 ). {Unless
I speak} (ean m(8820)lal(8873)(935c)). Second condition (also third class)
with the one conclusion (cf.  1Ti 2:5 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 14:7-14:7

註釋:

 {Things without life} (apsucha). Without a soul (a
privative, psuch(885c)) or life. Old word only here in N.T. {Pipe}
(aulos). Old word (from a(932c) au(935c), to blow), only here in N.T.
{Harp} (kithara). Old word. Stringed instrument as pipe, a wind
instrument. {If they give not a distinction in the sounds} (ean
diastol(886e) tois phthoggois m(8820)d(9369)). Third class condition with
second aorist active subjunctive d(9369) from did(936d)i. Common word
in late Greek for difference (diastell(935c), to send apart). In
N.T. only here and  Ro 3:22  10:12 . Phthoggos old word (from
phtheggomai) for musical sounds vocal or instrumental. In N.T.
only here and  Ro 10:18 .

經文:

哥林多前書 14:8-14:8

註釋:

 2Co
9:2ff. 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
9' or engs='2Co
9'
經文:

哥林多前書 14:9-14:9

註釋:

 {Unless ye utter speech easy to be understood} (ean m(880a)eus(886d)on logon d(9374)e). Condition of third class again (ean and
aorist subjunctive). Eus(886d)on (eu, well, s(886d)a, sign) is old
word, here only in N.T., well-marked, distinct, clear. Good
enunciation, a hint for speakers. {Ye will be speaking into the
air} (esesthe eis aera lalountes). Periphrastic future
indicative (linear action). Cf. aera der(936e) (beating the air) in
 9:26 . Cf. our talking to the wind. This was before the days of
radio.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:10-14:10

註釋:

 {It may be} (ei tuchoi). Condition of fourth class (ei
and aorist optative of 	ugchan(935c)), if it should happen. Common
enough idiom. Cf. 	uchon in  16:6 . {Without signification}
(aph(936e)on). Old adjective (a privative and ph(936e)(885c)). Without
the faculty of speech ( 12:2  Ac 8:32  2Pe 2:16 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 14:11-14:11

註釋:

 {The meaning of the voice} (	(886e) dunamin t(8873) ph(936e)(8873)). The
power (force) of the voice. {A barbarian} (arbaros). Jargon,
ar-bar. The Egyptians called all arbarous who did not speak
their tongue. The Greeks followed suit for all ignorant of Greek
language and culture. They divided mankind into Hellenes and
Barbarians. {Unto me} (en emoi). In my case, almost like a
dative.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:12-14:12

註釋:

 {Zealous of spiritual gifts} (z(886c)(9374)ai pneumat(936e)). Zealots
for spirits. So it looked. {That ye may abound} (hina
perisseu(8874)e). Purpose clause with the object by prolepsis stated
beforehand "for the edification of the church."

經文:

哥林多前書 14:13-14:13

註釋:

 {Let him pray that he may interpret} (proseuchesth(9320)hina
dierm(886e)eu(8869)). Else he had better cease talking in a tongue.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:14-14:14

註釋:

 {But my understanding is unfruitful} (ho de nous mou
akarpos). My intellect (
ous) gets no benefit (akarpos,
without fruit) from rhapsodical praying that may even move my
spirit (pneuma).

經文:

哥林多前書 14:15-14:15

註釋:

 {With the understanding also} (kai t(9369) no(8b5c)). Instrumental
case of 
ous. Paul is distinctly in favour of the use of the
intellect in prayer. Prayer is an intelligent exercise of the
mind. {And I will sing with the understanding also} (psal(9320)de
kai t(9369) no(8b5c)). There was ecstatic singing like the rhapsody of
some prayers without intelligent words. But Paul prefers singing
that reaches the intellect as well as stirs the emotions. Solos
that people do not understand lose more than half their value in
church worship. Psall(935c) originally meant to play on strings,
then to sing with an accompaniment ( Eph 5:19 ), and here
apparently to sing without regard to an instrument.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:16-14:16

註釋:

 {Else if thou bless with the spirit} (epei ean eulog(8869)s en
pneumati). Third class condition. He means that, if one is
praying and praising God ( 10:16 ) in an ecstatic prayer, the one
who does not understand the ecstasy will be at a loss when to say
"amen" at the close of the prayer. In the synagogues the Jews
used responsive amens at the close of prayers ( Neh 5:13  8:6  1Ch 16:36  Ps 106:48 ). {He that filleth the place of the
unlearned} (ho anapl(8872)(936e) ton topon tou idi(9374)ou). Not a special
part of the room, but the position of the idi(9374)ou (from
idios, one's own), common from Herodotus for private person
( Ac 4:13 ), unskilled ( 2Co 11:6 ), uninitiated (unlearned) in
the gift of tongues as here and verses  23f . {At thy giving of
thanks} (epi t(8869) s(8869) eucharisti(8369)). Just the prayer, not the
Eucharist or the Lord's Supper, as is plain from verse  17 .

經文:

哥林多前書 14:18-14:18

註釋:

 {More than you all} (pant(936e) hum(936e) mallon). Ablative case
after mallon. Astonishing claim by Paul that doubtless had a
fine effect.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:19-14:19

註釋:

 {Howbeit in church} (alla en ekkl(8873)i(8369)). Private ecstasy
is one thing (cf.  2Co 12:1-9 ) but not in church worship. {That
I may instruct} (hina kat(8863)h(8873)(935c)). Final clause with hina. For
the rare verb kat(8863)he(935c) see on 烊u 1:4; Ac 18:25|.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:20-14:20

註釋:

 {Be not children in mind} (m(8820)paidia ginesthe tais
phresin). "Cease becoming children in your intellects," as some
of them evidently were. Cf.  Heb 5:11-14  for a like complaint of
intellectual dulness for being old babies. {In malice be ye
babes} (	(8869) kaki(8369) n(8870)iazete). {Be men} (	eleioi ginesthe).
Keep on becoming adults in your minds. A noble and a needed
command, pertinent today.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:21-14:21

註釋:

 {In the law it is written} (en t(9369) nom(9369) gegraptai).  Isa
28:11f . Freely quoted.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:22-14:22

註釋:

 {For a sign} (eis s(886d)eion). Like the Hebrew and
occasional _Koin(825f) idiom also.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:23-14:23

註釋:

 {Will they not say that ye are mad?} (ouk erousin hoti
mainesthe?). These unbelievers unacquainted (idi(9374)ai) with
Christianity will say that the Christians are raving mad (see on
涉c 12:15; 26:24|). They will seem like a congregation of
lunatics.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:24-14:24

註釋:

 {He is reproved by all} (elegchetai hupo pant(936e)). Old
word for strong proof, is undergoing conviction. {Is judged}
(anakrinetai). Is tested. Cf.  1Co 2:15  4:3f .

經文:

哥林多前書 14:25-14:25

註釋:

 {That God is among you indeed} (hoti ont(9373) en humin
estin). Recitative hoti and direct quotation from  Isa 45:15 
(Hebrew rather than the LXX). "Really (ont(9373)  Lu 24:34 ) God is
in you."

經文:

哥林多前書 14:26-14:26

註釋:

 {When ye come together} (hotan sunerch(8873)the). Present
middle subjunctive, repetition, whenever ye come together, in
contrast with special case (ean sunelth(8869), second aorist
subjunctive) in verse  23 .

經文:

哥林多前書 14:27-14:27

註釋:

 {By two} (kata duo). According to two, ratio. {Or at
most} ((8820)to pleiston). Adverbial accusative, "or at the most."
{Three} (	reis). Kata to be repeated. {And that in turn}
(kai ana meros). One at a time and not over three in all.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:28-14:28

註釋:

 {But if there be no interpreter} (ean de m(8820)(8869)
dierm(886e)eut(8873)). Third class condition. Earliest known instance
and possibly made by Paul from verb in verse  27 . Reappears in
Byzantine grammarians. {Keep silence in church} (sigat(9320)en
ekkl(8873)i(8369)). Linear action (present active imperative). He is not
even to speak in a tongue once. He can indulge his private
ecstasy with God.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:29-14:29

註釋:

 {By two or three} (duo (8820)treis). No kata here as in
verse  27 . Let two or three prophets speak. {Let the others
discern} (hoi alloi diakrinet(9373)an). Whether what is said is
really of the Spirit. Cf.  12:10  diakriseis pneumat(936e).

經文:

哥林多前書 14:30-14:30

註釋:

 {Let the first keep silence} (ho pr(9374)os sigat(935c)). To give
the next one a chance.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:31-14:31

註釋:

 {One by one} (kath' ena). Regular idiom.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:32-14:32

註釋:

 {The spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets}
(pneumata proph(8874)(936e) proph(8874)ais hupotassetai). A principle that
some had forgotten.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:33-14:33

註釋:

 {Not of confusion} (ou--katastasias). God is not a God of
disorder, but of peace. We need this reminder today. {As in all
the churches of the saints} (h(9373) en pasais tais ekkl(8873)iais t(936e)
hagi(936e)). Orderly reverence is a mark of the churches. This is a
proper conclusion of his argument as in  11:16 .

經文:

哥林多前書 14:34-14:34

註釋:

 {Keep silence in the churches} (en tais ekkl(8873)iais
sigat(9373)an). The same verb used about the disorders caused by
speakers in tongues (verse  28 ) and prophets ( 30 ). For some
reason some of the women were creating disturbance in the public
worship by their dress ( 11:2-16 ) and now by their speech. There
is no doubt at all as to Paul's meaning here. In church the women
are not allowed to speak (lalein) nor even to ask questions.
They are to do that {at home} (en oik(9369)). He calls it a shame
(aischron) as in  11:6  (cf.  Eph 5:12  Tit 1:11 ). Certainly
women are still in subjection (hupotassesth(9373)an) to their
husbands (or ought to be). But somehow modern Christians have
concluded that Paul's commands on this subject, even  1Ti 2:12 ,
were meant for specific conditions that do not apply wholly now.
Women do most of the teaching in our Sunday schools today. It is
not easy to draw the line. The daughters of Philip were
prophetesses. It seems clear that we need to be patient with each
other as we try to understand Paul's real meaning here.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:37-14:37

註釋:

 {The commandment of the Lord} (Kuriou entol(885c)). The
prophet or the one with the gift of tongues or the disturbing
woman would be quick to resent the sharp words of Paul. He claims
inspiration for his position.

經文:

哥林多前書 14:40-14:40

註釋:

 {Decently and in order} (eusch(886d)on(9373) kai kata taxin).
That is surely a good rule for all matters of church life and
worship. It applies also to the function of women in church
service.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:1-15:1

註釋:

 {I make known} (gn(9372)iz(935c)). See on 氣2:3| for this common
verb. As if in reproach. {The gospel which I preached unto you}
(	o euaggelion ho eu(8867)gelisam(886e) humin). Cognate accusative,
"the gospel which I gospelized unto you." Note augment (885c) after
eu- like compound verb with preposition. Note repetition of
relative (ho, en h(9369), di hou, and 	ini like relative) without
kai (and), asyndeton.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:2-15:2

註釋:

 {In what words I preached it unto you} (	ini logoi
eu(8867)gelisam(886e) humin). Almost certainly 	is (	ini logoi,
locative or instrumental, in or with) here is used like the
relative hos as is common in papyri (Moulton, _Prolegomena_, p.
93f.; Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 737f.). Even so it is not clear
whether the clause depends on gn(9372)iz(935c) like the other relatives,
but most likely so. {If we hold it fast} (ei katechete).
Condition of first class. Paul assumes that they are holding it
fast. {Except ye believed in vain} (ektos ei m(8820)eik(8869)
episteusate). For ektos ei m(885c) see on 氣4:5|. Condition of
first class, unless in fact ye did believe to no purpose
(eik(8869), old adverb, only in Paul in N.T.). Paul holds this
peril over them in their temptation to deny the resurrection.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:3-15:3

註釋:

 {First of all} (en pr(9374)ois). Among first things. _In
primis_. Not to time, but to importance. {Which I also received}
(ho kai parelabon). Direct revelation claimed as about the
institution of the Lord's Supper ( 11:23 ) and same verbs used
(pared(936b)a, parelabon). Four items given by Paul in explaining
"the gospel" which Paul preached. Stanley calls it (verses
 1-11 ) the creed of the early disciples, but "rather a sample of
the exact form of the apostle's early teaching, than a profession
of faith on the part of converts" (Vincent). The four items are
presented by four verbs (died, apethanen, was buried, etaph(885c),
hath been raised, eg(8867)ertai, appeared, (9370)hth(885c)). {Christ died}
(Christos apethanen). Historical fact and crucial event. {For
our sins} (huper t(936e) hamarti(936e) h(886d)(936e)). Huper means literally
over, in behalf, even instead of ( Ga 3:13 ), where used of
persons. But here much in the sense of peri ( Ga 1:14 ) as is
common in _Koin(825f). In  1Pe 3:18  we have peri hamarti(936e), huper
adik(936e). {According to the Scriptures} (kata tas graphas). As
Jesus showed ( Lu 22:37  24:25 ) and as Peter pointed out ( Ac
2:25-27  3:35 ) and as Paul had done ( Ac 13:24f.  17:3 ). Cf.
 Ro 1:2ff .

經文:

哥林多前書 15:4-15:4

註釋:

 {And that he was buried} (kai hoti etaph(885c)). Note hoti
repeated before each of the four verbs as a separate item. Second
aorist passive indicative of 	hapt(935c), old verb, to bury. This
item is an important detail as the Gospels show. {And that he
hath been raised} (kai hoti eg(8867)ertai). Perfect passive
indicative, not (8867)erth(885c) like {rose} of the King James' Version.
There is reason for this sudden change of tense. Paul wishes to
emphasize the permanence of the resurrection of Jesus. He is
still risen. {On the third day} (	(8869) h(886d)er(8369) t(8869) trit(8869)).
Locative case of time. Whether Paul had seen either of the
Gospels we do not know, but this item is closely identified with
the fact of Christ's resurrection. We have it in Peter's speech
( Ac 10:40 ) and Jesus points it out as part of prophecy ( Lu
24:46 ). The other expression occasionally found "after three
days" ( Mr 10:34 ) is merely free vernacular for the same idea
and not even  Mt 12:40  disturbs it. See on 烊u 24:1| for record
of the empty tomb on the first day of the week (the third day).

經文:

哥林多前書 15:5-15:5

註釋:

 {And that he appeared to Cephas} (kai hoti (9370)hth(8820)K(8870)h(8369)).
First aorist passive indicative of the defective verb hora(935c), to
see. Paul means not a mere "vision," but actual appearance. John
uses ephaner(9374)h(885c) ( Joh 21:14 ) from phanero(935c), to make
manifest, of Christ's appearance to the seven by the Sea of
Galilee. Peter was listed first (pr(9374)os) among the Apostles
( Mt 10:2 ). Jesus had sent a special message to him ( Mr 16:7 )
after his resurrection. This special appearance to Peter is made
the determining factor in the joyful faith of the disciples ( Lu
24:34 ), though mentioned incidentally here. Paul had told all
these four facts to the Corinthians in his preaching. He gives
further proof of the fact of Christ's resurrection. There are ten
appearances given besides the one to Paul. Nine are in the
Gospels (Mary Magdalene in John and Mark, the other women in
Matthew, the two going to Emmaus in Luke, Simon Peter in Luke and
I Corinthians, the ten apostles and others in Luke and John and
Mark, the eleven and others in John, the seven by the sea in
John, to over five hundred in Galilee in Matthew and Paul and
Mark, to the apostles in Jerusalem in Luke and Mark and Acts and
I Corinthians) and one in I Corinthians above (to James). It will
be seen that Paul mentions only five of the ten, one, that to
James, not given elsewhere. What he gives is conclusive evidence
of the fact, particularly when re-enforced by his own experience
(the sixth appearance mentioned by Paul). The way to prove this
great fact is to start with Paul's own witness given in this
undoubted Epistle. The natural way to understand Paul's adverbs
of time here is chronological: {then} (eita), {then}
(epeita), {then} (epeita), {then} (eita), {last of all}
(eschaton pant(936e)). {To the twelve} (	ois d(9364)eka). The
technical name. Only ten were present, for Judas was dead and
Thomas was absent ( Joh 20:24 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 15:6-15:6

註釋:

 {To above five hundred brethren at once} (epan(930a)pentakosiois adelphois ephapax). Epan(935c) here is just an adverb
with no effect on the case. As a preposition with the ablative
see  Mt 5:14 . This incident is the one described in  Mt 28:16 
the prearranged meeting on the mountain in Galilee. The strength
of this witness lies in the fact that the majority (hoi
pleious) of them were still living when Paul wrote this Epistle,
say spring of A.D. 54 or 55, not over 25 years after Christ's
resurrection.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:7-15:7

註釋:

 {To James} (Iak(9362)(9369)). The brother of the Lord. This fact
explains the presence of the brothers of Jesus in the upper room
( Ac 1:14 ). {To all the apostles} (	ois apostolois pasin). The
Ascension of Christ from Olivet.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:8-15:8

註釋:

 {As unto one born out of due time} (h(9373)perei t(9369)
ektr(936d)ati). Literally, as to the miscarriage (or untimely
birth). Word first occurs in Aristotle for abortion or
miscarriage and occurs in LXX ( Nu 12:12  Job 3:16 ) and papyri
(for miscarriage by accident). The verb 	itr(9373)k(935c) means to wound
and ek is out. Paul means that the appearance to him came after
Jesus had ascended to heaven.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:9-15:9

註釋:

 {The least} (ho elachistos). True superlative, not
elative. Explanation of the strong word ektr(936d)a just used. See
 Eph 3:8  where he calls himself "less than the least of all
saints" and  1Ti 1:15  the "chief" (pr(9374)os) of sinners. Yet
under attack from the Judaizers Paul stood up for his rank as
equal to any apostle ( 2Co 11:5f.,23 ). {Because I persecuted the
church of God} (edi(9378)a t(886e) ekkl(8873)ian tou theou). There were
times when this terrible fact confronted Paul like a nightmare.
Who does not understand this mood of contrition?

經文:

哥林多前書 15:10-15:10

註釋:

 {What I am} (ho eimi). Not, {who} (hos), but {what}
(ho), neuter singular. His actual character and attainments.
All "by the grace of God" (chariti theou). {I laboured more
abundantly than they all} (perissoteron aut(936e) pant(936e) ekopiasa).
This is sober fact as shown by the Acts and Paul's Epistles. He
had tremendous energy and used it. Genius is work, Carlyle said.
Take Paul as a specimen.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:11-15:11

註釋:

 {So we preach, and so ye believed} (hout(9373) k(8872)ussomen, kai
hout(9373) episteusate). This is what matters both for preacher and
hearers. This is Paul's gospel. Their conduct in response to his
message was on record.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:12-15:12

註釋:

 {Is preached} (k(8872)ussetai). Personal use of the verb,
Christ is preached. {How say some among you?} (p(9373) legousin en
humin tines?). The question springs naturally from the proof of
the fact of the resurrection of Christ (verses  1-11 ) and the
continual preaching which Paul here assumes by condition of the
first class (ei--k(8872)ussetai). There were sceptics in Corinth,
possibly in the church, who denied the resurrection of dead
people just as some men today deny that miracles happen or ever
did happen. Paul's answer is the resurrection of Christ as a
fact. It all turns on this fact.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:13-15:13

註釋:

 {Neither hath Christ been raised} (oude Christos
eg(8867)ertai). He turns the argument round with tremendous force.
But it is fair.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:14-15:14

註釋:

 {Vain} (kenon). _Inanis_, Vulgate. Old word, empty. Both
Paul's preaching and their faith are empty if Christ has not been
raised. If the sceptics refuse to believe the fact of Christ's
resurrection, they have nothing to stand on.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:15-15:15

註釋:

 {False witnesses of God} (pseudomartures tou theou). Late
word, but pseudomarture(935c), to bear false witness, old and
common. The genitive (	ou theou) can be either subjective (in
God's service) or objective (concerning God). Either makes good
sense. {Because we witnessed of God} (hoti emartur(8873)amen kata
tou theou). Vulgate has _adversus Deum_. This is the more
natural way to take kata and genitive, {against God} not as
equal to peri (concerning). He would indeed make God play false
in that case, {if so be that the dead are not raised} (eiper ara
nekroi ouk egeirontai). Condition of first class, assumed as
true. Note both per intensive particle {indeed} and ara
inferential particle {therefore}.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:16-15:16

註釋:

 Repeats the position already taken in verse  13 .

經文:

哥林多前書 15:17-15:17

註釋:

 {Vain} (mataia). Old word from adverb mat(886e) ( Mt
15:9 ), devoid of truth, a lie. Stronger word than kenon in
verse  14 . {Ye are yet in your sins} (eti este en tais
hamartiais hum(936e)). Because the death of Christ has no atoning
value if he did not rise from the dead. In that case he was only
a man like other men and did not die for our sins (verse  3 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 15:18-15:18

註釋:

 {Then also} (ara kai). Inevitable inference. {Have
perished} (ap(936c)onto). Did perish. Second aorist middle
indicative of apollumi, to destroy, middle, to perish
(delivered up to eternal misery). Cf.  8:11 .

經文:

哥林多前書 15:19-15:19

註釋:

 {We have hoped} ((886c)pikotes esmen). Periphrastic perfect
active indicative. Hope limited to this life even if "in Christ."
{Only} (monon) qualifies the whole clause. {Most pitiable}
(eleeinoteroi). Comparative form, not superlative, of old
adjective eleeinos, to be pitied, pitiable. If our hope is
limited to this life, we have denied ourselves what people call
pleasures and have no happiness beyond. The Epicureans have the
argument on us. Paul makes morality turn on the hope of
immortality. Is he not right? Witness the breaking of moral ties
today when people take a merely animal view of life.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:20-15:20

註釋:

 {But now} (
uni de). Emphatic form of 
un with -i
added (cf.  12:18 ). It is the logical triumph of Paul after the
_reductio ad impossibile_ (Findlay) of the preceding argument.
{The first-fruits} (aparch(885c)). Old word from aparchomai, to
offer firstlings or first-fruits. In LXX for first-fruits. In
papyri for legacy-duty, entrance-fee, and also first-fruits as
here. See also verse  23  16:15  Ro 8:23 , etc. Christ is
"first-born from the dead" ( Col 1:18 ). Others raised from the
dead died again, but not so Jesus. {That sleep} (	(936e)
kekoim(886d)en(936e)). Perfect middle participle as in  Mt 27:52  which
see. Beautiful picture of death from which word (koimaomai)
comes our cemetery.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:21-15:21

註釋:

 {By man also} (dai di' anthr(9370)ou). That is Jesus, the
God-man, the Second Adam ( Ro 5:12 ). The hope of the
resurrection of the dead rests in Christ.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:22-15:22

註釋:

 {Shall be made alive} (z(936f)poi(8874)h(8873)ontai). First future
passive indicative of z(936f)poie(935c), late verb (Aristotle) to give
life, to restore to life as here. In verse  36  z(936f)poieitai is
used in the sense of natural life as in  Joh 5:21  6:63  of
spiritual life. It is not easy to catch Paul's thought here. He
means resurrection (restoration) by the verb here, but not
necessarily eternal life or salvation. So also pantes may not
coincide in both clauses. All who die die in Adam, all who will
be made alive will be made alive (restored to life) in Christ.
The same problem occurs in  Ro 5:18  about "all," and in verse
 19  about "the many."

經文:

哥林多前書 15:23-15:23

註釋:

 {Order} (	agmati). Old military term from 	ass(935c), to
arrange, here only in N.T. Each in his own division, troop, rank.
{At his coming} (en t(8869) parousi(8369)). The word parousia was the
technical word "for the arrival or visit of the king or emperor"
and can be traced from the Ptolemaic period into the second
century A.D. (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 368).
"Advent-coins were struck after a parousia of the emperor." Paul
is only discussing "those that are Christ's" ( 3:23  Ga 5:24 )
and so says nothing about judgment (cf.  1Th 2:19  3:13  4:15  5:23 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 15:24-15:24

註釋:

 {Then cometh the end} (eita to telos). No verb ginetai
in the Greek. Supply "at his coming," the end or consummation of
the age or world ( Mt 13:39,49  1Pe 4:7 ), {When he shall deliver
up} (hotan paradid(9369)). Present active subjunctive (not
optative) of paradid(936d)i with hotan, whenever, and so quite
indefinite and uncertain as to time. Present subjunctive rather
than aorist parad(9369) because it pictures a future proceeding.
{To God, even the Father} (	(9369) the(9369) kai patri). Better, "to
the God and Father" or to "His God and Father." The Kingdom
belongs to the Father. {When he shall have abolished} (hotan
katarg(8873)(8869)). First aorist active subjunctive with hotan,
indefinite future time. Simply, "whenever he shall abolish," no
use in making it future perfect, merely aorist subjunctive. On
katarge(935c) see  1Co 6:13  13:8,10,11 . {Rule} (arch(886e)),
{authority} (exousian), {power} (dunamin). All forms of power
opposing the will of God. Constative aorist tense covering the
whole period of conflict with final victory as climax.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:25-15:25

註釋:

 {Till he hath put} (achri hou th(8869)). Second aorist active
subjunctive of 	ith(886d)i, "till he put" (no sense in saying "hath
put," merely effective aorist tense for climax. Achri (hou),
mechri (hou), he(9373) (hou) all are used for the same idea of
indefinite future time.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:26-15:26

註釋:

 {The last enemy that shall be abolished is death}
(eschatos echthros katargeitai ho thanatos). A rather free
translation. Literally, "death (note article, and so subject) is
done away (prophetic or futuristic use of present tense of same
verb as in verse  24 ), the last enemy" (predicate and only one
"last" and so no article as in  1Jo 2:18 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 15:27-15:27

註釋:

 {He put} (hupetaxen). First aorist active of hupotass(935c),
to subject. Supply God (	heos) as subject ( Ps 8:7 ). See  Heb
2:5-9  for similar use. Cf.  Ps 8 . {But when he saith} (hotan
de eip(8869)). Here Christ must be supplied as the subject if the
reference is to his future and final triumph. The syntax more
naturally calls for God as the subject as before. Either way
makes sense. But there is no need to take eip(8869) (second aorist
active subjunctive) as _a futurum exactum_, merely "whenever he
shall say." {Are put in subjection} (hupotetaktai). Perfect
passive indicative, state of completion, final triumph. {It is
evident that} (d(886c)on hoti). Supply estin (is) before hoti.
{He is excepted who did subject} (ektos tou hupotaxantos).
"Except the one (God) who did subject (articular aorist active
participle) the all things to him (Christ)."

經文:

哥林多前書 15:28-15:28

註釋:

 {And when all things have been subjected} (hotan de
hupotag(8869) ta panta). Second aorist passive subjunctive of
hupotass(935c), not perfect. Merely, "when the all things are
subjected unto him." The aorist subjunctive has given translators
a deal of needless trouble in this passage. It is prophecy, of
course. {That God may be all in all} (hina (8869) ho theos panta en
pasin). The final goal of all God's redemptive plans as Paul has
so well said in  Ro 11:36 . Precisely this language Paul will use
of Christ ( Col 3:11 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 15:29-15:29

註釋:

 {Else} (epei). Otherwise, if not true. On this use of
epei with ellipsis see on 氤:10; 7:14|. {Which are baptized for
the dead} (hoi baptizomenoi huper t(936e) nekr(936e)). This passage
remains a puzzle. Stanley gives thirteen interpretations, no one
of which may be correct. Over thirty have been suggested. The
Greek expositors took it to be about the dead (huper in sense
of peri as often as in  2Co 1:6 ) since baptism is a burial and
a resurrection ( Ro 6:2-6 ). Tertullian tells of some heretics
who took it to mean baptized in the place of dead people
(unsaved) in order to save them. Some take it to be baptism over
the dead. Others take it to mean that Paul and others were in
peril of death as shown by baptism (see verse  30 ). {At all}
(hol(9373)). See on 氤:1|.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:30-15:30

註釋:

 {Why do we also stand in jeopardy every hour?} (	i kai
h(886d)eis kinduneuomen pasan h(9372)an?). We also as well as those who
receive baptism which symbolizes death. Old verb from kindunos
(peril, danger), in N.T. only here and  Lu 8:23 . Paul's Epistles
and Acts (especially chapter  Ac 19 ) throw light on Paul's
argument. He was never out of danger from Damascus to the last
visit to Rome. There are perils in Ephesus of which we do not
know ( 2Co 1:8f. ) whatever may be true as to an Ephesian
imprisonment. G. S. Duncan (_St. Paul's Ephesian Ministry_, 1930)
even argues for several imprisonments in Ephesus. The accusative
of time (pasan h(9372)an) naturally means all through every hour
(extension).

經文:

哥林多前書 15:31-15:31

註釋:

 {I protest by that glorying in you} (
(8820)t(886e) humeteran
kauch(8873)in). No word for "I protest." Paul takes solemn oath by
the use of 
(885c) (common in Attic) with the accusative. Only here
in N.T., but in LXX ( Ge 42:15f. ). For other solemn oaths by
Paul see  2Co 1:18,23  11:10f.,31  Ro 9:1 . For kauch(8873)is see
on 氣Th 2:19|. The possessive pronoun (humeteran) is objective
as em(886e) in  1Co 11:24 . {I die daily} (kath' h(886d)eran
apothn(8873)k(935c)). I am in daily peril of death ( 2Co 4:11  11:23  Ro
8:36 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 15:32-15:32

註釋:

 {After the manner of men} (kata anthr(9370)on). Like men, for
applause, money, etc. ( 4:9ff.  Php 3:7 ). {If I fought with wild
beasts at Ephesus} (ei eth(8872)iomach(8873)a en Ephes(9369)). Late verb
from 	h(8872)iomachos, a fighter with wild beasts. Found in
inscriptions and in Ignatius. Those who argue for an Ephesian
imprisonment for Paul and Ephesus as the place where he wrote the
imprisonment epistles (see Duncan's book just mentioned) take the
verb literally. There is in the ruins of Ephesus now a place
called St. Paul's Prison. But Paul was a Roman citizen and it was
unlawful to make such a one be a 	h(8872)iomachos. If he were cast
to the lions unlawfully, he could have prevented it by claiming
his citizenship. Besides, shortly after this Paul wrote II
Corinthians, but he does not mention so unusual a peril in the
list in  2Co 11:23f . The incident, whatever it was, whether
literal or figurative language, took place before Paul wrote I
Corinthians. {What doth it profit me?} (	i moi to ophelos?).
What the profit to me? {Let us eat and drink} (phag(936d)en kai
pi(936d)en). Volitive second aorist subjunctives of esthi(935c) and
pin(935c). Cited from  Isa 22:13 . It is the outcry of the people of
Jerusalem during the siege of Jerusalem by the Assyrians. At
Anchiale near Tarsus is a statue of Sardanapalus with the
inscription: "Eat, drink, enjoy thyself. The rest is nothing."
This was the motto of the Epicureans. Paul is not giving his own
view, but that of people who deny the resurrection.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:33-15:33

註釋:

 {Be not deceived} (m(8820)plan(8373)the). Do not be led astray
(plana(935c)) by such a false philosophy of life. {Evil company}
(homiliai kakai). Evil companionships. Old word, homilia,
from homilos (a crowd, gang, bunch). Only here in N.T. Good
manners ((8874)h(885c)). Old word (kin to ethos) custom, usage,
morals. Good morals here. This line of poetry (iambic) occurs in
Menander. It may be a current proverb. Paul could have gotten it
from either source.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:34-15:34

註釋:

 1Pe
2:15 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Pe
2' or engs='1Pe
2'
經文:

哥林多前書 15:35-15:35

註釋:

 {But some one will say} (alla erei tis). Paul knows what
the sceptics were saying. He is a master at putting the
standpoint of the imaginary adversary. {How} (p(9373)). This is
still the great objection to the resurrection of our bodies.
Granted that Jesus rose from the dead, for the sake of argument,
these sceptics refuse to believe in the possibility of our
resurrection. It is the attitude of Matthew Arnold who said,
"Miracles do not happen." Scientifically we know the "how" of few
things. Paul has an astounding answer to this objection. Death
itself is the way of resurrection as in the death of the seed for
the new plant (verses  36f. ). {With what manner of body} (poi(9369)
s(936d)ati). This is the second question which makes plainer the
difficulty of the first. The first body perishes. Will that body
be raised? Paul treats this problem more at length (verses
 38-54 ) and by analogy of nature (Cf. Butler's famous
_Analogy_). It is a spiritual, not a natural, body that is
raised. S(936d)a here is an organism. {Flesh} (sarx) is the
s(936d)a for the natural man, but there is spiritual
(pneumatikon) s(936d)a for the resurrection.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:36-15:36

註釋:

 {Thou foolish one} (aphr(936e)). Old word (a privative,
phr(886e)), lack of sense. It is a severe term and justified by the
implication "that the objector plumes himself on his acuteness"
(Robertson and Plummer). Proleptic position of su (thou)
sharpens the point. Sceptics (agnostics) pose as unusually
intellectual (the intelligentsia), but the pose does not make one
intelligent. {Except it die} (ean m(8820)apothan(8869)). Condition of
third class, possibility assumed. This is the answer to the "how"
question. In plant life death precedes life, death of the seed
and then the new plant.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:37-15:37

註釋:

 {Not the body which shall be} (ou to s(936d)a to
gen(8873)omenon). Articular future participle of ginomai,
literally, "not the body that will become." The new {body}
(s(936d)a) is not yet in existence, but only the seed (kokkos,
grain, old word, as in  Mt 13:31 ). {It may chance} (ei
tuchoi). Fourth class condition as in  14:10  which see. Paul is
rich in metaphors here, though usually not so (Howson, _Metaphors
of St. Paul_). Paul was a city man. We sow seeds, not plants
(bodies). The butterfly comes out of the dying worm.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:38-15:38

註釋:

 {A body of its own} (idion s(936d)a). Even under the
microscope the life cells or germ plasm may seem almost
identical, but the plant is quite distinct. On sperma, seed,
old word from speir(935c), to sow, see on 烘t 13:24f|.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:39-15:39

註釋:

 {The same flesh} (h(8820)aut(8820)sarx). Paul takes up animal
life to show the great variety there is as in the plant kingdom.
Even if evolution should prove to be true, Paul's argument
remains valid. Variety exists along with kinship. Progress is
shown in the different kingdoms, progress that even argues for a
spiritual body after the body of flesh is lost. {Of beasts}
(kt(886e)(936e)). Old word, from ktaomai, to possess, and so
property. See  Lu 10:34 . {Of birds} (pt(886e)(936e)). Old word from
petomai, to fly, winged, flying. Only here in N.T.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:40-15:40

註釋:

 {Celestial} (epourania). Old word, from epi, upon,
ouranos, heaven, existing in heaven. Paul now rises higher in
the range of his argument, above the merely {terrestrial}
(epigeia, upon earth, epi, ge) bodies. He has shown
differences in the bodies here on earth in plants and in the
animal kingdom and now he indicates like differences to be seen
in the heavens above us. {Is one} (hetera men) {--is another}
(hetera de). Antithesis that admits glory for bodies on earth
and bodies in the heavens. Experience does not argue against a
glory for the spiritual body ( Php 3:21 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 15:41-15:41

註釋:

 {For one star differeth from another star in glory} (ast(8872)
gar asteros diapherei en dox(8869)). A beautiful illustration of
Paul's point. Asteros is the ablative case after diapherei
(old verb diapher(935c), Latin _differo_, our _differ_, bear apart).
On ast(8872) see  Mt 2:7  and astron  Lu 21:25 . Stars differ in
magnitude and brilliancy. The telescope has added more force to
Paul's argument. {In glory} (en dox(8869)). Old word from doke(935c),
to think, to seem. So opinion, estimate, then the shekinah glory
of God in the LXX, glory in general. It is one of the great words
of the N.T. Jesus is termed the glory in  Jas 2:1 .

經文:

哥林多前書 15:42-15:42

註釋:

 {So is the resurrection of the dead} (hout(9373) kai h(880a)anastasis t(936e) nekr(936e)). Paul now applies his illustrations to his
argument to prove the kind of body we shall have after the
resurrection. He does it by a series of marvellous contrasts that
gather all his points. The earthly and the risen beings differ in
duration, value, power (Wendt). {It is sown} (speiretai). In
death, like the seed ( 37 ). {In incorruption} (en
aphtharsi(8369)). Late word from a privative and phtheir(935c), to
corrupt. In LXX, Plutarch, Philo, late papyrus of a Gnostic
gospel, and quotation from Epicurus. Vulgate _incorruptio_. The
resurrection body has undergone a complete change as compared
with the body of flesh like the plant from the seed. It is
related to it, but it is a different body of glory.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:43-15:43

註釋:

 {In weakness} (en asthenei(8369)). Lack of strength as shown
in the victory of death. {In power} (en dunamei). Death can
never conquer this new body, "conformed to the body of His glory"
( Php 3:21 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 15:44-15:44

註釋:

 {A natural body} (s(936d)a psuchikon). See on 氧:14| for this
word, a difficult one to translate since psuch(885c) has so many
meanings. Natural is probably as good a rendering as can be made,
but it is not adequate, for the body here is not all psuch(885c)
either as soul or life. The same difficulty exists as to a
spiritual body (s(936d)a pneumatikon). The resurrection body is not
wholly pneuma. Caution is needed here in filling out details
concerning the psuch(885c) and the pneuma. But certainly he means
to say that the "spiritual body" has some kind of germinal
connection with the "natural body," though the development is
glorious beyond our comprehension though not beyond the power of
Christ to perform ( Php 3:21 ). The force of the argument remains
unimpaired though we cannot follow fully into the thought beyond
us. {If there is} (ei estin). "If there exists" (estin means
this with accent on first syllable), a condition of first class
assumed as true. {There is also} (estin kai). There exists
also.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:45-15:45

註釋:

 {Became a living soul} (egeneto eis psuch(886e) z(9373)an).
Hebraistic use of eis in predicate from LXX. God breathed a
soul (psuch(885c)) into "the first man." {The last Adam became a
life-giving spirit} (ho eschatos Adam eis pneuma z(936f)poioun).
Supply egeneto (became). Christ is the crown of humanity and
has power to give us the new body. In  Ro 5:12-19  Paul calls
Christ the Second Adam.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:46-15:46

註釋:

 {Howbeit that is not first which is spiritual, but that
which is natural} (all' ou pr(9374)on to pneumatikon, alla to
psuchikon). Literally, "But not first the spiritual, but the
natural." This is the law of growth always.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:47-15:47

註釋:

 {Earthly} (cho(8b6b)os). Late rare word, from chous, dust.
{The second man from heaven} (ho deuteros anthr(9370)os ex
ouranou). Christ had a human (psuchikon) body, of course, but
Paul makes the contrast between the first man in his natural body
and the Second Man in his risen body. Paul saw Jesus after his
resurrection and he appeared to him "from heaven." He will come
again from heaven.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:48-15:48

註釋:

 {As is the earthly} (hoios ho choikos). Masculine gender
because of anthr(9370)os and correlative pronouns (hoios,
toioutoi) of character or quality. All men of dust (cho(8b6b)oi)
correspond to "the man of dust" (ho cho(8b6b)os), the first Adam.
{As is the heavenly} (hoios ho epouranios). Christ in his
ascended state ( 1Th 4:16  2Th 1:7  Eph 2:6,20  Php 3:20f. ).

經文:

哥林多前書 15:49-15:49

註釋:

 {We shall also bear} (phoresomen kai). Old MSS. (so
Westcott and Hort) read phores(936d)en kai. Volitive aorist active
subjunctive, Let us also bear. Ellicott strongly opposes the
subjunctive. It may be merely the failure of scribes to
distinguish between long o and short o. Paul hardly means to say
that our attaining the resurrection body depends on our own
efforts! A late frequentative form of pher(935c).

經文:

哥林多前書 15:50-15:50

註釋:

 {Cannot inherit} (kl(8872)onom(8873)ai ou dunantai). Hence there
must be a change by death from the natural body to the spiritual
body. In the case of Christ this change was wrought in less than
three days and even then the body of Jesus was in a transition
state before the Ascension. He ate and could be handled and yet
he passed through closed doors. Paul does not base his argument
on the special circumstances connected with the risen body of
Jesus.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:51-15:51

註釋:

 {A mystery} (must(8872)ion). He does not claim that he has
explained everything. He has drawn a broad parallel which opens
the door of hope and confidence. {We shall not all sleep}
(pantes ou koim(8874)h(8873)ometha). Future passive indicative of
koimaomai, to sleep. Not all of us shall die, Paul means. Some
people will be alive when he comes. Paul does not affirm that he
or any then living will be alive when Jesus comes again. He
simply groups all under the phrase "we all." {But we shall all be
changed} (pantes de allag(8873)ometha). Second future passive
indicative of allass(935c). Both living and dead shall be changed
and so receive the resurrection body. See this same idea at more
length in  1Th 4:13-18 .

經文:

哥林多前書 15:52-15:52

註釋:

 {In a moment} (en atom(9369)). Old word, from a privative
and 	emn(935c), to cut, indivisible: Scientific word for _atom_
which was considered indivisible, but that was before the day of
electrons and protons. Only here in N.T. {In the twinkling of an
eye} (en rip(8869) ophthalmou). Old word 
ip(885c) from 
ipt(935c), to
throw. Only here in N.T. Used by the Greeks for the flapping of a
wing, the buzz of a gnat, the quivering of a harp, the twinkling
of a star. {At the last trump} (en t(8869) eschat(8869) salpiggi).
Symbolical, of course. See on 氣Th 4:16; Mt 24:31|.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:53-15:53

註釋:

 1Ti
6:16 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ti
6' or engs='1Ti
6'
經文:

哥林多前書 15:54-15:54

註釋:

 {Shall have put on} (endus(8874)ai). First aorist middle
subjunctive with hotan whenever, merely indefinite future, no
_futurum exactum_, merely meaning, "whenever shall put on," not
"shall have put on." {Is swallowed up} (katepoth(885c)). First
aorist passive indicative of katapin(935c), old verb to drink down,
swallow down. Perfective use of kata- where we say "up,"
"swallow up." Timeless use of the aorist tense. Paul changes the
active voice katepien in  Isa 25:8  to the passive. Death is no
longer victory. Theodotion reads the Hebrew verb (_bulla_, for
_billa_,) as passive like Paul. It is the "final overthrow of the
king of Terrors" (Findlay) as shown in  Heb 2:15 .

經文:

哥林多前書 15:55-15:55

註釋:

 {Victory} (
ikos). Late form of 
ik(885c). {O death}
(	hanate). Second instance. Here Paul changes Hades of the LXX
for Hebrew Sheol ( Hos 13:14 ) to death. Paul never uses Hades.
{Thy sting} (sou to kentron). Old word from kentre(935c), to
prick, as in  Ac 26:14 . In  Re 9:10  of the sting of locusts,
scorpions. The serpent death has lost his poison fangs.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:56-15:56

註釋:

 {The power of sin} (h(8820)dunamis t(8873) hamartias). See  Ro
4:15  5:20  6:14  7  Ga 2:16  3:1-5:4  for Paul's ideas here
briefly expressed. In man's unrenewed state he cannot obey God's
holy law.

經文:

哥林多前書 15:57-15:57

註釋:

 {But thanks be to God} (	(9369) de the(9369) charis). Exultant
triumph through Christ over sin and death as in  Ro 7:25 .

經文:

哥林多前書 15:58-15:58

註釋:

 {Be ye steadfast, unmovable} (hedraioi ginesthe,
ametakin(8874)oi). "Keep on becoming steadfast, unshaken." Let the
sceptics howl and rage. Paul has given rational grounds for faith
and hope in Christ the Risen Lord and Saviour. Note practical
turn to this great doctrinal argument. {Work} (ergon), {labour}
(kopos, toil). The best answer to doubt is work.


經文:

哥林多前書 16:1-16:1

註釋:

 {Now concerning the collection for the saints} (peri de t(8873)
logias t(8873) eis tous hagious). Paul has discussed all the
problems raised by the Corinthians. Now he has on his own heart
the collection for the saints in Jerusalem (see chapters  2Co 8  9 ). This word logia (or -eia) is now known to be derived
from a late verb logeu(935c), to collect, recently found in papyri
and inscriptions (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 143). The word
logia is chiefly found in papyri, ostraca, and inscriptions
that tell of religious collections for a god or a temple
(Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 105). The
introduction of this topic may seem sudden, but the Corinthians
were behind with their part of it. They may even have asked
further about it. Paul feels no conflict between discussion of
the resurrection and the collection. {So also do ye} (hout(9373) kai
humas poi(8873)ate). Paul had given orders (dietaxa) to the
churches of Galatia and now gives them like commands. As a matter
of fact, they had promised a long time before this ( 2Co 8:10  9:1-5 ). Now do what you pledged.

經文:

哥林多前書 16:2-16:2

註釋:

 {Upon the first day of the week} (kata mian sabbatou). For
the singular sabbatou (sabbath) for week see  Lu 18:12  Mr
16:9 . For the use of the cardinal mian in sense of ordinal
pr(9374)(886e) after Hebrew fashion in LXX (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
672) as in  Mr 16:2  Lu 24:1  Ac 20:7 . Distributive use of
kata also. {Lay by him in store} (par' heaut(9369) tithet(930a)th(8873)auriz(936e)). By himself, in his home. Treasuring it (cf.  Mt
6:19f . for 	h(8873)auriz(935c)). Have the habit of doing it, 	ithet(935c)
(present imperative). {As he may prosper} (hoti ean euod(9374)ai).
Old verb from eu, well, and hodos, way or journey, to have a
good journey, to prosper in general, common in LXX. In N.T. only
here and  Ro 1:10  3Jo 1:2 . It is uncertain what form euod(9374)ai
is, present passive subjunctive, perfect passive indicative, or
even perfect passive subjunctive (Moulton, _Prolegomena_, p. 54).
The old MSS. had no accents. Some MSS. even have euod(9374)h(8869)
(first aorist passive subjunctive). But the sense is not altered.
Hoti is accusative of general reference and ean can occur
either with the subjunctive or indicative. This rule for giving
occurs also in  2Co 8:12 . Paul wishes the collections to be made
before he comes.

經文:

哥林多前書 16:3-16:3

註釋:

 {When I arrive} (hotan paragen(936d)ai). Whenever I arrive,
indefinite temporal conjunction hotan and second aorist middle
subjunctive. {Whomsoever ye shall approve by letters} (hous ean
dokimas(8874)e di' epistol(936e)). Indefinite relative with ean and
aorist subjunctive of dokimaz(935c) (to test and so approve as in
 Php 1:10 ). "By letters" to make it formal and regular and Paul
would approve their choice of messengers to go with him to
Jerusalem ( 2Co 8:20ff. ). Curiously enough no names from Corinth
occur in the list in  Ac 20:4 . {To carry} (apenegkein). Second
aorist active infinitive of apopher(935c), to bear away. {Bounty}
(charin). Gift, grace, as in  2Co 8:4-7 . As a matter of fact,
the messengers of the churches (apostoloi ekkl(8873)i(936e)  2Co 8:23 )
went along with Paul to Jerusalem ( Ac 20:4f. ).

經文:

哥林多前書 16:4-16:4

註釋:

 {And if it be meet for me to go also} (ean de axion (8869) tou
kame poreuesthai). "If the collection be worthy of the going as
to me also." Condition of third class (ean--(8869)) and the
articular infinitive in the genitive (	ou) after axion. The
accusative of general reference (kame, me also) with the
infinitive. So the awkward phrase clears up.

經文:

哥林多前書 16:5-16:5

註釋:

 {When I shall have passed through Macedonia} (hotan
Makedonian dielth(935c)). "Whenever I pass through (second aorist
active subjunctive of dierchomai) Macedonia" (see construction
in verse  3 ). {I do pass through} (dierchomai). I plan to pass
through, futuristic use of present indicative.

經文:

哥林多前書 16:6-16:6

註釋:

 {It may be} (	uchon). Neuter accusative of second aorist
active participle of 	ugchan(935c) used as an adverb (in Plato and
Xenophon, but nowhere else in N.T.). {Or even winter} ((8820)kai
paracheimas(935c)). Future active of late verb paracheimaz(935c)
(cheim(936e), winter). See on 涉c 27:12; 28:11; Tit 3:12|. He did
stay in Corinth for three months ( Ac 20:3 ), probably the coming
winter. {Whithersoever I go} (hou ean poreu(936d)ai). Indefinite
local clause with subjunctive. As a matter of fact, Paul had to
flee from a conspiracy in Corinth ( Ac 20:3 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 16:7-16:7

註釋:

 {Now by the way} (arti en parod(9369)). Like our "by the way"
(parodos), incidentally. {If the Lord permit} (ean ho Kurios
epitreps(8869)). Condition of the third class. Paul did everything
en Kuri(9369) (Cf.  Ac 18:21 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 16:8-16:8

註釋:

 {Until Pentecost} (he(9373) t(8873) Pent(886b)ost(8873)). He writes them
in the spring before pentecost. Apparently the uproar by
Demetrius hurried Paul away from Ephesus ( Ac 20:1 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 16:9-16:9

註釋:

 {For a great and effectual door is opened unto me} (	hura
gar moi ane(9369)gen megal(8820)kai energ(8873)). Second perfect active
indicative of anoig(935c), to open. Intransitive, stands wide open
at last after his years there ( Ac 20:31 ). A wide open door.
What does he mean by energ(8873)? It is a late word in the _Koin(825f).
In the papyri a medical receipt has it for "tolerably strong."
The form energos in the papyri is used of a mill "in working
order," of "tilled land," and of "wrought iron." In the N.T. it
occurs in  Phm 1:6  Heb 4:12  of "the word of God" as "energ(8873)"
(powerful). Paul means that he has at least a great opportunity
for work in Ephesus. {And there are many adversaries} (kai
antikeimenoi polloi). "And many are lying opposed to me," lined
up against me. These Paul mentions as a reason for staying in,
not for leaving, Ephesus. Read  Ac 19  and see the opposition
from Jews and Gentiles with the explosion under the lead of
Demetrius. And yet Paul suddenly leaves. He hints of much of
which we should like to know more ( 1Co 15:32  2Co 1:8f. ).

經文:

哥林多前書 16:10-16:10

註釋:

 {That he be without fear} (hina aphob(9373) gen(8874)ai).
Evidently he had reason to fear the treatment that Timothy might
receive in Corinth as shown in  4:17-21 .

經文:

哥林多前書 16:11-16:11

註釋:

 {For I expect him} (ekdechomai gar auton). Apparently
later Timothy had to return to Ephesus without much success
before Paul left and was sent on to Macedonia with Erastus ( Ac
19:22 ) and Titus sent to Corinth whom Paul then arranged to meet
in Troas ( 2Co 2:12 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 16:12-16:12

註釋:

 {And it was not at all his will to come now} (kai pant(9373)
ouk (886e) thel(886d)a hina nun elth(8869)). Adversative use of kai =
"but." Apollos had left Corinth in disgust over the strife there
which involved him and Paul ( 1Co 1-4 ). He had had enough of
partisan strife over preachers.

經文:

哥林多前書 16:13-16:13

註釋:

 {Watch ye} (gr(8867)oreite). Stay awake. Late present from
egr(8867)ora second perfect of egeir(935c), to awake. {Quit you like
men} (andrizesthe). Play the man. Middle voice, show yourselves
men. From an(8872), a man.

經文:

哥林多前書 16:15-16:15

註釋:

 {Ye know} (oidate). _Koin(825f) form for second perfect
indicative used as present of hora(935c). Parenthetic clause through
rest of the verse. Stephanas is mentioned also in  1:16  and in
 16:17 . For aparch(885c) see on 氣5:20,23|. {They have set
themselves} (etaxan heautous). Remarkable statement worthy of
attention today. This noble family appointed themselves to be
ministers to the saints that needed it (the poor and needy).
Personal work for Christ is still the only way to win the world
for Christ, voluntary personal work. If all Christians did it!

經文:

哥林多前書 16:16-16:16

註釋:

 {That ye also be in subjection unto such} (hina kai humeis
hupotass(8873)the tois toioutois). This is the exhortation begun in
verse  15 . The family of Stephanas took the lead in good works.
Do ye also follow such leaders. This is our great problem today,
to find great leaders and many loyal followers. This would solve
all church problems, great leadership and great following. Lend a
hand.

經文:

哥林多前書 16:17-16:17

註釋:

 {At the coming} (epi t(8869) parousi(8369)). At the coming here
of Stephanas, etc., the very word used of the parousia of
Christ ( 15:23 ). {That which was lacking on your part they
supplied} (	o humeteron huster(886d)a houtoi anepl(8872)(9373)an). Either
"these filled up my lack of you" or "these filled up your lack of
me." Either makes perfectly good sense and both were true. Which
Paul meant we cannot tell.

經文:

哥林多前書 16:18-16:18

註釋:

 {For they refreshed my spirit and yours} (anepausan gar to
emon pneuma kai to hum(936e)). They did both. The very verb used by
Jesus in  Mt 11:28  for the refreshment offered by him to those
who come to him, fellowship with Jesus, and here fellowship with
each other.

經文:

哥林多前書 16:19-16:19

註釋:

 {The churches of Asia} (hai ekkl(8873)iai t(8873) Asias). True of
the Roman province ( Ac 10:10,26  Col 1:6  2:1  4:13,16 ). The
gospel spread rapidly from Ephesus. {With the church that is in
their house} (sun t(8869) kat' oikon aut(936e) ekkl(8873)i(8369)). Paul had
long ago left the synagogue for the school house of Tyrannus ( Ac
19:9 ). But Aquila and Prisca opened their house here for the
services. The churches had to meet where they could. Paul had
laboured and lived with this family in Corinth ( Ac 18:2 ) and
now again in Ephesus ( Ac 18:19  20:34 ). It was their habit
wherever they lived ( Ro 16:5 ).

經文:

哥林多前書 16:20-16:20

註釋:

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經文:

哥林多前書 16:21-16:21

註釋:

 {Of me Paul with mine own hand} (	(8869) em(8869) cheiri Paulou).
Literally, "With the hand of me Paul." The genitive Paulou is
in apposition with the possessive pronoun em(8869) which is in the
instrumental case just as in  2Th 3:17 , the sign in every
Epistle. He dictated, but signed at the end. If we only had that
signature on that scrap of paper.

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