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经文:

约翰福音 1:1-1:1

注释:

 {In the beginning} (en arch(8869)). Arch(885c) is definite, though
anarthrous like our at home, in town, and the similar Hebrew _be
reshith_ in  Ge 1:1 . But Westcott notes that here John carries
our thoughts beyond the beginning of creation in time to
eternity. There is no argument here to prove the existence of God
any more than in Genesis. It is simply assumed. Either God exists
and is the Creator of the universe as scientists like Eddington
and Jeans assume or matter is eternal or it has come out of
nothing. {Was} ((886e)). Three times in this sentence John uses
this imperfect of eimi to be which conveys no idea of origin
for God or for the Logos, simply continuous existence. Quite a
different verb (egeneto, became) appears in verse  14  for the
beginning of the Incarnation of the Logos. See the distinction
sharply drawn in  8:58  "before Abraham came (genesthai) I am"
(eimi, timeless existence). {The Word} (ho logos). Logos is
from leg(935c), old word in Homer to lay by, to collect, to put
words side by side, to speak, to express an opinion. Logos is
common for reason as well as speech. Heraclitus used it for the
principle which controls the universe. The Stoics employed it for
the soul of the world (anima mundi) and Marcus Aurelius used
spermatikos logos for the generative principle in nature. The
Hebrew _memra_ was used in the Targums for the manifestation of
God like the Angel of Jehovah and the Wisdom of God in  Pr 8:23 .
Dr. J. Rendel Harris thinks that there was a lost wisdom book
that combined phrases in Proverbs and in the Wisdom of Solomon
which John used for his Prologue (_The Origin of the _Prologue to
St. John_, p. 43) which he has undertaken to reproduce. At any
rate John's standpoint is that of the Old Testament and not that
of the Stoics nor even of Philo who uses the term Logos, but
not John's conception of personal pre-existence. The term Logos
is applied to Christ only in  Joh 1:1,14  Re 19:13  1Jo 1:1 
"concerning the Word of life" (an incidental argument for
identity of authorship). There is a possible personification of
"the Word of God" in  Heb 4:12 . But the personal pre-existence
of Christ is taught by Paul ( 2Co 8:9  Php 2:6f.  Col 1:17 ) and
in  Heb 1:2f.  and in  Joh 17:5 . This term suits John's purpose
better than sophia (wisdom) and is his answer to the Gnostics
who either denied the actual humanity of Christ (Docetic
Gnostics) or who separated the aeon Christ from the man Jesus
(Cerinthian Gnostics). The pre-existent Logos "became flesh"
(sarx egeneto, verse  14 ) and by this phrase John answered
both heresies at once. {With God} (pros ton theon). Though
existing eternally with God the Logos was in perfect fellowship
with God. Pros with the accusative presents a plane of equality
and intimacy, face to face with each other. In  1Jo 2:1  we have
a like use of pros: "We have a Paraclete with the Father"
(parakl(8874)on echomen pros ton patera). See pros(9370)on pros
pros(9370)on (face to face,  1Co 13:12 ), a triple use of pros.
There is a papyrus example of pros in this sense 	o gn(9373)ton
t(8873) pros all(886c)ous sun(8874)heias, "the knowledge of our intimacy
with one another" (M.&M., _Vocabulary_) which answers the claim
of Rendel Harris, _Origin of Prologue_, p. 8) that the use of
pros here and in  Mr 6:3  is a mere Aramaism. It is not a
classic idiom, but this is _Koin(825f), not old Attic. In  Joh 17:5 
John has para soi the more common idiom. {And the Word was God}
(kai theos (886e) ho logos). By exact and careful language John
denied Sabellianism by not saying ho theos (886e) ho logos. That
would mean that all of God was expressed in ho logos and the
terms would be interchangeable, each having the article. The
subject is made plain by the article (ho logos) and the
predicate without it (	heos) just as in  Joh 4:24  pneuma ho
theos can only mean "God is spirit," not "spirit is God." So in
 1Jo 4:16  ho theos agap(8820)estin can only mean "God is love,"
not "love is God" as a so-called Christian scientist would
confusedly say. For the article with the predicate see Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 767f. So in  Joh 1:14  ho Logos sarx egeneto,
"the Word became flesh," not "the flesh became Word." Luther
argues that here John disposes of Arianism also because the Logos
was eternally God, fellowship of Father and Son, what Origen
called the Eternal Generation of the Son (each necessary to the
other). Thus in the Trinity we see personal fellowship on an
equality.

经文:

约翰福音 1:2-1:2

注释:

 {The same} (houtos). "This one," the Logos of verse  1 ,
repeated for clarity, characteristic of John's style. He links
together into one phrase two of the ideas already stated
separately, "in the beginning he was with God," "afterwards in
time he came to be with man" (Marcus Dods). Thus John clearly
states of the Logos Pre-existence before Incarnation,
Personality, Deity.

经文:

约翰福音 1:3-1:3

注释:

 {All things} (panta). The philosophical phrase was 	a
panta (the all things) as we have it in  1Co 8:6  Ro 11:36  Col
1:16 . In verse  10  John uses ho kosmos (the orderly universe)
for the whole. {Were made} (egeneto). Second aorist middle
indicative of ginomai, the constative aorist covering the
creative activity looked at as one event in contrast with the
continuous existence of (886e) in verses  1,2 . All things "came
into being." Creation is thus presented as a becoming (ginomai)
in contrast with being (eimi). {By him} (di' autou). By means
of him as the intermediate agent in the work of creation. The
Logos is John's explanation of the creation of the universe. The
author of Hebrews ( Heb 1:2 ) names God's Son as the one "through
whom he made the ages." Paul pointedly asserts that "the all
things were created in him" (Christ) and "the all things stand
created through him and unto him" ( Col 1:16 ). Hence it is not a
peculiar doctrine that John here enunciates. In  1Co 8:6 , Paul
distinguishes between the Father as the primary source (ex hou)
of the all things and the Son as the intermediate agent as here
(di' hou). {Without him} (ch(9372)is autou). Old adverbial
preposition with the ablative as in  Php 2:14 , "apart from."
John adds the negative statement for completion, another note of
his style as in  Joh 1:20  1Jo 1:5 . Thus John excludes two
heresies (Bernard) that matter is eternal and that angels or
aeons had a share in creation. {Not anything} (oude hen). "Not
even one thing." Bernard thinks the entire Prologue is a hymn and
divides it into strophes. That is by no means certain. It is
doubtful also whether the relative clause "that hath been made"
(ho gegonen) is a part of this sentence or begins a new one as
Westcott and Hort print it. The verb is second perfect active
indicative of ginomai. Westcott observes that the ancient
scholars before Chrysostom all began a new sentence with ho
gegonen. The early uncials had no punctuation.

经文:

约翰福音 1:4-1:4

注释:

 {In him was life} (en aut(9369) z(9388) (886e)). That which has come
into being (verse  3 ) in the Logos was life. The power that
creates and sustains life in the universe is the Logos. This is
what Paul means by the perfect passive verb ektistai (stands
created) in  Col 1:16 . This is also the claim of Jesus to Martha
( Joh 11:25 ). This is the idea in  Heb 1:3  "bearing (upholding)
the all things by the word of his power." Once this language
might have been termed unscientific, but not so now after the
spiritual interpretation of the physical world by Eddington and
Jeans. Usually in John z(9388) means spiritual life, but here the
term is unlimited and includes all life; only it is not ios
(manner of life), but the very principle or essence of life. That
is spiritual behind the physical and to this great scientists
today agree. It is also personal intelligence and power. Some of
the western documents have estin here instead of (886e) to bring
out clearly the timelessness of this phrase of the work of the
Logos. {And the life was the light of men} (kai h(8820)z(9388) (886e) to
ph(9373) t(936e) anthr(9370)(936e)). Here the article with both z(9388) and ph(9373)
makes them interchangeable. "The light was the life of men" is
also true. That statement is curiously like the view of some
physicists who find in electricity (both light and power) the
nearest equivalent to life in its ultimate physical form. Later
Jesus will call himself the light of the world ( Joh 8:12 ). John
is fond of these words life and light in Gospel, Epistles,
Revelation. He here combines them to picture his conception of
the Pre-incarnate Logos in his relation to the race. He was and
is the Life of men (	(936e) anthr(9370)on, generic use of the article)
and the Light of men. John asserts this relation of the Logos to
the race of men in particular before the Incarnation.

经文:

约翰福音 1:5-1:5

注释:

 {Shineth} (phainei). Linear present active indicative of
phain(935c), old verb from pha(935c), to shine (phaos, ph(9373)). "The
light keeps on giving light." {In the darkness} (en t(8869)
skoti(8369)). Late word for the common skotos (kin to skia,
shadow). An evident allusion to the darkness brought on by sin.
In  2Pe 2:17  we have ho zophos tou skotou (the blackness of
darkness). The Logos, the only real moral light, keeps on shining
both in the Pre-incarnate state and after the Incarnation. John
is fond of skotia (skotos) for moral darkness from sin and
ph(9373) (ph(9374)iz(932c) phain(935c)) for the light that is in Christ alone.
In  1Jo 2:8  he proclaims that "the darkness is passing by and
the true light is already shining." The Gnostics often employed
these words and John takes them and puts them in the proper
place. {Apprehended it not} (auto ou katelaben). Second aorist
active indicative of katalamban(935c), old verb to lay hold of, to
seize. This very phrase occurs in  Joh 12:35  (hina m(8820)skotia
humas katalab(8869)) "that darkness overtake you not," the metaphor
of night following day and in  1Th 5:4  the same idiom (hina
katalab(8869)) is used of day overtaking one as a thief. This is the
view of Origen and appears also in 2Macc. 8:18. The same word
appears in Aleph D in  Joh 6:17  katelabe de autous h(8820)skotia
("but darkness overtook them," came down on them). Hence, in
spite of the Vulgate _comprehenderunt_, "overtook" or "overcame"
seems to be the idea here. The light kept on shining in spite of
the darkness that was worse than a London fog as the Old
Testament and archaeological discoveries in Egypt, Assyria,
Babylonia, Persia, Crete, Asia Minor show.

经文:

约翰福音 1:6-1:6

注释:

 {There came a man} (egeneto anthr(9370)os). Definite event in
the long darkness, same verb in verse  3 . {Sent}
(apestalmenos). Perfect passive participle of apostell(935c), to
send. {From God} (para theou). From the side of (para) God
(ablative case 	heou). {Whose name} (onoma aut(9369)). "Name to
him," nominative parenthetic and dative (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
460). {John} (I(9361)n(8873)). One 
 in Westcott and Hort. In the
giving of the name see  Lu 1:59-63 , Hellenized form of Jonathan,
Joanan (Gift of God), used always of the Baptist in this Gospel
which never mentions the name of John son of Zebedee (the sons of
Zebedee once,  21:2 ).

经文:

约翰福音 1:7-1:7

注释:

 {For witness} (eis marturian). Old word from marture(935c)
(from martus), both more common in John's writings than the
rest of the N.T. This the purpose of the Baptist's ministry.
{That he might bear witness} (hina martur(8873)(8869)). Final clause
with hina and aorist active subjunctive of marture(935c) to make
clearer eis marturian. {Of the light} (peri tou ph(9374)os).
"Concerning the light." The light was shining and men with
blinded eyes were not seeing the light ( Joh 1:26 ), blinded by
the god of this world still ( 2Co 4:4 ). John had his own eyes
opened so that he saw and told what he saw. That is the mission
of every preacher of Christ. But he must first have his own eyes
opened. {That all might believe} (hina pisteus(9373)in). Final
clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of
pisteu(935c), ingressive aorist "come to believe." This is one of
John's great words (about 100 times), "with nine times the
frequency with which it is used by the Synoptists" (Bernard). And
yet pistis, so common in Paul, John uses only in  1Jo 5:4  and
four times in the Apocalypse where pisteu(935c) does not occur at
all. Here it is used absolutely as in  Joh 1:50 , etc. {Through
him} (di' autou). As the intermediate agent in winning men to
believe in Christ (the Logos) as the Light and the Life of men.
This is likewise the purpose of the author of this book
( 21:31 ). The preacher is merely the herald to point men to
Christ.

经文:

约翰福音 1:8-1:8

注释:

 {He} (ekeinos). "That one," i.e. John. He was a light ( Joh
5:35 ) as all believers are ( Mt 5:14 ), but not "the light" (	o
ph(9373)). {But came} (all'). No verb in the Greek, to be supplied
by repeating (886c)then of verse  7 . See similar ellipses in  9:3  13:18  15:25 . In Johannine fashion we have the final hina
clause of verse  7  repeated.

经文:

约翰福音 1:9-1:9

注释:

 {There was} ((886e)). Imperfect indicative. Emphatic position
at the beginning of the sentence and so probably not periphrastic
conjugation with erchomenon (coming) near the end, though that
is possible. {The true light} (	o ph(9373) to al(8874)hinon). "The
light the genuine," not a false light of wreckers of ships, but
the dependable light that guides to the harbor of safety. This
true light had been on hand all the time in the darkness ((886e)
imperfect, linear action) before John came. {Even the light} (not
in the Greek). Added in the English to make plain this
interpretation. {Lighteth every man} (ph(9374)izei panta
anthr(9370)on). Old verb (from ph(9373)) to give light as in  Re 22:5  Lu 11:35f . The Quakers appeal to this phrase for their belief
that to every man there is given an inner light that is a
sufficient guide, the Quaker's text it is called. But it may only
mean that all the real light that men receive comes from Christ,
not necessarily that each one receives a special revelation.
{Coming} (erchomenon). This present middle participle of
erchomai can be taken with anthr(9370)on just before (accusative
masculine singular), "every man as he comes into the world." It
can also be construed with ph(9373) (nominative neuter singular).
This idea occurs in  Joh 3:19  11:27  12:46 . In the two last
passages the phrase is used of the Messiah which makes it
probable here. But even so the light presented in  11:27  12:46 
is that of the Incarnate Messiah, not the Pre-incarnate Logos.
Here kosmos rather than panta occurs in the sense of the
orderly universe as often in this Gospel. See  Eph 1:4 .

经文:

约翰福音 1:10-1:10

注释:

 {He was in the world} (en t(9369) kosm(9369) (886e)). Imperfect tense
of continuous existence in the universe before the Incarnation as
in verses  1,2 . {Was made by him} (di' autou egeneto).
"Through him." Same statement here of "the world" (ho kosmos)
as that made in verse  3  of panta. {Knew him not} (auton ouk
egn(935c)). Second aorist active indicative of common verb ginosk(935c),
what Gildersleeve called a negative aorist, refused or failed to
recognize him, his world that he had created and that was held
together by him ( Col 1:16 ). Not only did the world fail to know
the Pre-incarnate Logos, but it failed to recognize him when he
became Incarnate ( Joh 1:26 ). Two examples in this sentence of
John's fondness for kai as in verses  1,4,5,14 , the paratactic
rather than the hypotactic construction, like the common Hebrew
use of _wav_.

经文:

约翰福音 1:11-1:11

注释:

 {Unto his own} (eis ta idia). Neuter plural, "unto his own
things," the very idiom used in  19:27  when the Beloved Disciple
took the mother of Jesus "to his own home." The world was "the
own home" of the Logos who had made it. See also  16:32  Ac
21:6 . {They that were his own} (hoi idioi). In the narrower
sense, "his intimates," "his own family," "his own friends" as in
 13:1 . Jesus later said that a prophet is not without honour
save in his own country ( Mr 6:4  Joh 4:44 ), and the town of
Nazareth where he lived rejected him ( Lu 4:28f.  Mt 13:58 ).
Probably here hoi idioi means the Jewish people, the chosen
people to whom Christ was sent first ( Mt 15:24 ), but in a wider
sense the whole world is included in hoi idioi. Conder's _The
Hebrew Tragedy_ emphasizes the pathos of the situation that the
house of Israel refused to welcome the Messiah when he did come,
like a larger and sadder Enoch Arden experience. {Received him
not} (auton ou parelabon). Second aorist active indicative of
paralamban(935c), old verb to take to one's side, common verb to
welcome, the very verb used by Jesus in  14:3  of the welcome to
his Father's house. Cf. katelaben in verse  5 . Israel slew the
Heir ( Heb 1:2 ) when he came, like the wicked husbandmen ( Lu
20:14 ).

经文:

约翰福音 1:12-1:12

注释:

 {As many as received him} (hosoi elabon auton). Effective
aorist active indicative of lamban(935c) "as many as did receive
him," in contrast with hoi idioi just before, exceptional
action on the part of the disciples and other believers. {To
them} (autois). Dative case explanatory of the relative clause
preceding, an anacoluthon common in John 27 times as against 21
in the Synoptists. This is a common Aramaic idiom and is urged by
Burney (_Aramaic Origin_, etc., p. 64) for his theory of an
Aramaic original of the Fourth Gospel. {The right} (exousian).
In  5:27  ed(936b)en (first aorist active indicative of did(936d)i)
exousian means authority but includes power (dunamis). Here
it is more the notion of privilege or right. {To become}
(genesthai). Second aorist middle of ginomai, to become what
they were not before. {Children of God} (	ekna theou). In the
full spiritual sense, not as mere offspring of God true of all
men ( Ac 17:28 ). Paul's phrase huioi theou ( Gal 3:26 ) for
believers, used also by Jesus of the pure in heart ( Mt 5:9 ),
does not occur in John's Gospel (but in  Re 21:7 ). It is
possible that John prefers 	a tekna tou theou for the spiritual
children of God whether Jew or Gentile ( Joh 11:52 ) because of
the community of nature (	eknon from root 	ek-, to beget).
But one cannot follow Westcott in insisting on "adoption" as
Paul's reason for the use of huioi since Jesus uses huioi
theou in  Mt 5:9 . Clearly the idea of regeneration is involved
here as in  Joh 3:3 . {Even to them that believe} (	ois
pisteuousin). No "even" in the Greek, merely explanatory
apposition with autois, dative case of the articular present
active participle of pisteu(935c). {On his name} (eis to onoma).
Bernard notes pisteu(9320)eis 35 times in John, to put trust in or
on. See also  2:23  3:38  for pisteu(9320)eis to onoma autou. This
common use of onoma for the person is an Aramaism, but it
occurs also in the vernacular papyri and eis to onoma is
particularly common in the payment of debts (Moulton and
Milligan's _Vocabulary_). See  Ac 1:15  for onomata for
persons.

经文:

约翰福音 1:13-1:13

注释:

 {Which were born} (hoi egenn(8874)h(8873)an). First aorist passive
indicative of genna(935c), to beget, "who were begotten." By
spiritual generation (of God, ek theou), not by physical (ex
haimat(936e), plural as common in classics and O.T., though why it
is not clear unless blood of both father and mother; ek
thel(886d)atos sarkos, from sexual desire; ek thel(886d)atos andros,
from the will of the male). But _b_ of the old Latin reads _qui
natus est_ and makes it refer to Christ and so expressly teach
the Virgin Birth of Jesus. Likewise Irenaeus reads _qui natus
est_ as does Tertullian who argues that _qui nati sunt_ (hoi
egenn(8874)h(8873)an) is an invention of the Valentinian Gnostics. Blass
(_Philology of the Gospels_, p. 234) opposes this reading, but
all the old Greek uncials read hoi egenn(8874)h(8873)an and it must be
accepted. The Virgin Birth is doubtless implied in verse  14 ,
but it is not stated in verse  13 .

经文:

约翰福音 1:14-1:14

注释:

 {And the Word became flesh} (kai ho logos sarx egeneto).
See verse  3  for this verb and note its use for the historic
event of the Incarnation rather than (886e) of verse  1 . Note also
the absence of the article with the predicate substantive sarx,
so that it cannot mean "the flesh became the Word." The
Pre-existence of the Logos has already been plainly stated and
argued. John does not here say that the Logos entered into a man
or dwelt in a man or filled a man. One is at liberty to see an
allusion to the birth narratives in  Mt 1:16-25  Lu 1:28-38 , if
he wishes, since John clearly had the Synoptics before him and
chiefly supplemented them in his narrative. In fact, one is also
at liberty to ask what intelligent meaning can one give to John's
language here apart from the Virgin Birth? What ordinary mother
or father ever speaks of a child "becoming flesh"? For the
Incarnation see also  2Co 8:9  Ga 4:4  Ro 1:3  8:3  Php 2:7f.  1Ti 3:16  Heb 2:14 . "To explain the exact significance of
egeneto in this sentence is beyond the powers of any
interpreter" (Bernard). Unless, indeed, as seems plain, John is
referring to the Virgin Birth as recorded in Matthew and Luke.
"The Logos of philosophy is, John declares, the Jesus of history"
(Bernard). Thus John asserts the deity and the real humanity of
Christ. He answers the Docetic Gnostics who denied his humanity.
{Dwelt among us} (esk(886e)(9373)en en h(886d)in). First aorist ingressive
aorist active indicative of sk(886e)o(935c), old verb, to pitch one's
tent or tabernacle (sk(886e)os or sk(886e)(885c)), in N.T. only here and
 Re 7-15  12:12  13:6  21:3 . In Revelation it is used of God
tabernacling with men and here of the Logos tabernacling, God's
Shekinah glory here among us in the person of his Son. {We beheld
his glory} (etheasametha t(886e) doxan autou). First aorist middle
indicative of 	heaomai (from 	hea, spectacle). The personal
experience of John and of others who did recognize Jesus as the
Shekinah glory (doxa) of God as James, the brother of Jesus, so
describes him ( Jas 2:1 ). John employs 	heaomai again in
 1:32  (the Baptist beholding the Spirit coming down as a dove)
and  1:38  of the Baptist gazing in rapture at Jesus. So also
 4:35  11:45  1Jo 1:1f.  4:12,14 . By this word John insists that
in the human Jesus he beheld the Shekinah glory of God who was
and is the Logos who existed before with God. By this plural John
speaks for himself and all those who saw in Jesus what he did.
{As of the only begotten from the Father} (h(9373) monogenous para
patros). Strictly, "as of an only born from a father," since
there is no article with monogenous or with patros. In  Joh
3:16  1Jo 4:9  we have 	on monogen(885c) referring to Christ. This
is the first use in the Gospel of pat(8872) of God in relation to
the Logos. Monogen(8873) (only born rather than only begotten) here
refers to the eternal relationship of the Logos (as in  1:18 )
rather than to the Incarnation. It distinguishes thus between the
Logos and the believers as children (	ekna) of God. The word is
used of human relationships as in  Lu 7:12  8:42  9:38 . It
occurs also in the LXX and  Heb 11:17 , but elsewhere in N.T.
only in John's writings. It is an old word in Greek literature.
It is not clear whether the words para patros (from the Father)
are to be connected with monogenous (cf.  6:46  7:29 , etc.) or
with doxan (cf.  5:41,44 ). John clearly means to say that "the
manifested glory of the Word was as it were the glory of the
Eternal Father shared with His only Son" (Bernard). Cf.  8:54  14:9  17:5 . {Full} (pl(8872)(8873)). Probably indeclinable accusative
adjective agreeing with doxan (or genitive with monogenous)
of which we have papyri examples (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 275).
As nominative pl(8872)(8873) can agree with the subject of esk(886e)(9373)en.
{Of grace and truth} (charitos kai al(8874)heias). Curiously this
great word charis (grace), so common with Paul, does not occur
in John's Gospel save in  1:14,16,17 , though al(8874)heia (truth)
is one of the keywords in the Fourth Gospel and in 1John,
occurring 25 times in the Gospel and 20 in the Johannine
Epistles, 7 times in the Synoptics and not at all in Revelation
(Bernard). In  1:17  these two words picture the Gospel in Christ
in contrast with the law of Moses. See Epistles of Paul for
origin and use of both words.

经文:

约翰福音 1:15-1:15

注释:

 {Beareth witness} (marturei). Historical (dramatic)
present indicative of this characteristic word in John (cf.
 1:17f. ). See  1:32,34  for historical examples of John's
witness to Christ. This sentence is a parenthesis in Westcott and
Hort's text, though the Revised Version makes a parenthesis of
most of verse  14 . The witness of John is adduced in proof of
the glory full of grace and truth already claimed for the
Incarnate Logos. {Crieth} (kekragen). Second perfect active
indicative of kraz(935c), old verb for loud crying, repeated in
dramatic form again for emphasis recalling the wonderful Voice in
the wilderness which the Beloved Disciple can still hear echoing
through the years. {This was} (houtos (886e)). Imperfect indicative
where John throws the tense back in past time when he looked
forward to the coming of the Messiah as in  Ac 3:10  where we
should prefer "is" (estin). Gildersleeve (_Syntax_, p. 96)
calls this the "imperfect of sudden appreciation of the real
state of things." {Of whom I said} (hon eipon). But B C and a
corrector of Aleph (Westcott and Hort) have ho eip(936e) "the one
who said," a parenthetical explanation about the Baptist, not the
words of the Baptist about Christ. {After me} (opis(9320)mou). See
also  1:27 . Later in time John means. He described "the Coming
One" (ho erchomenos) before he saw Jesus. The language of John
here is precisely that in  Mt 3:11  ho opis(9320)mou erchomenos
(cf.  Mr 1:7 ). The Beloved Disciple had heard the Baptist say
these very words, but he also had the Synoptic Gospels. {Is
become} (gegonen). Second perfect active indicative of
ginomai. It is already an actual fact when the Baptist is
speaking. {Before me} (emprosthen mou). In rank and dignity,
the Baptist means, ho ischuroteros mou "the one mightier than
I" ( Mr 1:7 ) and ischuroteros mou "mightier than I" ( Mt
3:11 ). In  Joh 3:28  emprosthen ekeinou (before him, the
Christ) does mean priority in time, but not here. This superior
dignity of the Messiah John proudly recognizes always ( Joh
3:25-30 ). {For he was before me} (hoti pr(9374)os mou (886e)).
Paradox, but clear. He had always been ((886e) imperfect) before
John in his Pre-incarnate state, but "after" John in time of the
Incarnation, but always ahead of John in rank immediately on his
Incarnation. Pr(9374)os mou (superlative with ablative) occurs here
when only two are compared as is common in the vernacular
_Koin(825f). So the Beloved Disciple came first (pr(9374)os) to the
tomb, ahead of Peter ( 20:4 ). So also pr(9374)on hum(936e) in  15:18 
means "before you" as if it were proteron hum(936e). Verse  30 
repeats these words almost exactly.

经文:

约翰福音 1:16-1:16

注释:

 {For} (hoti). Correct text (Aleph B C D L) and not kai
(and) of the Textus Receptus. Explanatory reason for verse  14 .
{Of his fulness} (ek tou pl(8872)(936d)atos). The only instance of
pl(8872)(936d)a in John's writings, though five times of Christ in
Paul's Epistles ( Col 1:19  2:9  Eph 1:23  3:19  4:13 ). See  Col
1:19  for discussion of these terms of the Gnostics that Paul
employs for all the attributes of God summed up in Christ ( Col
2:9 ) and so used here by John of the Incarnate Logos. {We all}
(h(886d)eis pantes). John is facing the same Gnostic depreciation
of Christ of which Paul writes in Colossians. So here John
appeals to all his own contemporaries as participants with him in
the fulness of the Logos. {Received} (elabomen). Second aorist
active indicative of lamban(935c), a wider experience than beholding
(etheasametha, verse  14 ) and one that all believers may have.
{Grace for grace} (charin anti charitos). The point is in
anti, a preposition disappearing in the _Koin(825f) and here only
in John. It is in the locative case of anta (end), "at the
end," and was used of exchange in sale. See  Lu 11:11 , anti
ichthuos ophin, "a serpent for a fish,"  Heb 12:2  where "joy"
and "cross" are balanced against each other. Here the picture is
"grace" taking the place of "grace" like the manna fresh each
morning, new grace for the new day and the new service.

经文:

约翰福音 1:17-1:17

注释:

 {Was given} (edoth(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of
did(936d)i. {By Moses} (dia M(9375)se(9373)). "Through Moses" as the
intermediate agent of God. {Came} (egeneto). The historical
event, the beginning of Christianity. {By Jesus Christ} (dia
I(8873)ou Christou). "Through Jesus Christ," the intermediate agent
of God the Father. Here in plain terms John identifies the
Pre-incarnate Logos with Jesus of Nazareth, the Messiah. The full
historical name "Jesus Christ" is here for the first time in
John. See also  17:3  and four times in 1John and five times in
Revelation. Without Christ there would have been no Christianity.
John's theology is here pictured by the words "grace and truth"
(h(8820)charis kai h(8820)al(8874)heia), each with the article and each
supplementary to the other. It is grace in contrast with law as
Paul sets forth in Galatians and Romans. Paul had made grace "a
Christian commonplace" (Bernard) before John wrote. It is truth
as opposed to Gnostic and all other heresy as Paul shows in
Colossians and Ephesians. The two words aptly describe two
aspects of the Logos and John drops the use of Logos and
charis, but clings to al(8874)heia (see  8:32  for the freedom
brought by truth), though the ideas in these three words run all
through his Gospel.

经文:

约翰福音 1:18-1:18

注释:

 Ac (10:8 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Ac (10' or engs='Ac (10'
经文:

约翰福音 1:19-1:19

注释:

 {And this is the witness of John} (kai haut(8820)estin h(880a)marturia tou I(9361)nou). He had twice already alluded to it (verses
 7f., 15 ) and now he proceeds to give it as the most important
item to add after the Prologue. Just as the author assumes the
birth narratives of Matthew and Luke, so he assumes the Synoptic
accounts of the baptism of Jesus by John, but adds various
details of great interest and value between the baptism and the
Galilean ministry, filling out thus our knowledge of this first
year of the Lord's ministry in various parts of Palestine. The
story in John proceeds along the same lines as in the Synoptics.
There is increasing unfolding of Christ to the disciples with
increasing hostility on the part of the Jews till the final
consummation in Jerusalem. {When the Jews sent unto him} (hote
apesteilan pros auton hoi Ioudaioi). John, writing in Ephesus
near the close of the first century long after the destruction of
Jerusalem, constantly uses the phrase "the Jews" as descriptive
of the people as distinct from the Gentile world and from the
followers of Christ (at first Jews also). Often he uses it of the
Jewish leaders and rulers in particular who soon took a hostile
attitude toward both John and Jesus. Here it is the Jews from
Jerusalem who sent (apesteilan, first aorist active indicative
of apostell(935c)). {Priests and Levites} (hiereis kai Leueitas).
Sadducees these were. Down below in verse  24  the author
explains that it was the Pharisees who sent the Sadducees. The
Synoptics throw a flood of light on this circumstance, for in  Mt
3:7  we are told that the Baptist called the Pharisees and
Sadducees "offspring of vipers" ( Lu 3:7 ). Popular interest in
John grew till people were wondering "in their hearts concerning
John whether haply he were the Christ" ( Lu 3:15 ). So the
Sanhedrin finally sent a committee to John to get his own view of
himself, but the Pharisees saw to it that Sadducees were sent.
{To ask him} (hina er(9374)(8873)(9373)in auton). Final hina and the
first aorist active subjunctive of er(9374)a(935c), old verb to ask a
question as here and often in the _Koin(825f) to ask for something
( Joh 14:16 ) like aite(935c). {Who art thou?} (su tis ei;).
Direct question preserved and note proleptic position of su,
"Thou, who art thou?" The committee from the Sanhedrin put the
question sharply up to John to define his claims concerning the
Messiah.

经文:

约翰福音 1:20-1:20

注释:

 {And he confessed} (kai h(936d)olog(8873)en). The continued
paratactic use of kai (and) and the first aorist active
indicative of homologe(935c), old verb from homologos (homon,
leg(935c), to say the same thing), to confess, in the Synoptics ( Mt
10:32 ) as here. {And denied not} (kai ouk (8872)n(8873)ato). Negative
statement of same thing in Johannine fashion, first aorist middle
indicative of arneomai, another Synoptic and Pauline word ( Mt
10:33  2Ti 2:12 ). He did not contradict or refuse to say who he
was. {And he confessed} (kai h(936d)olog(8873)en). Thoroughly Johannine
again in the paratactic repetition. {I am not the Christ} (Eg(930a)ouk eimi ho Christos). Direct quotation again with recitative
hoti before it like our modern quotation marks. "I am not the
Messiah," he means by ho Christos (the Anointed One). Evidently
it was not a new question as Luke had already shown ( Lu 3:15 ).

经文:

约翰福音 1:21-1:21

注释:

 {And they asked him} (kai (8872)(9374)(8873)an auton). Here the
paratactic kai is like the transitional oun (then). {What
then?} (Ti oun;). Argumentative oun like Paul's 	i oun in
 Ro 6:15 . _Quid ergo?_ {Art thou Elijah?} (Su Elias ei;). The
next inevitable question since Elijah had been understood to be
the forerunner of the Messiah from  Mal 4:5 . In  Mr 9:11f. 
Jesus will identify John with the Elijah of Malachi's prophecy.
Why then does John here flatly deny it? Because the expectation
was that Elijah would return in person. This John denies. Jesus
only asserts that John was Elijah in spirit. Elijah in person
they had just seen on the Mount of Transfiguration. {He saith}
(legei). Vivid dramatic present. {I am not} (ouk eimi). Short
and blunt denial. {Art thou the prophet?} (ho proph(8874)(8873) ei
su;). "The prophet art thou?" This question followed naturally
the previous denials. Moses ( De 18:15 ) had spoken of a prophet
like unto himself. Christians interpreted this prophet to be the
Messiah ( Ac 3:22  7:37 ), but the Jews thought him another
forerunner of the Messiah ( Joh 7:40 ). It is not clear in  Joh
6:15  whether the people identified the expected prophet with the
Messiah, though apparently so. Even the Baptist later became
puzzled in prison whether Jesus himself was the true Messiah or
just one of the forerunners ( Lu 7:19 ). People wondered about
Jesus himself whether he was the Messiah or just one of the
looked for prophets ( Mr 8:28  Mt 16:14 ). {And he answered}
(kai apekrith(885c)). First aorist passive (deponent passive, sense
of voice gone) indicative of apokrinomai, to give a decision
from myself, to reply. {No} (Ou). Shortest possible denial.

经文:

约翰福音 1:22-1:22

注释:

 {They said therefore} (eipan oun). Second aorist active
indicative of defective verb eipon with a instead of usual
o. Note oun, inferential here as in verse  21  though often
merely transitional in John. {Who art thou?} (Tis ei;). Same
question as at first (verse  19 ), but briefer. {That we give
answer} (hina apokrisin d(936d)en). Final use of hina with second
aorist active subjunctive of did(936d)i with apokrisin from
apokrinomai, above, old substantive as in  Lu 2:47 . {To those
that sent} (	ois pempsasin). Dative case plural of the
articular participle first aorist active of pemp(935c). {What sayest
thou of thyself?} (Ti legeis peri seautou;). This time they
opened wide the door without giving any hint at all.

经文:

约翰福音 1:23-1:23

注释:

 {He said} (eph(885c)). Common imperfect active (or second
aorist active) of ph(886d)i, to say, old defective verb. {I am the
voice of one crying in the wilderness} (Eg(9320)ph(936e)(8820)bo(936e)tos en t(8869)
er(886d)(9369)). For his answer John quotes  Isa 40:3 . The Synoptics
( Mr 1:3  Mt 3:3  Lu 3:4 ) quote this language from Isaiah as
descriptive of John, but do not say that he also applied it to
himself. There is no reason to think that he did not do so. John
also refers to Isaiah as the author of the words and also of the
message, "{Make straight the way of the Lord}" (Euthunate t(886e)
hodon tou kuriou). By this language (euthun(935c) in N.T. only here
and  Jas 3:4 , first aorist active imperative here) John
identifies himself to the committee as the forerunner of the
Messiah. The early writers note the differences between the use
of Logos (Word) for the Messiah and ph(936e)(885c) (Voice) for John.

经文:

约翰福音 1:24-1:24

注释:

 {They had been sent} (apestalmenoi (8873)an). Periphrastic
past perfect passive of apostell(935c). {From the Pharisees} (ek
t(936e) Pharisai(936e)). As the source (ek) of the committee of
Sadducees (verse  19 ).

经文:

约翰福音 1:25-1:25

注释:

 {Why then baptizest thou?} (Ti oun baptizeis;). In view of
his repeated denials (three here mentioned). {If thou art not}
(ei su ouk ei). Condition of first class. They did not
interpret his claim to be "the voice" to be important enough to
justify the ordinance of baptism. Abrahams (_Studies in
Pharisaism and the Gospels_) shows that proselyte baptism was
probably practised before John's time, but its use by John was
treating the Jews as if they were themselves Gentiles.

经文:

约翰福音 1:26-1:26

注释:

 {In the midst of you standeth} (mesos hum(936e) st(886b)ei).
Adjective as in  19:18 , not en mes(9369) hum(936e). Present active
indicative of late verb st(886b)(935c) from perfect stem hest(886b)a. John
had already baptized Jesus and recognized him as the Messiah.
{Whom ye know not} (hon humeis ouk oidate). This was the
tragedy of the situation ( 1:11 ). Apparently this startling
declaration excited no further inquiry from the committee.

经文:

约翰福音 1:27-1:27

注释:

 {Coming after me} (opis(9320)mou erchomenos). No article
(ho) in Aleph B. John as the forerunner of the Messiah has
preceded him in time, but not in rank as he instantly adds. {The
latchet of whose shoe I am not worthy to unloose} (hou ouk eimi
axios hina lus(9320)autou ton himanta tou hupod(886d)atos). Literally,
"of whom I am not worthy that I unloose the latchet (see  Mr 1:7 
for himas) of his sandal (see  Mt 3:11  for hupod(886d)a, bound
under the foot)." Only use of axios with hina in John, though
used by Paul in this saying of the Baptist ( Ac 13:25 ), hikanos
hina in  Mt 3:8 , but hikanos lusai (aorist active infinitive
instead of lus(935c), aorist active subjunctive) in  Mr 1:7  ( Lu
3:16 ) and astasai in  Mt 3:11 .

经文:

约翰福音 1:28-1:28

注释:

 {In Bethany beyond Jordan} (en B(8874)hani(8369) peran tou
Iordanou). Undoubtedly the correct text, not "in Bethabara" as
Origen suggested instead of "in Bethany" of all the known Greek
manuscripts under the mistaken notion that the only Bethany was
that near Jerusalem. {Was baptizing} ((886e) baptiz(936e)).
Periphrastic imperfect, common idiom in John.

经文:

约翰福音 1:29-1:29

注释:

 {On the morrow} (	(8869) epaurion). Locative case with
h(886d)(8872)(8369) (day) understood after the adverb epaurion. "Second
day of this spiritual diary" (Bernard) from verse  19 . {Seeth
Jesus coming} (lepei ton I(8873)oun erchomenon). Dramatic
historical present indicative (lepei) with vivid present
middle participle (erchomenon). Graphic picture. {Behold the
Lamb of God} (ide ho amnos tou theou). Exclamation ide like
idou, not verb, and so nominative amnos. Common idiom in John
( 1:36  3:26 , etc.). For "the Lamb of God" see  1Co 5:7  (cf.
 Joh 19:36 ) and  1Pe 1:19 . The passage in  Isa 53:6f.  is
directly applied to Christ by Philip in  Ac 8:32 . See also  Mt
8:17  1Pe 2:22f.  Heb 9:28 . But the Jews did not look for a
suffering Messiah ( Joh 12:34 ) nor did the disciples at first
( Mr 9:32  Lu 24:21 ). But was it not possible for John, the
Forerunner of the Messiah, to have a prophetic insight concerning
the Messiah as the Paschal Lamb, already in  Isa 53 , even if the
rabbis did not see it there? Symeon had it dimly ( Lu 2:35 ), but
John more clearly. So Westcott rightly. Bernard is unwilling to
believe that John the Baptist had more insight on this point than
current Judaism. Then why and how did he recognize Jesus as
Messiah at all? Certainly the Baptist did not have to be as
ignorant as the rabbis. {Which taketh away the sin of the world}
(ho air(936e) t(886e) hamartian tou kosmou). Note singular hamartian
not plural hamartias ( 1Jo 3:5 ) where same verb air(935c), to
bear away, is used. The future work of the Lamb of God here
described in present tense as in  1Jo 1:7  about the blood of
Christ. He is the Lamb of God for the world, not just for Jews.

经文:

约翰福音 1:30-1:30

注释:

 {Of whom} (huper hou). Not peri, but huper. "On behalf
of whom." John points to Jesus as he speaks: "This is he." There
he is. See verse  15  for discussion of these words of John.

经文:

约翰福音 1:31-1:31

注释:

 {And I knew him not} (kag(9320)ouk (8869)dein auton). Repeated in
verse  33 . Second past perfect of oida as imperfect. He had
predicted the Messiah and described him before he met him and
baptized him. See the Synoptics for that story. Whether John knew
Jesus personally before the baptism we do not know. {But that he
should be made manifest to Israel} (all' hina phaner(9374)h(8869) t(9369)
Isra(886c)). Final clause with hina and first aorist passive
subjunctive of phanero(935c). The purpose of John's ministry was to
manifest to Israel with their spiritual privileges ( 1:49 ) the
presence of the Messiah. Hence he was baptizing in water those
who confessed their sins, he means, as in  Mr 1:5 . The Synoptic
account is presupposed all along here.

经文:

约翰福音 1:32-1:32

注释:

 {Bare witness} (emartur(8873)en). First aorist active
indicative of marture(935c). Another specimen of John's witness to
the Messiah ( 1:7,15,19,29,35,36 ). {I have beheld}
(	etheamai). Perfect middle indicative of 	heaomai, the
realization of the promise of the sign (verse  33 ) by which he
should recognize the Messiah. As a matter of fact, we know that
he so recognized Jesus as Messiah when he came for baptism before
the Holy Spirit came ( Mt 3:14ff. ). But this sight of the Spirit
descending as a dove upon Jesus at his baptism ( Mr 1:10  Mt
3:16  Lu 3:22 ) became permanent proof to him. John's allusion
assumes the Synoptic record. The Semites regarded the dove as a
symbol of the Spirit.

经文:

约翰福音 1:33-1:33

注释:

 {He said} (ekeinos eipen). Explicit and emphatic pronoun
as in verse  8 , referring to God as the one who sent John (verse
 6 ). {With the Holy Spirit} (en pneumati hagi(9369)). "In the Holy
Spirit." Here again one needs the background of the Synoptics for
the contrast between John's baptism in water ( Joh 1:26 ) and
that of the Messiah in the Holy Spirit ( Mr 1:8  Mt 3:11  Lu
3:16 ).

经文:

约翰福音 1:34-1:34

注释:

 {I have seen} (he(9372)aka). Present perfect active of
hora(935c). John repeats the statement of verse  32  (	etheamai).
{Have borne witness} (memartur(886b)a). Perfect active indicative
of marture(935c) for which verb see  32 . {This is the Son of God}
(ho huios tou theou). The Baptist saw the Spirit come on Jesus
at his baptism and undoubtedly heard the Father's voice hail him
as "My Beloved Son" ( Mr 1:11  Mt 3:17  Lu 3:22 ). Nathanael uses
it as a Messianic title ( Joh 1:49 ) as does Martha ( 11:27 ).
The Synoptics use it also of Christ ( Mr 3:11  Mt 14:33  Lu
22:70 ). Caiaphas employs it to Christ as a Messianic title ( Mt
26:63 ) and Jesus confessed under oath that he was (verse  Mt
26:64 ), thus applying the term to himself as he does in John's
Gospel ( 5:25  10:36  11:4 ) and by implication (the Father, the
Son) in  Mt 11:27  ( Lu 10:22 ). Hence in the Synoptics also
Jesus calls himself the Son of God. The phrase means more than
just Messiah and expresses the peculiar relation of the Son to
the Father ( Joh 3:18  5:25  17:5  19:7  20:31 ) like that of the
Logos with God in  1:1 .

经文:

约翰福音 1:35-1:35

注释:

 {Again on the morrow} (	(8869) epaurion palin). Third day
since verse  19 . {Was standing} (hist(886b)ei). Past perfect of
hist(886d)i, intransitive, and used as imperfect in sense. See same
form in  7:37 . {Two} (duo). One was Andrew (verse  40 ), the
other the Beloved Disciple (the Apostle John), who records this
incident with happy memories.

经文:

约翰福音 1:36-1:36

注释:

 {He looked} (emblepsas). First aorist active participle of
emblep(935c), antecedent action before legei (says). {As he
walked} (peripatounti). Present active participle in dative
case after emblepsas and like erchomenon in verse  29 
vividly pictures the rapture of John in this vision of Jesus, so
far as we know the third and last glimpse of Jesus by John (the
baptism, verse  29 , and here). {Saith} (legei). Historical
present, change from hist(886b)ei before. He repeats part of the
tribute in verse  29 .

经文:

约翰福音 1:37-1:37

注释:

 {Heard him speak} ((886b)ousan autou lalountos). First active
indicative of akou(935c) and present active participle of lale(935c) in
genitive case agreeing with autou, object of akou(935c). "Heard
him speaking" (kind of indirect discourse). John had disciples
(math(8874)ai, learners, from manthan(935c), to learn). {They followed
Jesus} ((886b)olouth(8873)an t(9369) I(8873)ou). Associative instrumental case
after verb (first aorist active indicative, ingressive aorist, of
akolouthe(935c)). These two disciples of the Baptist (Andrew and
John) took him at his word and acted on it. John the Baptist had
predicted and portrayed the Messiah, had baptized him, had
interpreted him, and now for the second time had identified him.

经文:

约翰福音 1:38-1:38

注释:

 {Turned} (strapheis). Second aorist passive participle of
streph(935c), vividly picturing the sudden act of Jesus on hearing
their steps behind him. {Beheld} (	heasamenos). First aorist
middle participle of 	heaomai (verse  32 ). Both participles
here express antecedent action to legei (saith). {Following}
(akolothountas). Present active participle of akolouthe(935c)
(verse  37 ). It was Christ's first experience of this kind and
the two came from the Baptist to Jesus. {What seek ye?} (Ti
z(8874)eite;). Not "whom" (	ina  18:4  20:15 ), but "what purpose
have you." The first words of Jesus preserved in this Gospel. See
 Lu 2:49  Mt 3:15  for words spoken before this and  Mr 1:15  for
Mark's first report in the Galilean ministry. {Rabbi} (Rabbei).
Aramaic title for "Teacher" which John here translates by
Didaskale as he is writing late and for general readers. Luke,
a Greek Christian, does not use it, but John recalls his first
use of this term to Jesus and explains it. Matthew has it only in
the greeting of Judas to the Master ( Mt 26:25,49 ) and Mark once
by Judas ( Mr 14:45 ) and twice by Peter ( Mr 9:5  11:21 ).
John's Gospel has the disciples at first addressing Jesus by
Rabbi while others address him by Kurie (Lord or Sir) as in
 4:11,49  5:7 . Peter uses Kurie in  6:68 . In the end the
disciples usually say Kurie ( 13:6,25 , etc.), but Mary
Magdalene says Rabbounei ( 20:16 ). {Being interpreted}
(metherm(886d)euomenon). Present passive participle of
metherm(886e)eu(935c), late compound of meta and herm(886e)eu(935c), to
explain ( Joh 1:42 ), old word from Hermes, the god of speech
(hermeneutics). John often explains Aramaic words ( 1:38,41,42  4:25  9:7 , etc.). {Where abidest thou?} (Pou meneis;). They
wished a place for quiet converse with Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 1:39-1:39

注释:

 {Come and ye shall see} (erchesthe kai opsesthe). Polite
invitation and definite promise (future middle indicative
opsesthe from hora(935c), correct text, not imperative idete).
{Where he abode} (pou menei). Indirect question preserving the
present active indicative after secondary tense (eidan, saw)
according to regular Greek idiom. Same verb men(935c) as in  38 .
{With him} (par' aut(9369)). "By his side," "beside him." {That
day} (	(886e) h(886d)eran ekein(886e)). Accusative of extent of time, all
during that day. {About the tenth hour} (h(9372)a h(9373) dekat(885c)).
Roman time and so ten o'clock in the morning. John in Ephesus at
the close of the century naturally uses Roman time. See  20:19 
"evening on that day," clearly Roman time. Thus also  Joh 19:14 
(sixth hour, morning) and  Mr 15:25  (third hour, nine A.M.)
suit. To his latest day John never forgot the hour when first he
met Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 1:40-1:40

注释:

 {Andrew} (Andreas). Explained by John as one of the two
disciples of the Baptist and identified as the brother of the
famous Simon Peter (cf. also  6:8  12:22 ). The more formal call
of Andrew and Simon, James and John, comes later ( Mr 1:16ff.  Mt
4:18ff.  Lu 3:1-11 ). {That heard John speak} (	(936e) akousant(936e)
para I(9361)nou). "That heard from John," a classical idiom (para
with ablative after akou(935c)) seen also in  6:45  7:51  8:26,40  15:15 .

经文:

约翰福音 1:41-1:41

注释:

 {He findeth first} (heuriskei houtos pr(9374)on). "This one
finds (vivid dramatic present) first" (prot(936e)). Prot(936e)
(adverb supported by Aleph A B fam. 13) means that Andrew sought
"his own brother Simon" (	on adelphon ton idion Sim(936e)a) before
he did anything else. But Aleph L W read pr(9374)os (nominative
adjective) which means that Andrew was the first who went after
his brother implying that John also went after his brother James.
Some old Latin manuscripts (b, e, r apparently), have mane for
Greek pr(9369) (early in the morning). Bernard thinks that this is
the true reading as it allows more time for Andrew to bring Simon
to Jesus. Probably pr(9374)on is correct, but even so John likely
brought also his brother James after Andrew's example. {We have
found the Messiah} (Heur(886b)amen ton Messian). First aorist
active indicative of heurisk(935c). Andrew and John had made the
greatest discovery of the ages, far beyond gold or diamond mines.
The Baptist had told about him. "We have seen him." {Which is}
(ho estin). Same explanatory neuter relative as in verse  38 ,
"which word is." This Aramaic title Messiah is preserved in the
N.T. only here and  4:25 , elsewhere translated into Christos,
Anointed One, from chri(935c), to anoint. See on 烘t 1:1| for
discussion.

经文:

约翰福音 1:42-1:42

注释:

 {Looked upon him} (emblepsas aut(9369)). See verse  36  for
same word and form of John's eager gaze at Jesus. Luke uses this
word of Jesus when Peter denied him ( Lu 22:61 ). {He brought
him} ((8867)agen auton). Effective second aorist active indicative
of ago as if Andrew had to overcome some resistance on Simon's
part. {Thou shalt be called Cephas} (su kl(8874)h(8873)(8869) K(8870)h(8373)).
Apparently before Simon spoke. We do not know whether Jesus had
seen Simon before or not, but he at once gives him a nickname
that will characterize him some day, though not yet, when he
makes the noble confession ( Mt 16:17f. ), and Jesus will say,
"Thou art Peter." Here the future passive indicative of kale(935c)
is only prophecy. The Aramaic C(8870)h(8373) (rock) is only applied to
Simon in John except by Paul ( 1Co 1:12  Ga 1:18 , etc.). But the
Greek Petros is used by all. In the ancient Greek petra was
used for the massive ledge of rock like Stone Mountain while
petros was a detached fragment of the ledge, though itself
large. This distinction may exist in  Mt 16:17f. , except that
Jesus probably used Aramaic which would not have such a
distinction.

经文:

约翰福音 1:43-1:43

注释:

 {On the morrow} (	(8869) epaurion). The fourth of the days
from verse  19 . {He findeth Philip} (heuriskei Philippon).
Vivid dramatic present as in  41 , though (8874)hel(8873)en (was
minded, wished) is aorist active indicative. Apparently not an
accidental finding, possibly due to the efforts of Andrew and
Peter. Both Andrew and Philip have Greek names. {Follow me}
(akolouthei moi). Present active imperative, a direct challenge
to Philip. Often Jesus uses this verb to win disciples ( Mr 2:14  Mt 8:22  9:21  19:21  Lu 9:59  Joh 21:19 ). Already Jesus had
four personal followers (Andrew and Simon, John and James). He
has begun his work.

经文:

约翰福音 1:44-1:44

注释:

 {From Bethsaida} (apo B(8874)hsaida). Same expression in
 12:21  with the added words "of Galilee," which locates it in
Galilee, not in Iturea. There were two Bethsaidas, one called
Bethsaida Julias in Iturea (that in  Lu 9:10 ) or the Eastern
Bethsaida, the other the Western Bethsaida in Galilee ( Mr
6:45 ), perhaps somewhere near Capernaum. This is the town of
Andrew and Peter and Philip. Hence Philip would be inclined to
follow the example of his townsmen.

经文:

约翰福音 1:45-1:45

注释:

 {Philip findeth} (heuriskei Philippos). Dramatic present
again. Philip carries on the work. One wins one. If that glorious
beginning had only kept on! Now it takes a hundred to win one.
{Nathaniel} (	on Nathana(886c)). It is a Hebrew name meaning "God
has given" like the Greek Theodore (Gift of God). He was from
Cana of Galilee ( Joh 21:2 ), not far from Bethsaida and so known
to Philip. His name does not occur in the Synoptics while
Bartholomew (a patronymic, _Bar Tholmai_) does not appear in
John. They are almost certainly two names of the same man. Philip
uses heur(886b)amen (verse  41 ) also to Nathanael and so unites
himself with the circle of believers, but instead of Messian
describes him "of whom (hon accusative with egrapsen) Moses
in the law ( De 18:15 ) and the prophets (so the whole O.T. as in
 Lu 24:27,44 ) did write." {Jesus of Nazareth the son of Joseph}
(I(8873)oun huion tou I(9373)(8870)h ton apo Nazaret). More exactly,
"Jesus, son of Joseph, the one from Nazareth." Jesus passed as
son (no article in the Greek) of Joseph, though John has just
described him as "God-only Begotten" in verse  18 , but certainly
Philip could not know this. Bernard terms this part "the irony of
St. John" for he is sure that his readers will agree with him as
to the real deity of Jesus Christ. These details were probably
meant to interest Nathanael.

经文:

约翰福音 1:46-1:46

注释:

 {Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?} (Ek Nazaret
dunatai ti agathon einai;). Literally, "Out of Nazareth can
anything good be." There is a tinge of scorn in the question as
if Nazareth (note position at beginning of sentence) had a bad
name. Town rivalry may account to some extent for it since Cana
(home of Nathanael) was near Nazareth. Clearly he had never heard
of Jesus. The best thing in all the world came out of Nazareth,
but Philip does not argue the point. A saying had arisen that no
prophet comes out of Galilee ( Joh 7:52 ), untrue like many such
sayings. {Come and see} (erchou kai ide). Present middle
imperative (come on) and second active imperative (and see at
once). Philip followed the method of Jesus with Andrew and John
(verse  39 ), probably without knowing it. Wise is the one who
knows how to deal with the sceptic.

经文:

约翰福音 1:47-1:47

注释:

 {Behold} (ide). Here an exclamation (see  1:29 ) as often
like idou. {An Israelite indeed} (al(8874)h(9373) Isra(886c)eit(8873)).
"Truly an Israelite," one living up to the covenant name, Israel
at its best ( Ro 2:29 ), without the guile (dolos, deceit, bait
for fish, from deleaz(935c), to catch with bait) that Jacob once had
of which Isaac complained ( Ge 27:35 , dolos, here in LXX). The
servant of Jehovah was to be without guile ( Isa 53:9 ).

经文:

约翰福音 1:48-1:48

注释:

 {Whence knowest thou me?} (Pothen me gin(9373)keis;).
Nathanael is astonished at this tribute, at any knowledge about
himself by Jesus. He had overheard Christ's comment and longed to
know its source. {Before Philip called thee} (Pro tou se
Philippon ph(936e)(8873)ai). Idiomatic Greek, pro and the ablative
case of the articular aorist active infinitive (	ou ph(936e)(8873)ai,
from ph(936e)e(935c), to call) with se as the object and Philippon,
the accusative of general reference, "before the calling thee as
to Philip." {When thou wast under the fig tree} (onta hupo t(886e)
suk(886e)). "Being under the fig tree," accusative present
participle agreeing with se. The fig tree was a familiar object
in Palestine, probably in leaf at this time, the accusative with
hupo may suggest that Nathanael had withdrawn there for prayer.
Note genitive with hupokat(935c) in verse  50 . Jesus saw
Nathanael's heart as well as his mere presence there. He saw him
in his worship and so knew him.

经文:

约翰福音 1:49-1:49

注释:

 {Thou art the Son of God} (su ei ho huios tou theou).
Whether Nathanael had heard the Baptist say this of Jesus
( 1:34 ) we do not know, apparently not, but Nathanael was a
student of the Old Testament as Philip implied ( 1:45 ) and was
quick to put together his knowledge, the statement of Philip, and
the manifest supernatural knowledge of Jesus as just shown. There
is no reason for toning down the noble confession of Nathanael in
the light of Christ's claim in verse  51 . Cf. the confession of
Peter in  6:69  Mt 16:16  and Martha's in  Joh 11:27 . Nathanael
goes further. {Thou art King of Israel} (Basileus ei tou
Isra(886c)). To us this seems an anti-climax, but not so to
Nathanael for both are Messianic titles in  Ps 2  and Jesus is
greeted in the Triumphal Entry as the King of Israel ( Joh
12:13 ).

经文:

约翰福音 1:50-1:50

注释:

 {Answered and said} (apekrith(8820)kai eipen). This redundant
use of both verbs (cf.  1:26 ) occurs in the Synoptics also and
in the LXX also. It is Aramaic also and vernacular. It is not
proof of an Aramaic original as Burney argues (_Aramaic Origin_,
etc., p. 53). {Because} (hoti). Causal use of hoti at
beginning of the sentence as in  14:19  15:19  16:6 . The second
hoti before eidon (I saw) is either declarative (that) or
merely recitative (either makes sense here). {Thou shalt see
greater things than these} (meiz(9320)tout(936e) ops(8869)). Perhaps
volitive future middle indicative of hora(935c) (though merely
futuristic is possible as with opsesthe in  51 ) ablative case
of 	out(936e) after the comparative adjective meiz(935c). The wonder
of Nathanael no doubt grew as Jesus went on.

经文:

约翰福音 1:51-1:51

注释:

 {Verily, Verily} (Am(886e), am(886e)). Hebrew word transliterated
into Greek and then into English, our "amen." John always repeats
it, not singly as in the Synoptics, and only in the words of
Jesus, an illustration of Christ's authoritative manner of
speaking as shown also by leg(9320)humin (I say unto you). Note
plural humin though aut(9369) just before is singular (to him).
Jesus addresses thus others besides Nathanael. {The heaven
opened} (	on ouranon ane(9369)gota). Second perfect active
participle of anoig(935c) with double reduplication, standing open.
The words remind one of what took place at the baptism of Jesus
( Mt 3:16  Lu 3:21 ), but the immediate reference is to the
opened heaven as the symbol of free intercourse between God and
man ( Isa 64:1 ) and as it was later illustrated in the death of
Stephen ( Ac 7:56 ). There is a quotation from  Ge 28:12f. ,
Jacob's vision at Bethel. That was a dream to Jacob, but Christ
is himself the bond of fellowship between heaven and earth,
between God and man, for Jesus is both "the Son of God" as
Nathanael said and "the Son of Man" (epi ton huion tou
anthr(9370)ou) as Jesus here calls himself. God and man meet in
Christ. He is the true Jacob's Ladder. "I am the Way," Jesus will
say. He is more than King of Israel, he is the Son of Man (the
race). So quickly has this Gospel brought out in the witness of
the Baptist, the faith of the first disciples, the claims of
Jesus Christ, the fully developed picture of the Logos who is
both God and man, moving among men and winning them to his
service. At the close of the ministry Christ will tell Caiaphas
that he will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of
power and coming with the clouds of heaven ( Mr 14:62 ). Here at
the start Jesus is conscious of the final culmination and in
apocalyptic eschatological language that we do not fully
understand he sets forth the dignity and majesty of his Person.

经文:

约翰福音 2:1-2:1

注释:

 {The third day} (	(8869) h(886d)er(8369) t(8869) trit(8869)). "On the day the
third" (locative case), from the start to Galilee when Philip was
found ( 1:43 ), seven days since  1:19 . {There was a marriage}
(gamos egeneto). "A wedding (or marriage festival) took place."
See on 烘t 22:8|. {In Cana of Galilee} (en Kana t(8873) Galilaias).
This town, the home of Nathanael ( 21:2 ), is only mentioned
again in  4:46  as the home of the nobleman. There was a Cana in
Coele-Syria. It is usually located at _Kefr Kenna_ (3 1/2 miles
from Nazareth), though _Ain Kana_ and _Khirbet Kana_ are also
possible. Bernard thinks that it was probably on Wednesday
afternoon the fourth day of the week (usual day for marriage of
virgins), when the party of Jesus arrived. {And the mother of
Jesus was there} (kai (886e) h(8820)m(8874)(8872) tou I(8873)ou ekei). When they
arrived. John does not mention her name, probably because already
well known in the Synoptics. Probably Joseph was already dead.
Mary may have been kin to the family where the wedding took
place, an intimate friend clearly.

经文:

约翰福音 2:2-2:2

注释:

 {Jesus also was bidden} (ekl(8874)h(8820)kai ho I(8873)ous). First
aorist passive indicative of kale(935c), "was also invited" as well
as his mother and because of her presence, possibly at her
suggestion. {And his disciples} (kai hoi math(8874)ai). Included in
the invitation and probably all of them acquaintances of the
family. See on 气:35| for this word applied to John's followers.
This group of six already won form the nucleus of the great host
of "learners" through the ages who will follow Jesus as Teacher
and Lord and Saviour. The term is sometimes restricted to the
twelve apostles, but more often has a wider circle in view as in
 Joh 6:61,66  20:30 .

经文:

约翰福音 2:3-2:3

注释:

 {When the wine failed} (huster(8873)antos oinou). Genitive
absolute with first aorist active participle of hustere(935c), old
verb from husteros, late or lacking. See same use in  Mr
10:21 . A longer Western paraphrase occurs in some manuscripts.
It was an embarrassing circumstance, especially to Mary, if
partly due to the arrival of the seven guests. {They have no
wine} (Oinon ouk echousin). The statement of the fact was in
itself a hint and a request. But why made by the mother of Jesus
and why to Jesus? She would not, of course, make it to the host.
Mary feels some kind of responsibility and exercises some kind of
authority for reasons not known to us. Mary had treasured in her
heart the wonders connected with the birth of Jesus ( Lu
2:19,51 ). The ministry of the Baptist had stirred her hopes
afresh. Had she not told Jesus all that she knew before he went
to the Jordan to be baptized of John? This group of disciples
meant to her that Jesus had begun his Messianic work. So she
dares propose the miracle to him.

经文:

约翰福音 2:4-2:4

注释:

 2Ki
3:13 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Ki
3' or engs='2Ki
3'
经文:

约翰福音 2:5-2:5

注释:

 {Unto the servants} (	ois diakonois). See on 烘t 20:26| for
this word (our "deacon," but not that sense here). {Whatsoever he
saith unto you, do it} (Hoti an leg(8869) humin poi(8873)ate).
Indefinite relative sentence (hoti an and present active
subjunctive, general statement) with aorist active imperative of
poie(935c) for instant execution. Mary took comfort in the "not yet"
(oup(935c)) and recognized the right of Jesus as Messiah to
independence of her, but evidently expected him to carry out her
suggestion ultimately as he did. This mother knew her Son.

经文:

约翰福音 2:6-2:6

注释:

 {Waterpots} (hudriai). Old word from hud(9372) (water) and
used in papyri for pots or pans for holding money or bread as
well as water. These stone (lithinai as in  2Co 3:3 ) jars full
of water were kept handy ({set there}, keimenai, present middle
participle of keimai) at a feast for ceremonial cleansing of
the hands ( 2Ki 3:11  Mr 7:3 ), "after the Jews' manner of
purifying" (kata ton katharismon t(936e) Ioudai(936e)). See  Mr 1:44  Lu 2:22  for the word katharismos (from kathariz(935c)) which fact
also raised a controversy with disciples of John because of his
baptizing ( Joh 3:25 ). {Containing} (ch(9372)ousai). Present
active participle feminine plural of ch(9372)e(935c), old verb from
ch(9372)os, place, space, having space or room for. {Two or three
firkins apiece} (ana metr(8874)as duo (8820)treis). The word
metr(8874)(8873), from metre(935c), to measure, simply means "measurer,"
an amphora for measuring liquids (in Demosthenes, Aristotle,
Polybius), the Hebrew _bath_ ( 2Ch 4:5 ), here only in N.T.,
about 8 1/2 English gallons. Each hudria thus held about 20
gallons. This common distributive use of ana occurs here only
in this Gospel, but is in  Re 4:8 . In  Joh 4:28  a much smaller
hudria was used for carrying water.

经文:

约翰福音 2:7-2:7

注释:

 {Fill} (gemisate). Effective first aorist active imperative
of gemiz(935c), to fill full. {With water} (hudatos). Genitive
case of material. {Up to the brim} (he(9373) an(935c)). "Up to the top."
See he(9373) kat(935c) ( Mt 27:51 ) for "down to the bottom." No room
left in the waterpots now full of water.

经文:

约翰福音 2:8-2:8

注释:

 {Draw out now} (Antl(8873)ate nun). First aorist active
imperative of antle(935c), from ho antlos, bilge water, or the
hold where the bilge water settles (so in Homer). The verb occurs
in  Joh 4:7,15 , for drawing water from the well, and Westcott so
interprets it here, but needlessly so, since the servants seem
bidden to draw from the large water-jars now full of water.
Apparently the water was still water when it came out of the jars
(verse  9 ), but was changed to wine before reaching the guests.
The water in the jars remained water. {Unto the ruler of the
feast} (	(9369) architriklin(9369)). Dative case. The 	riklinos was a
room (oikos) with three couches (klin(885c)) for the feast. The
architriklinos was originally the superintendent of the
dining-room who arranged the couches and tasted the food, not the
toast-master (sumposiarch(8873)). {And they bare it} (hoi de
(886e)egkan). Second aorist active indicative of pher(935c). Apparently
not knowing at first that they bore wine.

经文:

约翰福音 2:9-2:9

注释:

 {Tasted} (egeusato). First aorist middle indicative of
geuomai. As it was his function to do. {The water now become
wine} (	o hud(9372) oinon gegen(886d)enon). Accusative case, though the
genitive also occurs with geuomai. Perfect passive participle
of ginomai and oinon, predicative accusative. The tablemaster
knew nothing of the miracle, "whence it was" (pothen estin,
indirect question retaining present indicative). The servants
knew the source of the water, but not the power that made the
wine. {Calleth the bridegroom} (ph(936e)ei ton numphion). As
apparently responsible for the supply of the wine ({thou hast
kept} 	et(8872)(886b)as). See  Mt 9:15  for 
umphios. When men have
drunk freely (hotan methusth(9373)in). Indefinite temporal clause
with hotan and first aorist passive subjunctive of methusk(935c).
The verb does not mean that these guests are now drunk, but that
this is a common custom to put "the worse" (	on elass(935c), the
less, the inferior) wine last. It is real wine that is meant by
oinos here. Unlike the Baptist Jesus mingled in the social life
of the time, was even abused for it ( Mt 11:19  Lu 7:34 ). But
this fact does not mean that today Jesus would approve the modern
liquor trade with its damnable influences. The law of love
expounded by Paul in  1Co 8-10  and in  Ro 14,15  teaches modern
Christians to be willing gladly to give up what they see causes
so many to stumble into sin.

经文:

约翰福音 2:11-2:11

注释:

 {This beginning of his signs did Jesus} (	aut(886e) epoi(8873)en
arch(886e) t(936e) s(886d)ei(936e) ho I(8873)ous). Rather, "this Jesus did as a
beginning of his signs," for there is no article between 	aut(886e)
and arch(886e). "We have now passed from the 'witness' of the
Baptist to the 'witness' of the works of Jesus" (Bernard). This
is John's favourite word "signs" rather than wonders (	erata)
or powers (dunameis) for the works (erga) of Jesus. S(886d)eion
is an old word from s(886d)ain(935c), to give a sign ( 12:33 ). He
selects eight in his Gospel by which to prove the deity of Christ
( 20:30 ) of which this is the first. {Manifested his glory}
(ephaner(9373)en t(886e) doxan autou). First aorist (effective) active
indicative of phanero(935c), that glory of which John spoke in
 1:14 . {Believed on him} (episteusan eis auton). First aorist
active indicative of pisteu(935c), to believe, to put trust in, so
common in John. These six disciples (learners) had already
believed in Jesus as the Messiah ( 1:35-51 ). Now their faith was
greatly strengthened. So it will be all through this Gospel.
Jesus will increasingly reveal himself while the disciples will
grow in knowledge and trust and the Jews will become increasingly
hostile till the culmination.

经文:

约翰福音 2:12-2:12

注释:

 {He went down to Capernaum} (kateb(8820)eis Kapharnaoum
autos). Second aorist active indicative of katabain(935c). Cana was
on higher ground. This brief stay ({not many days}, ou pollas
h(886d)eras) in this important city (Tell Hum) on the north shore of
Galilee was with Christ's mother, brothers (apparently friendly
at first) and the six disciples, all in the fresh glow of the
glory manifested at Cana. Surely Mary's heart was full.

经文:

约翰福音 2:13-2:13

注释:

 {The passover of the Jews} (	o pascha t(936e) Ioudai(936e)). The
Synoptics do not give "of the Jews," but John is writing after
the destruction of the temple and for Gentile readers. John
mentions the passovers in Christ's ministry outside of the one
when Christ was crucified, this one and one in  6:4 . There may
be another ( 5:1 ), but we do not know. But for John we should
not know that Christ's ministry was much over a year in length.

经文:

约翰福音 2:14-2:14

注释:

 {Those that sold} (	ous p(936c)ountas). Present active
articular participle of p(936c)e(935c), to sell. They were in the Court
of the Gentiles within the temple precinct (en t(9369) hier(9369)), but
not in the 
aos or temple proper. The sacrifices required
animals (oxen, oas, sheep, probata, doves, peristeras) and
"changers of money" (kermatistas, from kermatiz(935c), to cut into
small pieces, to change money, only here in N.T., late and rare).
Probably their very presence in his Father's house angered Jesus.
The Synoptics ( Mr 11:15-17  Mt 21:12f.  Lu 10:45f. ) record a
similar incident the day after the Triumphal Entry. If there was
only one, it would seem more natural at the close. But why could
it not occur at the beginning also? Here it is an obvious protest
by Christ at the beginning of his ministry as in the Synoptics it
is an indignant outcry against the desecration. The cessation was
only temporary in both instances.

经文:

约翰福音 2:15-2:15

注释:

 {A scourge of cords} (phragellion ek schoini(936e)). The Latin
_flagellum_. In papyri, here only in N.T. and note Latin _l_
becomes 
 in _Koin(825f). Schoini(936e) is a diminutive of schoinos
(a rush), old word for rope, in N.T. only here and  Ac 27:32 .
{Cast out} (exebalen). Second aorist active indicative of
ekball(935c). It is not said that Jesus smote the sheep and oxen
(note 	e kai, both and), for a flourish of the scourge would
answer. {He poured out} (execheen). Second aorist active
indicative of ekche(935c), to pour out. {The changers' money} (	(936e)
kollubist(936e) ta kermata). "The small pieces of money (kermata,
cut in pieces, change) of the bankers (kollubist(8873) from
kollubos, clipped, late word see on 烘t 21:12|)." Perhaps he
took up the boxes and emptied the money. {Overthrew their tables}
(	as trapezas anetrepsen). First aorist active indicative of
anatrep(935c), to turn up, though some MSS. have anestrepsen from
anastreph(935c), also to turn up.

经文:

约翰福音 2:16-2:16

注释:

 {Take these things hence} (Arate tauta enteuthen). First
aorist active imperative of air(935c). Probably the doves were in
baskets or cages and so had to be taken out by the traders. {Make
not my Father's house a house of merchandise} (m(8820)poieite ton
oikon tou patros mou oikon emporiou). "Stop making," it means,
m(885c) and the present active imperative. They had made it a
market-house (emporiou, here only in N.T., old word from
emporos, merchant, one who goes on a journey for traffic, a
drummer). Note the clear-cut Messianic claim here (My Father as
in  Lu 2:49 ). Jerome says: "A certain fiery and starry light
shone from his eyes and the majesty of Godhead gleamed in His
face."

经文:

约翰福音 2:17-2:17

注释:

 {Remembered} (emn(8873)th(8873)an). First aorist passive
indicative of mimn(8873)k(935c), to remind, "were reminded." Westcott
notes the double effect of this act as is true of Christ's words
and deeds all through John's Gospel. The disciples are helped,
the traders are angered. {That it is written} (hoti gegrammenon
estin). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of graph(935c)
retained in indirect discourse (assertion). {The zeal of thine
house} (ho z(886c)os tou oikou sou). Objective genitive. "The zeal
for thy house." {Shall eat me up} (kataphagetai me). Future
middle indicative of katesthi(935c), defective verb, to eat down
("up" we say), perfective use of kata-. This future phagomai
is from the second aorist ephagon. It is a quotation from  Ps
69:9 , frequently quoted in the N.T.

经文:

约翰福音 2:18-2:18

注释:

 {What sign shewest thou unto us?} (Ti s(886d)eion deiknueis
h(886d)in;). They may have heard of the "sign" at Cana or not, but
they have rallied a bit on the outside of the temple area and
demand proof for his Messianic assumption of authority over the
temple worship. These traders had paid the Sadducees and
Pharisees in the Sanhedrin for the concession as traffickers
which they enjoyed. They were within their technical rights in
this question.

经文:

约翰福音 2:19-2:19

注释:

 {Destroy this temple} (lusate ton naon touton). First
aorist active imperative of lu(935c), to loosen or destroy. It is
the permissive imperative, not a command to do it. Note also

aos, not hieron, the sanctuary, symbol of God's 
aos, in
our hearts ( 1Co 3:16f. ). There is much confusion about this
language since Jesus added: "And in three days I will raise it
up" (kai en trisin h(886d)erais eger(9320)auton). Those who heard
Jesus, including the disciples till after the resurrection (verse
 22 ), understood the reference to be to Herod's temple.
Certainly that is the obvious way to take it. But Jesus often
spoke in parables and even in enigmas. He may have spoken of the
literal temple as a parable for his own body which of course they
would not understand, least of all the resurrection in three
days.

经文:

约翰福音 2:20-2:20

注释:

 {Forty and six years was this temple in building}
(Tesserakonta kai hex etesin oikodom(8874)h(8820)ho naos houtos).
"Within forty and six years (associative instrumental case) was
built (first aorist passive indicative, constative or summary use
of the aorist, of oikodome(935c), without augment) this temple." As
a matter of fact, it was not yet finished, so distrustful had the
Jews been of Herod. {And wilt thou?} (kai su;). An evident
sneer in the use of su (thou, an unknown upstart from Galilee,
of the peasant class, not one of the Sanhedrin, not one of the
ecclesiastics or even architects).

经文:

约翰福音 2:21-2:21

注释:

 {But he spake of the temple of his body} (ekeinos de elegen
peri tou naou tou s(936d)atos autou). Emphatic he (ekeinos) and
imperfect tense (he had been speaking). This is John's view as he
looks back at it, not what he understood when Jesus spoke the
words.

经文:

约翰福音 2:22-2:22

注释:

 {When therefore he was raised from the dead} (Hote oun
(8867)erth(8820)ek nekr(936e)). First aorist passive indicative of egeir(935c),
to raise up. And not at first then, but only slowly after the
disciples themselves were convinced. Then "they believed the
Scripture" (episteusan t(8869) graph(8869)). They "believed" again.
Dative case graph(8869). Probably  Ps 16:10  is meant ( Ac 2:31  13:35 ). {And the word which Jesus had said} (kai t(9369) log(9369) hon
eipen). Dative case log(9369) also, but hon (relative) is not
attracted to the dative. Clearly then John interprets Jesus to
have a parabolic reference to his death and resurrection by his
language in  2:19 . There are those who bluntly say that John was
mistaken. I prefer to say that these scholars are mistaken. Even
Bernard considers it "hardly possible" that John interprets Jesus
rightly in  1:21 . "Had he meant that, He would have spoken with
less ambiguity." But how do we know that Jesus wished to be
understood clearly at this time? Certainly no one understood
Christ when he spoke the words. The language of Jesus is recalled
and perverted at his trial as "I will destroy" ( Mr 14:58 ), "I
can destroy" ( Mt 26:61 ), neither of which he said.

经文:

约翰福音 2:23-2:23

注释:

 {In Jerusalem} (en tois Ierosolumois). The form
Ierosoluma as in  2:13  always in this Gospel and in Mark, and
usually in Matthew, though Ierousal(886d) only in Revelation, and
both forms by Luke and Paul. {During the feast} (en t(8869)
heort(8869)). The feast of unleavened bread followed for seven days
right after the passover (one day strictly), though 	o pascha
is used either for the passover meal or for the whole eight days.
{Believed on his name} (episteusan eis to onoma autou). See on
气:12| for this phrase. Only one has to watch for the real import
of pisteu(935c). {Beholding his signs} (	he(9372)ountes autou ta
s(886d)eia). Present active participle (causal use) of 	he(9372)e(935c).
{Which he did} (ha epoiei). "Which he was doing" (imperfect
tense). He did his first sign in Cana, but now he was doing many
in Jerusalem. Already Jesus had become the cynosure of all eyes
in Jerusalem at this first visit in his ministry.

经文:

约翰福音 2:24-2:24

注释:

 {But Jesus did not trust himself to them} (autos de I(8873)ous
ouk episteuen hauton autois). "But Jesus himself kept on
refusing (negative imperfect) to trust himself to them." The
double use of pisteu(935c) here is shown by  Ac 8:13  where Simon
Magus "believed" (episteusen) and was baptized, but was
unsaved. He merely believed that he wanted what Philip had. {For
that he knew all men} (dia to auton gin(9373)kein pantas). Causal
use of dia and the accusative case of the articular infinitive
	o gin(9373)kein (because of the knowing) with the object of the
infinitive (pantas, all men) and the accusative of general
reference (auton, as to himself).

经文:

约翰福音 2:25-2:25

注释:

 {And because he needed not} (kai hoti chreian eichen).
Imperfect active, "and because he did not have need." {That any
one should bear witness concerning man} (hina tis martur(8873)(8869)
peri tou anthr(9370)ou). Non-final use of hina with first aorist
active subjunctive of marture(935c) and the generic article (peri
tou anthr(9370)ou) concerning mankind as in the next clause also.
{For he himself knew} (autos gar egin(9373)ken). Imperfect active,
"for he himself kept on knowing" as he did from the start. {What
was in man} (	i (886e) en t(9369) anthr(9370)(9369)). Indirect question with
estin of the direct changed to the imperfect (886e), a rare idiom
in the _Koin(825f). This supernatural knowledge of man is a mark of
deity. Some men of genius can read men better than others, but
not in the sense meant here.

经文:

约翰福音 3:1-3:1

注释:

 {Now} (de). So often in John de is explanatory and
transitional, not adversative. Nicodemus is an instance of
Christ's knowledge of men ( 2:25 ) and of one to whom he did
trust himself unlike those in  2:24 . As a Pharisee "he belonged
to that party which with all its bigotry contained a salt of true
patriotism and could rear such cultured and high-toned men as
Gamaliel and Paul" (Marcus Dods). {Named Nicodemus} (Nikod(886d)os
onoma). Same construction as in  1:6 , "Nicodemus name to him."
So  Re 6:8 . It is a Greek name and occurs in Josephus (_Ant_.
XIV. iii. 2) as the name of an ambassador from Aristobulus to
Pompey. Only in John in N.T. (here,  7:50  19:39 ). He was a
Pharisee, a member of the Sanhedrin, and wealthy. There is no
evidence that he was the young ruler of  Lu 18:18  because of
arch(936e) (ruler) here.

经文:

约翰福音 3:2-3:2

注释:

 {The same} (houtos). "This one." {By night} (
uktos).
Genitive of time. That he came at all is remarkable, not because
there was any danger as was true at a later period, but because
of his own prominence. He wished to avoid comment by other
members of the Sanhedrin and others. Jesus had already provoked
the opposition of the ecclesiastics by his assumption of
Messianic authority over the temple. There is no ground for
assigning this incident to a later period, for it suits perfectly
here. Jesus was already in the public eye ( 2:23 ) and the
interest of Nicodemus was real and yet he wished to be cautious.
{Rabbi} (Rabbei). See on 气:38|. Technically Jesus was not an
acknowledged Rabbi of the schools, but Nicodemus does recognize
him as such and calls him "My Master" just as Andrew and John did
( 1:38 ). It was a long step for Nicodemus as a Pharisee to take,
for the Pharisees had closely scrutinized the credentials of the
Baptist in  1:19-24  (Milligan and Moulton's _Comm_.). {We know}
(oidamen). Second perfect indicative first person plural. He
seems to speak for others of his class as the blind man does in
 9:31 . Westcott thinks that Nicodemus has been influenced partly
by the report of the commission sent to the Baptist ( 1:19-27 ).
{Thou art a teacher come from God} (apo theou el(886c)uthas
didaskalos). "Thou hast come from God as a teacher." Second
perfect active indicative of erchomai and predicative
nominative didaskalos. This is the explanation of Nicodemus for
coming to Jesus, obscure Galilean peasant as he seemed, evidence
that satisfied one of the leaders in Pharisaism. {Can do}
(dunatai poiein). "Can go on doing" (present active infinitive
of poie(935c) and so linear). {These signs that thou doest} (	auta
ta s(886d)eia ha su poieis). Those mentioned in  2:23  that
convinced so many in the crowd and that now appeal to the
scholar. Note su (thou) as quite out of the ordinary. The scorn
of Jesus by the rulers held many back to the end ( Joh 12:42 ),
but Nicodemus dares to feel his way. {Except God be with him}
(ean m(8820)(8869) ho theos met' autou). Condition of the third class,
presented as a probability, not as a definite fact. He wanted to
know more of the teaching accredited thus by God. Jesus went
about doing good because God was with him, Peter says ( Ac
10:38 ).

经文:

约翰福音 3:3-3:3

注释:

 {Except a man be born anew} (ean m(8820)tis genn(8874)h(8869) an(9374)hen).
Another condition of the third class, undetermined but with
prospect of determination. First aorist passive subjunctive of
genna(935c). An(9374)hen. Originally "from above" ( Mr 15:38 ), then
"from heaven" ( Joh 3:31 ), then "from the first" ( Lu 1:3 ), and
then "again" (palin an(9374)hen,  Ga 4:9 ). Which is the meaning
here? The puzzle of Nicodemus shows (deuteron, verse  4 ) that
he took it as "again," a second birth from the womb. The Vulgate
translates it by _renatus fuerit denuo_. But the misapprehension
of Nicodemus does not prove the meaning of Jesus. In the other
passages in John ( 3:31  19:11,23 ) the meaning is "from above"
(desuper) and usually so in the Synoptics. It is a second
birth, to be sure, regeneration, but a birth from above by the
Spirit. {He cannot see the kingdom of God} (ou dunatai idein t(886e)
basileian tou theou). To participate in it as in  Lu 9:27 . For
this use of idein (second aorist active infinitive of hora(935c))
see  Joh 8:51  Re 18:7 .

经文:

约翰福音 3:4-3:4

注释:

 Being old (ger(936e) (936e)). Nicodemus was probably familiar with
the notion of re-birth for proselytes to Judaism for the
Gentiles, but not with the idea that a Jew had to be reborn. But
"this stupid misunderstanding" (Bernard) of the meaning of Jesus
is precisely what John represents Nicodemus as making. How "old"
Nicodemus was we do not know, but surely too old to be the young
ruler of  Lu 18:18  as Bacon holds. The blunder of Nicodemus is
emphasized by the second question with the m(885c) expecting the
negative answer. The use of deuteron adds to the grotesqueness
of his blunder. The learned Pharisee is as jejune in spiritual
insight as the veriest tyro. This is not an unheard of
phenomenon.

经文:

约翰福音 3:5-3:5

注释:

 {Of water and the Spirit} (ex hudatos kai pneumatos).
Nicodemus had failed utterly to grasp the idea of the spiritual
birth as essential to entrance into the Kingdom of God. He knew
only Jews as members of that kingdom, the political kingdom of
Pharisaic hope which was to make all the world Jewish (Pharisaic)
under the King Messiah. Why does Jesus add ex hudatos here? In
verse  3  we have "an(9374)hen" (from above) which is repeated in
verse  7 , while in verse  8  we have only ek tou pneumatos (of
the Spirit) in the best manuscripts. Many theories exist. One
view makes baptism, referred to by ex hudatos (coming up out of
water), essential to the birth of the Spirit, as the means of
obtaining the new birth of the Spirit. If so, why is water
mentioned only once in the three demands of Jesus ( 3,5,7 )?
Calvin makes water and Spirit refer to the one act (the cleansing
work of the Spirit). Some insist on the language in verse  6  as
meaning the birth of the flesh coming in a sac of water in
contrast to the birth of the Spirit. One wonders after all what
was the precise purpose of Jesus with Nicodemus, the Pharisaic
ceremonialist, who had failed to grasp the idea of spiritual
birth which is a commonplace to us. By using water (the symbol
before the thing signified) first and adding Spirit, he may have
hoped to turn the mind of Nicodemus away from mere physical birth
and, by pointing to the baptism of John on confession of sin
which the Pharisees had rejected, to turn his attention to the
birth from above by the Spirit. That is to say the mention of
"water" here may have been for the purpose of helping Nicodemus
without laying down a fundamental principle of salvation as being
by means of baptism. Bernard holds that the words hudatos kai
(water and) do not belong to the words of Jesus, but "are a
gloss, added to bring the saying of Jesus into harmony with the
belief and practice of a later generation." Here Jesus uses
eiselthein (enter) instead of idein (see) of verse  3 , but
with the same essential idea (participation in the kingdom).

经文:

约翰福音 3:6-3:6

注释:

 {That which is born} (	o gegenn(886d)enon). Perfect passive
articular participle. The sharp contrast between flesh (sarx)
and Spirit (pneuma), drawn already in  1:13 , serves to remind
Nicodemus of the crudity of his question in  3:4  about a second
physical birth.

经文:

约翰福音 3:7-3:7

注释:

 {Marvel not} (m(8820)thaumas(8869)s). "Do not begin to wonder"
(ingressive first aorist active subjunctive with m(885c)), as
clearly Nicodemus had done. In John the word 	haumaz(935c) usually
means "unintelligent wonder" (Bernard). {Ye must be born anew}
(dei humas genn(8874)h(886e)ai an(9374)hen). Jesus repeats the point in
verse  3  (dei and the infinitive instead of ean m(885c) and the
subjunctive) with an(9374)hen (from above) only and not ex
hudatos.

经文:

约翰福音 3:8-3:8

注释:

 {The wind} (	o pneuma). In Greek pneuma means either wind
or spirit as _spiritus_ does in Latin (so also in Hebrew and
Syriac). Wycliff follows the Latin and keeps spirit here and
Marcus Dods argues for it. The word pneuma occurs 370 times in
the N.T. and never means wind elsewhere except in a quotation
from the O.T. ( Heb 1:7  from  Ps 104:4 ), though common in the
LXX. On the other hand pne(935c) (bloweth, pnei) occurs five times
elsewhere in the N.T. and always of the wind (like  Joh 6:18 ).
So ph(936e)(885c) can be either sound (as of wind) or voice (as of the
Spirit). In simple truth either sense of pneuma can be taken
here as one wills. Tholuck thinks that the night-wind swept
through the narrow street as Jesus spoke. In either case the
etymology of pneuma is "wind" from pne(935c), to blow. The Spirit
is the use of pneuma as metaphor. Certainly the conclusion "of
the Spirit" is a direct reference to the Holy Spirit who works
his own way beyond our comprehension even as men even yet do not
know the law of the wind.

经文:

约翰福音 3:9-3:9

注释:

 {How?} (P(9373);) Nicodemus is not helped either by the use of
hud(9372) or pneuma to understand dei genn(8874)h(886e)ai an(9374)hen (the
necessity of the birth from above or regeneration). He falls back
into his "stupid misunderstanding." There are none so dull as
those who will not see. Preoccupation prevents insight. Literally
one must often empty his mind to receive new truth.

经文:

约翰福音 3:10-3:10

注释:

 {The teacher of Israel} (ho didaskalos tou Isra(886c)). The
well-known or the authorized (the accepted) teacher of the Israel
of God. Note both articles. {And understandest not these things?}
(kai tauta ou gin(9373)keis;). After being told by Jesus and after
so propitious a start. His Pharisaic theology had made him almost
proof against spiritual apprehension. It was outside of his
groove (rote, rut, rot, the three terrible r's of mere
traditionalism).

经文:

约翰福音 3:11-3:11

注释:

 {We speak that we do know} (ho oidamen laloumen). Jesus
simply claims knowledge of what he has tried to make plain to the
famous Rabbi without success. John uses lale(935c) some 60 times,
half of them by Jesus, very little distinction existing between
the use of lale(935c) and leg(935c) in John. Originally lale(935c)
referred to the chatter of birds. Note John's frequent use of
am(886e) am(886e) and leg(935c) (double emphasis). {And bear witness of
that we have seen} (kai ho he(9372)akamen marturoumen). The same
use of neuter singular relative ho as before. Perfect active
indicative of hora(935c). He is not a dreamer, guesser, or
speculator. He is bearing witness from personal knowledge,
strange as this may seem to Nicodemus. {And ye receive not our
witness} (kai t(886e) marturian h(886d)(936e) ou lambanete). This is the
tragedy of the matter as John has shown ( 1:11,26 ) and as will
continue to be true even today. Jesus probably associates here
with himself ("we") those who have personal experience of grace
and so are qualified as witnesses. Note the plural in  1Jo 1:1f .
Bernard thinks that John has here read into the words of Jesus
the convictions of a later age, a serious charge to make.

经文:

约翰福音 3:12-3:12

注释:

 {If I told} (ei eipon). Condition of the first class,
assumed to be true. {Earthly things} (	a epigeia). Things upon
the earth like 	a epi t(8873) g(8873) ( Col 3:2 ), not things of an
earthly nature or worldly or sinful. The work of the kingdom of
God including the new birth which Nicodemus did not understand
belongs to 	a epigeia. {If I tell you heavenly things} (ean
eip(9320)humin ta epourania). Condition of the third class,
undetermined. What will Nicodemus do in that case? By 	a
epourania Jesus means the things that take place in heaven like
the deep secrets of the purpose of God in the matter of
redemption such as the necessity of the lifting up of Christ as
shown in verse  14 . Both Godet and Westcott note that the two
types of teaching here pointed out by Jesus (the earthly, the
heavenly) correspond in general to the difference between the
Synoptics (the earthly) and the Fourth Gospel (the heavenly), a
difference noted here in the Fourth Gospel as shown by Jesus
himself. Hence the one should not be pitted against the other.
There are specimens of the heavenly in the Synoptics as in  Mt
11:25ff.  Lu 10:18ff .

经文:

约翰福音 3:13-3:13

注释:

 {But he that descended out of heaven} (ei m(8820)ho ek tou
ouranou katabas). The Incarnation of the Pre-existent Son of God
who was in heaven before he came down and so knows what he is
telling about "the heavenly things." There is no allusion to the
Ascension which came later. This high conception of Christ runs
all through the Gospel and is often in Christ's own words as
here. {Which is in heaven} (ho (936e) en t(9369) ouran(9369)). This phrase
is added by some manuscripts, not by Aleph B L W 33, and, if
genuine, would merely emphasize the timeless existence of God's
Son who is in heaven even while on earth. Probably a gloss. But
"the Son of man" is genuine. He is the one who has come down out
of heaven.

经文:

约翰福音 3:14-3:14

注释:

 {Moses lifted up the serpent} (M(9375)s(8873) hups(9373)en ton ophin).
Reference to  Nu 21:7ff.  where Moses set the brazen serpent upon
the standard that those who believed might look and live. Jesus
draws a vivid parallel between the act of Moses and the Cross on
which he himself (the Son of man) "must" (dei, one of the
heavenly things) "be lifted up" (hups(9374)h(886e)ai, first aorist
passive infinitive of hupso(935c), a word not used about the brazen
serpent). In John hupso(935c) always refers to the Cross ( 8:28  12:32,34 ), though to the Ascension in Acts ( Ac 2:33  5:31 ).
Jesus is complimenting the standing and intelligence of Nicodemus
as "the teacher of Israel" by telling him this great truth and
fact that lies at the basis of the work of the kingdom of God
(the atoning death of Christ on the Cross).

经文:

约翰福音 3:15-3:15

注释:

 {That whosoever believeth may in him have eternal life}
(hina pas ho pisteu(936e) en aut(9369) ech(8869) z(9388)n ai(936e)ion). Final use
of hina with present active subjunctive of ech(935c), that he may
keep on having eternal life (a frequent phrase in John, always in
John ai(936e)ios occurs with z(9388), 16 times in the Gospel, 6 in
1John, ageless or endless life, beginning now and lasting
forever). It is more than endless, for it is sharing in the life
of God in Christ ( 5:26  17:3  1Jo 5:12 ). So here en aut(9369) (in
him) is taken with ech(8869) rather than with pisteu(936e). The
interview with Nicodemus apparently closes with verse  15 . In
verses  16-21  we have past tenses constantly as is natural for
the reflection of John, but unnatural for Jesus speaking. There
are phrases like the Prologue (verse  19  1:9-11 ). "Only
begotten" does not occur elsewhere in the words of Jesus, but is
in  1:14,18  1Jo 4:9 . John often puts in explanatory comments
( 1:16-18  12:37-41 ).

经文:

约翰福音 3:16-3:16

注释:

 2Co
5:19 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
5' or engs='2Co
5'
经文:

约翰福音 3:17-3:17

注释:

 1Jo
4:14 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
4' or engs='1Jo
4'
经文:

约翰福音 3:18-3:18

注释:

 {Is not judged} (ou krinetai). Present passive indicative.
Trust in Christ prevents condemnation, for he takes our place and
pays the penalty for sin for all who put their case in his hands
( Ro 8:32f. ). The believer in Christ as Saviour does not come
into judgment ( Joh 5:24 ). {Hath been judged already} ((8864)(880a)kekritai). Perfect passive indicative of krin(935c). Judgment has
already been passed on the one who refuses to believe in Christ
as the Saviour sent by the Father, the man who is not willing to
come to Christ for life ( 5:40 ). {Because he hath not believed}
(hoti m(8820)pepisteuken). Perfect active indicative of pisteu(935c),
has taken a permanent attitude of refusal. Here hoti m(885c) states
the reason subjectively as the judgment of the Judge in any such
case (ho m(8820)pisteu(936e) already mentioned) while in  1Jo 5:10 
hoti ou pepisteuken gives the reason objectively (ou instead
of m(885c)) conceived as an actual case and no longer hypothetical.
See  1:12  for eis to onoma with pisteu(935c) (believing on the
name) and  1:14  for monogenous (only begotten) and also
 3:16 .

经文:

约翰福音 3:19-3:19

注释:

 {And this is the judgment} (haut(8820)de estin h(8820)krisis). A
thoroughly Johannine phrase for sequence of thought ( 15:12  17:3  1Jo 1:5  5:11,14  3Jo 1:6 ). It is more precisely the
process of judging (kri-sis) rather than the result (kri-ma)
of the judgment. "It is no arbitrary sentence, but the working
out of a moral law" (Bernard). {The light is come} (	o ph(9373)
el(886c)uthen). Second perfect active indicative of erchomai, a
permanent result as already explained in the Prologue concerning
the Incarnation ( 1:4,5,9,11 ). Jesus is the Light of the world.
{Loved darkness} ((8867)ap(8873)an to skotos). Job ( Job 24:13 ) spoke
of men rebelling against the light. Here 	o skotos, common word
for moral and spiritual darkness ( 1Th 5:5 ), though h(8820)skotia
in  Joh 1:5 . "Darkness" is common in John as a metaphor for the
state of sinners ( 8:12  12:35, 46  1Jo 1:6  2:8,9,11 ). Jesus
himself is the only moral and spiritual light of the world
( 8:12 ) as he dared claim to his enemies. The pathos of it all
is that men fall in love with the darkness of sin and rebel
against the light like denizens of the underworld, "for their
works were evil (pon(8872)a)." When the light appears, they scatter
to their holes and dens. Pon(8872)os (from ponos, toil, pone(935c),
to toil) is used of the deeds of the world by Jesus ( 7:7 ). In
the end the god of this world blinds men's eyes so that they do
not see the light ( 2Co 4:4 ). The fish in the Mammoth Cave have
no longer eyes, but only sockets where eyes used to be. The evil
one has a powerful grip on the world ( 1Jo 5:19 ).

经文:

约翰福音 3:20-3:20

注释:

 {That doeth ill} (ho phaula prass(936e)). The word phaulos
means first worthless and then wicked (usually so in N.T.) and
both senses occur in the papyri. In  5:29  see contrast between
agatha poie(935c) (doing good things) and phaula prass(935c)
(practising evil things). {Hateth the light} (misei to ph(9373)).
Hence talks against it, ridicules Christ, Christianity, churches,
preachers, etc. Does it in talk, magazines, books, in a
supercilious tone of sheer ignorance. {Cometh not to the light}
(ouk erchetai pros to ph(9373)). The light hurts his eyes, reveals
his own wickedness, makes him thoroughly uncomfortable. Hence he
does not read the Bible, he does not come to church, he does not
pray. He goes on in deeper darkness. {Lest his works should be
reproved} (hina m(8820)elegchth(8869) ta erga autou). Negative final
clause (hina m(885c)) with first aorist passive subjunctive of
elegch(935c), old word to correct a fault, to reprove, to convict.
See also  8:46  16:8 . To escape this unpleasant process the evil
man cuts out Christ.

经文:

约翰福音 3:21-3:21

注释:

 1Jo
1:6 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
1' or engs='1Jo
1'
经文:

约翰福音 3:22-3:22

注释:

 {After these things} (meta tauta). Transition after the
interview with Nicodemus. For the phrase see  5:1  6:1  7:1 .
{Into the land of Judea} (eis t(886e) Ioudaian g(886e)). Into the
country districts outside of Jerusalem. The only example of this
phrase in the N.T., but "the region of Judea" (h(8820)Ioudaia
ch(9372)a) in  Mr 1:5 . {He tarried} (dietriben). Descriptive
imperfect active of diatrib(935c), old verb to rub between or hard,
to spend time ( Ac 14:3 ). {Baptized} (ebaptizen). Imperfect
active of aptiz(935c). "He was baptizing." The six disciples were
with him and in  4:2  John explains that Jesus did the baptizing
through the disciples.

经文:

约翰福音 3:23-3:23

注释:

 {John was also baptizing} ((886e) de kai ho I(9361)n(8873) baptiz(936e)).
Periphrastic imperfect picturing the continued activity of the
Baptist simultaneous with the growing work of Jesus. There was no
real rivalry except in people's minds. {In Aenon near to Salim}
(en Ain(936e) eggus tou Saleim). It is not clearly known where this
place was. Eusebius locates it in the Jordan valley south of
Beisan west of the river where are many springs (fountains,
eyes). There is a place called Salim east of Shechem in Samaria
with a village called 'Aimen, but with no water there. There may
have been water there then, of course. {Because there was much
water there} (hoti hudata polla (886e) ekei). "Because many waters
were there." Not for drinking, but for baptizing. "Therefore even
in summer baptism by immersion could be continued" (Marcus Dods).
{And they came, and were baptized} (kai pareginonto kai
ebaptizonto). Imperfects both, one middle and the other passive,
graphically picturing the long procession of pilgrims who came to
John confessing their sins and receiving baptism at his hands.

经文:

约翰福音 3:24-3:24

注释:

 {For John had not yet been cast into prison} (oup(9320)gar (886e)
bebl(886d)enos eis t(886e) phulak(886e) I(9361)n(8873)). Periphrastic past perfect
indicative of all(935c) explaining (gar) why John was still
baptizing, the reason for the imprisonment having been given by
Luke ( Lu 3:19f. ).

经文:

约翰福音 3:25-3:25

注释:

 1Ti
6:4 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ti
6' or engs='1Ti
6'
经文:

约翰福音 3:26-3:26

注释:

 {Rabbi} (Rabbei). Greeting John just like Jesus ( 1:38  3:2 ). {Beyond Jordan} (peran tou Iordanou). Evident reference
to John's witness to Jesus told in  1:29-34 . {To whom thou hast
borne witness} (h(9369) su memartur(886b)as). Note avoidance of calling
the name of Jesus. Perfect active indicative of marture(935c) so
common in John ( 1:7 , etc.). These disciples of John are clearly
jealous of Jesus as a rival of John and they distinctly blame
John for his endorsement of one who is already eclipsing him in
popularity. {The same baptizeth} (houtos baptizei). "This one
is baptizing." Not personally ( 4:2 ), as John did, but through
his six disciples. {And all men come to him} (kai pantes
erchontai pros auton). Linear present middle indicative, "are
coming." The sight of the growing crowds with Jesus and the
dwindling crowds with John stirred John's followers to keenest
jealousy. What a life-like picture of ministerial jealousy in all
ages.

经文:

约翰福音 3:27-3:27

注释:

 {Except it have been given him from heaven} (ean m(8820)(8869)
dedomenon aut(9369) ek tou ouranou). See the same idiom in  Joh
6:65  (cf.  19:11 ). Condition of third class, undetermined with
prospect of determination, ean m(885c) with the periphrastic perfect
passive subjunctive of did(936d)i. The perfect tense is rare in the
subjunctive and an exact rendering into English is awkward,
"unless it be granted him from heaven." See  1Co 4:7  where Paul
says the same thing.

经文:

约翰福音 3:28-3:28

注释:

 {I said} (eipon). As in  1:20,23 . He had always put Jesus
ahead of him as the Messiah ( 1:15 ). {Before him} (emprosthen
ekeinou). "Before that one" (Jesus) as his forerunner simply. {I
am sent} (apestalmenos eimi). Periphrastic perfect passive
indicative of apostell(935c).

经文:

约翰福音 3:29-3:29

注释:

 {The bridegroom} (
umphios). Predicate nominative without
article. Both 
umph(885c) (bride) and 
umphios are old and common
words. Jesus will use this metaphor of himself as the Bridegroom
( Mr 2:19 ) and Paul develops it ( 2Co 11:2  Eph 5:23-32 ) and so
in Revelation ( 19:7  21:2 ). John is only like the _paranymph_
(paranumphios) or "the friend of the bridegroom." His office is
to bring groom and bride together. So he stands expectant
(hest(886b)(9373), second perfect active participle of hist(886d)i) and
listens (akou(936e), present active participle of akou(935c)) with joy
({rejoiceth greatly}, char(8369) chairei, "with joy rejoices") to
the music of the bridegroom's voice. {This my joy therefore is
fulfilled} (haut(8820)oun h(8820)chara pepl(8872)(9374)ai). Perfect passive
indicative of pl(8872)o(935c), stands filled like a cup to the brim with
joy.

经文:

约翰福音 3:30-3:30

注释:

 {Must} (dei). It has to be (see  3:14 ). He is to go on
growing (present active infinitive auxanein) while I go on
decreasing (present passive infinitive elattousthai, from
comparative elatt(936e), less). These are the last words that we
have from John till the despondent message from the dungeon in
Machaerus whether Jesus is after all the Messiah ( Mt 11:2  Lu
7:19 ). He went on to imprisonment, suspense, martyrdom, while
Jesus grew in popular favour till he had his _via dolorosa_.
"These last words of St. John are the fulness of religious
sacrifice and fitly close his work" (Westcott).

经文:

约翰福音 3:31-3:31

注释:

 {Is above all} (epan(9320)pant(936e)). Ablative case with the
compound preposition epan(935c). See the same idea in  Ro 9:5 . Here
we have the comments of Evangelist (John) concerning the last
words of John in verse  30  which place Jesus above himself. He
is above all men, not alone above the Baptist. Bernard follows
those who treat verses  31-36  as dislocated and put them after
verse  21  (the interview with Nicodemus), but they suit better
here. {Of the earth} (ek t(8873) g(8873)). John is fond of this use of
ek for origin and source of character as in  1:46  1Jo 4:5 .
Jesus is the one that comes out of heaven (ho ek tou ouranou
erchomenos) as he has shown in  1:1-18 . Hence he is "above
all."

经文:

约翰福音 3:32-3:32

注释:

 {What he hath seen and heard} (ho he(9372)aken kai (886b)ousen).
Perfect active indicative followed by aorist active indicative,
because, as Westcott shows, the first belongs to the very
existence of the Son and the latter to his mission. There is no
confusion of tenses here. {No man} (oudeis). There were crowds
coming to Jesus, but they do not really accept him as Saviour and
Lord ( 1:11  2:24 ). It is superficial as time will show. But "no
one" is not to be pressed too far, for it is the rhetorical use.

经文:

约翰福音 3:33-3:33

注释:

 {Hath set his seal} (esphragisen). First aorist active
indicative of sphragiz(935c) for which verb see  Mt 27:66 . The
metaphor of sealing is a common one for giving attestation as in
 6:27 . The one who accepts the witness of Jesus attests that
Jesus speaks the message of God.

经文:

约翰福音 3:34-3:34

注释:

 {The words of God} (	a r(886d)ata tou theou). God sent his Son
( 3:17 ) and he speaks God's words. {By measure} (ek metrou).
That is God has put no limit to the Spirit's relation to the Son.
God has given the Holy Spirit in his fulness to Christ and to no
one else in that sense.

经文:

约翰福音 3:35-3:35

注释:

 {Hath given all things into his hand} (panta ded(936b)en en t(8869)
cheiri autou). John makes the same statement about Jesus in
 13:3  (using eis tas cheiras instead of en t(8869) cheiri).
Jesus makes the same claim in  5:19-30  Mt 11:27  28:18 .

经文:

约翰福音 3:36-3:36

注释:

 {Hath eternal life} (echei z(9388)n ai(936e)ion). Has it here and
now and for eternity. {That obeyeth not} (ho apeith(936e)). "He
that is disobedient to the Son." Jesus is the test of human life
as Simeon said he would be ( Lu 2:34f. ). This verb does not
occur again in John's Gospel.

经文:

约翰福音 4:1-4:1

注释:

 {When therefore} (H(9373) oun). Reference to  3:22f . the work
of the Baptist and the jealousy of his disciples. Oun is very
common in John's Gospel in such transitions. {The Lord} (ho
Kurios). So the best manuscripts (Neutral Alexandrian), though
the Western class has ho I(8873)ous. Mark usually has ho I(8873)ous
and Luke often ho Kurios. In the narrative portion of John we
have usually ho I(8873)ous, but ho Kurios in five passages ( 4:1  6:23  11:2  20:20  21:12 ). There is no reason why John should
not apply ho Kurios to Jesus in the narrative sections as well
as Luke. Bernard argues that these are "explanatory glosses," not
in the first draft of the Gospel. But why? When John wrote his
Gospel he certainly held Jesus to be Kurios (Lord) as Luke did
earlier when he wrote both Gospel and Acts This is
hypercriticism. {Knew} (egn(935c)). Second aorist active indicative
of gin(9373)k(935c). The Pharisees knew this obvious fact. It was easy
for Jesus to know the attitude of the Pharisees about it
( 2:24 ). Already the Pharisees are suspicious of Jesus. {How
that} (hoti). Declarative hoti (indirect assertion). {Was
making and baptizing more disciples than John} (pleionas
math(8874)as poiei kai baptizei (8820)I(9361)n(8873)). Present active indicative
in both verbs retained in indirect discourse. Recall the
tremendous success of John's early ministry ( Mr 1:5  Mt 3:5  Lu
3:7,15 ) in order to see the significance of this statement that
Jesus had forged ahead of him in popular favour. Already the
Pharisees had turned violently against John who had called them
broods of vipers. It is most likely that they drew John out about
the marriage of Herod Antipas and got him involved directly with
the tetrarch so as to have him cast into prison ( Lu 3:19f. ).
Josephus (_Ant_. XVIII. v. 2) gives a public reason for this act
of Herod Antipas, the fear that John would "raise a rebellion,"
probably the public reason for his private vengeance as given by
Luke. Apparently John was cast into prison, though recently still
free ( Joh 3:24 ), before Jesus left for Galilee. The Pharisees,
with John out of the way, turn to Jesus with envy and hate.

经文:

约翰福音 4:2-4:2

注释:

 {Although Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples}
(kaitoige I(8873)ous autos ouk ebaptizen all' hoi math(8874)ai autou).
Parenthetical explanation that applies also to  3:22 . Imperfect
tense means that it was not the habit of Jesus. This is the only
N.T. instance of kaitoige (and yet indeed), compound
conjunction (kaitoi in  Ac 14:17  Heb 4:3 ) with intensive
particle ge added. This is the last mention of baptism under
the direction of Jesus till the Great Commission ( Mt 28:19 ). It
is possible that Jesus stopped the baptizing because of the
excitement and the issue raised about his Messianic claims till
after his resurrection when he enjoined it upon his disciples as
a rite of public enlistment in his service.

经文:

约翰福音 4:3-4:3

注释:

 {Left Judea} (aph(886b)en t(886e) Ioudaian). Unusual use of
aphi(886d)i. First (Kappa) aorist active indicative. Originally
the word means to send away, to dismiss, to forsake, to forgive,
to allow. Jesus uses it in this sense in  16:28 . Evidently
because Jesus did not wish to bring the coming conflict with the
Pharisees to an issue yet. So he mainly avoids Jerusalem and
Judea now till the end. Each time hereafter that Jesus appears in
Jerusalem and Judea before the last visit there is an open breach
with the Pharisees who attack him ( Joh 5:1-47  7:14-10:21  10:22-42  11:17-53 ). {Again into Galilee} (palin eis t(886e)
Galilaian). Reference to  2:1-12 . The Synoptics tell nothing of
this early work in Perea ( Joh 1:19-51 ), Galilee, or Judea
( 2:13-4:2 ). John supplements their records purposely.

经文:

约翰福音 4:4-4:4

注释:

 {He must needs pass through Samaria} (Edei de auton
dierchesthai dia t(8873) Samarias). Imperfect indicative of the
impersonal verb dei with subject infinitive (dierchesthai)
and accusative of general reference (auton). Note repetition of
dia. It was only necessary to pass through Samaria in going
directly north from Judea to Galilee. In coming south from
Galilee travellers usually crossed over the Jordan and came down
through Perea to avoid the hostility of the Samaritans towards
people who passed through their land to go to Jerusalem. Jesus
once met this bitterness on going to the feast of tabernacles
( Lu 9:51-56 ).

经文:

约翰福音 4:5-4:5

注释:

 {So he cometh} (erchetai oun). Vivid present middle
indicative and transitional oun. {Sychar} (Suchar). There is
a dispute whether this is just a variation of Shechem as meaning
"drunken-town" ( Isa 28:1 ) or "lying-town" ( Hab 2:18 ) or is a
separate village near Shechem (Neapolis, Nablous) as the Talmud
and Eusebius indicate. Apparently the present village Askar
corresponds well with the site. The use of polin (city) does
not mean that it was a large town. Mark and John use it freely
for small places. {Parcel of ground} (ch(9372)iou). Old use of this
diminutive of ch(9372)os or ch(9372)a, a piece of ground. {That Jacob
gave to his son Joseph} (ho ed(936b)en Iak(9362) t(9369) I(9373)(8870)h t(9369) hui(9369)
autou). See  Ge 33:19  48:22 . Relative ho is not attracted to
case of ch(9372)iou. First aorist active indicative ed(936b)en.

经文:

约翰福音 4:6-4:6

注释:

 {Jacob's well} (p(8867)(8820)tou Iak(9362)). "A spring of Jacob" (here
and verse  14 ), but phrear (well, pit, cistern) in verses
 11,12 . It is really a cistern 100 feet deep dug by a stranger
apparently in a land of abundant springs ( Ge 26:19 ). {Wearied}
(kekopiak(9373)). Perfect active participle of kopia(935c), a state of
weariness. The verb means to toil excessively ( Lu 5:5 ). John
emphasizes the human emotions of Jesus ( 1:14  11:3,33,35,38,41f.  12:27  13:21  19:28 ). {With his journey}
(ek t(8873) hodoiporias). As a result (ek) of the journey. Old
compound word from hodoporos (wayfarer), in N.T. only here and
 2Co 11:26 . {Sat} (ekathezeto). Imperfect (descriptive) middle
of kathezomai, "was sitting." {Thus} (hout(9373)). Probably "thus
wearied," graphic picture. {By the well} (epi t(8869) p(8867)(8869)).
Literally, "upon the curbstone of the well." {Sixth hour} (h(9373)
hekt(885c)). Roman time, about 6 P.M., the usual time for drawing
water.

经文:

约翰福音 4:7-4:7

注释:

 {There cometh} (erchetai). Vivid historical present as in
verse  5 . {A woman of Samaria} (gun(8820)ek t(8873) Samarias). The
country, not the city which was two hours away. {To draw water}
(antl(8873)ai hud(9372)). First aorist active infinitive of purpose of
antle(935c) for which see  2:8f . Cf. Rebecca in  Ge 24:11,17 .
{Give me to drink} (dos moi pein). Second aorist active
imperative of did(936d)i and second aorist active infinitive
(object of dos) of pin(935c), shortened form of piein. A polite
request.

经文:

约翰福音 4:8-4:8

注释:

 {For} (gar). Explanation of the reason for asking her.
{Were gone away} (apel(886c)utheisan). Past perfect of
aperchomai, to go off. They had already gone before she came.
To Sychar ( 5,39 ). {To buy food} (hina trophas agoras(9373)in).
Hina in purpose clause with first aorist active subjunctive of
agoraz(935c), old verb from agora (marketplace). See  Mt 21:12 .
Troph(885c) (nourishment) is old word from 	reph(935c), to nourish ( Mt
3:4 ). "Victuals" (plural).

经文:

约翰福音 4:9-4:9

注释:

 {The Samaritan woman} (h(8820)gun(8820)h(8820)Samareitis). Different
idiom from that in  7 , "the woman the Samaritan." The Samaritans
were a mixture by intermarriage of the Jews left in the land
( 2Ch 30:6,10  34:9 ) with colonists from Babylon and other
regions sent by Shalmaneser. They had had a temple of their own
on Mt. Gerizim and still worshipped there. {Thou being a Jew}
(su Ioudaios (936e)). Race antipathy was all the keener because the
Samaritans were half Jews. {Drink} (pein). Same infinitive form
as in  7  and the object of aiteis (askest). {Of me} (par'
emou). "From me," ablative case with para. {For Jews have no
dealings with Samaritans} (ou gar sunchr(936e)tai Ioudaioi
Samareitais). Explanatory (gar) parenthesis of the woman's
astonishment. Associative instrumental case with sunchr(936e)tai
(present middle indicative of sunchraomai, compound in literary
_Koin(825f), here only in N.T.). The woman's astonishment is ironical
according to Bernard. At any rate the disciples had to buy food
in a Samaritan village and they were travelling through Samaria.
Perhaps she was surprised that Jesus would drink out of her
waterpot. The Western class omit this explanatory parenthesis of
the author.

经文:

约翰福音 4:10-4:10

注释:

 2Co
9:15 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
9' or engs='2Co
9'
经文:

约翰福音 4:11-4:11

注释:

 {Sir} (Kurie). So it has to mean here in the mouth of the
Samaritan woman, not Lord. {Thou hast nothing to draw with and
the well is deep} (oute antl(886d)a echeis kai to phrear estin
bathu). This broken construction of oute-kai (neither--and)
occurs in N.T. elsewhere only in  3Jo 1:10 . Antl(886d)a (from
antle(935c), to draw) is a late word for that which is drawn, then
(Plutarch) for the act of drawing, and then for the rope as here
to draw with. This well (phrear) is 100 feet deep and Jesus had
no rope. The bucket of skin ("with three cross sticks at the
mouth to keep it open," Vincent) was kept at the well to be let
down by a goat's hair rope. {That living water} (	o hud(9372) to
z(936e)). "The water the living," with the article referring to the
language of Jesus in verse  10 . She is still thinking only of
literal water.

经文:

约翰福音 4:12-4:12

注释:

 {Art thou} (M(8820)su ei). Expecting a negative answer.
{Greater than our father Jacob} (meiz(936e) ei tou patros h(886d)(936e)
Iak(9362)). Ablative case patros after the comparative adjective
meiz(936e) (positive megas). The Samaritans claimed descent from
Jacob through Joseph (tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh). {Cattle}
(	hremmata). Old word from 	reph(935c), to nourish, nursling,
child, flock, cattle. Only here in N.T.

经文:

约翰福音 4:13-4:13

注释:

 {Every one that drinketh} (pas ho pin(936e)). Present active
articular participle with pas, parallel to the indefinite
relative with the second aorist active subjunctive (hos an
pi(8869)) in verse  14 . With this difference in the tenses used
(pin(936e), keep on drinking, pi(8869), once for all). Note ek and
the ablative both times, out of the water. Jesus pointed to the
well ("this water").

经文:

约翰福音 4:14-4:14

注释:

 {That I shall give him} (hou eg(9320)d(9373)(9320)aut(9369)). Relative
hou attracted to the case (genitive) of the antecedent
(hudatos). Future active indicative of did(936d)i. {Shall never
thirst} (ou m(8820)dips(8873)ei eis ton aiona). The double negative ou
m(885c) is used with either the future indicative as here or the
aorist subjunctive, the strongest possible negative. See both
constructions (ou m(8820)peinas(8869) and ou me dips(8873)ei) in  Joh
6:35 . Jesus has not answered the woman's question save by the
necessary implication here that he is superior to Jacob. {A well
of water springing up unto eternal life} (p(8867)(8820)hudatos
hallomenou eis z(9388)n ai(936e)ion). "Spring (or fountain) of water
leaping (bubbling up) unto life eternal." Present middle
participle of hallomai, old verb, in N.T. only here and  Ac
3:8  14:10 . The woman's curiosity is keenly excited about this
new kind of water.

经文:

约翰福音 4:15-4:15

注释:

 {Sir} (Kurie). Not yet "Lord" for her. See verse  11 .
{This water} (	outo to hud(9372)). This peculiar kind of water. She
did not grasp the last phrase "unto life eternal," and speaks
half ironically of "this water." {That I thirst not} (hina m(880a)dips(935c)). Final clause with hina, alluding to the words of
Jesus, water that will prevent thirst. {Neither come} (m(8864)e
dierch(936d)ai). Carrying on the negative purpose with present
middle subjunctive, "nor keep on coming" as she has to do once or
twice every day. She is evidently puzzled and yet attracted.

经文:

约翰福音 4:16-4:16

注释:

 {Go, call thy husband} (Hupage ph(936e)(8873)on sou ton andra).
Two imperatives (present active, first aorist active). Had she
started to leave after her perplexed reply? Her frequent trips to
the well were partly for her husband. We may not have all the
conversation preserved, but clearly Jesus by this sudden sharp
turn gives the woman a conviction of sin and guilt without which
she cannot understand his use of water as a metaphor for eternal
life.

经文:

约翰福音 4:17-4:17

注释:

 {I have no husband} (ouk ech(9320)andra). The Greek an(8872)
means either "man" or "husband." She had her "man," but he was
not a legal "husband." Her language veils her deceit. {Thou
saidst well} (kal(9373) eipes). Jesus saw through the double sense
of her language and read her heart as he only can do, a
supernatural gift of which John often speaks ( 1:48  2:24f.  5:20 ). {For thou hast had five husbands} (pente gar andras
esches). "For thou didst have five men." Second aorist
(constative) active indicative of ech(935c). {Is not thy husband}
(ouk estin sou an(8872)). In the full and legal sense of an(8872),
not a mere "man." {This hast thou said truly} (	outo al(8874)hes
eir(886b)as). "This a true thing thou hast said." Note absence of
article with al(8874)hes (predicate accusative). Perfect active
indicative eir(886b)as here, not aorist eipes (verse  17 ).

经文:

约翰福音 4:19-4:19

注释:

 {Sir} (Kurie). So still. {I perceive} (	he(9372)(935c)). "I am
beginning to perceive" from what you say, your knowledge of my
private life (verse  29 ). See  2:23  for 	he(9372)e(935c) which John's
Gospel has 23 times, of bodily sight ( 20:6,14 ), of mental
contemplation ( 12:45  14:17 ). See both 	he(9372)e(935c) and optomai
in  1:51  16:16 . {That thou art a prophet} (hoti proph(8874)(8873) ei
su). "That a prophet art thou" (emphasis on "thou"). She felt
that this was the explanation of his knowledge of her life and
she wanted to change the subject at once to the outstanding
theological dispute.

经文:

约翰福音 4:20-4:20

注释:

 {In this mountain} (en t(9369) orei tout(9369)). Jacob's Well is
at the foot of Mount Gerizim toward which she pointed. Sanballat
erected a temple on this mountain which was destroyed by John
Hyrcanus B.C. 129. Abraham ( Ge 12:7 ) and Jacob ( Ge 33:20 ) set
up altars at Shechem. On Gerizim were proclaimed the blessings
recorded in  De 28 . The Samaritan Pentateuch records an altar
set up on Gerizim that is on Ebal (over 200 feet higher than
Gerizim) in the Hebrew ( De 27:4 ). The Samaritans held that
Abraham offered up Isaac on Gerizim. The Samaritans kept up this
worship on this mountain and a handful do it still. {And ye say}
(kai humeis legete). Emphasis on humeis (ye). Ye Jews. {Ought
to worship} (proskunein dei). "Must worship," as of necessity
(dei). The woman felt that by raising this theological wrangle
she would turn the attention of Jesus away from herself and
perhaps get some light on the famous controversy. Proskune(935c) in
John is always worship, not just respect.

经文:

约翰福音 4:21-4:21

注释:

 {Believe me} (pisteue moi). Correct text. Present active
imperative. Unique phrase in place of the common am(886e) am(886e)
(verily, verily). {The hour cometh} (erchetai h(9372)a). "There is
coming an hour." The same idiom occurs also in John  4:34  5:25,28  16:2,25,32 . {Neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem}
(oute en t(9369) orei tout(9369) oute en Ierosolumois). The worship of
God will be emancipated from bondage to place. Both Jews and
Samaritans are wrong as to the "necessity" (dei). "These
ancient rivalries will disappear when the spirituality of true
religion is fully realized." Jesus told this sinful woman one of
his greatest truths.

经文:

约翰福音 4:22-4:22

注释:

 {That which ye know not} (ho ouk oidate). Cf.  Ac 17:23 .
"You know whom to worship, but you do not know him" (Westcott).
The Samaritans rejected the prophets and the Psalms and so cut
themselves off from the fuller knowledge of God. {We} (h(886d)eis).
We Jews. Jesus is a Jew as he fully recognizes ( Mt 15:24 ).
{That which we know} (ho oidamen). Neuter singular relative as
before. The Jews, as the chosen people, had fuller revelations of
God ( Ps 147:19f.  Ro 9:3-5 ). But even so the Jews as a whole
failed to recognize God in Christ ( 1:11,26  7:28 ). {For
salvation is from the Jews} (hoti h(8820)s(9374)(8872)ia ek t(936e) Ioudai(936e)
estin). "The salvation," the Messianic salvation which had long
been the hope and guiding star of the chosen people ( Lu
1:69,71,77  Ac 13:26,47 ). It was for the whole world ( Joh
3:17 ), but it comes "out of" (ek) the Jews. This tremendous
fact should never be forgotten, however unworthy the Jews may
have proved of their privilege. The Messiah, God's Son, was a
Jew.

经文:

约翰福音 4:23-4:23

注释:

 {And now is} (kai nun estin). See this same phrase in
 5:25 . This item could not be added in verse  21  for local
worship was not abolished, but spiritual independence of place
was called for at once. So contrast  5:25,28  16:25,32 . {The
true worshippers} (hoi al(8874)hinoi proskun(8874)ai). See  1:9  for
al(8874)hinos (genuine). Proskun(8874)(8873) is a late word from
proskune(935c), to bow the knee, to worship, occurs here only in
N.T., but is found in one pre-Christian inscription (Deissmann,
_Light_, etc., p. 101) and in one of the 3rd century A.D.
(Moulton & Milligan, _Vocabulary_). {In spirit and truth} (en
pneumati kai al(8874)hei(8369)). This is what matters, not where, but
how (in reality, in the spirit of man, the highest part of man,
and so in truth). All this is according to the Holy Spirit ( Ro
8:5 ) who is the Spirit of truth ( Joh 16:13 ). Here Jesus has
said the final word on worship, one needed today. {Seeketh}
(z(8874)ei). The Father has revealed himself in the Son who is the
truth ( Joh 14:6,9 ). It does matter whether we have a true
conception of God whom we worship. {To be his worshippers} (	ous
proskunountas auton). Rather, "seeks such as those who worship
him" (predicate accusative articular participle in apposition
with 	oioutous (such). John pictures the Father as seeking
worshippers, a doctrine running all through the Gospel ( 3:16  6:44  15:16  1Jo 4:10 ).

经文:

约翰福音 4:24-4:24

注释:

 1Jo
4:8 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
4' or engs='1Jo
4'
经文:

约翰福音 4:25-4:25

注释:

 {Messiah cometh} (Messias erchetai). Hebrew word in N.T.
only here and  1:41  and explained by Christos in both places.
The Samaritans looked for a Messiah, a prophet like Moses ( De
18:18 ). Simon Magus gave himself out in Samaria as some great
one and had a large following ( Ac 8:9 ). Pilate quelled an
uprising in Samaria over a fanatical Messianic claimant
(Josephus, _Ant_. XVIII. iv. 1). {When he is come} (hotan elth(8869)
ekeinos). "Whenever that one comes." Indefinite temporal clause
with hotan (hote, an) and the second aorist active
subjunctive. Wistfully she turns to this dim hope as a bare
possibility about this strange "prophet." {He will declare unto
us all things} (anaggelei h(886d)in hapanta). Future active
indicative of anaggell(935c), old and common verb to announce fully
(ana, up and down). See also  16:13 . Perhaps here is light on
the knowledge of her life by Jesus as well as about the way to
worship God.

经文:

约翰福音 4:26-4:26

注释:

 {I that speak unto thee am he} (Eg(9320)eimi ho lal(936e) soi). "I
am he, the one speaking to thee." In plain language Jesus now
declares that he is the Messiah as he does to the blind man ( Joh
9:37 ).

经文:

约翰福音 4:27-4:27

注释:

 {Upon this} (epi tout(9369)). This idiom only here in N.T. At
this juncture. Apparently the woman left at once when the
disciples came. {They marvelled} (ethaumazon). Imperfect active
describing the astonishment of the disciples as they watched
Jesus talking with a woman. {Was speaking} (elalei). As in
 2:25 , so here the tense is changed in indirect discourse from
lalei to elalei, an unusual idiom in Greek. However, hoti
here may be "because" and then the imperfect is regular. It is
not "with the woman" (meta t(8873) gunaikos), but simply "with a
woman" (meta gunaikos). There was a rabbinical precept: "Let no
one talk with a woman in the street, no, not with his own wife"
(Lightfoot, _Hor, Hebr_. iii. 287). The disciples held Jesus to
be a rabbi and felt that he was acting in a way beneath his
dignity. {Yet no man said} (oudeis mentoi eipen). John
remembers through the years their amazement and also their
reverence for Jesus and unwillingness to reflect upon him.

经文:

约翰福音 4:28-4:28

注释:

 {Left her waterpot} (aph(886b)en t(886e) hudrian). First aorist
active indicative of aphi(886d)i, ingressive aorist, in her
excitement and embarrassment. It was too large for speed anyhow
( 2:6 ). And says (kai legei). Graphic historic present
indicative again.

经文:

约翰福音 4:29-4:29

注释:

 {All things that ever I did} (panta ha epoi(8873)a). {Ha}, not
hosa (as many as), no "ever" in the Greek. But a guilty
conscience (verse  18f. ) led her to exaggerate a bit. {Can this
be the Christ?} (m(8874)i houtos estin ho Christos;). She is
already convinced herself (verses  26f. ), but she puts the
question in a hesitant form to avoid arousing opposition. With a
woman's intuition she avoided ouk and uses m(8874)i. She does not
take sides, but piques their curiosity.

经文:

约翰福音 4:30-4:30

注释:

 {They went out} (ex(886c)thon). Second aorist (effective)
indicative of exerchomai, at once and in a rush. {And were
coming to him} (kai (8872)chonto pros auton). Imperfect middle,
graphically picturing the long procession as they approached
Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 4:31-4:31

注释:

 {In the meanwhile} (en t(9369) metaxu). Supply kairoi or
chronoi. See 	o metaxu Sabbaton, "the next Sabbath" ( Ac
13:42 ) and en t(9369) metaxu ( Lu 8:1 ). Metaxu means between.
{Prayed him} ((8872)(9374)(936e) auton). Imperfect active, "kept beseeching
him." For this late (_Koin(825f)) use of er(9374)a(935c), to beseech,
instead of the usual sense to question see also verses  40,47 .
Their concern for the comfort of Jesus overcame their surprise
about the woman.

经文:

约翰福音 4:32-4:32

注释:

 {Meat} (r(9373)in). Originally the act of eating ( Ro 14:17 )
from ibr(9373)k(935c), but soon and commonly as that which is eaten
like r(936d)a once in John (verse  34 ). So here and  6:27,55 .
Cf. vernacular English "good eating," "good eats." {I ... ye}
(eg(9320)... humeis). Emphatic contrast. Spiritual food Jesus had.

经文:

约翰福音 4:33-4:33

注释:

 {Hath any man brought him aught to eat?} (M(8820)tis (886e)egken
aut(9369) phagein;). Negative answer expected (m(885c)). "Did any one
bring him (something) to eat?" During our absence, they mean.
Second aorist active indicative of pher(935c) ((886e)egken) and second
aorist active infinitive of esthi(935c) (phagein), defective verbs
both of them. See  4:7  for like infinitive construction (dos
pein).

经文:

约翰福音 4:34-4:34

注释:

 {To do the will} (hina poi(8873)(9320)to thel(886d)a). Non-final use
of hina and the first aorist active subjunctive as subject or
predicate nominative as in  6:29  15:8  17:3 . The Messianic
consciousness of Jesus is clear and steady ( 5:30  6:38 ). He
never doubted that the Father sent him. {And to accomplish his
work} (kai telei(9373)(9320)autou to ergon). Hina understood with
	elei(9373)(935c) in like idiom, first aorist active subjunctive of
	eleio(935c) (from 	eleios), to bring to an end. See  5:36 . In
 17:4  (the Intercessory Prayer) he will say that he has done
(	elei(9373)as) this task which the Father gave him to do. On the
Cross Jesus will cry Tetelestai (It is finished). He will carry
through the Father's programme ( Joh 3:16 ). That is his "food."
He had been doing that in winning the woman to God.

经文:

约翰福音 4:35-4:35

注释:

 {Say not ye?} (Ouch humeis legete;). It is not possible to
tell whether Jesus is alluding to a rural proverb of which
nothing is known about there being four months from seedtime to
harvest (a longer time than four months in fact) or whether he
means that it was then actually four months to harvest. In the
latter sense, since harvest began about the middle of April, it
would be December when Jesus spoke. {There are yet four months}
(eti tetram(886e)os estin). The use of eti (yet) and the fact
that the space between seedtime and harvest is longer than four
months (	etra, Aeolic for 	essara, and m(886e), month) argue
against the proverb idea. {And then cometh the harvest} (kai ho
therismos erchetai). "And the harvest (	herismos, from
	heriz(935c), rare in Greek writers) comes." The possible Iambic
verse here is purely accidental as in  5:14 . {Lift up your eyes}
(eparate tous ophthalmous hum(936e)). First aorist active
imperative of epair(935c). Deliberate looking as in  Joh 6:5  where
	heaomai also is used as here. {Fields} (ch(9372)as). Cultivated
or ploughed ground as in  Lu 21:21 . {White} (leukai). Ripened
grain like grey hair ( Mt 5:36 ). {Already unto harvest} (pros
therismon (8864)(885c)). Probably (8864)(885c) (already) goes with verse  36 .
The Samaritans could already be seen approaching and they were
the field "white for harvest." This is the meaning of Christ's
parable. If it is the spring of the year and Christ can point to
the ripened grain, the parable is all the plainer, but it is not
dependent on this detail. Recall the parable of the sower in  Mt
13 .

经文:

约翰福音 4:36-4:36

注释:

 {Already he that reapeth receiveth wages} ((8864)(8820)ho theriz(936e)
misthon lambanei). The spiritual harvester can gather his
harvest without waiting four months. Jesus is reaping a harvest
right now by the conversion of this woman. The labourer is worthy
of his hire ( Lu 10:7  2Ti 2:6 ). John does not use misthos
(reward) again, but karpos ( 15:2-16 ), "fruit for life
eternal" (cf.  4:14 ). {That he that soweth and he that reapeth
may rejoice together} (hina ho speir(936e) homou chair(8869) kai ho
theriz(936e)). Final use of hina with present active subjunctive
of chair(935c), to rejoice, in the singular with ho speir(936e) (the
sower) and to be repeated with ho theriz(936e) (the reaper). The
adverb homou (together) elsewhere in N.T. only  20:4  21:2  Ac
2:1 . Usually considerable time passes between the sowing and the
reaping as in verse  35 . Amos ( Am 9:13 ) spoke of the time when
"the ploughman shall overtake the reaper" and that has happened
here with the joy of the harvest time ( Isa 9:3 ). Jesus the
Sower and the disciples as the reapers are here rejoicing
simultaneously.

经文:

约翰福音 4:37-4:37

注释:

 {For herein} (en gar tout(9369)). In this relation between the
sower and the reaper. {The saying} (ho logos). Like  1Ti 1:15  3:1 , etc. Probably a proverb that is particularly true
(al(8874)hinos for which see  1:9 ) in the spiritual realm. {One
soweth, and another reapeth} (allos estin ho speir(936e) kai allos
ho theriz(936e)). "One is the sower and another the reaper." It is
sad when the sower misses the joy of reaping ( Job 31:8 ) and has
only the sowing in tears ( Ps 126:5f. ). This may be the
punishment for sin ( De 28:30  Mic 6:15 ). Sometimes one reaps
where he has not sown ( De 6:11  Jos 24:13 ). It is the
prerogative of the Master to reap ( Mt 25:26f. ), but Jesus here
lets the disciples share his joy.

经文:

约翰福音 4:38-4:38

注释:

 {I sent} (eg(9320)apesteila). Emphatic use of eg(935c) and first
aorist active indicative of apostell(935c) common in John for to
send. {Whereon ye have not laboured} (ho ouch humeis
kekopiakate). Perfect active indicative of kopia(935c) for which
see  4:6 . So also kekopiakasin in next line. The disciples had
done no sowing here in Sychar, only Jesus and the woman. {Others}
(alloi: Jesus, the Baptist, the prophets). {And ye} (kai
humeis). Emphatic contrast. {Have entered} (eisel(886c)uthate).
Perfect active indicative of eiserchomai. {Into their labour}
(eis ton kopon aut(936e)). Into the fruit and blessed results of
their toil (kopos). This is always true as seen in  Ac
8:5-7,14f .

经文:

约翰福音 4:39-4:39

注释:

 {Because of the saying of the woman who testified} (dia ton
logon t(8873) gunaikos marturous(8873)). She bore her witness clearly
and with discretion. She told enough to bring her neighbours to
Christ. They knew her evil life and she frankly confessed
Christ's rebuke to her. She had her share in this harvest. How
timid and cowardly we often are today in not giving our testimony
for Christ to our neighbour.

经文:

约翰福音 4:40-4:40

注释:

 {Two days} (duo h(886d)eras). Accusative of extent of time.
They wanted to cultivate the acquaintance of Jesus. So he
remained in Sychar in a continuous revival, a most unexpected
experience when one recalls the feeling between the Jews and the
Samaritans ( 4:9 ). The reaping went on gloriously.

经文:

约翰福音 4:41-4:41

注释:

 {Many more} (poll(9369) pleious). "More by much" (instrumental
case poll(9369)) in comparison with just "many" (polloi) of verse
 39 . Jesus was reaping more rapidly than the woman did. But all
were rejoicing that so many "believed" (episteusan, really
believed).

经文:

约翰福音 4:42-4:42

注释:

 1Jo
4:14 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
4' or engs='1Jo
4'
经文:

约翰福音 4:43-4:43

注释:

 {After the two days} (Meta tas duo h(886d)eras). Those in
verse  40 . {Into Galilee} (eis t(886e) Galilaian). As he had
started to do (verse  3 ) before the interruption at Sychar.

经文:

约翰福音 4:44-4:44

注释:

 {For Jesus himself testified} (autos gar I(8873)ous
emartur(8873)en). John's explanation of the conduct of Jesus by
quoting a proverb often used by Jesus ( Mr 6:4  Mt 13:57  Lu
4:24  in reference to Nazareth), but not necessarily used by
Jesus on this occasion. A similar proverb has been found in
Plutarch, Pliny, Seneca. {A prophet hath no honour in his own
country} (proph(8874)(8873) en t(8869) idi(8369) patridi tim(886e) ouk echei). What
is meant by patridi? In the Synoptics ( Lu 4:24  Mr 6:4  Mt
13:57 ) the reference is to Nazareth where he was twice rejected.
But what has John in mind in quoting it here? He probably knew
the quotations in the Synoptics. Does John refer to Judea by "his
own country"? If so, the application hardly fits for he had
already explained that Jesus was leaving Judea because he was too
popular there ( 4:1-3 ). If he means Galilee, he immediately
mentions the cordial welcome accorded Jesus there (verse  45 ).
But even so this is probably John's meaning for he is speaking of
the motive of Jesus in going into Galilee where he had not yet
laboured and where he apparently had no such fame as in Judea and
now in Samaria.

经文:

约翰福音 4:45-4:45

注释:

 {So when} (hote oun). Transitional use of oun, sequence,
not consequence. {Received him} (edexanto auton). First aorist
middle of dechomai, "welcomed him." Jesus had evidently
anticipated a quiet arrival. {Having seen} (he(9372)akotes).
Perfect active participle of hora(935c). Note 	he(9372)ountes in
 2:23  about this very thing at the feast in Jerusalem. The
miracles of Jesus at that first passover made a stir. {For they
also went} (kai autoi gar (886c)thon). The Samaritans did not go
and so Jesus was a new figure to them, but the Galileans, as
orthodox Jews, did go and so were predisposed in his favour.

经文:

约翰福音 4:46-4:46

注释:

 {Again} (palin). A second time. {Unto Cana} (eis t(886e)
Kana). Note article, "the Cana of Galilee" already mentioned in
 2:1 . {Where he made the water wine} (hopou epoi(8873)en to hud(9372)
oinon). That outstanding first miracle would still be remembered
in Cana and would indicate that Jesus had some friends there.
{Nobleman} (asilikos). One connected with the king
(asileus), whether by blood or by office. Probably here it is
one of the courtiers of Herod the tetrarch of Galilee, Chuzas
( Lu 8:3 ), Manaen ( Ac 13:1 ), or some one else. Some of the
manuscripts used asiliskos, a petty king, a diminutive of
asileus. {Was sick} ((8873)thenei). Imperfect active of
asthene(935c) (a privative and sthenos, without strength,  Mt
25:36 ), continued sick. {At Capernaum} (en Kapharnaoum). Some
miles from Cana near where the Jordan enters the Sea of Galilee.

经文:

约翰福音 4:47-4:47

注释:

 {When he heard} (akousas). First aorist active participle
of akou(935c). The news spread rapidly about Jesus. {Was come}
(h(886b)ei). Present active indicative of h(886b)(935c), one of the
perfective presents, retained in indirect discourse. He had heard
the people talk about the miracles in Jerusalem and the first one
in Cana. {Went and besought} (ap(886c)then kai (8872)(9374)a). Ingressive
aorist indicative (went off at once) and imperfect active
((8872)(9374)a, began to beg and kept it up). {That he would come down}
(hina katab(8869), hina and second aorist active subjunctive of
katabain(935c), come down at once) {and heal his son} (kai ias(8874)ai
autou ton huion, hina construction, sub-final use or object
clause, with first aorist middle subjunctive of iaomai,
completely heal). {For he was at the point of death} ((886d)ellen
gar apothn(8873)kein). Reason (gar) for the urgency. Imperfect
active of mell(935c) with present active infinitive old and common
verb for what is about to be and it is used with the infinitive
present as here, the aorist infinitive ( Re 13:16 ), or the
future infinitive ( Ac 11:28 ). The idiom is used of the
impending death of Jesus ( Joh 11:51  12:33  18:32 ).

经文:

约翰福音 4:48-4:48

注释:

 {Except ye see} (ean m(8820)id(8874)e). Condition of the third
class (ean m(885c), negative, with second aorist active subjunctive
of hora(935c)). Jesus is not discounting his "signs and wonders"
(s(886d)eia kai terata, both words together here only in John,
though common in N.T. as in  Mt 24:24  Mr 13:22  Ac 2:19,22,43  2Th 2:9  Heb 2:4 ), though he does seem disappointed that he is
in Galilee regarded as a mere miracle worker. {Ye will in no wise
believe} (ou m(8820)pisteus(8874)e). Strong double negative with aorist
active subjunctive of pisteu(935c), picturing the stubborn refusal
of people to believe in Christ without miracles.

经文:

约翰福音 4:49-4:49

注释:

 {Sir} (Kurie). See  1:38 . {Come down} (katab(8874)hi).
Second aorist active imperative, tense and tone of urgency. Ere
my child die (prin apothanein to paidion mou). Regular idiom
with prin in positive clause, second aorist active infinitive
of apothn(8873)k(935c) and accusative of general reference, "before
dying as to my child." Bengel notes that he only thought Jesus
had power before death as even Martha and Mary felt at first
( 11:21,32 ). But the father's heart goes out to Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 4:50-4:50

注释:

 {Thy son liveth} (ho huios sou z(8869)). "Thy son is living,"
and will not now die, Jesus means. Words too good and gracious to
be true. His son is healed without Jesus even going to Capernaum,
"absent treatment" so to speak, but without the cure being
absent. {Believed the word} (episteusen t(9369) log(9369)).
Instantaneous faith (aorist active indicative), trusted the word
(dative case log(9369)). {Went his way} (eporeueto). Inchoative
imperfect middle, "started on his way," acted on his faith.

经文:

约翰福音 4:51-4:51

注释:

 {As he was now going down} ((8864)(8820)autou katabainontos).
Genitive absolute in-spite of the fact that aut(9369) (associative
instrumental case with hup(886e)t(8873)an aorist active indicative of
hupanta(935c)) is near. {That his son lived} (hoti ho pais autou
z(8869)). Present active indicative preserved in indirect discourse
(cf. the words of Jesus in verse  50 ). Note pais here (only
example in John), huios in  50 , paidion (diminutive of
tenderness) in  49 .

经文:

约翰福音 4:52-4:52

注释:

 {Inquired} (eputheto). Second aorist middle indicative of
punthanomai. {Began to mend} (kompsoteron eschen). Second
aorist ingressive active indicative of ech(935c) (took a turn, got
better) and comparative of adverb komps(9373). Arrian (_Epictetus
iii. 10.13) has komps(9373) echeis from a physician, "Thou hast it
fine," "Thou art doing finely." The papyri give several similar
examples. Komps(9373) (neat) is from kome(935c), to take care of. {At
the seventh hour} (h(9372)an hebdom(886e)). The accusative case without
a preposition as in  Re 3:3 , though we have peri h(9372)an enat(886e)
(about the ninth hour) in  Ac 10:3 . See the accusative also in
 Ex 9:18  	aut(886e) t(886e) h(9372)an aurion (tomorrow about this hour).
The accusative has the notion of extension and can be thus
loosely used. It can even mean here "during the seventh hour." In
verse  53  the locative is more exact, "at that hour" (en
ekein(8869) t(8869) h(9372)(8369)). The seventh hour would be (Roman time) seven
P.M.

经文:

约翰福音 4:53-4:53

注释:

 {So the father knew} (egn(9320)oun ho pat(8872)). Second aorist
active indicative of gin(9373)k(935c). Inferential use of oun.
{Himself believed} (episteusen autos). Not just the word of
Jesus (verse  50 ), but complete faith in Jesus himself as the
Messiah, absolute use of pisteu(935c) as in  1:7 . {And his whole
house} (kai h(8820)oikia autou). All his family, the first example
of a whole family believing in Jesus like the later case of
Crispus ( Ac 18:8 ).

经文:

约翰福音 4:54-4:54

注释:

 {The second sign that} (deuteron s(886d)eion). No article,
simply predicate accusative, "This again a second sign did Jesus
having come out of Judea into Galilee." The first one was also in
Cana ( 2:1ff. ), but many were wrought in Jerusalem also
( 2:23 ).

经文:

约翰福音 5:1-5:1

注释:

 6:4: 12:1 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '6' or engs='6'
经文:

约翰福音 5:2-5:2

注释:

 {There is} (estin). Bengel argues that this proves a date
before the destruction of Jerusalem, but it is probably only
John's vivid memory. {By the sheep gate} (epi t(8869) probatik(8869)).
Supply pul(8869) (gate) which occurs with the adjective probatik(885c)
(pertaining to sheep, probata) in  Ne 3:1,22 . {A pool}
(kolumb(8874)hra). A diving or swimming pool (from kolumba(935c), to
swim,  Ac 27:43 ), old word, only here in N.T. {Which is called}
(h(8820)epilegomen(885c)). "The surnamed" (present passive participle,
only N.T. example except  Ac 15:40  first aorist middle
participle epilexamenos). {In Hebrew} (Ebraisti). "In
Aramaic" strictly as in  19:13,17,20  20:16  Re 9:11  16:16 .
{Bethesda} (Bethesda, or House of Mercy. So A C Syr cu). Aleph
D L 33 have Bethzatha or House of the Olive, while B W Vulg.
Memph. have Bethsaida. {Having five porches} (pente stoas
echousa). Stoa was a covered colonnade where people can gather
from which Stoic comes ( Ac 17:18 ). See  Joh 10:23  Ac 3:11 .
Schick in 1888 found twin pools north of the temple near the
fortress of Antonia one of which has five porches. It is not,
however, certain that this pool existed before A.D. 70 when the
temple was destroyed (Sanday, _Sacred Sites of the Gospels_, p.
55). Some have identified it with the Pool of Siloam ( 9:7 ),
though John distinguishes them. There is also the Virgin's Well,
called the Gusher, because it periodically bubbles over from a
natural spring, a kind of natural siphon. This is south of the
temple in the Valley of Kedron and quite possibly the real site.

经文:

约翰福音 5:3-5:3

注释:

 {In these} (en tautais). In these five porches. {Lay}
(katekeito). Imperfect middle of katakeimai, to lie down,
singular number because pl(8874)hos (multitude) is a collective
substantive. {Withered} (x(8872)(936e)). Old adjective x(8872)os for dry,
wasted as the hand ( Mt 12:10 ). The oldest and best manuscripts
omit what the Textus Receptus adds here "waiting for the moving
of the water" (ekdechomenon t(886e) tou hudatos kin(8873)in), a Western
and Syrian addition to throw light on the word 	arachth(8869) (is
troubled) in verse  7 .

经文:

约翰福音 5:4-5:4

注释:

 All of this verse is wanting in the oldest and best
manuscripts like Aleph B C D W 33 Old Syriac, Coptic versions,
Latin Vulgate. It is undoubtedly added, like the clause in verse
 3 , to make clearer the statement in verse  7 . Tertullian is
the earliest writer to mention it. The Jews explained the healing
virtues of the intermittent spring by the ministry of angels. But
the periodicity of such angelic visits makes it difficult to
believe. It is a relief to many to know that the verse is
spurious.

经文:

约翰福音 5:5-5:5

注释:

 {Which had been thirty and eight years} (	riakonta kai okt(930a)et(8820)ech(936e)). Literally, "having thirty and eight years," "having
spent thirty and eight years."

经文:

约翰福音 5:6-5:6

注释:

 {Knew that he had been a long time} (gnous hoti polun (8864)(880a)chronon echei). How Jesus "knew" (gnous, second aorist active
participle of gin(9373)k(935c)) we are not told, whether supernatural
knowledge ( 2:24f. ) or observation or overhearing people's
comments. In (8864)(8820)echei we have a progressive present active
indicative, "he has already been having much time" (chronon,
accusative of extent of time). {Wouldest thou be made whole?}
(Theleis hugi(8873) genesthai;). "Dost thou wish to become whole?"
Predicate nominative hugi(8873) with genesthai (second aorist
middle infinitive). It was a pertinent and sympathetic question.

经文:

约翰福音 5:7-5:7

注释:

 {When the water is troubled} (hotan tarachth(8869) to hud(9372)).
Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and the first aorist
passive subjunctive of 	arass(935c), old verb to agitate ( Mt 2:3 ).
The popular belief was that, at each outflow of this intermittent
spring, there was healing power in the water for the first one
getting in. {To put me into the pool} (hina bal(8869) me eis t(886e)
kolumb(8874)hran). Final use of hina and the second aorist active
subjunctive of all(935c), "that he throw me in" quickly before any
one else. For this use of all(935c) see  Mr 7:30  Lu 16:20 . {But
while I am coming} (en h(9369) de erchomai). Temporal use of the
relative, "in which time" (chron(9369) or kair(9369) understood).
Eg(935c) (I) is emphatic.

经文:

约翰福音 5:8-5:8

注释:

 {Arise, take up thy bed, and walk} (Egeire, (8372)on ton
krabatton sou kai peripatei). Present active imperative of
egeir(935c), a sort of exclamation, like our "Get up." The first
active imperative ((8372)on of air(935c)) means to pick up the pallet,
and then "go on walking" (present active imperative of
peripate(935c)). For krabatton (pallet) see  Mr 2:2-12  6:55  Ac
5:15  9:33 .

经文:

约翰福音 5:9-5:9

注释:

 {Took up his bed and walked} ((8872)e ton krabatton autou kai
periepatei). The same distinction in tenses in the same verbs
preserved, punctiliar action in (8872)e (first aorist active of
air(935c), took it up at once) and linear act (imperfect active of
peripate(935c), went on walking). {The sabbath on that day}
(sabbaton en ekein(8869) t(8869) h(886d)er(8369)). The first of the violations
of the Sabbath rules of the Jews by Jesus in Jerusalem that led
to so much bitterness (cf.  9:14,16 ). This controversy will
spread to Galilee on Christ's return there ( Mr 2:23-3:6  Mt
12:1-14  Lu 6:1-11 ).

经文:

约翰福音 5:10-5:10

注释:

 {Unto him that was cured} (	(9369) tetherapeumen(9369)). Perfect
passive articular participle of 	herapeu(935c) (only example in
John), "to the healed man." See  Mt 8:7 . {To take up thy bed}
((8372)ai ton krabatton). The very words of Jesus (verse  8 ), only
infinitive (first aorist active). Carrying burdens was considered
unlawful on the Sabbath ( Ex 23:12  Ne 13:19  Jer 17:21 ).
Stoning was the rabbinical punishment. The healing of the man was
a minor detail.

经文:

约翰福音 5:11-5:11

注释:

 {But he answered} (hos de apekrith(885c)). Demonstrative hos
(But this one) and deponent use of apekrith(885c) (first aorist
passive indicative of apokrinomai with no passive force). {The
same} (ekeinos). "That one," emphatic demonstrative as often in
John ( 1:18,33  9:37  10:1 , etc.). The man did not know who
Jesus was nor even his name. He quotes the very words of Jesus.
{Whole} (hugi(885c)). Predicate accusative agreeing with me (me).

经文:

约翰福音 5:12-5:12

注释:

 {Who is the man?} (Tis estin ho anthr(9370)os;). Contemptuous
expression, "Who is the fellow?" They ask about the command to
violate the Sabbath, not about the healing.

经文:

约翰福音 5:13-5:13

注释:

 {He that was healed} (ho iatheis). First aorist passive
articular participle of iaomai (John's usual word). {Who it
was} (	is estin). Present tense preserved in indirect question.
{Had conveyed himself away} (exeneusen). First aorist active
indicative of ekne(935c), old verb to swim out, to slip out, or from
ekneu(935c), to turn out, to turn the head to one side (to one side
with which compare eneneuon, they nodded,  Lu 1:62 ). Either of
these verbs can explain the form here. The aorist tense simply
states an antecedent action without being a pastperfect. {A
multitude being in the place} (ochlou ontos en t(9369) top(9369)).
Genitive absolute and the reason for Christ's departure.

经文:

约翰福音 5:14-5:14

注释:

 {Findeth him} (heuriskei auton). Dramatic present as in
 1:45 , possibly after search as in  9:35 . {Sin no more}
(m(886b)eti hamartane). "No longer go on sinning." Present active
imperative with m(886b)eti, a clear implication that disease was
due to personal sin as is so often the case. Jesus used the same
words to the woman taken in adultery in the spurious passage
( Joh 8:11 ). He had suffered for 38 years. All sickness is not
due to personal sin ( 9:3 ), but much is and nature is a hard
paymaster. Jesus is here living up to his name ( Mt 1:21 ). {Lest
a worse thing befall thee} (hina m(8820)cheiron soi ti gen(8874)ai).
Negative final clause with second aorist middle subjunctive of
ginomai. Cheiron is comparative of kakos, bad. Worse than
the illness of 38 years, bad as that is. He will now be sinning
against knowledge.

经文:

约翰福音 5:15-5:15

注释:

 {Went away and told} (ap(886c)then kai eipen). Both aorist
active indicatives. Instead of giving heed to the warning of
Jesus about his own sins he went off and told the Jews that now
he knew who the man was who had commanded him to take up his bed
on the Sabbath Day, to clear himself with the ecclesiastics and
escape a possible stoning. {That it was Jesus} (hoti I(8873)ous
estin). Present indicative preserved in indirect discourse. The
man was either ungrateful and wilfully betrayed Jesus or he was
incompetent and did not know that he was bringing trouble on his
benefactor. In either case one has small respect for him.

经文:

约翰福音 5:16-5:16

注释:

 {Persecute} (edi(936b)on). Inchoative imperfect, "began to
persecute" and kept it up. They took this occasion as one excuse
(dia touto, because of this). They disliked Jesus when here
first ( 2:18 ) and were suspicious of his popularity ( 4:1 ). Now
they have cause for an open breach. {Because he did} (hoti
epoiei). Imperfect active, not just this one act, but he was
becoming a regular Sabbath-breaker. The Pharisees will watch his
conduct on the Sabbath henceforth ( Mr 2:23  3:2 ).

经文:

约翰福音 5:17-5:17

注释:

 {Answered} (apekrinato). Regular aorist middle indicative
of apokrinomai, in John here only and verse  19 , elsewhere
apekrith(885c) as in verse  11 . {My Father} (ho pater mou). Not
"our Father," claim to peculiar relation to the Father. {Worketh
even until now} (he(9373) arti ergazetai). Linear present middle
indicative, "keeps on working until now" without a break on the
Sabbath. Philo points out this fact of the continuous activity of
God. Justin Martyr, Origen and others note this fact about God.
He made the Sabbath for man's blessing, but cannot observe it
himself. {And I work} (kag(9320)ergazomai). Jesus puts himself on a
par with God's activity and thus justifies his healing on the
Sabbath.

经文:

约翰福音 5:18-5:18

注释:

 {Sought the more} (mallon ez(8874)oun). Imperfect active of
z(8874)e(935c), graphic picture of increased and untiring effort "to
kill him" (auton apokteinai, first aorist active, to kill him
off and be done with him). John repeats this clause "they sought
to kill him" in  7:1,19,25  8:37,40 . Their own blood was up on
this Sabbath issue and they bend every energy to put Jesus to
death. If this is a passover, this bitter anger, murderous wrath,
will go on and grow for two years. {Not only brake the Sabbath}
(ou monon elue to sabbaton). Imperfect active of lu(935c). He was
now a common and regular Sabbath-breaker. Lu(935c) means to loosen,
to set at naught. The papyri give examples of lu(935c) in this sense
like luein ta penth(885c) (to break the period of mourning). This
was the first grudge against Jesus, but his defence had made the
offence worse and had given them a far graver charge. {But also
called God his own Father} (alla kai patera idion elege ton
theon). "His own" (idion) in a sense not true of others. That
is precisely what Jesus meant by "My Father." See  Ro 8:32  for
ho idios huios, "his own Son." {Making himself equal with God}
(ison heauton poi(936e) t(9369) the(9369)). Isos is an old common
adjective (in papyri also) and means {equal}. In  Php 2:6  Paul
calls the Pre-incarnate Christ isa the(9369), "equal to God"
(plural isa, attributes of God). Bernard thinks that Jesus
would not claim to be isos the(9369) because in  Joh 14:28  he
says: "The Father is greater than I." And yet he says in  14:7 
that the one who sees him sees in him the Father. Certainly the
Jews understood Jesus to claim equality with the Father in nature
and privilege and power as also in  10:33  19:7 . Besides, if the
Jews misunderstood Jesus on this point, it was open and easy for
him to deny it and to clear up the misapprehension. This is
precisely what he does not do. On the contrary Jesus gives a
powerful apologetic in defence of his claim to equality with the
Father (verses  19-47 ).

经文:

约翰福音 5:19-5:19

注释:

 {The Son} (ho huios). The absolute use of the Son in
relation to the Father admitting the charge in verse  18  and
defending his equality with the Father. {Can do nothing by
himself} (ou dunatai poiein aph'heautou ouden). True in a sense
of every man, but in a much deeper sense of Christ because of the
intimate relation between him and the Father. See this same point
in  5:30  7:28  8:28  14:10 . Jesus had already made it in
 5:17 . Now he repeats and defends it. {But what he seeth the
Father doing} (an m(8820)ti blep(8869) ton patera poiounta). Rather,
"unless he sees the Father doing something." Negative condition
(an m(885c)=ean m(885c), if not, unless) of third class with present
(habit) subjunctive (lep(8869)) and present active participle
(poiounta). It is a supreme example of a son copying the spirit
and work of a father. In his work on earth the Son sees
continually what the Father is doing. In healing this poor man he
was doing what the Father wishes him to do. {For what things
soever he doeth, these the Son also doeth in like manner} (ha
gar an ekeinos poi(8869) tauta kai ho huios homoi(9373) poiei).
Indefinite relative clause with an and the present active
subjunctive (poi(8869)). Note ekeinos, emphatic demonstrative,
that one, referring to the Father. This sublime claim on the part
of Jesus will exasperate his enemies still more.

经文:

约翰福音 5:20-5:20

注释:

 {Loveth} (philei). In  3:35  we have agap(8369) from
agapa(935c), evidently one verb expressing as noble a love as the
other. Sometimes a distinction ( 21:17 ) is made, but not here,
unless phile(935c) presents the notion of intimate friendship
(philos, friend), fellowship, the affectionate side, while
agapa(935c) (Latin _diligo_) is more the intelligent choice. But
John uses both verbs for the mystery of love of the Father for
the Son. {Greater works than these} (meizona tout(936e) erga).
Tout(936e) is ablative case after the comparative meizona (from
megas, great). John often uses erga for the miracles of
Christ ( 5:36  7:3,21  10:25,32,38 , etc.). It is the Father who
does these works ( 14:10 ). There is more to follow. Even the
disciples will surpass what Christ is doing in the extent of the
work ( 14:12 ). Deixei is future active indicative of
deiknumi, to show. See also  10:32 . {That ye may marvel}
(hina humeis thaumaz(8874)e). Purpose clause with hina and
present active subjunctive of 	haumaz(935c). Wonder belongs to
childhood and to men of knowledge. Modern science has increased
the occasion for wonder. Clement of Alexandria has a saying of
Jesus: "He that wonders shall reign, and he that reigns shall
rest."

经文:

约翰福音 5:21-5:21

注释:

 {Quickeneth whom he will} (hous thelei z(936f)poiei). Present
active indicative of z(936f)poie(935c) (from z(936f)poios, making alive),
common in Paul ( 1Co 15:45 , etc.). As yet, so far as we know,
Jesus had not raised the dead, but he claims the power to do it
on a par with the power of the Father. The raising of the son of
the widow of Nain ( Lu 7:11-17 ) is not far ahead, followed by
the message to the Baptist which speaks of this same power ( Lu
7:22  Mt 11:5 ), and the raising of Jairus' daughter ( Mt
9:18,22-26 ). Jesus exercises this power on those "whom he
wills." Christ has power to quicken both body and soul.

经文:

约翰福音 5:22-5:22

注释:

 {He hath given all judgement unto the Son} (	(886e) krisin
p(8373)an ded(936b)en t(9369) hui(9369)). Perfect active indicative of did(936d)i,
state of completion (as in  3:35  6:27,29  10:29 , etc.). See
this prerogative claimed for Christ already in  3:17 . See the
picture of Christ as Judge of men in  Mt 25:31-46 .

经文:

约翰福音 5:23-5:23

注释:

 {That all may honour the Son} (hina pantes tim(9373)in ton
huion). Purpose clause with hina and present active
subjunctive of 	ima(935c) (may keep on honouring the Son). {He that
honoureth not the Son} (ho m(8820)tim(936e) ton huion). Articular
present active participle of 	ima(935c) with negative m(885c). Jesus
claims here the same right to worship from men that the Father
has. Dishonouring Jesus is dishonouring the Father who sent him
( 8:49  12:26  15:23  1Jo 2:23 ). See also  Lu 10:16 . There is
small comfort here for those who praise Jesus as teacher and yet
deny his claims to worship. The Gospel of John carries this high
place for Christ throughout, but so do the other Gospels (even Q,
the Logia of Jesus) and the rest of the New Testament.

经文:

约翰福音 5:24-5:24

注释:

 {Hath eternal life} (echei z(9388)n ai(936e)ion). Has now this
spiritual life which is endless. See  3:36 . In verses  24,25 
Jesus speaks of spiritual life and spiritual death. In this
passage ( 21-29 ) Jesus speaks now of physical life and death,
now of spiritual, and one must notice carefully the quick
transition. In  Re 20:14  we have the phrase "the second death"
with which language compare  Re 20:4-6 . {But hath passed out of
death into life} (alla metabeb(886b)en ek tou thanatou eis t(886e)
z(9388)n). Perfect active indicative of metabain(935c), to pass from
one place or state to another. Out of spiritual death into
spiritual life and so no judgement (krisis).

经文:

约翰福音 5:25-5:25

注释:

 {And now is} (kai nun estin). See  4:23  for this phrase.
Not the future resurrection in verse  28 , but the spiritual
resurrection here and now. {The dead} (hoi nekroi). The
spiritually dead, dead in trespasses and sins ( Eph 2:1,5  5:14 ). {Shall hear the voice of the Son of God} (akousousin t(8873)
ph(936e)(8873) tou huiou tou theou). Note three genitives (ph(936e)(8873)
after akousousin, huiou with ph(936e)(8873), 	heou with huiou).
Note three articles (correlation of the article) and that Jesus
here calls himself "the Son of God" as in  10:36  11:4 . {Shall
live} (z(8873)ousin). Future active indicative, shall come to life
spiritually.

经文:

约翰福音 5:26-5:26

注释:

 {In himself} (en heaut(9369)). The Living God possesses life
wholly in himself and so he has bestowed this power of life to
the Son as already stated in the Prologue of the Logos ( 1:3 ).
For "gave" (ed(936b)en, timeless aorist active indicative) see also
 3:35  17:2,24 . The particles "as" (h(9373)per) and "so"
(hout(9373)) mark here the fact, not the degree (Westcott).

经文:

约翰福音 5:27-5:27

注释:

 {Because he is the Son of man} (hoti huios anthr(9370)ou
estin). Rather, "because he is a son of man" (note absence of
articles and so not as the Messiah), because the judge of men
must partake of human nature himself (Westcott). Bernard insists
that John is here giving his own reflections rather than the
words of Jesus and uses huios anthr(9370)ou in the same sense as
ho huios tou anthr(9370)ou (always in the Gospels used by Jesus of
himself). But that in my opinion is a wrong view since we have
here ostensibly certainly the words of Jesus himself. So in  Re
1:13  4:14  huion anthr(9370)ou means "a son of man."

经文:

约翰福音 5:28-5:28

注释:

 {In the tombs} (en tois mn(886d)eiois). Taphos (grave)
presents the notion of burial (	hapt(935c), to bury) as in  Mt
23:27 , mn(886d)eion (from mnaomai, mimn(8873)k(935c), to remind) is a
memorial (sepulchre as a monument). Jesus claims not only the
power of life (spiritual) and of judgement, but of power to
quicken the actual dead at the Last Day. They will hear his voice
and come out (ekporeusontai, future middle indicative of
ekporeuomai). A general judgement and a general bodily
resurrection we have here for both good and bad as in  Mt 25:46  Ac 24:15  2Co 5:10  and as often implied in the words of Jesus
( Mt 5:29f.  10:28  Lu 11:32 ). In  Joh 6:39  Jesus asserts that
he will raise up the righteous.

经文:

约翰福音 5:29-5:29

注释:

 {Unto the resurrection of life} (eis anastasin z(9388)s).
Anastasis is an old word (Aeschylus) from anist(886d)i, to raise
up, to arise. This combination occurs nowhere else in the N.T.
nor does "the resurrection of judgement" (eis anastasin
krise(9373)), but in  Lu 14:14  there is the similar phrase "in the
resurrection of the just" (en t(8869) anastasei t(936e) dikai(936e)). Only
there note both articles. Here without the articles it can mean
"to a resurrection of life" and "to a resurrection of judgement,"
though the result is practically the same. There are two
resurrections as to result, one to life, one to judgement. See
both in  Da 12:2 .

经文:

约翰福音 5:30-5:30

注释:

 {I} (Eg(935c)). The discourse returns to the first person after
using "the Son" since verse  19 . Here Jesus repeats in the first
person (as in  8:28 ) the statement made in verse  19  about the
Son. In John emautou is used by Jesus 16 times and not at all
by Jesus in the Synoptics. It occurs in the Synoptics only in  Mt
8:8  Lu 7:7f . {Righteous} (dikaia). As all judgements should
be. The reason is plain (hoti, because), the guiding principle
with the Son being the will of the Father who sent him and made
him Judge. Judges often have difficulty in knowing what is law
and what is right, but the Son's task as Judge is simple enough,
the will of the Father which he knows (verse  20 ).

经文:

约翰福音 5:31-5:31

注释:

 {If I bear witness of myself} (Ean eg(9320)martur(9320)peri
emautou). Condition of third class, undetermined with prospect
of determination (ean and present active subjunctive of
marture(935c)). The emphasis is on eg(935c) (I alone with no other
witness). {Is not true} (ouk estin al(8874)h(8873)). In law the
testimony of a witness is not received in his own case (Jewish,
Greek, Roman law). See  De 19:15  and the allusion to it by Jesus
in  Mt 18:16 . See also  2Co 13:1  1Ti 5:19 . And yet in
 8:12-19  Jesus claims that his witness concerning himself is
true because the Father gives confirmation of his message. The
Father and the Son are the two witnesses ( 8:17 ). It is a
paradox and yet true. But here Jesus yields to the rabbinical
demand for proof outside of himself. He has the witness of
another (the Father,  5:32,37 ), the witness of the Baptist
( 5:33 ), the witness of the works of Jesus ( 5:36 ), the witness
of the Scriptures ( 5:39 ), the witness of Moses in particular
( 5:45 ).

经文:

约翰福音 5:32-5:32

注释:

 {Another} (allos). The Father, not the Baptist who is
mentioned in verse  33 . This continual witness of the Father
(ho martur(936e), who is bearing witness, and marturei, present
active indicative) is mentioned again in verses  36-38  as in
 8:17 .

经文:

约翰福音 5:33-5:33

注释:

 {Ye have sent} (humeis apestalkate). Emphatic use of
humeis (ye) and perfect active indicative of apostell(935c),
official and permanent fact and so the witness of the Baptist has
to be recognized as trustworthy by the Sanhedrin. The reference
is to the committee in  1:19-28 . {He hath borne witness}
(memartur(886b)en). Perfect active indicative of marture(935c) showing
the permanent and abiding value of John's testimony to Christ as
in  1:34  3:26  5:37 . So also  19:35  of the testimony
concerning Christ's death. This was the purpose of the Baptist's
mission ( 1:7 ).

经文:

约翰福音 5:34-5:34

注释:

 {But the witness which I receive} (Eg(9320)de ou t(886e) marturian
lamban(935c)). "But I do not receive the witness" simply from a man
(like John). The eg(935c) (I) in sharp contrast with humeis (ye)
of verse  33 . Jesus complained of Nicodemus for not accepting
his witness ( 3:11 ). Cf. also  3:32 . In  1Jo 5:9  the witness
of God is greater than that of men and this Jesus has. {That ye
may be saved} (hina humeis s(9374)h(8874)e). Final clause with hina
and first aorist passive subjunctive of s(937a)(935c). This was the
purpose of Christ's coming, that the world might be saved
( 3:17 ).

经文:

约翰福音 5:35-5:35

注释:

 {He} (ekeinos). "That one" (John of  33 ). Common
demonstrative (that one) in John to point out the subject. Used
in  1:8  of the Baptist as here. John was now in prison and so
Christ uses (886e) (was). His active ministry is over. {The lamp}
(ho luchnos). The lamp in the room ( Mr 4:21 ). Old word for
lamp or candle as in  Mt 5:15 . Used of Christ (the Lamb) as the
Lamp of the New Jerusalem ( Re 21:23 ). Lampas ( Mt 25:1,3 ,
etc.) is a torch whose wick is fed with oil. The Baptist was not
the Light (	o ph(9373),  1:8 ), but a lamp shining in the darkness.
"When the Light comes, the lamp is no longer needed" (Bernard).
"_Non Lux iste, sed lucerna_." Jesus by his own claim is the
Light of the World ( 8:12  9:5  12:46 ). And yet all believers
are in a sense "the light of the world" ( Mt 5:14 ) since the
world gets the Light of Christ through us. {That burneth} (ho
kaiomenos). See  Mt 5:15  for this verb used with luchnos
(lighting a candle or lamp). The lamp that is lit and is burning
(present passive participle of kai(935c), and so is consumed). {And
shineth} (kai phain(936e)). See  1:4  for this verb used of the
Logos shining in the darkness. Cf.  1Jo 2:8 . John was giving
light as he burned for those in darkness like these Jews. {And ye
were willing} (humeis de (8874)hel(8873)ate). "But ye became willing."
Ingressive aorist active indicative of 	hel(935c). Reference again
to  1:19 . Cf. also for the temporary popularity of the Baptist
 Mr 1:5  Mt 3:5  11:7  21:26 . The Jews were attracted to John
"like moths to a candle" (Bernard). {To rejoice}
(agalliath(886e)ai). First aorist passive infinitive of
agalliaomai, late word for agallomai for which see  Mt 5:12 .
"They were attracted by his brightness, not by his warmth"
(Bengel). Even so the brightness of John's shining did not really
enlighten their minds. "The interest in the Baptist was a
frivolous, superficial, and short-lived excitement" (Vincent). It
was only "for an hour" (pros h(9372)an) when they turned against
him.

经文:

约翰福音 5:36-5:36

注释:

 {But the witness which I have is greater than that of John}
(Eg(9320)de ech(9320)t(886e) marturian meiz(9320)tou I(9361)nou). Literally, "But I
have the witness greater than John's." Meiz(935c) (meizona) is
predicate accusative and I(9361)nou is ablative of comparison after
meiz(935c). Good as the witness of John is, Christ has superior
testimony. {To accomplish} (hina telei(9373)(935c)). Final clause with
hina and first aorist active subjunctive of 	eleio(935c), the same
idiom in  4:34 . Jesus felt keenly the task laid on him by the
Father (cf.  3:35 ) and claimed at the end that he had performed
it ( 17:4  19:30 ). Jesus held that the highest form of faith did
not require these "works" (erga) as in  2:23  10:38  14:11 .
But these "works" bear the seal of the Father's approval
( 5:20,36  10:25 ) and to reject their witness is wrong ( 10:25  10:37f.  15:24 ). {The very works} (auta ta erga). "The works
themselves," repeating 	a erga just before for vernacular
emphasis. {Hath sent me} (me apestalken). Perfect active
indicative of apostell(935c), the permanence of the mission. Cf.
 3:17 . The continuance of the witness is emphasized in  5:32  8:18 .

经文:

约翰福音 5:37-5:37

注释:

 1Jo
4:12 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
4' or engs='1Jo
4'
经文:

约翰福音 5:38-5:38

注释:

 {And} (kai). "And yet" as in  1:10  and  5:40  below. {His
word abiding in you} (	on logon autou en humin menonta). But
God's word had come to them through the centuries by the
prophets. For the phrase see  10:35  15:3  17:6  1Jo 1:10  2:14 .
{Him ye believe not} (	out(9369) humeis ou pisteuete). "This one"
(	out(9369), dative case with pisteuete) in emphatic relation to
preceding "he" (ekeinos, God). Jesus has given them God's word,
but they reject both Jesus and God's word ( Joh 14:9 ).

经文:

约翰福音 5:39-5:39

注释:

 {Ye search} (eraun(8374)e). Proper spelling as the papyri show
rather than ereun(8374)e, the old form (from ereuna, search) as
in  7:52 . The form here can be either present active indicative
second person plural or the present active imperative second
person plural. Only the context can decide. Either makes sense
here, but the reason given "because ye think" (hoti humeis
dokeite, clearly indicative), supports the indicative rather
than the imperative. Besides, Jesus is arguing on the basis of
their use of "the Scriptures" (	as graphas). The plural with
the article refers to the well-known collection in the Old
Testament ( Mt 21:42  Lu 24:27 ). Elsewhere in John the singular
refers to a particular passage ( 2:22  7:38  10:35 ). {In them ye
have eternal life} (en autais z(9388)n ai(936e)ion echein). Indirect
assertion after dokeite without "ye" expressed either as
nominative (humeis) or accusative (humas). Bernard holds that
in John doke(935c) always indicates a mistaken opinion ( 5:45  11:13,31  13:29  16:20  20:15 ). Certainly the rabbis did make a
mechanical use of the letter of Scripture as a means of
salvation. {These are they} (ekeinai eisin hai). The true value
of the Scriptures is in their witness to Christ (of me, peri
emou). Luke ( 24:27,45 ) gives this same claim of Jesus, and yet
some critics fail to find the Messiah in the Old Testament. But
Jesus did.

经文:

约翰福音 5:40-5:40

注释:

 {And ye will not come to me} (kai ou thelete elthein pros
me). "And yet" (kai) as often in John. "This is the tragedy of
the rejection of Messiah by the Messianic race" (Bernard). See
 Joh 1:11  Mt 23:37  (kai ouk (8874)hel(8873)ate, and ye would not).
Men loved darkness rather than light ( Joh 3:19 ). {That ye may
have life} (hina z(9388)n ech(8874)e). Life in its simplest form as in
 3:36  (cf.  3:16 ). This is the purpose of John in writing the
Fourth Gospel ( 20:31 ). There is life only in Christ Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 5:41-5:41

注释:

 {Glory from men} (doxan para anthr(9370)(936e)). Mere honour and
praise Jesus does not expect from men (verse  34 ). This is not
wounded pride, for ambition is not Christ's motive. He is unlike
the Jews ( 5:44  12:43  Mt 6:1f. ) and seeks not his own glory,
but the glory and fellowship of the Father ( 1:14  2:11  7:18 ).
Paul did not seek glory from men ( 1Th 2:6 ).

经文:

约翰福音 5:42-5:42

注释:

 1Jo
2:5 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
2' or engs='1Jo
2'
经文:

约翰福音 5:43-5:43

注释:

 {In my Father's name} (en t(9369) onomati tou patros mou).
Seven times Jesus in John speaks of the "Name" of the Father
( 5:43  10:25  12:28  17:6,11,12,26 ). See  1:12  for use of
onoma ( Lu 1:49 ). {And ye receive me not} (kai ou lambanete
me). "And yet ye do not receive me," as in verse  40 , "the
Gospel of the Rejection" ( 1:11  3:11,32  12:37 ) often applied
to the Fourth Gospel. {If another come} (ean allos elth(8869)).
Condition of third class (ean and second aorist active
subjunctive of erchomai). Note allos, not heteros, like
allon I(8873)oun in  2Co 11:4 . Similar prophecies occur in  Mr
13:6,22  ( Mt 24:5,24 ), all general in character like Antichrist
in  2Th 2:8-12 . There is no occasion for a reference to any
individual like Barcochba (about A.D. 134) as Pfleiderer and
Schmiedel hold. These Messianic upstarts all come "in their own
name" and always find a following. {Him ye will receive}
(ekeinon l(886d)psesthe). "That one," whoever he is, as Jesus said.
Future active indicative of lamban(935c). Credulous about the false
Messiahs, incredulous about Christ.

经文:

约翰福音 5:44-5:44

注释:

 {How can ye believe?} (p(9373) dunasthe humeis pisteusai;).
Emphasis on "ye" (humeis), ye being what ye are. They were not
true Jews ( Ro 2:29  Es 9:28 ) who cared for the glory of God,
but they prefer the praise of men ( Mt 6:1f.  23:5 ) like the
Pharisees who feared to confess Christ ( Joh 12:43 ). {From the
only God} (para tou monou theou). B and W omit 	heou which is
certainly meant even if not genuine here. See  17:3  Ro 16:27  1Ti 6:15f .

经文:

约翰福音 5:45-5:45

注释:

 {Think not} (m(8820)dokeite). Prohibition with m(885c) and the
present imperative. See on verse  39  for doke(935c) for mistaken
opinions in John. {I will accuse you} (eg(9320)kat(8867)or(8873)(9320)hum(936e)).
Emphasis on eg(935c) (I). Future active indicative of kat(8867)ore(935c)
(kata, against, agoreu(935c), to speak in the assembly agora, to
bring an accusation in court, a public accusation). See  Ro 3:9 
for proaitiaomai for making previous charge and  Lu 16:1  for
diaball(935c), a secret malicious accusation, and  Ro 8:33  for
egkale(935c), for public charge, not necessarily before tribunal.
{Even Moses} (M(9375)s(8873)). No "even" in the Greek. {On whom ye have
set your hope} (eis hon humeis (886c)pikate). Perfect active
indicative of elpiz(935c), state of repose in Moses. Only example of
elpiz(935c) in John. See  2Co 1:10  for use of eis with elpiz(935c)
instead of the usual epi ( 1Ti 4:10 ).

经文:

约翰福音 5:46-5:46

注释:

 {Ye would believe me} (episteuete an emoi). Conclusion of
condition of second class (determined as unfulfilled) with
imperfect indicative in both protasis and apodosis and an in
apodosis. This was a home-thrust, proving that they did not
really believe Moses. {For he wrote of me} (peri gar emou
ekeinos egrapsen).  De 18:18f.  is quoted by Peter ( Ac 3:22 )
as a prophecy of Christ and also by Stephen in  Ac 7:37 . See
also  Joh 3:14  about the brazen serpent and  8:56  about Abraham
foreseeing Christ's day. Jesus does here say that Moses wrote
concerning him.

经文:

约翰福音 5:47-5:47

注释:

 {His writings} (	ois ekeinou grammasin). Dative case with
pistuete. See  Lu 16:31  for a like argument. The authority of
Moses was the greatest of all for Jews. There is a contrast also
between {writings} (grammasin, from graph(935c), to write) and
{words} (
(886d)asin, from eipon). Gramma may mean the mere
letter as opposed to spirit ( 2Co 3:6  Ro 2:27,29  7:6 ), a
debtor's bond ( Lu 16:6f. ), letters or learning ( Joh 7:15  Ac
26:24 ) like agrammatoi for unlearned ( Ac 4:13 ), merely
written characters ( Lu 23:38  2Co 3:7  Ga 6:11 ), official
communications ( Ac 28:21 ), once hiera grammata for the sacred
writings ( 2Ti 3:15 ) instead of the more usual hai hagiai
graphai. Graph(885c) is used also for a single passage ( Mr
12:10 ), but iblion for a book or roll ( Lu 4:17 ) or iblos
( Lu 20:42 ). Jesus clearly states the fact that Moses wrote
portions of the Old Testament, what portions he does not say. See
also  Lu 24:27,44  for the same idea. There was no answer from
the rabbis to this conclusion of Christ. The scribes (hoi
grammateis) made copies according to the letter (kata to
gramma).
     
经文:

约翰福音 6:1-6:1

注释:

 {After these things} (meta tauta). A common, but
indefinite, note of time in John ( 3:22  5:1  6:1  7:1 ). The
phrase does not mean immediate sequence of events. As a matter of
fact, a whole year may intervene between the events of chapter 5
in Jerusalem and those in chapter 6 in Galilee. There is no
sufficient reason for believing that chapter 6 originally
preceded chapter 5. The feeding of the five thousand is the only
event before the last visit to Jerusalem recorded in all Four
Gospels ( Mr 6:30-44  Mt 14:13-21  Lu 9:10-17  Joh 6:1-13 ). The
disciples have returned from the tour of Galilee and report to
Jesus. It was the passover time ( Joh 6:4 ) just a year before
the end. {To the other side of the Sea of Galilee} (peran t(8873)
thalass(8873) t(8873) Galilaias). The name given in Mark and Matthew. It
is called Gennesaret in  Lu 5:1  and "Sea of Tiberias" in  Joh
21:1 . Here "of Tiberias" (	(8873) Tiberiados) is added as further
description. Herod Antipas A.D. 22 built Tiberias to the west of
the Sea of Galilee and made it his capital. See verse  23  for
this city. Luke ( Lu 9:10 ) explains that it was the eastern
Bethsaida (Julias) to which Jesus took the disciples, not the
western Bethsaida of  Mr 6:45  in Galilee.

经文:

约翰福音 6:2-6:2

注释:

 {Followed} ((886b)olouthei). Descriptive imperfect active,
picturing the crowd, but without the details of the boat for
Christ and the rapid race of the crowd on foot ( Mr 6:32f.  Mt
14:13f. ). {They beheld} (ethe(9372)oun). Imperfect active of
	he(9372)e(935c). They had been beholding the signs which Jesus had been
doing (epoiei, imperfect again) for a long time ( 2:23 ), most
of which John has not given ( Mr 1:29f.  2:1  3:1  6:5 ). The
people were eager to hear Jesus again ( Lu 9:11 ) and to get the
benefit of his healing power "on them that were sick" (epi t(936e)
asthenount(936e), the weak or feeble, without strength, a
privative and sthenos, strength).

经文:

约翰福音 6:3-6:3

注释:

 {Into the mountain} (eis to oros). From the level of the
Jordan valley up into the high hill on the eastern side. Mark
( Mr 6:46 ) and Matthew ( Mt 14:23 ) mention that after the
miracle Jesus went further up into the mountain to pray. {Sat}
(ekath(8874)o). Imperfect middle of kath(886d)ai, was sitting, a
picture of repose.

经文:

约翰福音 6:4-6:4

注释:

 {The feast of the Jews} (h(8820)heort(8820)t(936e) Ioudai(936e)). Here used
of the passover (	o pascha) as in  7:2  of the tabernacles.
This is probably the third passover in Christ's ministry ( 2:13 
and one unmentioned unless  5:1  be it). In  2:13 , here, and
 11:55  (the last one) the adverb eggus (near) is used. John is
fond of notes of time. Jesus failed to go to this passover
because of the hostility in Jerusalem ( 7:1 ).

经文:

约翰福音 6:5-6:5

注释:

 {Lifting up his eyes} (eparas tous ophthalmous). First
aorist active participle of epair(935c). See the same phrase in
 4:35  where it is also followed by 	heaomai;  11:41  17:1  Lu
6:20 . Here it is particularly expressive as Jesus looked down
from the mountain on the approaching multitude. {Cometh unto him}
(erchetai pros auton). Present middle indicative, "is coming to
him." The same ochlos polus (here polus ochlos) of verse  2 
that had followed Jesus around the head of the lake. {Whence are
we to buy?} (Pothen agoras(936d)en;). Deliberative subjunctive
(aorist active). John passes by the earlier teaching and healing
of the Synoptics ( Mr 6:34f.  Mt 14:14f.  Lu 9:11f. ) till
mid-afternoon. In John also Jesus takes up the matter of feeding
the multitude with Philip (from the other Bethsaida,  1:44 )
whereas in the Synoptics the disciples raise the problem with
Jesus. So the disciples raise the problem in the feeding of the
four thousand ( Mr 8:4  Mt 15:33 ). See  Nu 11:13-22  (about
Moses) and  2Ki 4:42f . (about Elisha). {Bread} (artous).
"Loaves" (plural) as in  Mt 4:3 . {That these may eat} (hina
phag(9373)in houtoi). Purpose clause with hina and the second
aorist active subjunctive of esthi(935c) (defective verb).

经文:

约翰福音 6:6-6:6

注释:

 {To prove him} (peiraz(936e) auton). Present active participle
of peiraz(935c), testing him, not here in bad sense of tempting as
so often ( Mt 4:1 ). {What he would do} (	i (886d)ellen poiein).
Indirect question with change of tense to imperfect. As in  2:25 
so here John explains why Jesus put the question to Philip.

经文:

约翰福音 6:7-6:7

注释:

 {Two hundred pennyworth of bread} (diakosi(936e) d(886e)ari(936e)
artoi). "Loaves of two hundred denarii." The Roman coin
originally for ten asses (afterwards sixteen), about 16 2/3
cents. The denarius was the usual pay for a day's labour ( Mt
20:2,9,13 ). This item in  Mr 6:37 , but not in Matthew or Luke.
{That every one may take a little} (hina hekastos brachu
lab(8869)). Final clause with hina and second aorist active
subjunctive of lamban(935c). This detail in John alone.

经文:

约翰福音 6:8-6:8

注释:

 {One of} (heis ek). So in  12:4 ;  13:23  Mr 13:1  without
ek. {Simon Peter's brother} (ho adelphos Sim(936e)os Petrou). So
described in  1:40 . The great distinction of Andrew was
precisely this that he brought Simon to Christ. Philip and Andrew
appear together again in  12:20-22 , but in the Synoptics he is
distinguished only in  Mr 13:3 . In the Muratorian Fragment
Andrew received the revelation for John to write the Fourth
Gospel.

经文:

约翰福音 6:9-6:9

注释:

 {A lad here} (paidarion h(9364)e). Old word, diminutive of
pais, here only in N.T., not genuine in  Mt 11:16 . How he came
to have this small supply we do not know. {Barley}
(krithinous). Adjective, here and verse  13  only in N.T., in
the papyri, from krith(885c), barley ( Re 6:6 ). Considered an
inferior sort of bread. {Fishes} (opsaria). Late diminutive of
opson, common in papyri and inscriptions for delicacies with
bread like fish. In N.T. only here, verse  11  21:9-13 .
Synoptics have ichthuas.

经文:

约翰福音 6:10-6:10

注释:

 {Sit down} (anapesein). Literally, "fall back," lie down,
recline. Second aorist active infinitive of anapipt(935c). {Much
grass} (chortos polus). Old word for pasture, green grass ( Mr
6:39 ) or hay ( 1Co 3:12 ). It was spring ( Joh 6:4 ) and plenty
of green grass on the hillside. {The men} (hoi andres). Word
for men as distinct from women, expressly stated in  Mt 14:21 .
{In number} (	on arithmon). Adverbial accusative (of general
reference). {About} (hos). General estimate, though they were
arranged in orderly groups by hundreds and fifties, "in ranks"
like "garden beds" (prasiai,  Mr 6:40 ).

经文:

约翰福音 6:11-6:11

注释:

 {The loaves} (	ous artous). Those of verse  9 . {Having
given thanks} (eucharist(8873)as). The usual grace before meals
( De 8:10 ). The Synoptics use "blessed" eulog(8873)en ( Mr 6:41  Mt 14:19  Lu 9:16 ). {He distributed} (died(936b)en). First aorist
active indicative of diadid(936d)i, old verb to give to several
(dia, between). {To them that were set down} (	ois
anakeimenois). Present middle participle (dative case) of
anakeimai, old verb to recline like anapesein in verse  10 .
{As much as they would} (hoson (8874)helon). Imperfect active of
	hel(935c), "as much as they wished."

经文:

约翰福音 6:12-6:12

注释:

 {And when they were filled} (h(9373) de enepl(8873)th(8873)an). First
aorist (effective) passive indicative of empimpl(886d)i, old verb
to fill in, to fill up, to fill completely. They were all
satisfied. The Synoptics have echortasth(8873)an like  Joh 6:26 
(echortasth(8874)e). {Gather up} (sunagagete). Second aorist
active imperative of sunag(935c), to gather together. {Broken
pieces} (klasmata). From kla(935c), to break. Not crumbs or scraps
on the ground, but pieces broken by Jesus ( Mr 6:41 ) and not
consumed. {Be lost} (apol(8874)ai). Second aorist middle
subjunctive of apollumi with hina in purpose clause. Only in
John. There was to be no wastefulness in Christ's munificence.
The Jews had a custom of leaving something for those that served.

经文:

约翰福音 6:13-6:13

注释:

 {Twelve baskets} (d(9364)eka kophinous). One for each of the
apostles. What about the lad? Stout wicker baskets (coffins,
Wycliff) in distinction from the soft and frail sphurides used
at the feeding of the four thousand ( Mr 8:8  Mt 15:37 ). Here
all the Gospels ( Mr 6:43  Mt 14:20  Lu 9:17  Joh 6:13 ) use
kophinoi. The same distinction between kophinoi and
sphurides is preserved in the allusion to the incidents by
Jesus in  Mr 8:19,20  Mt 16:9,10 . {Unto them that had eaten}
(	ois bebr(936b)osin). Articular perfect active participle (dative
case) of ibr(9373)k(935c), old verb to eat, only here in N.T., though
often in LXX.

经文:

约翰福音 6:14-6:14

注释:

 {Saw the sign which he did} (idontes ha epoi(8873)en s(886d)eia).
"Signs" oldest MSS. have. This sign added to those already
wrought (verse  2 ). Cf.  2:23  3:2 . {They said} (elegon).
Inchoative imperfect, began to say. {Of a truth} (al(8874)h(9373)).
Common adverb (from al(8874)h(8873)) in John ( 7:40 ). {The prophet
that cometh} (ho proph(8874)(8873) ho erchomenos). There was a popular
expectation about the prophet of  De 18:15  as being the Messiah
( Joh 1:21  11:27 ). The phrase is peculiar to John, but the idea
is in Acts ( 3:22  7:37 ). The people are on the tiptoe of
expectation and believe that Jesus is the political Messiah of
Pharisaic hope.

经文:

约翰福音 6:15-6:15

注释:

 {Perceiving} (gnous). Second aorist active participle of
gin(9373)k(935c). It was not hard for Christ to read the mind of this
excited mob. {They were about} (mellousin). Present active
indicative of mell(935c). Probably the leaders were already
starting. {Take him by force} (harpazein). Present active
infinitive of harpaz(935c), old verb for violent seizing ( Mt 11:12  13:19 ). There was a movement to start a revolution against Roman
rule in Palestine by proclaiming Jesus King and driving away
Pilate. {To make him king} (hina poi(8873)(9373)in basilea). Purpose
clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of
poie(935c) with asilea as predicate accusative. It was a crisis
that called for quick action. {Himself alone} (autos monos). At
first he had the disciples with him (verse  3 ). But he sent them
hurriedly by boat to the western side ( Mr 6:45f.  Mt 14:22f. )
because clearly the apostles were sympathetic with the
revolutionary impulse of the crowd. Then Jesus sent the
multitudes away also and went up into the mountain alone. He was
alone in every sense, for no one but the Father understood him at
this stage, not even his own disciples. He went up to pray ( Mr
6:46  Mt 14:23 ).

经文:

约翰福音 6:16-6:16

注释:

 {When evening came} (h(9373) opsia egeneto). "The late hour"
(h(9372)a understood), and so in late Greek the adjective is used
as a substantive. It is late evening (real evening), not the
early evening in mid-afternoon ( Mt 14:15 ). The disciples were
in no hurry to start back to Bethsaida in Galilee ( Mr 6:45 ),
Capernaum in John ( Joh 6:17 ).

经文:

约翰福音 6:17-6:17

注释:

 {Were going} ((8872)chonto). Picturesque imperfect. {It was
now dark} (skotia (8864)(8820)egegonei). Past perfect active of
ginomai. While they were going, "darkness had already come."
{And Jesus had not yet come to them} (kai ouk el(886c)uthei pros
autous ho I(8873)ous). Another past perfect active of erchomai
with negative oup(935c). Darkness had come, but Jesus had not come,
while they were going over the sea. The tenses in these verses
are very graphic.

经文:

约翰福音 6:18-6:18

注释:

 {And the sea was rising} (h(8820)te thalassa diegeireto).
Imperfect (without augment) passive of diegeir(935c), late compound
to wake up thoroughly, to arouse. {By reason of a great wind that
blew} (anemou megalou pneontos). Genitive absolute with present
active participle of pne(935c), to blow, "a great wind blowing."

经文:

约翰福音 6:19-6:19

注释:

 {When therefore they had rowed} (el(886c)akotes oun). Perfect
active participle of elaun(935c), old verb to march (Xenophon), to
drive ( Jas 3:4 ), to row ( Mr 6:48 ). {Furlongs} (stadious).
Stadia, accusative of extent of space, a little over halfway
across, "in the midst of the sea" ( Mr 6:47 ). It was about forty
stadia (six miles) across. {They behold} (	he(9372)ousin). Graphic
dramatic present active indicative of 	he(9372)e(935c), vividly
preserving the emotions of the disciples. {Walking}
(peripatounta). Present active participle in the accusative
case agreeing with I(8873)oun. {Drawing nigh unto the boat} (eggus
tou ploiou ginomenon). Present middle participle of ginomai
describing the process. "Coming near the boat." They behold Jesus
slipping closer and closer to them on the water. {They were
afraid} (ephob(8874)h(8873)an). Ingressive aorist passive indicative of
phobeomai, "they became afraid." Sudden change to the regular
historical sequence.

经文:

约翰福音 6:20-6:20

注释:

 {Be not afraid} (m(8820)phobeisthe). Prohibition with m(885c) and
present middle imperative of phobeomai. So in  Mr 6:50  ( Mt
14:27 ). John does not tell that the disciples thought Jesus was
an apparition ( Mr 6:49  Mt 14:26 ), nor does he give the account
of Peter walking on the water ( Mt 14:28-31 ).

经文:

约翰福音 6:21-6:21

注释:

 {They were willing therefore} ((8874)helon oun). Inchoative
imperfect, "they began to be willing." This does not contradict
 Mr 6:51  as Bernard thinks. Both Jesus and Peter climbed into
the boat. {Whither they were going} (eis h(886e) hup(8867)on).
Progressive imperfect active, "to which land they had been going"
(intransitive use of hupag(935c), to lead under, to go under or away
as in verse  67  7:33  12:11  18:8 .

经文:

约翰福音 6:22-6:22

注释:

 {Which stood} (ho hest(886b)(9373)). Perfect active (intransitive)
participle of hist(886d)i, to put, to stand. Jesus had sent the
multitudes away the evening before ( Mr 6:45  Mt 14:22 ), but
evidently some did not go very far, still lingering in excitement
on the eastern side of the lake next morning. {Boat}
(ploiarion). Diminutive of ploion, little boat ( Mr 3:9 ).
{Entered not with} (ou suneis(886c)then). Second aorist active of
the double compound verb suneiserchomai, followed by
associative instrumental case math(8874)ais. {Went away alone}
(monoi ap(886c)thon). Second aorist active indicative of
aperchomai, to go away or off. Monoi is predicate nominative.
These people noted these three items.

经文:

约翰福音 6:23-6:23

注释:

 {Howbeit} (alla). Verse 23 is really an explanatory
parenthesis in this long sentence. Tiberias, capital of Herod
Antipas, diagonally across the lake, is only mentioned in John in
the N.T. ( 6:1,23  21:1 ). {Boats} (ploia). Called "little
boats" (ploiaria) in verse  24 .

经文:

约翰福音 6:24-6:24

注释:

 {When the multitude therefore saw} (hote oun eiden ho
ochlos). Resumption and clarification of the complicated
statements of verse  22 . {That Jesus was not there} (hoti
I(8873)ous ouk estin ekei). Present indicative retained in indirect
discourse. They still did not understand how Jesus had crossed
over, but they acted on the basis of the plain fact. {They
themselves got into} (eneb(8873)an autoi eis). Second aorist active
indicative of embain(935c) followed by eis (both en and eis
together as often in N.T.). {Seeking Jesus} (z(8874)ountes ton
I(8873)oun). Present active participle of z(8874)e(935c). They had a double
motive apart from the curiosity explained in verse  22 . They had
clearly not given up the impulse of the evening before to make
Jesus king ( 6:15 ) and they had hopes of still another bountiful
repast at the hands of Jesus as he said ( 6:26 ).

经文:

约翰福音 6:25-6:25

注释:

 {When they found him} (heurontes auton). Second aorist
active participle of heurisk(935c). Found him after search and in
the synagogue as John explains (verse  59 ) in Capernaum, perhaps
that very synagogue built by a centurion ( Lu 7:5 ). {Rabbi}
(Rabbei). See on 气:38| for this courteous title. {When camest
thou hither?} (pote h(9364)e gegonas;). Second perfect active
indicative of ginomai. "When hast thou come?" We sought you
anxiously on the other side of the lake and could not see how you
came across (verses  22-24 ).

经文:

约翰福音 6:26-6:26

注释:

 {Not because ye saw signs} (ouch hoti eidete s(886d)eia).
Second aorist active indicative of the defective verb hora(935c).
They had seen the "signs" wrought by Jesus (verse  2 ), but this
one had led to wild fanaticism (verse  14 ) and complete failure
to grasp the spiritual lessons. {But because ye ate of the
loaves} (all' hoti ephagete ek t(936e) art(936e)). Second aorist active
indicative of esthi(935c), defective verb. {Ye were filled}
(echortasth(8874)e). First aorist passive indicative of chortaz(935c),
from chortos (grass) as in verse  10 , to eat grass, then to
eat anything, to satisfy hunger. They were more concerned with
hungry stomachs than with hungry souls. It was a sharp and
deserved rebuke.

经文:

约翰福音 6:27-6:27

注释:

 {Work not for} (m(8820)ergazesthe). Prohibition with m(885c) and
present middle imperative of ergazomai, old verb from ergon,
work. {The meat} (	(886e) br(9373)in). The act of eating ( Ro 14:17 ),
corrosion ( Mt 6:19 ), the thing eaten as here ( 2Co 9:10 ). See
on 浥oh 4:32|. {Which perisheth} (	(886e) apollumen(886e)). Present
middle participle of apollumi. They were already hungry again.
{Unto eternal life} (eis z(9388)n ai(936e)ion). Mystical metaphor quite
beyond this crowd hungry only for more loaves and fishes. Bernard
thinks that John has here put together various sayings of Christ
to make one discourse, a gratuitous interpretation. {Will give}
(d(9373)ei). Future active indicative of did(936d)i. The outcome is
still future and will be decided by their attitude towards the
Son of man (verse  51 ). {For him the Father, even God, hath
sealed} (	outon gar ho pat(8872) esphragisen ho theos). Literally,
"For this one the Father sealed, God." First aorist active
indicative of sphragiz(935c), to seal. See elsewhere in  Joh 3:33 
(attestation by man). Sealing by God is rare in N.T. ( 2Co 1:22  Eph 1:13  4:30 ). It is not clear to what item, if any single
one, John refers when the Father set his seal of approval on the
Son. It was done at his baptism when the Holy Spirit came upon
him and the Father spoke to him. Cf.  5:37 .

经文:

约翰福音 6:28-6:28

注释:

 {What must we do?} (Ti poi(936d)en;). Present active
deliberative subjunctive of poie(935c), "What are we to do as a
habit?" For the aorist subjunctive (poi(8873)(936d)en) in a like
question for a single act see  Lu 3:10 . For the present
indicative (poioumen) of inquiry concerning actual conduct see
 Joh 11:47  (what are we doing?). {That we may work the works of
God} (hina ergaz(936d)etha ta erga tou theou). Final clause with
hina and the present middle subjunctive, "that we may go on
working the works of God." There may have been an element of
vague sincerity in this question in spite of their supercilious
attitude.

经文:

约翰福音 6:29-6:29

注释:

 {The work of God that ye believe} (	o ergon tou theou hina
pisteu(8874)e). In  1Th 1:3  Paul speaks of "your work of faith"
(hum(936e) tou ergou t(8873) piste(9373)). So here Jesus terms belief in
him as the work of God. These Jews were thinking of various deeds
of the Pharisaic type and rules. Jesus turns their minds to the
central fact. "This simple formula contains the complete solution
of the relation of faith and works" (Westcott). Note the present
active subjunctive pisteu(8874)e, "that ye may keep on believing."
{On him whom he hath sent} (eis hon apesteilen ekeinos). The
pronominal antecedent (eis touton hon) is omitted and the
preposition eis is retained with the relative hon really the
direct object of apesteilen (sent). Note ekeinos for God
(emphatic he).

经文:

约翰福音 6:30-6:30

注释:

 {For a sign} (s(886d)eion). Predicate accusative, as a sign,
with 	i (what). As if the sign of the day before was without
value. Jesus had said that they did not understand his signs
(verse  26 ). {That we may see, and believe thee} (hina id(936d)en
kai pisteus(936d)en). Purpose clause with hina and the second
aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive of hora(935c) and the first
aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive of pisteu(935c), "that we may
come to see and come to have faith in thee." It is hard to have
patience with this superficial and almost sneering mob. {What
workest thou?} (Ti ergaz(8869);). They not simply depreciate the
miracle of the day before, but set up a standard for Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 6:31-6:31

注释:

 {Ate the manna} (	o manna ephagon). The rabbis quoted  Ps
72:16  to prove that the Messiah, when he comes, will outdo Moses
with manna from heaven. Jesus was claiming to be the Messiah and
able to give bread for eternal life (verse  27 ). Lightfoot
(_Biblical Essays_, p. 152) says: "The key to the understanding
of the whole situation is an acquaintance with the national
expectation of the greater Moses." They quote to Jesus  Ex 16:15 
(of.  Nu 11:7  21:5  De 8:3 ). Their plea is that Moses gave us
bread "from heaven" (ek tou ouranou). Can Jesus equal that deed
of Moses?

经文:

约翰福音 6:32-6:32

注释:

 {It was not Moses that gave you} (ou M(9375)s(8873) ed(936b)en humin).
"Not Moses gave you." Blunt and pointed denial (aorist active
indicative of did(936d)i) that Moses was the giver of the bread
from heaven (the manna). Moses was not superior to Christ on this
score. {But my Father} (all ho pat(8872) mou). Not "our Father,"
but same claim as in  5:17f . Which caused so much anger in
Jerusalem. {Gives} (did(9373)in). Present active indicative, not
aorist (ed(936b)en). Continual process. {The true bread out of
heaven} (	on arton ek tou ouranou ton al(8874)hinon). "The bread
out of heaven" as the manna and more "the genuine bread" of which
that was merely a type. On al(8874)hinos see  1:9  4:23 .

经文:

约翰福音 6:33-6:33

注释:

 {The bread of God} (ho artos tou theou). All bread is of
God ( Mt 6:11 ). The manna came down from heaven ( Nu 11:9 ) as
does this bread (ho katabain(936e)). Refers to the bread (ho
artos, masculine). Bernard notes that this phrase (coming down)
is used seven times in this discourse ( 33,38,41,42,50,51,58 ).
{Giveth life} (z(9388)n didous). Chrysostom observes that the manna
gave nourishment (	roph(885c)), but not life (z(9388)). This is a most
astounding statement to the crowd.

经文:

约翰福音 6:34-6:34

注释:

 {Lord} (Kurie). Used now instead of _Rabbi_ (25) though
how much the people meant by it is not clear. {Evermore give us
this bread} (pantote dos h(886d)in ton arton touton). Second aorist
active imperative second singular like dos in  Mt 6:11  (urgent
petition). What kind of bread do they mean? The Jewish
commentaries and Philo speak of the manna as typifying heavenly
bread for the soul. Paul in  1Co 10:3  seems to refer to the
manna as "spiritual food." Like the woman at the well ( 4:15 )
they long "always" to have "this bread," a perpetual supply. It
is probably to this crowd as the water in  4:15  was to the
woman.

经文:

约翰福音 6:35-6:35

注释:

 {I am the bread of life} (Eg(9320)eimi ho artos t(8873) z(9388)s).
This sublime sentence was startling in the extreme to the crowd.
Philo does compare the manna to the 	heios logos in an
allegorical sense, but this language is far removed from Philo's
vagueness. In the Synoptics ( Mr 14:22  Mt 26:26  Lu 22:19 )
Jesus uses bread (artos) as the symbol of his body in the
Lord's Supper, but here Jesus offers himself in place of the
loaves and fishes which they had come to seek ( 24,26 ). He is
the bread of life in two senses: it has life in itself, the
living bread ( 51 ), and it gives life to others like the water
of life, the tree of life. John often has Jesus saying "I am"
(eg(9320)eimi). As also in  6:41,48,51  8:12  10:7,9,11,14  11:25  14:6  15:1,5 . {He that cometh to me} (ho erchomenos pros eme).
The first act of the soul in approaching Jesus. See also verse
 37 . {Shall not hunger} (ou m(8820)peinas(8869)). Strong double
negative ou me with first aorist (ingressive) active
subjunctive, "shall not become hungry." {He that believeth on me}
(ho pisteu(936e) eis eme). The continuous relation of trust after
coming like pisteu(8874)e (present tense) in verse  29 . See both
verbs used together also in  7:37f . {Shall never thirst} (ou m(880a)dips(8873)ei p(9370)ote). So the old MSS. the future active indicative
instead of the aorist subjunctive as above, an even stronger form
of negation with p(9370)ote ( 1:18 ) added.

经文:

约翰福音 6:36-6:36

注释:

 {That ye have seen me} (hoti kai he(9372)akate me). It is not
certain that me is genuine. If not, Jesus may refer to verse
 26 . If genuine, some other saying is referred to that we do not
have. Note kai (also or even). {And yet believe not} (kai ou
pisteuete). Use of kai = and yet.

经文:

约翰福音 6:37-6:37

注释:

 {All that} (p(836e) ho). Collective use of the neuter
singular, classic idiom, seen also in  6:39  17:2,24  1Jo 5:4 .
Perhaps the notion of unity like hen in  17:21  underlies this
use of p(836e) ho. {Giveth me} (did(9373)in moi). For the idea that
the disciples are given to the Son see also  6:39,65  10:29  17:2,6,9,12,24  18:9 . {I will in no wise cast out} (ou m(880a)ekbal(9320)ex(935c)). Strong double negation as in verse  35  with second
aorist active subjunctive of all(935c). Definite promise of Jesus
to welcome the one who comes.

经文:

约翰福音 6:38-6:38

注释:

 {I am come down} (katabeb(886b)a). Perfect active indicative
of katabain(935c). See on 氨3| for frequent use of this phrase by
Jesus. Here apo is correct rather than ek with 	ou ouranou.
{Not to do} (ouch hina poi(935c)). "Not that I keep on doing" (final
clause with hina and present active subjunctive of poie(935c)).
{But the will} (alla to thel(886d)a). Supply hina poi(935c) after
alla, "but that I keep on doing." This is the fulness of joy
for Jesus, to do his Father's will ( 4:34  5:30 ).

经文:

约翰福音 6:39-6:39

注释:

 {That of all that which} (hina p(836e) ho). Literally, "That
all which" (see verse  37  for pan ho), but there is a sharp
anacoluthon with p(836e) left as _nominativus pendens_. {I should
lose nothing} (m(8820)apoles(9320)ex autou). Construed with hina,
"that I shall not lose anything of it." Apoles(935c), from
apollumi, can be either future active indicative or first
aorist active subjunctive as is true also of anast(8873)(935c) (from
anist(886d)i), "I shall raise up." {At the last day} (	(8869) eschat(8869)
hemer(8369)). Locative case without en. Only in John, but four
times here ( 39,40,44,54 ) "with the majesty of a solemn
refrain." In  7:37  it is the last day of the feast of
tabernacles, but in  11:24  12:48  of the day of judgment as
here. Christ is the Agent of the general resurrection in  5:28 
as in  1Co 15:22  while here only the resurrection of the
righteous is mentioned.

经文:

约翰福音 6:40-6:40

注释:

 {Should have eternal life} (ech(8869) z(9388)n ai(936e)ion). Present
active subjunctive with hina, "that he may keep on having
eternal life" as in  3:15,36 . {Beholdeth} (	he(9372)(936e)). With the
eye of faith as in  12:45 . {And I will raise him up} (kai
anast(8873)(935c)). Future active indicative (volitive future, promise)
as in  54 .

经文:

约翰福音 6:41-6:41

注释:

 {Murmured} (egogguzon). Imperfect active of the
onomatopoetic verb gogguz(935c), late verb in LXX (murmuring against
Moses), papyri (vernacular), like the cooing of doves or the
buzzing of bees. These Galilean Jews are puzzled over what Jesus
had said (verses  33,35 ) about his being the bread of God come
down from heaven.

经文:

约翰福音 6:42-6:42

注释:

 {How doth he now say?} (P(9373) nun legei;). They knew Jesus
as the son of Joseph and Mary. They cannot comprehend his claim
to be from heaven. This lofty claim puzzles sceptics today.

经文:

约翰福音 6:43-6:43

注释:

 {Murmur not} (m(8820)gogguzete). Prohibition with m(885c) and the
present active imperative, "stop murmuring" (the very word of
verse  41 ). There was a rising tide of protest.

经文:

约翰福音 6:44-6:44

注释:

 {Except the Father draw him} (ean m(8820)helkus(8869) auton).
Negative condition of third class with ean m(885c) and first aorist
active subjunctive of helku(935c), older form helk(935c), to drag like
a net ( Joh 21:6 ), or sword ( 18:10 ), or men ( Ac 16:19 ), to
draw by moral power ( 12:32 ), as in  Jer 31:3 . Sur(935c), the
other word to drag ( Ac 8:3  14:19 ) is not used of Christ's
drawing power. The same point is repeated in verse  65 . The
approach of the soul to God is initiated by God, the other side
of verse  37 . See  Ro 8:7  for the same doctrine and use of
oude dunatai like oudeis dunatai here.

经文:

约翰福音 6:45-6:45

注释:

 {Taught of God} (didaktoi theou). A free quotation from
 Isa 54:13  with this phrase in the LXX. There is here the
ablative case 	heou with the passive verbal adjective
didaktoi (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 516). In  1Th 4:9  we have
the compound verbal 	heodidaktoi. The same use of didaktos
with the ablative occurs in  1Co 2:13 . {And hath learned} (kai
math(936e)). Second aorist active participle of manthan(935c). It is
not enough to hear God's voice. He must heed it and learn it and
do it. This is a voluntary response. This one inevitably comes to
Christ.

经文:

约翰福音 6:46-6:46

注释:

 {This one has seen the Father} (houtos he(9372)aken ton
patera). Perfect active indicative of hora(935c). With the eyes no
one has seen God ( 1:18 ) save the Son who is "from God" in
origin ( 1:1,14  7:29  16:27  17:8 ). The only way for others to
see God is to see Christ ( 14:9 ).

经文:

约翰福音 6:47-6:47

注释:

 {He that believeth} (ho pisteu(936e)). This is the way to see
God in Christ.

经文:

约翰福音 6:48-6:48

注释:

 {I am the bread of life} (eg(9320)eimi ho artos t(8873) z(9388)s).
Jesus repeats the astounding words of verse  35  after fuller
explanation. The believer in Christ has eternal life because he
gives himself to him.

经文:

约翰福音 6:49-6:49

注释:

 {And they died} (kai apethanon). Physical death. The manna
did not prevent death. But this new manna will prevent spiritual
death.

经文:

约翰福音 6:50-6:50

注释:

 {That a man may eat thereof, and not die} (hina tis ex
autou phag(8869) kai m(8820)apothan(8869)). Purpose clause with hina and
the second aorist active subjunctive of esthi(935c) and
apothn(8873)k(935c). The wonder and the glory of it all, but quite
beyond the insight of this motley crowd.

经文:

约翰福音 6:51-6:51

注释:

 2Co
5:14f. 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
5' or engs='2Co
5'
经文:

约翰福音 6:52-6:52

注释:

 {Strove} (emachonto). Imperfect (inchoative) middle of
machomai, to fight in armed combat ( Ac 7:26 ), then to wage a
war of words as here and  2Ti 2:24 . They were already murmuring
( 41 ), now they began bitter strife with one another over the
last words of Jesus ( 43-51 ), some probably seeing a spiritual
meaning in them. There was division of opinion about Jesus in
Jerusalem also later ( 7:12,40  9:16  10:19 ). {How can?} (P(9373)
dunatai;). The very idiom used by Nicodemus in  3:4,9 . Here
scornful disbelief. {This man} (houtos). Contemptuous use
pictured in verse  42 . {His flesh to eat} (	(886e) sarka autou
phagein). As if we were cannibals! Some MSS. do not have
autou, but the meaning is clear. The mystical appropriation of
Christ by the believer ( Ga 2:20  Eph 3:17 ) they could not
comprehend, though some apparently were against this literal
interpretation of "flesh" (sarx).

经文:

约翰福音 6:53-6:53

注释:

 {Except ye eat} (ean m(8820)phag(8874)e). Negative condition of
third class with second aorist active subjunctive of esthi(935c).
Jesus repeats the statement in verses  50,51 . Note change of
mou (my) in verse  51  to 	ou huiou tou anthr(9370)ou with same
idea. {And drink his blood} (kai pi(8874)e autou to haima). Same
condition with second aorist active subjunctive of pin(935c). This
addition makes the demand of Jesus seem to these Jews more
impossible than before if taken in a baldly literal sense. The
only possible meaning is the spiritual appropriation of Jesus
Christ by faith (verse  47 ), for "ye have not life in
yourselves" (ouk echete z(9388)n en heautois). Life is found only
in Christ.

经文:

约翰福音 6:54-6:54

注释:

 {He that eateth} (ho tr(9367)(936e)). Present active participle
for continual or habitual eating like pisteuete in verse  29 .
The verb 	r(9367)(935c) is an old one for eating fruit or vegetables and
the feeding of animals. In the N.T. it occurs only in  Joh
6:54,56,58  13:18  Mt 24:38 . Elsewhere in the Gospels always
esthi(935c) or ephagon (defective verb with esthi(935c)). No
distinction is made here between ephagon ( 48,50,52,53,58 ) and
	r(9367)(935c) ( 54,56,57,58 ). Some men understand Jesus here to be
speaking of the Lord's Supper by prophetic forecast or rather
they think that John has put into the mouth of Jesus the
sacramental conception of Christianity by making participation in
the bread and wine the means of securing eternal life. To me that
is a violent misinterpretation of the Gospel and an utter
misrepresentation of Christ. It is a grossly literal
interpretation of the mystical symbolism of the language of Jesus
which these Jews also misunderstood. Christ uses bold imagery to
picture spiritual appropriation of himself who is to give his
life-blood for the life of the world ( 51 ). It would have been
hopeless confusion for these Jews if Jesus had used the symbolism
of the Lord's Supper. It would be real dishonesty for John to use
this discourse as a propaganda for sacramentalism. The language
of Jesus can only have a spiritual meaning as he unfolds himself
as the true manna.

经文:

约翰福音 6:55-6:55

注释:

 {Meat indeed} (al(8874)h(8873) br(9373)is). So the best MSS., "true
food." See on 氦:32| for r(9373)is as equal to r(936d)a (a thing
eaten). {Drink indeed} (al(8874)h(8873) posis). Correct text, "true
drink." For posis see  Ro 14:17  Col 2:16  (only N.T.
examples).

经文:

约翰福音 6:56-6:56

注释:

 {Abideth in me and I in him} (en emoi menei kag(9320)en
aut(9369)). Added to the phrase in  54  in the place of echei z(9388)n
ai(936e)ion (has eternal life). The verb men(935c) (to abide) expresses
continual mystical fellowship between Christ and the believer as
in  15:4-7  1Jo 2:6,27,28  3:6,24  4:12,16 . There is, of course,
no reference to the Lord's Supper (Eucharist), but simply to
mystical fellowship with Christ.

经文:

约翰福音 6:57-6:57

注释:

 1Jo
4:9 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
4' or engs='1Jo
4'
经文:

约翰福音 6:58-6:58

注释:

 {This is the bread} (houtos estin ho artos). Summary and
final explanation of the true manna (from verse  32  on) as being
Jesus Christ himself.

经文:

约翰福音 6:59-6:59

注释:

 {In the synagogue} (en sunag(9367)(8869)). Definite like our in
church, though article absent. Only use of the word in John
except  18:20 . "Among the ruins at _Tell Hum_, the probable site
of Capernaum, have been found among the remains of a synagogue a
block of stone perhaps the lintel, carved with a pot of manna,
and with a pattern of vine leaves and clusters of grapes"
(Vincent).

经文:

约翰福音 6:60-6:60

注释:

 {A hard saying} (skl(8872)os). "This saying is a hard one."
Old adjective, rough, harsh, dried hard (from skell(935c), to dry),
probably the last saying of Jesus that he was the bread of life
come down from heaven and they were to eat him. It is to be hoped
that none of the twelve joined the many disciples in this
complaint. {Hear it} (autou akouein). Or "hear him," hear with
acceptation. For akou(935c) with the genitive see  10:3,16,27 .

经文:

约翰福音 6:61-6:61

注释:

 {Knowing in himself} (eid(9373) en heaut(9369)). Second perfect
active participle of oida. See  2:25  for this supernatural
insight into men's minds. {Murmured} (gogguzousin). Present
active indicative retained in indirect discourse. See  41  for
gogguz(935c). {At this} (peri toutou). "Concerning this word."
{Cause to stumble} (skandalizei). Common Synoptic verb from
skandalon for which see  Mt 5:29 . In John again only in
 16:1 .

经文:

约翰福音 6:62-6:62

注释:

 {What then if ye should behold} (ean oun the(9372)(8874)e). No
"what" in the Greek. Condition of third class with ean and
present active subjunctive, "if ye then behold." {Ascending}
(anabainonta). Present active participle picturing the process.
{Where he was before} (hopou (886e) to proteron). Neuter articular
adjective as adverb (accusative of general reference, at the
former time as in  9:8  Ga 3:13 ). Clear statement of Christ's
pre-existence in his own words as in  3:13  17:5  (cf.  1:1-18 ).

经文:

约翰福音 6:63-6:63

注释:

 {That quickeneth} (	o z(936f)poioun). Articular present active
participle of z(936f)poie(935c) for which see  5:21 . For the contrast
between pneuma (spirit) and sarx (flesh) see already  3:6 .
{The words} (	a r(886d)ata). Those in this discourse (I have just
spoken, lelal(886b)a), for they are the words of God ( 3:34  8:47  17:8 ). No wonder they "are spirit and are life" (pneuma estin
kai z(9388) estin). The breath of God and the life of God is in
these words of Jesus. Never man spoke like Jesus ( 7:46 ). There
is life in his words today.

经文:

约翰福音 6:64-6:64

注释:

 1Jo
1:1 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
1' or engs='1Jo
1'
经文:

约翰福音 6:65-6:65

注释:

 {Except it be given him of the Father} (ean m(8820)(8869) dedomenon
aut(9369) ek tou patros). Condition of third class with ean m(885c) and
periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of did(936d)i. Precisely
the same point as in verse  44  where we have helkus(8869) instead
of (8869) dedomenon. The impulse to faith comes from God. Jesus
does not expect all to believe and seems to imply that Judas did
not truly believe.

经文:

约翰福音 6:66-6:66

注释:

 {Upon this} (ek toutou). Same idiom in  19:12 . "Out of
this saying or circumstance." Jesus drew the line of cleavage
between the true and the false believers. {Went back} (ap(886c)thon
eis ta opis(935c)). Aorist (ingressive) active indicative of
aperchomai with eis ta opis(935c), "to the rear" (the behind
things) as in  18:6 . {Walked no more with him} (ouketi met'
autou periepatoun). Imperfect active of peripate(935c). The crisis
had come. These half-hearted seekers after the loaves and fishes
and political power turned abruptly from Jesus, walked out of the
synagogue with a deal of bluster and were walking with Jesus no
more. Jesus had completely disillusioned these hungry
camp-followers who did not care for spiritual manna that
consisted in intimate appropriation of the life of Jesus as God's
Son.

经文:

约翰福音 6:67-6:67

注释:

 {Would ye also go away?} (M(8820)kai humeis thelete
hupagein;). Jesus puts it with the negative answer (m(885c))
expected. See  21:5  where Jesus also uses m(885c) in a question.
Judas must have shown some sympathy with the disappointed and
disappearing crowds. But he kept still. There was possibly
restlessness on the part of the other apostles.

经文:

约翰福音 6:68-6:68

注释:

 {Lord, to whom shall we go?} (Kurie, pros tina
apeleusometha;). Peter is the spokesman as usual and his words
mean that, if such a thought as desertion crossed their minds
when the crowd left, they dismissed it instantly. They had made
their choice. They accepted these very words of Jesus that had
caused the defection as "the words of eternal life."

经文:

约翰福音 6:69-6:69

注释:

 {We have believed} (h(886d)eis pepisteukamen). Perfect active
indicative of pisteu(935c), "We have come to believe and still
believe" (verse  29 ). {And know} (kai egn(936b)amen). Same tense
of gin(9373)k(935c), "We have come to know and still know." {Thou art
the Holy One of God} (su ei ho hagios tou theou). Bernard
follows those who believe that this is John's report of the same
confession given by the Synoptics ( Mr 8:27f.  Mt 16:13-20  Lu
9:18f. ), an utterly unjustifiable conclusion. The details are
wholly different. Here in the synagogue in Capernaum, there on
Mt. Hermon near Caesarea Philippi. What earthly difficulty is
there in supposing that Peter could make a noble confession
twice? That is to my mind a wooden conception of the apostles in
their growing apprehension of Christ.

经文:

约翰福音 6:70-6:70

注释:

 {And one of you is a devil} (kai ex hum(936e) heis diabolos
estin). Jesus does not say that Judas was a devil when he chose
him, but that he is one now. In  13:2,27  John speaks of the
devil entering Judas. How soon the plan to betray Jesus first
entered the heart of Judas we do not know ( 12:4 ). One wonders
if the words of Jesus here did not cut Judas to the quick.

经文:

约翰福音 6:71-6:71

注释:

 {Of Simon Iscariot} (Sim(936e)os Iskari(9374)ou). So his father
was named Iscariot also, a man of Kerioth (possibly in Judah,
 Jos 15:25 , possibly in Moab,  Jer 48:24 ), not in Galilee.
Judas was the only one of the twelve not a Galilean. The rest of
the verse is like  12:4 . {One of the twelve} (heis ek t(936e)
d(9364)eka). The eternal horror of the thing.

经文:

约翰福音 7:1-7:1

注释:

 {After these things} (meta tauta). John's favourite general
note of the order of events. Bernard conceives that the events in
 7:1-14  follow  7:15-24  and both follow chapter 5, not chapter
6, a wholly needless readjustment of the narrative to suit a
preconceived theory. John simply supplements the narrative in the
Synoptics at points deemed important. He now skips the period of
withdrawal from Galilee of about six months (from passover to
tabernacles). {Walked} (periepatei). Imperfect active, a
literal picture of the itinerant ministry of Jesus. He has
returned to Galilee from the region of Caesarea Philippi. He had
been avoiding Galilee as well as Judea for six months. {For he
would not walk in Judea} (ou gar (8874)helen en t(8869) Ioudai(8369)).
Imperfect active of 	hel(935c) picturing the attitude of refusal to
work in Judea after the events in chapter 5 (perhaps a year and a
half before). {Sought to kill} (ez(8874)oun apokteinai). Imperfect
active again, progressive attitude, had been seeking to kill him
as shown in  5:18  where the same words occur.

经文:

约翰福音 7:2-7:2

注释:

 {The feast of tabernacles} (h(8820)sk(886e)op(8867)ia). Only New
Testament example of this word (sk(886e)(885c), tent, p(8867)numi, to
fasten as in  Heb 8:2 ). Technical name of this feast ( De 16:13  Le 23:34,43 ). It began on the 15th of the month Tisri (end of
September) and lasted seven days and finally eight days in
post-exilic times ( Ne 8:18 ). It was one of the chief feasts of
the Jews.

经文:

约翰福音 7:3-7:3

注释:

 {His brethren} (hoi adelphoi autou). "His brothers"
(half-brothers actually), who "were not believing on him" (oude
episteuon eis auton) as stated in verse  5 . They were hostile
to the Messianic assumptions of Jesus, a natural attitude as one
can well see, though at first they were friendly ( 2:12 ).
{Depart hence} (metab(8874)hi enteuthen). Second aorist active
imperative of metabain(935c), to pass to another place ( 5:24  13:1 ). It was impertinence on their part. {That thy disciples
also may behold} (hina kai hoi math(8874)ai sou the(9372)(8873)ousin).
Final clause with hina and the future active indicative of
	he(9372)e(935c). Jesus had many disciples in Judea at the start ( 2:23  4:1 ) and had left it because of the jealousy of the Pharisees
over his success ( 4:3 ). The brothers may have heard of the
great defection in the synagogue in Capernaum ( 6:66 ), but the
advice is clearly ironical. {Which thou doest} (ha poieis). To
what works they refer by this language we do not know. But Jesus
had been away from Galilee for some months and from Judea for a
year and a half. Perhaps the brothers of Jesus may actually have
been eager to rush Jesus into the hostile atmosphere of Jerusalem
again.

经文:

约翰福音 7:4-7:4

注释:

 {In secret} (en krupt(9369)). See  Mt 6:4,6  for this phrase.
{Openly} (en parr(8873)i(8369)). "In public" (p(836e), r(8873)is, telling it
all). See on 烘t 8:32|. Common in John ( 7:13,26  10:24  16:25,29  18:20 ; here again contrasted with en krupt(9369)). It is
wise advice in the abstract that a public teacher must allow
inspection of his deeds, but the motive is evil. They might get
Jesus into trouble. If thou doest these things (ei tauta
poieis). This condition of the first class assumes the reality
of the deeds of Jesus, but the use of the condition at all throws
doubt on it all as in  Mt 4:3,6 . {Manifest thyself} (phaner(9373)on
seauton). First aorist active imperative of phanero(935c). {To the
world} (	(9369) kosm(9369)). Not just to "thy disciples," but to the
public at large as at the feast of tabernacles. See  8:26  14:22 
for this use of kosmos.

经文:

约翰福音 7:5-7:5

注释:

 {For even his brethren did not believe on him} (oude gar hoi
adelphoi autou episteuon eis auton). Literally, "For not even
were his brothers believing on him." Imperfect tense of pisteu(935c)
with sad picture of the persistent refusal of the brothers of
Jesus to believe in his Messianic assumptions, after the two
rejections in Capernaum ( Lu 4:16-31  Mr 6:1-6  Mt 13:54-58 ),
and also after the blasphemous accusation of being in league with
Beelzebub when the mother and brothers came to take Jesus home
( Mr 3:31-35  Mt 12:46-50  Lu 8:19-21 ). The brothers here are
sarcastic.

经文:

约翰福音 7:6-7:6

注释:

 {My time is not yet come} (ho kairos ho emos oup(930a)parestin). Only use with verse  8  of kairos in this Gospel,
elsewhere chronos ( Joh 5:6 ) or more often h(9372)a ( 2:4 ) "the
predestined hour" (Bernard). Here kairos is the fitting or
proper occasion for Christ's manifesting himself publicly to the
authorities as Messiah as in verse  8 . At the feast of
tabernacles Jesus did make such public claims ( 7:29,33  8:12,28,38,42,58 ). Parestin is present active indicative of
pareimi, old compound, to be by, to be present. The brothers of
Jesus had the regular Jewish obligation to go up to the feast,
but the precise day was a matter of indifference to them.

经文:

约翰福音 7:7-7:7

注释:

 {Cannot hate} (ou dunatai misein). Because of "the law of
moral correspondence" (Westcott), often in John for "inherent
impossibility" (Vincent). The brothers of Jesus here belong to
the unbelieving world (kosmos) which is unable to love Jesus
( 15:18,23,24 ) and which Jesus had already exposed ("testify,"
martur(935c),  5:42,45 ). This unbelieving "world" resented the
exposure ( 3:19 , cf.  18:37 ).

经文:

约翰福音 7:8-7:8

注释:

 {Go ye up to the feast} (humeis anab(8874)e eis t(886e) heort(886e)).
The emphatic word by position is humeis (ye) in contrast with
eg(935c) (I). Second aorist active imperative of anabain(935c), old and
common verb for going up to the feast ( 2:13 ) or anywhere. Take
your own advice ( 7:3 ). {I go not up yet} (eg(9320)oup(9320)anabain(935c)).
So Westcott and Hort after B W L (Neutral) while ou (not) is
read by Aleph D, African Latin, Vulgate, Coptic (Western). Some
of the early Greek Fathers were puzzled over the reading ouk (I
go not up) as contradictory to verse  10  wherein it is stated
that Jesus did go up. Almost certainly ouk (not) is correct and
is not really contradictory when one notes in verse  10  that the
manner of Christ's going up is precisely the opposite of the
advice of the brothers in verses  3,4 . "Not yet" (oup(935c)) is
genuine before "fulfilled" (pepl(8872)(9374)ai, perfect passive
indicative of pl(8872)o(935c)). One may think, if he will, that Jesus
changed his plans after these words, but that is unnecessary. He
simply refused to fall in with his brothers' sneering proposal
for a grand Messianic procession with the caravan on the way to
the feast. He will do that on the journey to the last passover.

经文:

约翰福音 7:9-7:9

注释:

 {He abode still in Galilee} (emeinen en t(8869) Galilai(8369)). No
"still" (eti) in the Greek text. The constative aorist active
indicative emeinen covers a period of some days.

经文:

约翰福音 7:10-7:10

注释:

 {Were gone up} (aneb(8873)an). Second aorist active indicative
of anabain(935c), not past perfect though the action is antecedent
in fact to the following 	ote aneb(885c). The Greek does not always
draw the precise distinction between the merely punctiliar
(aorist) antecedent action and the past perfect ( 2:9  4:45 ).
{He also} (	ote autos). As well as the brothers. {Not publicly}
(ou phaner(9373)). Against their advice in verse  4 , using
phaner(9373)on (the very same word stem). {But as it were in
secret} (alla h(9373) en krupt(9369)). "Not with the usual caravan of
pilgrims" (Bernard). Just the opposite of their advice in verse
 4  with the same phrase en phaner(9369). Plainly Jesus purposely
went contrary to the insincere counsel of his brothers as to the
manner of his Messianic manifestation. This secrecy concerned
solely the journey to Jerusalem, not his public teaching there
after his arrival ( 7:26,28  18:20 ).

经文:

约翰福音 7:11-7:11

注释:

 {The Jews} (hoi Ioudaioi). The hostile leaders in
Jerusalem, not the Galilean crowds ( 7:12 ) nor the populace in
Jerusalem ( 7:25 ). {Sought} (ez(8874)oun). Imperfect active of
z(8874)e(935c), "were seeking," picture of the attitude of the Jewish
leaders toward Jesus who had not yet appeared in public at the
feast. In fact he had avoided Jerusalem since the collision in
chapter 5. The leaders clearly wished to attack him. {Where is
he?} (pou estin ekeinos;). "Where is that one? (emphatic use of
ekeinos as in  1:8  9:12 ). Jesus had been at two feasts during
his ministry (passover in  2:12ff. ; possibly another passover in
 5:1 ), but he had avoided the preceding passover ( 6:4  7:1 ).
The leaders in Jerusalem had kept in touch with Christ's work in
Galilee. They anticipate a crisis in Jerusalem.

经文:

约翰福音 7:12-7:12

注释:

 {Much murmuring} (goggusmos polus). This Ionic
onomatopoetic word is from gogguz(935c) for which verb see  6:41,61  7:32 , for secret displeasure ( Ac 6:1 ) or querulous discontent
( Php 2:14 ). {Among the multitudes} (en tois ochlois). "The
multitudes" literally, plural here only in John. These different
groups were visitors from Galilee and elsewhere and were divided
in their opinion of Jesus as the Galileans had already become
( 6:66 ). {A good man} (agathos). Pure in motive. See  Mr
10:17f.  Ro 5:7  (absolute sense of God). Superior to dikaios.
Jesus had champions in these scattered groups in the temple
courts. {Not so, but he leadeth the multitude astray} (ou, alla
plan(8369) ton ochlon). Sharp clash in the crowd. Present active
indicative of plana(935c), to go astray ( Mt 18:12f. ), like our
"planets," to lead others astray ( Mt 24:4,5,11 , etc.). In the
end the rulers will call Jesus "that deceiver" (ekeinos ho
planos,  Mt 27:63 ). The Jewish leaders have a following among
the crowds as is seen ( 7:31f. ).

经文:

约翰福音 7:13-7:13

注释:

 {Howbeit} (mentoi). See  4:27  for this compound particle
(men, toi), by way of exception, but yet. {Spake} (elalei).
Imperfect active of lale(935c), "was speaking," picturing the
whispering or secret talk ({no man openly}, oudeis parr(8873)i(8369)).
Best MSS. do not have en here with parr(8873)i(8369) (locative or
instrumental case of manner) as in  7:26  10:24  11:54 , but en
genuine in  7:4  Col 2:15 . This adverbial use of parr(8873)i(8369) is
common enough ( Mr 8:37 ). {For fear of the Jews} (dia ton
phobon t(936e) Ioudai(936e)). Objective genitive. The crowds really
feared the Jewish leaders and evidently did not wish to involve
Jesus or themselves. See the same phrase and attitude on the part
of the disciples in  19:38  20:19 .

经文:

约翰福音 7:14-7:14

注释:

 {But when it was now in the midst of the feast} ((8864)(8820)de t(8873)
heort(8873) mesous(8873)). Literally, "But feast being already midway."
Genitive absolute, present active participle, of meso(935c), old
verb from mesos, in LXX, here only in N.T. The feast of
tabernacles was originally seven days, but a last day (verse  37  Le 23:36 ) was added, making eight in all. {And taught} (kai
edidasken). Imperfect active of didask(935c), probably inchoative,
"began to teach." He went up (aneb(885c), effective aorist,
arrived). The leaders had asked (verse  11 ) where Jesus was.
There he was now before their very eyes.

经文:

约翰福音 7:15-7:15

注释:

 {Marvelled} (ethaumazon). Picturesque imperfect active of
	haumaz(935c), "were wondering." After all the bluster of the rulers
(verse  13 ) here was Jesus teaching without interruption.
{Knoweth letters} (grammata oiden). Second perfect active
indicative used as present. Grammata, old word from graph(935c),
to write, is originally the letters formed ( Ga 6:11 ), then a
letter or epistle ( Ac 28:21 ), then the sacred Scriptures ( Joh
5:47  2Ti 3:15 ), then learning like Latin _litterae_ and English
letters ( Ac 26:24  Joh 7:15 ). "The marvel was that Jesus showed
Himself familiar with the literary methods of the time, which
were supposed to be confined to the scholars of the popular
teachers" (Westcott). {Having never learned} (m(8820)memath(886b)(9373)).
Perfect active participle of manthan(935c) with m(885c), the usual
negative (subjective) with the participle. It is not the wisdom
of Jesus that disconcerted the Jewish leaders, but his learning
(Marcus Dods). And yet Jesus had not attended either of the
rabbinical theological schools in Jerusalem (Hillel, Shammai). He
was not a rabbi in the technical sense, only a carpenter, and yet
he surpassed the professional rabbis in the use of their own
methods of debate. It is sometimes true today that unschooled men
in various walks of life forge ahead of men of lesser gifts with
school training. See the like puzzle of the Sanhedrin concerning
Peter and John ( Ac 4:13 ). This is not an argument against
education, but it takes more than education to make a real man.
Probably this sneer at Jesus came from some of the teachers in
the Jerusalem seminaries. "Christ was in the eyes of the Jews a
merely self-taught enthusiast" (Westcott).

经文:

约翰福音 7:16-7:16

注释:

 {Mine} (em(885c)). Possessive pronoun, "not mine in origin."
Jesus denies that he is self-taught, though not a schoolman. {But
his that sent me} (alla tou pempsantos me). Genitive case of
the articular participle (first aorist active of pemp(935c)). His
teaching is not self-originated nor is it the product of the
schools (see the Talmud in contrast with the New Testament).
Jesus often in John uses this idiom of "the one who sent me" of
the Father ( 4:34  5:23,24,30,37  6:38-40,44  7:16,18,28 , etc.).
The bold claim is here made by Jesus that his teaching is
superior in character and source to that of the rabbis.

经文:

约翰福音 7:17-7:17

注释:

 {If any man willeth to do} (ean tis thel(8869) poiein).
Condition of third class with ean and present active
subjunctive 	hel(8869) not used as a mere auxiliary verb for the
future "will do," but with full force of 	hel(935c), to will, to
wish. See the same use of 	hel(935c) in  5:40  "and yet ye are not
willing to come" (kai ou thelete elthein). {He shall know}
(gn(9373)etai). Future middle indicative of gin(9373)k(935c). Experimental
knowledge from willingness to do God's will. See this same point
by Jesus in  5:46  18:37 . There must be moral harmony between
man's purpose and God's will. "If there be no sympathy there can
be no understanding" (Westcott). Atheists of all types have no
point of contact for approach to the knowledge of Christ. This
fact does not prove the non-existence of God, but simply their
own isolation. They are out of tune with the Infinite. For those
who love God it is also true that obedience to God's will brings
richer knowledge of God. Agnostic and atheistic critics are
disqualified by Jesus as witnesses to his claims. {Of God} (ek
tou theou). Out of God as source. {From myself} (ap' emautou).
Instead of from God.

经文:

约翰福音 7:18-7:18

注释:

 {From himself} (aph' heautou). This kind of teacher is
self-taught, pushes his own ideas, presses his own claims for
position and glory, "blows his own horn" as we say. Jesus is the
other type of teacher, seeks the glory of the one who sent him,
whose herald and ambassador he is. {The same} (houtos). "This
one." {Unrighteousness} (adikia). Old word from adikos (a
privative and dik(885c)). Here in contrast with "true" (al(8874)h(8873)).
See  2Th 2:10  1Co 13:6  for the deceit of unrighteousness in
contrast with truth as here.

经文:

约翰福音 7:19-7:19

注释:

 {And yet} (kai). Clear use of kai in the adversative
sense of "and yet" or "but." They marvelled at Christ's
"ignorance" and boasted of their own knowledge of the law of
Moses. And yet they violated that law by not practising it. {Why
seek ye to kill me?} (Ti me z(8874)eite apokteinai;). A sudden and
startling question as an illustration of their failure to do the
law of Moses. Jesus had previously known ( 5:39,45-47 ) that the
Jews really rejected the teaching of Moses while professing to
believe it. On that very occasion they had sought to kill him
( 5:18 ), the very language used here. Apparently he had not been
to Jerusalem since then. He undoubtedly alludes to their conduct
then and charges them with the same purpose now.

经文:

约翰福音 7:20-7:20

注释:

 {The multitude} (ho ochlos). Outside of Jerusalem (the
Galilean crowd as in verses  11f. ) and so unfamiliar with the
effort to kill Jesus recorded in  5:18 . It is important in this
chapter to distinguish clearly the several groups like the Jewish
leaders ( 7:13,15,25,26,30,32 , etc.), the multitude from Galilee
and elsewhere ( 10-13,20,31,40,49 ), the common people of
Jerusalem ( 25 ), the Roman soldiers ( 45f. ). {Thou hast a
devil} (daimonion echeis). "Demon," of course, as always in the
Gospels. These pilgrims make the same charge against Jesus made
long ago by the Pharisees in Jerusalem in explanation of the
difference between John and Jesus ( Mt 11:18  Lu 7:33 ). It is an
easy way to make a fling like that. "He is a monomaniac labouring
under a hallucination that people wish to kill him" (Dods).

经文:

约翰福音 7:21-7:21

注释:

 {One work} (hen ergon). Direct allusion to the healing of
the impotent man when in Jerusalem before ( 5:1ff. ). He had
wrought others before ( 2:23  4:45 ), but this one on the Sabbath
caused the rulers to try to kill Jesus ( 5:18 ). Some wondered
then, others had murder in their hearts. This crowd here is
ignorant.

经文:

约翰福音 7:22-7:22

注释:

 {For this cause} (dia touto). Some would take this phrase
with the preceding verb 	haumazete (ye marvel for this cause).
{Hath given} (ded(936b)en). Present active indicative of did(936d)i
(permanent state). {Not that it is of Moses, but of the fathers}
(ouch hoti ek tou M(9375)se(9373) estin all' ek t(936e) pater(936e)). A
parenthesis to explain that circumcision is older in origin than
Moses. {And on the sabbath ye circumcise} (kai en sabbat(9369)
peritemnete). Adversative use of kai=and yet as in  19 . That
is to say, the Jews keep one law (circumcision) by violating
another (on the Sabbath, the charge against him in chapter 5,
healing on the Sabbath).

经文:

约翰福音 7:23-7:23

注释:

 {That the law of Moses may not be broken} (hina m(8820)luth(8869)
ho nomos M(9375)se(9373)). Purpose clause with negative m(885c) and first
aorist passive subjunctive of lu(935c). They are punctilious about
their Sabbath rules and about circumcision on the eighth day.
When they clash, they drop the Sabbath rule and circumcise. {Are
ye wroth with me?} (emoi chol(8374)e;). Old word from chol(885c)
(bile, gall), possibly from chlo(885c) or chl(9372)os (yellowish
green). Only here in N.T. So to be mad. With dative. Vivid
picture of bitter spleen against Jesus for healing a man on the
sabbath when they circumcise on the Sabbath. {A man every whit
whole} (holon anthr(9370)on hugi(885c)). Literally, "a whole (holon)
man (all the man) sound (hugi(885c), well)," not just one member of
the body mended.

经文:

约翰福音 7:24-7:24

注释:

 {According to appearance} (kat' opsin). And so,
superficially. See  11:44 . Also not "righteous" (dikaian)
judgment.

经文:

约翰福音 7:25-7:25

注释:

 {Some therefore of them of Jerusalem} (oun tines ek t(936e)
Ierosolumeit(936e)). The people of the city in contrast to the
multitude of pilgrims at the feast. They form a separate group.
The word is made from Ierosoluma and occurs in Josephus and IV
Maccabees. In N.T. only here and  Mr 1:5 . These Jerusalem people
knew better than the pilgrims the designs of the rulers
(Vincent). {Is not this?} (ouch houtos estin;). Expecting
affirmative answer. Clearly they were not as familiar with the
appearance of Jesus as the Galilean multitude (Dods). {They seek}
(z(8874)ousin). The plural refers to the group of leaders already
present ( 7:15 ) to whom the Jerusalem crowd probably pointed.
They knew of their threats to kill Jesus ( 5:18 ).

经文:

约翰福音 7:26-7:26

注释:

 {They say nothing unto him} (ouden autoi legousin). But
only make sneering comments about him ( 7:16 ) in spite of his
speaking "openly" (parr(8873)i(8369), for which word see  7:13  18:20 )
before all. lt was sarcasm about the leaders, though an element
of surprise on the part of "these shrewd townsmen" (Bernard) may
have existed also. {Can it be that the rulers indeed know} (m(880a)pote al(8874)h(9373) egn(9373)in hoi archontes). Negative answer expected by
m(8820)pote and yet there is ridicule of the rulers in the form of
the question. See a like use of m(8820)pote in  Lu 3:15 , though
nowhere else in John. Egn(9373)an (second aorist ingressive active
indicative of gin(9373)k(935c)) may refer to the examination of Jesus by
these rulers in  5:19ff.  and means, "Did they come to know or
find out" (and so hold now)? {That this is the Christ} (hoti
houtos estin ho Christos). The Messiah of Jewish hope.

经文:

约翰福音 7:27-7:27

注释:

 {Howbeit} (alla). Clearly adversative here. {This man}
(	outon). Possibly contemptuous use of houtos as may be true
in  25,26 . {Whence he is} (pothen estin). The Galilean Jews
knew the family of Jesus ( 6:42 ), but they knew Jesus only as
from Nazareth, not as born in Bethlehem (verse  42 ). {When the
Christ cometh} (ho Christos hotan erch(8874)ai). Prolepsis of ho
Christos and indefinite temporal clause with hotan and the
present middle subjunctive erch(8874)ai rather than the more usual
second aorist active elth(8869) as in verse  31 , a trifle more
picturesque. This is a piece of popular theology. "Three things
come wholly unexpected--Messiah, a godsend, and a scorpion"
(_Sanhedrin_ 97a). The rulers knew the birthplace to be Bethlehem
( 7:42  Mt 2:5f. ), but some even expected the Messiah to drop
suddenly from the skies as Satan proposed to Jesus to fall down
from the pinnacle of the temple. The Jews generally expected a
sudden emergence of the Messiah from concealment with an
anointing by Elijah (_Apoc. of Bar_. XXIX. 3; 2Esdr. 7:28; 13:32;
Justin Martyr, _Tryph_. 110).

经文:

约翰福音 7:28-7:28

注释:

 {And I am not come of myself} (kai ap' emautou ouk
el(886c)utha). Kai here="and yet." Jesus repeats the claim of
verse  17  and also in  5:30  8:28  12:49  14:10 . {Whom ye know
not} (hon humeis ouk oidate). Jesus passes by a controversy
over the piece of popular theology to point out their ignorance
of God the Father who sent him. He tersely agrees that they know
something of him. Jesus says of these Jews that they know not God
as in  8:19,55 .

经文:

约翰福音 7:29-7:29

注释:

 {I know him} (eg(9320)oida auton). In contrast to the
ignorance of these people. See the same words in  8:55  and the
same claim in  17:25  Mt 11:27  Lu 10:22  (the Johannine
aerolite). "These three words contain the unique claim of Jesus,
which is pressed all through the chapters of controversy with the
Jews" (Bernard). Jesus is the Interpreter of God to men ( Joh
1:18 ). {And he sent me} (kakeinos me apesteilen). First aorist
active indicative of apostell(935c), the very verb used of Jesus
when he sent forth the twelve ( Mt 10:5 ) and used by Jesus again
of himself in  Joh 17:3 . He is the Father's Apostle to men.

经文:

约翰福音 7:30-7:30

注释:

 {They sought therefore} (ez(8874)oun oun). Imperfect active of
z(8874)e(935c), inchoative or conative, they began to seek. Either makes
sense. The subject is naturally some of the Jerusalemites
(Westcott) rather than some of the leaders (Bernard). {To take
him} (auton piasai). First aorist active infinitive, Doric form
from piaz(935c), from the usual piez(935c), occasionally so in the
papyri, but piaz(935c) always in N.T. except  Lu 6:38 . {And}
(kai). Here = "but." {Laid his hand} (epebalen t(886e) cheira).
Second aorist active indicative of epiball(935c), to cast upon. Old
and common idiom for arresting one to make him a prisoner ( Mt
26:50 ). See repetition in verse  44 . {His hour} (h(8820)h(9372)a
autou). In  13:1  we read that "the hour" had come, but that was
"not yet" (oup(935c)). "John is at pains to point out at every point
that the persecution and death of Jesus followed a predestined
course" (Bernard), as in  2:4  7:6,8  8:10  10:39  13:1 , etc.
{Was not yet come} (oup(9320)el(886c)uthei). Past perfect active of
erchomai, as John looks back on the story.

经文:

约翰福音 7:31-7:31

注释:

 {When the Christ shall come} (ho Christos hotan elth(8869)).
Proleptic position of ho Christos again as in  27 , but
elth(8869) with hotan rather than erch(8874)ai, calling more
attention to the consummation (whenever he does come). {Will he
do?} (m(8820)poi(8873)ei;). Future active indicative of poie(935c) with
m(885c) (negative answer expected). Jesus had won a large portion of
the pilgrims (ek tou ochlou polloi) either before this day or
during this controversy. The use of episteusan (ingressive
aorist active) looks as if many came to believe at this point.
These pilgrims had watched closely the proceedings. {Than those
which} (h(936e)). One must supply the unexpressed antecedent
	out(936e) in the ablative case after pleiona (more). Then the
neuter plural accusative relative ha (referring to s(886d)eia
signs) is attracted to the ablative case of the pronominal
antecedent 	out(936e) (now dropped out). {Hath done} (epoi(8873)en).
First aorist active indicative of poie(935c), a timeless constative
aorist summing up all the miracles of Jesus so far.

经文:

约翰福音 7:32-7:32

注释:

 {The Pharisees} (hoi Pharisaioi). This group of the Jewish
rulers ( 7:11,15,25f. ) was particularly hostile to Christ,
though already the Sadducees had become critical ( Mt 16:6 ) and
they join here (hoi archiereis, the chief priests being
Sadducees) in determining to silence Jesus by bringing him before
the Sanhedrin. They had heard the whispered talk about Jesus
before he arrived ( 7:12f. ) and still more now. {Heard the
multitude murmuring} ((886b)ousan tou ochlou gogguzontos). First
aorist active indicative of akou(935c) with the genitive case and
the descriptive participle of the vivid onomatopoetic verb
gogguz(935c) (verse  12 ) now grown louder like the hum of bees. It
was the defence of Jesus by a portion of the crowd ( 7:31 ) that
irritated the Pharisees. Here the Pharisees take the initiative
and enlist the Sadducees in the Sanhedrin (for this combination
see  7:45  11:47,57  Mt 21:45  27:62 , the organized court) to
send "officers" (hup(8872)etas) "to take him" (hina pias(9373)in
auton, final clause with hina and first aorist active
subjunctive of piaz(935c) for which verb see verse  30 ). For
hup(8872)etas (temple police here) see verse  45  18:3,12,22  19:6  Ac 5:22,26 . For the word see  Mt 5:25  Lu 1:2 , "an under rower"
(hupo, eret(8873)), any assistant.

经文:

约翰福音 7:33-7:33

注释:

 {Yet a little while} (eti chronon mikron). Accusative of
extent of time. It was only six months to the last passover of
Christ's ministry and he knew that the end was near. {I go unto
him that sent me} (hupag(9320)pros ton pempsanta me). See the same
words in  16:5 . Hupag(935c), old compound (hupo, ag(935c)), has the
notion of withdrawing (literally, go under). See  16:7-10  for
three words for going common in John (poreuomai, go for a
purpose, aperchomai, to go away, hupag(935c), to withdraw
personally). Hupag(935c) often in John of going to the Father or God
( 8:14,21  13:3,33,36  14:4,5,28  15:16  16:4,7,10,17 ). See
 6:21 . It was enigmatic language to the hearers.

经文:

约翰福音 7:34-7:34

注释:

 {And shall not find me} (kai ouch heur(8873)ete me). Future
active indicative of heurisk(935c). Jesus had said: "Seek and ye
shall find" ( Mt 7:7 ), but this will be too late. Now they were
seeking (verse  30 ) to kill Jesus, then they will seek
deliverance, but too late. {Where I am} (hopou eimi eg(935c)). No
conflict with verse  33 , but the essential eternal spiritual
home of Christ "in absolute, eternal being and fellowship with
the Father" (Vincent). {Ye cannot come} (humeis ou dunasthe
elthein). This fellowship was beyond the comprehension of these
hostile Jews. See the same idea in  7:36  by the Jews;  8:21  to
the Jews and then to the disciples with the addition of "now"
(arti,  13:33 , 
un in  13:36 ).

经文:

约翰福音 7:35-7:35

注释:

 {Among themselves} (pros heautous). These Jewish leaders
of verse  32  talk among themselves about what Jesus said in a
spirit of contempt (this man or fellow, houtos). {That}
(hoti). Almost result like hoti in  Mt 8:27 . {Will he go?}
(m(8820)mellei poreuesthai;). Negative answer expected in an
ironical question, "Is he about to go?" {Unto the Dispersion
among the Greeks} (eis t(886e) diasporan t(936e) Hell(886e)(936e)). Objective
genitive 	(936e) Hell(886e)(936e) (of the Greeks) translated here "among,"
because it is the Dispersion of Jews among the Greeks. Diaspora
is from diaspeir(935c), to scatter apart ( Ac 8:1,4 ). It occurs in
Plutarch and is common in the LXX, in the N.T. only here,  Jas
1:1  1Pe 1:1 . There were millions of these scattered Jews. {And
teach the Greeks} (kai didaskein tous Hell(886e)as). Confessing his
failure to teach the Jews in Palestine, "thus ignorantly
anticipating the course Christianity took; what seemed unlikely
and impossible to them became actual" (Dods).

经文:

约翰福音 7:36-7:36

注释:

 {What is this word?} (Tis estin ho logos houtos;). Puzzled
and uneasy over this unintelligible saying. Even Peter is
distressed over it later (:37).

经文:

约翰福音 7:37-7:37

注释:

 {Now on the last day} (en de t(8869) eschat(8869) h(886d)er(8369)). The
eighth day which was "an holy convocation," kept as a Sabbath
( Le 33:36 ), apparently observed as a memorial of the entrance
into Canaan, hence "the great day of the feast" (	(8869) megal(8869) t(8873)
heort(8873)). {Stood and cried} (hist(886b)ei kai ekrasen). Past
perfect active of hist(886d)i used as imperfect and intransitive
and first aorist active of kraz(935c). Picture Jesus standing
(linear) and suddenly crying out (punctiliar). {If any man
thirst} (ean tis dips(8369)). Third class condition with ean and
present active subjunctive of dipsa(935c), "if any one is thirsty."
On each of the seven preceding days water was drawn in a golden
pitcher from the pool of Siloam and carried in procession to the
temple and offered by the priests as the singers chanted  Isa
12:3 : "With joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of
salvation." "It is uncertain whether the libations were made upon
the eighth day. If they were not made, the significant cessation
of the striking rite on this one day of the feast would give a
still more fitting occasion for the words" (Westcott).

经文:

约翰福音 7:38-7:38

注释:

 {He that believeth on me} (ho pisteu(936e) eis eme).
Nominative absolute as is not uncommon. {The scripture} (h(880a)graph(885c)). No precise passage can be quoted, though similar idea
in several ( Isa 55:1  58:11  Zec 13:1  14:8  Eze 47:1  Joe
3:18 ). Chrysostom confines it to  Isa 28:16  by punctuation
(only the nominative absolute as the Scripture). {Out of his
belly shall flow rivers of living water} (potamoi ek t(8873) koilias
autou reusousin hudatos z(936e)tos). Some ancient Western writers
connect pinet(935c) of verse  37  with ho pisteu(936e) in verse  38 .
By this arrangement autou (his) with koilias is made to refer
to Christ, not to the believer. Burney argues that koilia is a
mistranslation of the Aramaic (fountain, not belly) and that the
reference is to  Eze 47:1 . C.C. Torrey refers to  Zec 14:8 . But
the Eastern writers refer autou (his) to the believer who not
only quenches in Christ his own thirst, but becomes a source of
new streams for others ( Joh 4:14 ). It is a difficult question
and Westcott finally changed his view and held autou to refer
to Christ. Reusousin is future active indicative of 
e(935c), old
verb, to flow, here only in the N.T.

经文:

约翰福音 7:39-7:39

注释:

 {Which} (hou). Genitive by attraction of the relative ho
(accusative singular object of lambanein) to the case of 	ou
pneumatos (the Spirit) the antecedent. But it is purely
grammatical gender (neuter ho because of pneuma) which we do
not have in English. Even here one should say "whom," not which,
of the Spirit of God. {Were to receive} (emellon lambanein).
Imperfect active of mell(935c) with the present active infinitive
lambanein, to receive, one of the three constructions with
mell(935c) (present, aorist, or future infinitive). Literally, "whom
they were about to receive," a clear reference to the great
pentecost. {For the Spirit was not yet given} (oup(9320)gar (886e)
pneuma). No verb for "given" in the Greek. The reference is not
to the existence of the Spirit, but to the dispensation of the
Spirit. This same use of eimi like pareimi (to be present)
appears in  Ac 19:2  of the Spirit's activity. John, writing at
the close of the century, inserts this comment and interpretation
of the language of Jesus as an allusion to the coming of the Holy
Spirit at pentecost (the Promise of the Father). {Because Jesus
was not yet glorified} (hoti I(8873)ous oup(9320)edoxasth(885c)). Reason for
the previous statement, the pentecostal outpouring following the
death of Jesus here called "glorified" (edoxasth(885c), first aorist
passive indicative of doxaz(935c)), used later of the death of Jesus
( 12:16 ), even by Jesus himself ( 12:23  13:31 ).

经文:

约翰福音 7:40-7:40

注释:

 {Some of the multitude} (ek tou ochlou). Tines (some) to
be supplied, a common Greek idiom. {Of a truth} (al(8874)h(9373)).
"Truly." See  1:47 . {The prophet} (ho proph(8874)(8873)). The one
promised to Moses ( De 18:15 ) and long expected. See on John
气:21|. Proof of the deep impression made by Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 7:41-7:41

注释:

 {This is the Christ} (houtos estin ho Christos). These
went further and dared to call Jesus the Messiah and not merely
the prophet who might not be the Messiah. They said it openly.
{What} (gar). These denied that Jesus was the Messiah and gave
as their reason (gar, for) the fact that he came from Galilee.
The use of m(885c) expects a negative answer.

经文:

约翰福音 7:42-7:42

注释:

 {The scripture} (h(8820)graph(885c)). The reference is to  Mic
5:2 , the very passage quoted by the chief priests and scribes in
response to Herod's inquiry ( Mt 2:6 ). This ignorance of the
fact that Jesus was actually born in Bethlehem belongs to the
Jews, not to John the author of the Gospel.

经文:

约翰福音 7:43-7:43

注释:

 {A division} (schisma). A clear split. See  Mt 9:16  for
the word from schiz(935c), to rend. Used again in  Joh 9:16  10:19 .

经文:

约翰福音 7:44-7:44

注释:

 {Would have taken him} ((8874)helon pi(8373)ai auton). Imperfect
active of 	hel(935c) and first aorist active infinitive of piaz(935c),
"were wishing to seize him." See verse  30  for a like impulse
and restraint, there epebalen ep' auton, here ebalen ep'
auton (simple verb, not compound).

经文:

约翰福音 7:45-7:45

注释:

 {Why did ye not bring him?} (Dia ti ouk (8867)agete auton;).
Second aorist active indicative of ag(935c). Indignant outburst of
the Sanhedrin (both Sadducees and Pharisees) at the failure of
the (	ous, note article here referring to verse  32 ) temple
police to arrest Jesus. "Apparently they were sitting in
expectation of immediately questioning him" (Dods). They were
stunned at this outcome.

经文:

约翰福音 7:46-7:46

注释:

 {Never man so spake} (oudepote elal(8873)en hout(9373) anthr(9370)os).
Police officers are not usually carried away by public speech.
They had fallen under the power of Jesus "as the Galilean
peasants had been impressed" (Bernard) in verses  28f . It was
the words of Jesus that had so gripped these officers, not his
works ( 15:24 ). It was most disconcerting to the Sanhedrin.

经文:

约翰福音 7:47-7:47

注释:

 {Are ye also led astray?} (M(8820)kai humeis peplan(8873)the;).
The Pharisees took the lead in this scornful sneer at the
officers. The use of m(885c) formally expects a negative answer as
in  4:29 , but the Pharisees really believed it. See also  6:67 .
The verb form is perfect passive indicative of plana(935c), for
which see verse  12  with perhaps an allusion to that phase of
opinion.

经文:

约翰福音 7:48-7:48

注释:

 {Hath any of the rulers believed on him?} (M(8820)tis ek t(936e)
archont(936e) episteusen eis auton;). Negative answer sharply
expected. First aorist active indicative of pisteu(935c). "Did any
one of the rulers believe on him?" "What right have subordinates
to have a mind of their own?" (Dods). These police were employed
by the temple authorities (rulers). "Power was slipping through
their fingers" (Dods) and that was the secret of their hostility
to Jesus. {Or of the Pharisees} ((8820)ek t(936e) Pharisai(936e)). A wider
circle and the most orthodox of all.

经文:

约翰福音 7:49-7:49

注释:

 {This multitude} (ho ochlos houtos). The Pharisees had a
scorn for the _amhaaretz_ or "people of the earth" (cf. our
"clod-hoppers") as is seen in rabbinic literature. It was some of
the ochlos (multitude at the feast especially from Galilee) who
had shown sympathy with Jesus ( 7:12,28f. ). {Which knoweth not
the law} (ho m(8820)ginosk(936e)). Present active articular participle
of gin(9373)k(935c) with m(885c) usual negative of the participle in the
_Koin(825f). "No brutish man is sin-fearing, nor is one of the people
of the earth pious" (_Aboth_, II. 6). See the amazement of the
Sanhedrin at Peter and John in  Ac 4:13  as "unlettered and
private men" (agrammatoi kai idi(9374)ai). No wonder the common
people (ochlos) heard Jesus gladly ( Mr 12:37 ). The rabbis
scouted and scorned them. {Are accursed} (eparatoi eisin).
Construction according to sense (plural verb and adjective with
collective singular ochlos). Eparatoi is old verbal adjective
from eparaomai, to call down curses upon, here only in the N.T.

经文:

约翰福音 7:50-7:50

注释:

 {Nicodemus} (Nikod(886d)os). Not heard from since chapter 3
when he timidly came to Jesus by night. Now he boldly protests
against the injustice of condemning Jesus unheard. He appears
once more (and only in John) in  19:39  with Joseph of Arimathea
as a secret disciple of Jesus. He is a Pharisee and a member of
the Sanhedrin and his present act is courageous. {Saith}
(legei). Dramatic present active indicative as in  2:3 .
{Before} (proteron). This is genuine, a reference to the visit
in chapter 3, but 
uktos (by night) is not genuine here. {Being
one of them} (heis (936e) ex aut(936e)). As a member of the Sanhedrin
he takes up the challenge in verse  48 . He is both ruler and
Pharisee.

经文:

约翰福音 7:51-7:51

注释:

 {Doth our law judge a man?} (m(8820)ho nomos h(886d)(936e) krinei ton
anthr(9370)on;). Negative answer expected and "the man," not "a
man." These exponents of the law (verse  49 ) were really
violating the law of criminal procedure ( Ex 23:1  De 1:16 ).
Probably Nicodemus knew that his protest was useless, but he
could at least show his colours and score the point of justice in
Christ's behalf. {Except it first hear from himself} (ean m(880a)akous(8869) pr(9374)on par' autou). Third-class negative condition with
ean m(885c) and first aorist active subjunctive of akou(935c). That is
common justice in all law, to hear a man's side of the case
("from him," par' autou). {And know what he doeth} (kai gn(9369)
ti poiei). Continuation of the same condition with second aorist
active subjunctive of gin(9373)k(935c) with indirect question and
present active indicative (	i poiei). There was no legal answer
to the point of Nicodemus.

经文:

约翰福音 7:52-7:52

注释:

 {Art thou also of Galilee?} (M(8820)kai su ek t(8873) Galilaias
ei;). Formally negative answer expected by m(885c), but really they
mean to imply that Nicodemus from local feeling or prejudice has
lined himself up with this Galilean mob (ochlos) of
sympathizers with Jesus and is like Jesus himself a Galilean.
"These aristocrats of Jerusalem had a scornful contempt for the
rural Galileans" (Bernard). {That out of Galilee ariseth no
prophet} (hoti ek t(8873) Galilaias proph(8874)(8873) ouk egeiretai). As a
matter of fact Jonah, Hosea, Nahum, possibly also Elijah, Elisha,
and Amos were from Galilee. It was simply the rage of the
Sanhedrin against Jesus regardless of the facts. Westcott
suggests that they may have reference to the future, but that is
a mere excuse for them.

经文:

约翰福音 7:53-7:53

注释:

 This verse and through  8:12  (the passage concerning the
woman taken in adultery) is certainly not a genuine part of
John's Gospel. The oldest and best MSS. (Aleph A B C L W) do not
have it. It first appears in Codex Bezae. Some MSS. put it at the
close of John's Gospel and some place it in Luke. It is probably
a true story for it is like Jesus, but it does not belong to
John's Gospel. The Canterbury Version on which we are commenting
puts the passage in brackets. Westcott and Hort place it at the
end of the Gospel. With this explanation we shall proceed. {They
went} (eporeuth(8873)an). First aorist passive indicative of
poreuomai used as a deponent verb without passive idea. In this
context the verb has to refer to the Sanhedrin with a rather
pointless contrast to Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 8:1-8:1

注释:

 {But Jesus went} (I(8873)ous de eporeuth(885c)). Same deponent use
of poreuomai as in  7:53  and in contrast to the Sanhedrin's
conduct, though it seems "pointless" (Dods). Apparently Jesus was
lodging in the home of Mary, Martha, and Lazarus.

经文:

约翰福音 8:2-8:2

注释:

 {Early in the morning} (orthrou). Genitive of time,
orthros meaning daybreak, old word, not in John, though in  Lu
24:1  Ac 5:21 . John uses pr(9369) ( 18:28  20:1  21:4 ). {He came
again into the temple} (palin paregeneto eis to hieron). If the
paragraph is genuine, the time is the next day after the eighth
and last day of the feast. If not genuine, there is no way of
telling the time of this apparently true incident. {And all the
people came unto him} (kai p(8373) ho laos (8872)cheto pros auton).
Imperfect middle of erchomai picturing the enthusiasm of the
whole (pas) crowd now as opposed to the divisions in chapter 7.
{Taught} (edidasken). Imperfect active of didask(935c). He took
his seat (kathisas, ingressive active participle of kathiz(935c))
as was customary for Jesus and began to teach (inchoative
imperfect). So the picture.

经文:

约翰福音 8:3-8:3

注释:

 {The scribes and the Pharisees} (hoi grammateis kai hoi
Pharisaioi). John does not mention "scribes," though this
combination (note two articles) is common enough in the Synoptics
( Lu 5:30  6:7 , etc.). {Bring} (agousin). Vivid dramatic
present active indicative of ag(935c). Dods calls this "in itself an
unlawful thing to do" since they had a court for the trial of
such a case. Their purpose is to entrap Jesus. {Taken in
adultery} (epi moichei(8369) kateilemmen(886e)). Perfect passive
participle of katalamban(935c), old compound to seize ( Mr 9:18 ),
to catch, to overtake ( Joh 12:35 ), to overcome (or overtake) in
 1:5 . {Having let her in the midst} (st(8873)antes aut(886e) en
mes(9369)). First aorist active (transitive) participle of
hist(886d)i. Here all could see her and what Jesus did with such a
case. They knew his proneness to forgive sinners.

经文:

约翰福音 8:4-8:4

注释:

 {Hath been taken} (kateil(8870)tai). Perfect passive indicative
of katalamban(935c) (see verse  3 ), caught and still guilty. {In
adultery} (moicheuomen(885c)). Present passive participle of
moicheu(935c), "herself suffering adultery" ( Mt 5:32 ). Used of
married people. Not in John. {In the very act} (ep'
autoph(9372)(9369)). Old adjective (autoph(9372)os, autos, self, and
ph(9372), thief) caught in the act of theft, then extended to any
crime in which one is caught. Old idiom, but not elsewhere in the
Greek Bible. One example in a Berlin papyrus.

经文:

约翰福音 8:5-8:5

注释:

 {Commanded} (eneteilato). First aorist middle indicative of
entell(935c), old verb to enjoin ( Mt 4:6 ). {To stone such} (	as
toiautas lithazein). Present active infinitive of lithaz(935c)
(from lithos), from Aristotle on. Stoning was specified for the
case of a betrothed woman guilty of adultery ( De 22:23f. ) and
for a priest's daughter if guilty. In other cases just death was
commanded ( Le 20:10  De 22:22 ). The Talmud prescribes
strangulation. This case may have strictly come within the
regulation as a betrothed virgin. {What then sayest thou of her?}
(su oun ti legeis;). "Thou then, what dost thou say?" This was
the whole point, to catch Jesus, not to punish the woman.

经文:

约翰福音 8:6-8:6

注释:

 {Tempting him} (peirazontes auton). Evil sense of this
present active participle of peiraz(935c), as so often ( Mr 8:11  10:2 , etc.). {That they might have whereof to accuse him} (hina
ech(9373)in kat(8867)orein autou). Purpose clause with hina and
present active subjunctive of ech(935c). This laying of traps for
Jesus was a common practice of his enemies ( Lu 11:16 , etc.).
Note present active infinitive of kat(8867)ore(935c) (see  Mt 12:10  for
the verb) to go on accusing (with genitive autou). It was now a
habit with these rabbis. {Stooped down} (kat(9320)kupsas). First
aorist active participle of kupt(935c), old verb to bow the head, to
bend forward, in N.T. only here and verse  8  Mr 1:7 . The use of
kat(935c) (down) gives a vivid touch to the picture. {With his
finger} (	(9369) daktul(9369)). Instrumental case of daktulos for
which see  Mt 23:4 . {Wrote on the ground} (kategraphen eis t(886e)
g(886e)). Imperfect active of katagraph(935c), old compound, here only
in N.T., to draw, to delineate, to write down, apparently
inchoative, began to write on the sand as every one has done
sometimes. The only mention of writing by Jesus and the use of
katagraph(935c) leaves it uncertain whether he was writing words or
drawing pictures or making signs. If we only knew what he wrote!
Certainly Jesus knew how to write. And yet more books have been
written about this one who wrote nothing that is preserved than
any other person or subject in human history. There is a
tradition that Jesus wrote down the names and sins of these
accusers. That is not likely. They were written on their hearts.
Jesus alone on this occasion showed embarrassment over this
woman's sin.

经文:

约翰福音 8:7-8:7

注释:

 {When they continued asking} (h(9373) epemenon er(9374)(936e)tes).
Imperfect active indicative of epimen(935c) (waiting in addition or
still, epi, old verb) with supplementary active participle of
er(9374)a(935c), to question. See same construction in  Ac 12:16  The
verb epimen(935c) does not occur in John. They saw that Jesus seemed
embarrassed, but did not know that it was as much because of "the
brazen hardness of the prosecutors" as because of the shame of
the deed. {He lifted himself up} (anekupsen). First aorist
active indicative of anakupt(935c), the opposite of katakupt(935c), to
bend down (verse  8 ) or of kat(9320)kupt(935c) (verse  6 ). {He that is
without sin} (ho anamart(8874)os). Verbal adjective (an privative
and hamart(8874)os from hamartan(935c)), old word, either one who has
not sinned as here and  De 29:19  or one who cannot sin, not in
the N.T. {Among you} (hum(936e)). Objective genitive. {First cast}
(pr(9374)os balet(935c)). The nominative pr(9374)os means first before
others, be the first to cast, not cast before he does something
else. See  20:4 . The verb is second aorist imperative of
all(935c), old verb to fling or cast. Jesus thus picks out the
executioner in the case.

经文:

约翰福音 8:8-8:8

注释:

 {Again he stooped down} (palin katakupsas). First aorist
active participle of katakupt(935c), old and rare verb (in Epictetus
II, 16. 22) instead of kat(9320)kupsas in verse  6 . {With his
finger} (	(9369) daktul(9369)). Not genuine, only in D and Western
class. {Wrote on the ground} (egraphen eis t(886e) g(886e)). Imperfect
active of the simplex graph(935c), not katagraph(935c). The second
picture of Jesus writing on the ground.

经文:

约翰福音 8:9-8:9

注释:

 {Went out} (ex(8872)chonto). Inchoative imperfect. Graphic
picture. {One by one} (heis kath' heis). Not a Johannine
phrase, but in  Mr 14:19  where also the second nominative is
retained as if kath' (kata) is regarded as a mere adverb and
not as a preposition. {Beginning from the eldest} (arxamenoi apo
t(936e) presbuter(936e)). "From the elder (comparative form, common in
_Koin(825f) as superlative) men," as was natural for they had more
sins of this sort which they recalled. "They are summoned to
judge themselves rather than the woman" (Dods). {Was left alone}
(kateleiphth(8820)monos). First aorist effective passive indicative
of kataleip(935c), to leave behind, with predicate nominative
monos. "Jesus was left behind alone." {And the woman, where she
was, in the midst} (kai h(8820)gun(8820)en mes(9369) ousa). The woman was
left behind also "being in the midst" as they had placed her
(verse  3 ) before they were conscience stricken and left.

经文:

约翰福音 8:10-8:10

注释:

 {Lifted up himself} (anakupsas). First aorist active
participle of anakupt(935c) as in verse  7 . {Where are they?} (Pou
eisin;). Jesus had kept on writing on the ground as the accusers
had slipped away one by one. {Did no man condemn thee?} (oudeis
se katekrinen;). First aorist active indicative of katakrin(935c),
old and common verb to give judgment against (down on) one, but
not in John. No one dared to cast a stone at the woman on
Christ's terms.

经文:

约翰福音 8:11-8:11

注释:

 {No man, Lord} (Oudeis, Kurie). "No one, Sir." She makes
no excuse for her sin. Does she recognize Jesus as "Lord"?
{Neither do I condemn thee} (Oude eg(9320)se katakrin(935c)). Jesus does
not condone her sin. See  8:15  for "I do not judge (condemn) any
one." But he does give the poor woman another chance. {Henceforth
sin no more} (apo tou nun m(886b)eti hamartane). See also  5:14 
where this same language is used to the impotent man. It
literally means (prohibition with present active imperative):
"Henceforth no longer go on sinning." One can only hope that the
woman was really changed in heart and life. Jesus clearly felt
that even a wicked woman can be saved.

经文:

约翰福音 8:12-8:12

注释:

 {Again therefore} (palin oun). This language fits in
better with  7:52  than with  8:11 . Just suppose Jesus is in the
temple on the following day. {Unto them} (autois). The
Pharisees and crowds in the temple after the feast was past. {I
am the light of the world} (eg(9320)eimi to ph(9373) tou kosmou). Jesus
had called his followers "the light of the world" ( Mt 5:14 ),
but that was light reflected from him. Already Jesus (the Logos)
had been called the true light of men ( 1:9  3:19 ). The Psalmist
calls God his Light ( 27:1 ). So  Isa 60:19 . At the feast of
tabernacles in the Court of the Women where Jesus was on this day
( 8:20 ) there were brilliant candelabra and there was the memory
of the pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night. But with all
this background this supreme and exclusive claim of Jesus
(repeated in  9:5 ) to being the light of the whole world (of
Gentiles as well as of Jews) startled the Pharisees and
challenged their opposition. {Shall have the light of life}
(hexei to ph(9373) t(8873) z(9388)s). The light which springs from and
issues in life (Westcott). Cf.  6:33,51  about Jesus being the
Bread of Life. In this sublime claim we come to a decisive place.
It will not do to praise Jesus and deny his deity. Only as the
Son of God can we justify and accept this language which
otherwise is mere conceit and froth.

经文:

约翰福音 8:13-8:13

注释:

 {Of thyself} (peri seautou). This technical objection was
according to the rules of evidence among the rabbis. "No man can
give witness for himself" (_Mishnah, Ketub_. 11. 9). Hence, they
say, "not true" (ouk al(8874)hes), not pertinent. "They were still
in the region of pedantic rules and external tests." In  Joh
5:31  Jesus acknowledged this technical need of further witness
outside of his own claims ( Joh 19-30 ) and proceeded to give it
( Joh 32-47 ) in the testimony of the Baptist, of the Father, of
his works, of the Scriptures, and of Moses in particular.

经文:

约翰福音 8:14-8:14

注释:

 {Even if} (kan). That is kai ean, a condition of the
third class with the present active subjunctive martur(935c). Jesus
means that his own witness concerning himself is true (al(8874)hes)
even if it contravenes their technical rules of evidence. He can
and does tell the truth all by himself concerning himself. {For I
know whence I came and whither I go} (hoti oida pothen (886c)thon
kai pou hupag(935c)). In this terse sentence with two indirect
questions Jesus alludes to his pre-existence with the Father
before his Incarnation as in  17:5  and to the return to the
Father after the death and resurrection as in  13:3  14:2f . He
again puts both ideas together in one crisp clause in  16:28  for
the apostles who profess to understand him then. But here these
Pharisees are blind to the words of Jesus. "But ye know not
whence I come nor whither I go" (humeis de ouk oidate pothen
erchomai (8820)pou hupag(935c)). He had spoken of his heavenly destiny
( 7:33 ). Jesus alone knew his personal consciousness of his
coming from, fellowship with, and return to the Father. Stier
(_Words of the Lord Jesus_) argues that one might as well say to
the sun, if claiming to be the sun, that it was night, because it
bore witness of itself. The answer is the shining of the sun.

经文:

约翰福音 8:15-8:15

注释:

 {After the flesh} (kata t(886e) sarka). According to the
standards of the flesh ( 2Co 5:16 ). The Baptist had said: "There
stands one among you whom ye know not" ( Joh 1:26 ). The Light of
the World had come, but they loved darkness rather than light
( 3:19 ), because the god of this age had blinded their thoughts
so that they could not see the illumination of the gospel of the
glory of Christ who is the image of God ( 2Co 4:4 ).

经文:

约翰福音 8:16-8:16

注释:

 {Yea and if I judge} (kai ean krin(9320)de eg(935c)). "And even if
I pass judgment." Condition of third class again. {True}
(al(8874)hin(8829). See  1:9  for al(8874)hinos, genuine, soundly based
(cf. dikaia in  5:30 ), "satisfying our perfect conception"
(Westcott), not merely true (al(8874)hes) in the particular facts
(verse  14 ). {For I am not alone} (hoti monos ouk eimi). Jesus
now takes up the technical criticism in verse  13  after
justifying his right to speak concerning himself. {But I and the
Father that sent me} (all eg(9320)kai ho pempsas me pat(8872)). See
 16:32  for a like statement about the Father being with Christ.
It is not certain that pat(8872) is genuine here (omitted by Aleph
D, but in B L W), but the Father is clearly meant as in
 7:18,33 . Jesus gives the Father as the second witness.

经文:

约翰福音 8:17-8:17

注释:

 {Yea and in your law} (kai en t(9369) nom(9369) de t(9369) humeter(9369)).
Same use of kai--de as in verse  16 . They claimed possession
of the law ( 7:49 ) and so Jesus takes this turn in answer to the
charge of single witness in verse  13 . He will use similar
language (your law) in  10:34  in an _argumentum ad hominem_ as
here in controversy with the Jews. In  15:24  to the apostles
Jesus even says "in their law" in speaking of the hostile Jews
plotting his death. He does not mean in either case to separate
himself wholly from the Jews and the law, though in Matthew 5 he
does show the superiority of his teaching to that of the law. For
the Mosaic regulation about two witnesses see  De 17:6  19:15 .
This combined witness of two is not true just because they agree,
unless true in fact separately. But if they disagree, the
testimony falls to the ground. In this case the Father confirms
the witness of the Son as Jesus had already shown ( 5:37 ).

经文:

约翰福音 8:18-8:18

注释:

 {The Father} (ho pat(8872)). Clearly genuine here. So these
are the two witnesses that Jesus presents to the Pharisees in
defence of his claim to be the Light of the World (verse  12 ).

经文:

约翰福音 8:19-8:19

注释:

 {Where is thy Father?} (pou estin ho pat(8872) sou;). "The
testimony of an unseen and unheard witness would not satisfy
them" (Vincent). Bernard understands the Pharisees to see that
Jesus claims God the Father as his second witness and so ask
"where," not "who" he is. Augustine has it: _Patrem Christi
carnaliter acceperunt_, Christ's human father, as if the
Pharisees were "misled perhaps by the Lord's use of anthr(9370)on
(verse  17 )" (Dods). Cyril even took it to be a coarse allusion
to the birth of Jesus as a bastard according to the Talmud.
Perhaps the Pharisees used the question with _double entendre_,
even with all three ideas dancing in their hostile minds. {Ye
would know my Father also} (kai ton patera mou an (8869)deite).
Conclusion of second-class condition determined as unfulfilled
with an and second perfect active of oida used as imperfect
in both condition and conclusion. See this same point made to
Philip in  14:9 . In  14:7  Jesus will use gin(9373)k(935c) in the
condition and oida in the conclusion. The ignorance of the
Pharisees about Jesus proves it and is due to their ignorance of
the Father. See this point more fully stated in  5:36-38  when
Jesus had his previous controversy in Jerusalem. In  7:28  Jesus
said that they knew his home in Nazareth, but he denied then that
they knew the Father who sent him. Jesus will again on this
occasion ( 8:55 ) deny their knowledge of the Father. Later he
will deny their knowledge of the Father and of the Son ( 16:3 ).
The Pharisees are silenced for the moment.

经文:

约翰福音 8:20-8:20

注释:

 {In the treasury} (en t(9369) gazophulaki(9369)). See already  Mr
12:41  Lu 21:1  for this word for the treasure-chambers of the
temple. "It abutted on the Court of the Women, and against its
walls were placed chests, trumpet-like in form, as receptacles
for the offerings of the worshippers" (Bernard). The Persian word
_gaza_ (treasure) occurs only once in the N.T. ( Ac 8:27 ) and
the compound (phulak(885c), guard) only here in John. Jesus hardly
taught within a treasure-chamber. It probably means "at the
treasury in the temple." This court was probably the most public
part of the temple (Vincent). {And} (kai)="and yet" as in
 1:10 , etc. {Because his hour was not yet come} (hoti oup(930a)el(886c)uthei h(8820)h(9372)a autou). {Reason} (hoti) given why no one
seized (epiasen, cf.  7:30 ) him. El(886c)uthei is past perfect
active of erchomai, "had not yet come." This very use of h(9372)a
appears in  2:4  and the very clause in  7:30  which see.

经文:

约翰福音 8:21-8:21

注释:

 {Again} (palin). Probably palin (again) in verse  12 
refers to a day after the feast is over since the last day is
mentioned in  7:37 . So then here again we probably move on to
another day still beyond that in verse  12 . {And ye shall seek
me} (kai z(8874)(8873)ete me). As in  7:34 , "the search of despair"
(Bernard), seeking for the Messiah when it is too late, the
tragedy of Judaism today ( 1:11 ). {And ye shall die in your sin}
(kai en t(8869) hamarti(8369) hum(936e) apothaneisthe). Future middle
indicative of apothn(8873)k(935c) which is the emphatic word here (cf.
 Eze 3:18  18:18  Pr 24:9 ). Note singular hamarti(8369) (sin)
here, but plural hamartiais (sins) when the phrase is repeated
in verse  24  (sin in its essence, sin in its acts). {Ye cannot
come} (humeis ou dunasthe elthein). Precise language of  7:34 
to the Jews and to the apostles in  13:33 .

经文:

约翰福音 8:22-8:22

注释:

 {Will he kill himself?} (m(8874)i apoktenei heauton;).
Negative answer formally expected, but there is a manifest sneer
in the query. "The mockery in these words is alike subtle and
bitter" (Vincent). It was a different group of Jews in  7:31  who
cynically suggested that he was going to work among the Greeks in
the Dispersion. Here they infer that Jesus refers to the next
world. They suggest the depths of Gehenna for him as the abode of
suicides (Josephus, _War_ III. viii. 5). Of course the rabbis
could not join Jesus there! Edersheim argues against this view.

经文:

约翰福音 8:23-8:23

注释:

 {Ye are from beneath} (humeis ek t(936e) kat(935c)). This language,
peculiar to John, could take up the idea in Josephus that these
rabbis came from Gehenna whence they will go as children of the
devil ( 8:44 ), but the use of ek tou kosmou toutou ("of this
world" in origin) as parallel to what we have here seems to prove
that the contrast between kat(935c) and an(935c) here is between the
earthly (sensual) and the heavenly as in  Jas 3:15-17 . See also
 Col 3:1 . This is the only use of kat(935c) in John (except  8:6 ).
These proud rabbis had their origin in this world of darkness
( 1:9 ) with all its limitations. {I am from above} (eg(9320)ek t(936e)
an(9320)eimi). The contrast is complete in origin and character,
already stated in  3:31 , and calculated to intensify their
anger.

经文:

约翰福音 8:24-8:24

注释:

 {For except ye believe} (ean gar m(8820)pisteus(8874)e). Negative
condition of third class with ean m(885c) and ingressive aorist
active subjunctive of pisteu(935c), "For unless ye come to believe."
{That I am he} (hoti eg(9320)eimi). Indirect discourse, but with no
word in the predicate after the copula eimi. Jesus can mean
either "that I am from above" (verse  23 ), "that I am the one
sent from the Father or the Messiah" ( 7:18,28 ), "that I am the
Light of the World" ( 8:12 ), "that I am the Deliverer from the
bondage of sin" ( 8:28,31f.,36 ), "that I am" without supplying a
predicate in the absolute sense as the Jews ( De 32:39 ) used the
language of Jehovah (cf.  Isa 43:10  where the very words occur
hina pisteus(8874)e--hoti eg(9320)eimi). The phrase eg(9320)eimi occurs
three times here ( 8:24,28,58 ) and also in  13:19 . Jesus seems
to claim absolute divine being as in  8:58 .

经文:

约翰福音 8:25-8:25

注释:

 {Who art thou?} (Su tis ei;). Proleptic use of su before
	is, "Thou, who art thou?" Cf.  1:19 . He had virtually claimed
to be the Messiah and on a par with God as in  5:15 . They wish
to pin him down and to charge him with blasphemy. {Even that
which I have also spoken unto you from the beginning} (	(886e)
arch(886e) hoti kai lal(9320)humin). A difficult sentence. It is not
clear whether it is an affirmation or a question. The Latin and
Syriac versions treat it as affirmative. Westcott and Hort follow
Meyer and take it as interrogative. The Greek fathers take it as
an exclamation. It seems clear that the adverbial accusative 	(886e)
arch(886e) cannot mean "from the beginning" like ap' arch(8873)
( 15:27 ) or ex arch(8873) ( 16:4 ). The LXX has 	(886e) arch(886e) for
"at the beginning" or "at the first" ( Ge 43:20 ). There are
examples in Greek, chiefly negative, where 	(886e) arch(886e) means "at
all," "essentially," "primarily." Vincent and Bernard so take it
here, "Primarily what I am telling you." Jesus avoids the term
Messiah with its political connotations. He stands by his high
claims already made.

经文:

约翰福音 8:26-8:26

注释:

 {I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you}
(polla ech(9320)peri hum(936e) lalein kai krinein). Instead of further
talk about his own claims (already plain enough) Jesus turns to
speak and to judge concerning them and their attitude towards him
(cf. verse  16 ). Whatever they think of Jesus the Father who
sent him is true (al(8874)h(8873)). They cannot evade responsibility
for the message heard. So Jesus goes on speaking it from the
Father.

经文:

约翰福音 8:27-8:27

注释:

 {They perceived not} (ouk egn(9373)an). Second aorist active
indicative of gin(9373)k(935c). "Preoccupied as they were with thoughts
of an earthly deliverer" (Westcott) and prejudiced against
recognizing Jesus as the one sent from God. {That he spake to
them of the Father} (hoti ton patera autois elegen). Indirect
assertion, but with the present indicative (legei) changed to
the imperfect (elegen) as was sometimes done ( 2:25 ) after a
secondary tense.

经文:

约翰福音 8:28-8:28

注释:

 {When ye have lifted up the Son of man} (hotan hups(9373)(8874)e
ton huion tou anthr(9370)ou). Indefinite temporal clause with
hotan (hote + an) and the first aorist active subjunctive of
hupso(935c), to lift up (_Koin(825f) verb from hupsos, height), used
several times in John of the Cross of Christ ( 3:14  8:28  12:32,34 ). It is unnecessary to render the aorist subjunctive as
if a future perfect, simply "whenever ye lift up" (actually lift
up, ingressive aorist). In  Ac 2:33  the verb is used of the
Ascension. {Shall ye know} (gn(9373)esthe). Future (ingressive
aoristic) middle of gin(9373)k(935c). _Cognoscetis ex re quod nunc ex
verbo non creditis_ (Bengel). But the knowledge from the facts
like the fall of Jerusalem will come too late and will not bring
a change of heart. The Holy Spirit will convict them concerning
judgment ( 16:8 ). For {I am} (eg(9320)eimi) see on verse 氧4|. {As
the Father taught me} (Kath(9373) edidasken me ho pat(8872)). This
claim Jesus repeats (see verse  26 ) and clearly makes on his
arrival at the feast ( 7:16f. ). This fact marks Jesus off from
the rabbis.

经文:

约翰福音 8:29-8:29

注释:

 {Is with me} (met' emou estin). The Incarnation brought
separation from the Father in one sense, but in essence there is
complete harmony and fellowship as he had already said ( 8:16 )
and will expand in  17:21-26 . {He hath not left me alone} (ouk
aph(886b)en me monon). First aorist active indicative of aphi(886d)i.
"He did not leave me alone." However much the crowds and the
disciples misunderstood or left Jesus, the Father always
comforted and understood him ( Mr 6:46  Mt 14:23  Joh 6:15 ).
{That are pleasing to him} (	a aresta aut(9369)). This old verbal
adjective, from aresk(935c), to please, in N.T. only here,  Ac 6:2  12:3  1Jo 3:32 . The joy of Jesus was in doing the will of the
Father who sent him ( 4:34 ).

经文:

约翰福音 8:30-8:30

注释:

 {Many believed on him} (polloi episteusan eis auton).
Ingressive aorist active indicative, came to believe, nominally
at any rate, as in  2:23 . But the tension was keen and Jesus
proceeded to test the faith of these new believers from among the
Pharisees.

经文:

约翰福音 8:31-8:31

注释:

 {Which had believed him} (	ous pepisteukotas aut(9369)).
Articular perfect active participle of pisteu(935c) with dative
aut(9369) (trusted him) rather than eis auton (on him) in verse
 30 . They believed him (cf.  6:30 ) as to his claims to being
the Messiah with their own interpretation ( 6:15 ), but they did
not commit themselves to him and may represent only one element
of those in verse  30 , but see  2:23  for pisteu(9320)eis there.
{If ye abide in my word} (ean humeis mein(8874)e en t(9369) log(9369) t(9369)
em(9369)). Third-class condition with ean and first aorist
(constative) active subjunctive. {Are ye truly my disciples}
(al(8874)h(9373) math(8874)ai mou este). Your future loyalty to my teaching
will prove the reality of your present profession. So the
conclusion of this future condition is put in the present tense.
As then, so now. We accept church members on _profession_ of
trust in Christ. Continuance in the word (teaching) proves the
sincerity or insincerity of the profession. It is the acid test
of life.

经文:

约翰福音 8:32-8:32

注释:

 {And ye shall know the truth} (kai gn(9373)esthe t(886e)
al(8874)heian). Truth is one of the marks of Christ ( 1:14 ) and
Jesus will claim to Thomas to be the personification of truth
( 14:6 ). But it will be for them knowledge to be learned by
doing God's will ( 7:17 ). The word is from al(8874)h(8873) (a
privative and l(8874)h(935c), to conceal, unsealed, open). See also
verses  40,44,45 . {And the truth shall make you free} (kai h(880a)al(8874)heia eleuther(9373)ei humas). Future active indicative of
eleuthero(935c), old verb from eleutheros (from erchomai, to go
where one wishes and so free). One of Paul's great words for
freedom from the bondage of the law ( Ro 6:18  Ga 5:1 ). The
freedom of which Jesus here speaks is freedom from the slavery of
sin as Paul in  Ro 8:2 . See  Joh 8:36 . This freedom is won
alone by Christ ( 8:36 ) and we are sanctified in truth
( 17:19 ). In  1:17  truth is mentioned with grace as one of the
marks of the gospel through Christ. Freedom (intellectual, moral,
spiritual) is only attainable when we are set free from darkness,
sin, ignorance, superstition and let the Light of the World shine
on us and in us.

经文:

约翰福音 8:33-8:33

注释:

 Rom. 9:6f. 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = 'Rom.' or engs='Rom.'
经文:

约翰福音 8:34-8:34

注释:

 {Every one that committeth sin is the bondservant of sin}
(pas ho poi(936e) t(886e) hamartian doulos estin [t(8873) hamartias]). The
Western class omits 	(8873) hamartias (sin), but that is the idea
anyhow. Note the use of poi(936e) (present active participle,
continuous habit or practice), not poi(8873)as (aorist active
participle for single act), precisely as in  1Jo 3:4-8 . Note
also  3:21  for ho poi(936e) t(886e) al(8874)heian (the one who practises
the truth). Sin, like the worst narcotic, is habit forming. Hence
the problem today for criminologists for paroled or pardoned
criminals nearly always go back to crime, sink again into sin,
the slaves of sin. Xenophon has this notion of the slavery of sin
(_Memor_. IV. 5. 3). So Paul clearly in  Ro 6:17,20  "slaves of
sin" (douloi t(8873) hamartias).

经文:

约翰福音 8:35-8:35

注释:

 {The bondservant} (ho doulos) ... {the son} (ho huios).
There is a change in the metaphor by this contrast between the
positions of the son and the slave in the house. The slave has no
footing or tenure and may be cast out at any moment while the son
is the heir and has a permanent place. Cf. Ishmael and Isaac ( Ge
21:10 ) and Paul's use of it in  Ga 4:30 . We do not know that
there is any reference here to Hagar and Ishmael. See also  Heb
3:5  ( Nu 12:7 ) for a like contrast between Moses as servant
(	herap(936e)) in God's house and Christ as Son (huios) over
God's house.

经文:

约翰福音 8:36-8:36

注释:

 {If therefore the son shall make you free} (ean oun ho
huios humas eleuther(9373)(8869)). Condition of third class with ean
and first aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive. "If therefore
the Son set you free," as he has the power to do. {Ye shall be
free indeed} (ont(9373) eleutheroi esesthe). Old and common adverb
from participle ont(936e), actually, really (cf.  Lu 24:34 ). But
this spiritual freedom was beyond the concept or wish of these
Jews.

经文:

约翰福音 8:37-8:37

注释:

 {Yet ye seek to kill me} (alla z(8874)eite me apokteinai). As
at the recent feast ( 7:20,25,30,32  8:20 ). Some of these very
professed believers were even now glowering with murderous
vengeance. {Hath not free course in you} (ou ch(9372)ei en humin).
Intransitive use of ch(9372)e(935c), old verb from ch(9372)os (space,
place), to have space or room for. They would not abide in
Christ's word (verse  31 ). They had no longer room for his word
when once they understood the spiritual aspect of his message.
Jerusalem was now just like Galilee once before ( 6:60-66 ).

经文:

约翰福音 8:38-8:38

注释:

 {With my Father} (para t(9369) patri). Locative case of
pat(8872) and article used as possessive (common idiom), "by the
side of my Father," picture of intimate fellowship like pros ton
theon (face to face with God) in  1:1 . {From your father}
(para tou patros). Ablative case with para (from the side of)
and same possessive use of 	ou in each instance, though "the"
will really answer both times. But ho pat(8872) does not mean the
same person. Christ's Father by contrast is not their father.

经文:

约翰福音 8:39-8:39

注释:

 {Our father is Abraham} (ho pat(8872) h(886d)(936e) Abraam estin).
They saw the implication and tried to counter it by repeating
their claim in verse  33  which was true so far as physical
descent went as Jesus had admitted (verse  37 ). {If ye were}
(ei este). Strictly, "if ye are" as ye claim, a condition of
the first class assumed to be true. {Ye would do} (epoieite
an). Read by C L N and a corrector of Aleph while W omits an.
This makes a mixed condition (protasis of the first class,
apodosis of the second. See Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1022). But B
reads poieite like the Sin. Syriac which has to be treated as
imperative (so Westcott and Hort).

经文:

约翰福音 8:40-8:40

注释:

 {But now} (
un de). Clear statement that they are not
doing "the works of Abraham" in seeking to kill him. See this use
of 
un de after a condition of second class without an in
 Joh 16:22,24 . {This did not Abraham} (	outo Abraam ouk
epoi(8873)en). Blunt and pointed of their unlikeness to Abraham. {A
man that hath told you the truth} (anthr(9370)on hos ten al(8874)heian
humin lelal(886b)a). Anthr(9370)on (here=person, one) is accusative
case in apposition with {me} (me) just before. The perfect
active indicative lelal(886b)a from lale(935c) is in the first person
singular because the relative hos has the person of me, an
idiom not retained in the English {that hath} (that have or who
have) though it is retained in the English of  1Co 15:9  "that
am" for hos eimi. {Which I heard from God} (h(886e) (886b)ousa para
tou theou). Here we have "I" in the English. "God" here is equal
to "My Father" in verse  38 . The only crime of Jesus is telling
the truth directly from God.

经文:

约翰福音 8:41-8:41

注释:

 {Ye do the works of your father} (humeis poieite ta erga
tou patros hum(936e)). Who is not Abraham and not God as Jesus
plainly indicates. {We were not born of fornication} (h(886d)eis ek
porneias egenn(8874)h(886d)en). First aorist passive indicative of
genna(935c). This they said as a proud boast. Jesus had admitted
that they were physical ( De 23:2 ) descendants of Abraham
( 37 ), but now denies that they are spiritual children of
Abraham (like Paul in  Ro 9:7 ). Porneia is from pornos
(harlot) and that from pern(886d)i, to sell, a woman who sells her
body for sexual uses. It is vaguely possible that in this stern
denial the Pharisees may have an indirect fling at Jesus as the
bastard son of Mary (so Talmud). {We have one Father, even God}
(hena patera echomen ton theon). No "even" in the Greek, "One
Father we have, God." This in direct reply to the implication of
Jesus (verse  38 ) that God was not their spiritual Father.

经文:

约翰福音 8:42-8:42

注释:

 {Ye would love me} ((8867)apate an eme). Conclusion of
second-class condition with distinct implication that their
failure to love Jesus is proof that God is not their Father
(protasis). {For I came forth from God} (eg(9320)gar ek tou theou
ex(886c)thon). Second aorist active indicative of exerchomai,
definite historical event (the Incarnation). See  4:30  for
ex(886c)thon ek. In  13:3  16:30  Jesus is said to have come from
(apo) God. The distinction is not to be pressed. Note the
definite consciousness of pre-existence with God as in  17:5 .
{And am come} (kai h(886b)(935c)). Present active indicative with
perfect sense in the verb stem (state of completion) before rise
of the tense and here retained. "I am here," Jesus means. {Of
myself} (ap' emautou). His coming was not self-initiated nor
independent of the Father. "But he (ekeinos, emphatic
demonstrative pronoun) sent me" and here I am.

经文:

约翰福音 8:43-8:43

注释:

 {My speech} (	(886e) lalian t(886e) em(886e)) and {my word} (	on
logon ton emon). Perhaps lalia, old word from lalos (talk),
means here more manner of speech than just story ( 4:42 ), while
logos refers rather to the subject matter. They will not listen
(ou dunasthe akouein) to the substance of Christ's teaching and
hence they are impatient with the way that he talks. How often
that is true.

经文:

约翰福音 8:44-8:44

注释:

 {Ye are of your father the devil} (humeis ek tou patros tou
diabolou). Certainly they can "understand" (gin(9373)kete in  43 )
this "talk" (lalian) though they will be greatly angered. But
they had to hear it (akouein in  43 ). It was like a bombshell
in spite of the preliminary preparation. {Your will to do}
(	helete poiein). Present active indicative of 	hel(935c) and
present active infinitive, "Ye wish to go on doing." This same
idea Jesus presents in  Mt 13:38  (the sons of the evil one, the
devil) and  23:15  (twofold more a son of Gehenna than you). See
also  1Jo 3:8  for "of the devil" (ek tou diabolou) for the one
who persists in sinning. In  Re 12:9  the devil is one who leads
all the world astray. The Gnostic view that Jesus means "the
father of the devil" is grotesque. Jesus does not, of course,
here deny that the Jews, like all men, are children of God the
Creator, like Paul's offspring of God for all men in  Ac 17:28 .
What he denies to these Pharisees is that they are spiritual
children of God who do his will. They do the lusts and will of
the devil. The Baptist had denied this same spiritual fatherhood
to the merely physical descendants of Abraham ( Mt 3:9 ). He even
called them "broods of vipers" as Jesus did later ( Mt 12:34 ).
{A murderer} (anthr(9370)oktonos). Old and rare word (Euripides)
from anthr(9370)os, man, and ktein(935c), to kill. In N.T. only here
and  1Jo 3:15 . The Jews were seeking to kill Jesus and so like
their father the devil. {Stood not in the truth} (en t(8869)
al(8874)hei(8369) ouk est(886b)en). Since ouk, not ouch, is genuine, the
form of the verb is esteken the imperfect of the late present
stem st(886b)(935c) ( Mr 11:25 ) from the perfect active hest(886b)a
(intransitive) of hist(886d)i, to place. {No truth in him} (ouk
estin al(8874)heia en aut(9369)). Inside him or outside (environment).
The devil and truth have no contact. {When he speaketh a lie}
(hotan lal(8869) to pseudos). Indefinite temporal clause with
hotan and the present active subjunctive of lale(935c). But note
the article 	o: "Whenever he speaks the lie," as he is sure to
do because it is his nature. Hence "he speaks out of his own"
(ek t(936e) idi(936e) lalei) like a fountain bubbling up (cf.  Mt
12:34 ). {For he is a liar} (hoti pseust(8873) estin). Old word for
the agent in a conscious falsehood (pseudos). See  1Jo 1:10  Ro
3:4 . Common word in John because of the emphasis on al(8874)heia
(truth). {And the father thereof} (kai ho pat(8872) autou). Either
the father of the lie or of the liar, both of which are true as
already shown by Jesus. {Autou} in the genitive can be either
neuter or masculine. Westcott takes it thus, "because he is a
liar and his father (the devil) is a liar," making "one," not the
devil, the subject of "whenever he speaks," a very doubtful
expression.

经文:

约翰福音 8:45-8:45

注释:

 {Because I speak the truth} (eg(9320)de hoti t(886e) al(8874)heian
leg(935c)). Proleptic emphatic position of eg(935c). "Truth is
uncongenial to them" (Bernard). See  3:19  for their picture.

经文:

约翰福音 8:46-8:46

注释:

 {Which of you convicteth me of sin?} (Tis ex hum(936e) elegchei
me peri hamaritas;). See on  3:20  16:8  (the work of the Holy
Spirit) for elegch(935c) for charge and proof. The use of hamartia
as in  1:29  means sin in general, not particular sins. The
rhetorical question which receives no answer involves sinlessness
( Heb 4:15 ) without specifically saying so. Bernard suggests
that Jesus paused after this pungent question before going on.
{Why do ye not believe me?} (Dia ti humeis ou pisteuete moi;).
This question drives home the irrationality of their hostility to
Jesus. It was based on prejudice and predilection.

经文:

约翰福音 8:47-8:47

注释:

 {He that is of God} (ho (936e) ek tou theou). See this use of
ek in  3:31f . "Their not listening proved that they were not
of God" (Dods). They were of the earth and the devil, not of God.

经文:

约翰福音 8:48-8:48

注释:

 {Thou art a Samaritan and hast a demon} (Samareit(8873) ei su
kai daimonion echeis). On the spur of the moment in their rage
and fury they can think of no meaner things to say. They know, of
course, that Jesus was not a Samaritan, but he had acted like a
Samaritan in challenging their peculiar spiritual privileges
( 4:9,39 ). The charge of having a demon was an old one by the
Pharisees ( Mt 12:24 ) and it is repeated later ( Joh 10:20 ).

经文:

约翰福音 8:49-8:49

注释:

 {I have not a demon} (eg(9320)daimonion ouk ech(935c)). This Jesus
says calmly, passing by the reference to the Samaritans as
beneath notice. {My Father} (	on patera mou). As in  2:16 . He
is not mad in claiming to honour God (cf.  7:18 ). They were
insulting the Father in insulting him (cf.  5:23 ). On atimaz(935c)
(a privative and 	ima(935c), to dishonour) see  Lu 20:11 .

经文:

约翰福音 8:50-8:50

注释:

 {But I seek not mine own glory} (eg(9320)de ou z(8874)(9320)t(886e) doxan
mou). As they did not seek the glory of God ( 5:44  8:4 ). {And
judgeth} (kai krin(936e)). The Father judges between you and me,
though the Son is the Judge of mankind ( 5:22 ). "It is only the
doxa (glory) that comes from God that is worth having"
(Bernard).

经文:

约翰福音 8:51-8:51

注释:

 {If a man keep my word} (ean tis ton emon logon t(8872)(8873)(8869)).
Condition of third class with ean and constative aorist active
subjunctive of 	(8872)e(935c). Repeated in verse  52 . See verse  43 
about hearing the word of Christ. Common phrase in John
( 8:51,52,55  14:23,24  15:20  17:6  1Jo 2:5 ). Probably the same
idea as keeping the commands of Christ ( 14:21 ). {He shall never
see death} (	hanaton ou m(8820)the(9372)(8873)(8869) eis ton aiona). Spiritual
death, of course. Strong double negative ou m(885c) with first
aorist active subjunctive of 	he(9372)e(935c). The phrase "see death" is
a Hebraism ( Ps 89:48 ) and occurs with idein (see) in  Lu
2:26  Heb 11:5 . No essential difference meant between hora(935c)
and 	he(9372)e(935c). See  Joh 14:23  for the blessed fellowship the
Father and the Son have with the one who keeps Christ's word.

经文:

约翰福音 8:52-8:52

注释:

 {Now we know} (
un egn(936b)amen). Perfect active indicative
of gin(9373)k(935c), state of completion, "Now since such talk we have
come to certain knowledge that thou hast a demon" (verse  48 ).
{Is dead} (apethanen). Second aorist active indicative of
apothn(8873)k(935c). "Abraham died." {And thou sayest} (kai su
legeis). Adversative use of kai, "and yet." Emphatic position
of su (thou). Same condition quoted as in verse  51 . {He shall
never taste of death} (ou me geus(8874)ai thanatou eis ton aiona).
Same emphatic negative with subjunctive as in verse  51 , but
geus(8874)ai (first aorist middle subjunctive of geu(935c) with
genitive case 	hanatou (death). Another Hebraism for dying like
	he(9372)(8873)(8869) (see) in verse  51 . Used in  Heb 2:9  of the death
of Jesus and in Synoptics ( Mt 16:28  Mr 9:1  Lu 9:27 ). It
occurs in the Talmud, but not in the O.T. The Pharisees thus did
not misquote Jesus, though they misunderstood him.

经文:

约翰福音 8:53-8:53

注释:

 {Art thou greater than our father Abraham?} (M(8820)su meiz(936e)
ei tou patros h(886d)(936e) Abraam;). Negative answer expected by m(885c)
with ablative case of comparison in patros after meiz(936e). The
question was designed to put Jesus in a difficult position, for
Abraham and the prophets all "died." They do not see that Jesus
uses death in a different sense. {Whom makest thou thyself?}
(	ina seauton poieis;). Seauton is predicate accusative with
poieis. They suspect that Jesus is guilty of blasphemy as they
charged in  5:18  in making himself equal with God. Later they
will make it specifically ( 10:33  19:7 ). They set a trap for
Jesus for this purpose.

经文:

约翰福音 8:54-8:54

注释:

 {If I glorify myself} (ean eg(9320)doxas(9320)emauton).
Third-class condition with ean and first aorist active
subjunctive (or future active indicative) of doxaz(935c). {It is my
Father that glorifieth me} (estin ho pat(8872) mou ho doxaz(936e) me).
The position and accent of estin mean: "Actually my Father is
the one," etc. {Of whom ye say} (hon humeis legete). The
accusative of the person (hon) with legete is regular (cf.
 10:36 ). {Your God} (	heos hum(936e)). So Aleph B D and apparently
correct, though A C L W Delta Theta have h(886d)(936e) (our God). The
hoti can be taken as recitative (direct quotation, h(886d)(936e),
our) or declarative (indirect, that, and so hum(936e)). The Jews
claimed God as their peculiar national God as they had said in
 41 . So Jesus turns this confession and claim against them.

经文:

约翰福音 8:55-8:55

注释:

 {And ye have not known him} (kai ouk egn(936b)ate auton).
Adversative use again of kai="and yet." Perfect active
indicative of gin(9373)k(935c), the verb for experiential knowledge.
This was true of the kosmos ( 1:10  17:25 ) and of the hostile
Jews ( 16:3 ). Jesus prays that the world may know ( 17:23 ) and
the handful of disciples had come to know ( 17:25 ). {But I know
him} (eg(9320)de oida auton). Equipped by eternal fellowship to
reveal the Father ( 1:1-18 ). This peculiar intimate knowledge
Jesus had already claimed ( 7:29 ). Jesus used oida ( 8:19  15:21 ) or gin(9373)k(935c) ( 17:23,25 ) for the knowledge of the
Father. No undue distinction can be drawn here. {And if I should
say} (kan eip(935c)). Third-class condition (concession), "even if I
say," with kai ean (kan) and second aorist active
subjunctive. "Suppose I say." {I shall be like you a liar}
(esomai homoios humin pseust(8873)). Apodosis of the condition.
Homoios (like) is followed by the associative-instrumental case
humin. The word pseust(8873) (liar), in spite of the statement
that they are the children of the devil, the father of lying
( 8:44 ), comes with a sudden jolt because it is a direct charge.
This word liar is not considered polite today in public speech
when hurled at definite individuals. There is a rather free use
of the word in  1Jo 2:4,22  4:20  5:10 . It is not hard to
imagine the quick anger of these Pharisees.

经文:

约翰福音 8:56-8:56

注释:

 {Rejoiced} ((8867)alliasato). First aorist middle indicative
of agalliaomai, a word of Hellenistic coinage from agallomai,
to rejoice. {To see} (hina id(8869)). Sub-final use of hina and
second aorist active subjunctive of hora(935c). This joy of Abraham
is referred to in  Heb 11:13  (saluting, aspasamenoi, the
promises from afar). There was a Jewish tradition that Abraham
saw the whole history of his descendants in the vision of  Ge
15:6f. , but that is not necessary here. He did look for and
welcome the Messianic time, "my day" (	(886e) h(886d)eran t(886e) em(886e)).
"He saw it, and was glad" (eiden kai echar(885c)). Second aorist
active indicative of hora(935c) and second aorist passive indicative
of chair(935c). Ye see it and are angry!

经文:

约翰福音 8:57-8:57

注释:

 {Thou art not yet fifty years old} (pent(886b)onta eti oup(930a)echeis). Literally, "Thou hast not yet fifty years." Not meaning
that Jesus was near that age at all. It was the crisis of
completed manhood ( Nu 4:3 ) and a round number. Jesus was about
thirty to thirty-three. {And hast thou seen Abraham?} (Kai
Abraam he(9372)akas;). So A C D and B W Theta have he(9372)akes, both
second person singular of the perfect active indicative of
hora(935c). But Aleph, Sin-syr., Coptic versions (accepted by
Bernard) have kai Abraam he(9372)ake se? "Has Abraam seen thee?"
Either makes sense here.

经文:

约翰福音 8:58-8:58

注释:

 {Before Abraham was} (prin Abraam genesthai). Usual idiom
with prin in positive sentence with infinitive (second aorist
middle of ginomai) and the accusative of general reference,
"before coming as to Abraham," "before Abraham came into
existence or was born." {I am} (eg(9320)eimi). Undoubtedly here
Jesus claims eternal existence with the absolute phrase used of
God. The contrast between genesthai (entrance into existence of
Abraham) and eimi (timeless being) is complete. See the same
contrast between en in  1:1  and egeneto in  1:14 . See the
contrast also in  Ps 90:2  between God (ei, art) and the
mountains (gen(8874)h(886e)ai). See the same use of eimi in  Joh
6:20  9:9  8:24,28  18:6 .

经文:

约翰福音 8:59-8:59

注释:

 {They took up stones therefore} ((8872)an oun lithous). First
aorist active indicative of air(935c), inferential use of oun. The
time for argument had past. {To cast at him} (hina bal(9373)in ep'
auton). Final clause with hina and the second aorist active
subjunctive of all(935c). Vivid picture of a mob ready to kill
Jesus, already beginning to do so. {Hid himself} (ekrub(885c)).
Second aorist passive indicative of krupt(935c). He was hidden. No
Docetic vanishing, but quietly and boldly Jesus went out of the
temple. His hour had not yet come. Once again three months later
the Pharisees will try to kill him, but he will pass out of their
hands ( 10:39 ).

经文:

约翰福音 9:1-9:1

注释:

 {As he passed by} (parag(936e)). Present active participle of
parag(935c), old verb to go along, by, or past ( Mt 20:30 ). Only
example in this Gospel, but in  1Jo 2:8,17 . The day was after
the stirring scenes in chapter 8, but not at the feast of
dedication as Westcott argues. That comes three months later
( 10:22 ). {From his birth} (ek genet(8873)). Ablative case with
ek of old word from gen(932c) ginomai. Here alone in N.T., but
the phrase 	uphlos ek genet(8873) is common in Greek writers.
Probably a well-known character with his stand as a beggar (verse
 5 ).

经文:

约翰福音 9:2-9:2

注释:

 {Who did sin?} (	is h(886d)arten;). Second aorist active
indicative of hamartan(935c). See  Ac 3:2  14:8  for two examples of
lameness from birth. Blindness is common in the Orient and Jesus
healed many cases (cf.  Mr 8:23  10:46 ) and mentions this fact
as one of the marks of the Messiah in the message to the Baptist
( Mt 11:5 ). This is the only example of congenital blindness
healed. It is not clear that the disciples expected Jesus to heal
this case. They are puzzled by the Jewish notion that sickness
was a penalty for sin. The Book of Job had shown that this was
not always the case and Jesus shows it also ( Lu 13:1-5 ). If
this man was guilty, it was due to prenatal sin on his part, a
curious notion surely. The other alternative charged it upon his
parents. That is sometimes true ( Ex 20:5 , etc.), but by no
means always. The rabbinical casuists loved to split hairs on
this problem. Ezekiel ( Eze 18:20 ) says: "The soul that sinneth
it shall die" (individual responsibility for sin committed).
There is something in heredity, but not everything. {That he
should be born blind} (hina tuphlos genn(8874)h(8869)). Probably
consecutive (or sub-final) use of hina with first aorist
passive subjunctive of genna(935c).

经文:

约翰福音 9:3-9:3

注释:

 {But that the works of God should be made manifest in him}
(all' hina phaner(9374)h(8869) ta erga tou theou en aut(9369)). Jesus
denies both alternatives, and puts God's purpose (all' hina
with first aorist subjunctive of phanero(935c)) as the true
solution. It is sometimes true that disease is the result of
personal sin as in the man in  5:14  and parents can hand on the
effects of sin to the third and fourth generations, but there are
cases free from blame like this. There is comfort for many
sufferers in the words of Jesus here.

经文:

约翰福音 9:4-9:4

注释:

 {We must work the works of him that sent me} (h(886d)as dei
ergazesthai ta erga tou pempsantos me). This is undoubtedly the
correct text (supported by the Neutral and Western classes) and
not eme (I) and me (me) of the Syrian class nor h(886d)as (we)
and h(886d)as (us) of the Alexandrian class. Jesus associates us
with him in the task committed to him by the Father. Bernard
argues vigorously, but vainly, for eme me. We are not able to
fathom the depth of the necessity (dei) here involved in each
life as in this poor blind man and in each of us. {While it is
day} (he(9373) h(886d)era estin). This clause gives the note of urgency
upon us all. {The night cometh} (erchetai nux). "Night is
coming on," and rapidly. Night was coming for Jesus ( 7:33 ) and
for each of us. Cf.  11:9  12:35 . Even electric lights do not
turn night into day. He(9373) with the present indicative
( 21:22f. ) means "while," not until as in  13:38 .

经文:

约翰福音 9:5-9:5

注释:

 {When I am in the world} (hotan en t(9369) kosm(9369) (935c)).
Indefinite relative clause with hotan and present active
subjunctive (935c), "whenever I am in the world." The Latin Vulgate
renders here hotan by _quamdiu_ so long as or while as if it
were he(9373). But clearly Jesus here refers to the historic
Incarnation ( 17:11 ) and to any previous visitations in the time
of the patriarchs, prophets, etc. Jesus as God's Son is always
the Light of the World ( 1:4,10  8:12 ), but here the reference
is limited to his manifestation "in the world." {I am the light
of the world} (ph(9373) eimi tou kosmou). The absence of the
definite article (	o ph(9373) in  8:12 ) is to be noted (Westcott).
Literally, "I am light to the world, whenever I am in the world."
"The display of the character varies with the occasion"
(Westcott).

经文:

约翰福音 9:6-9:6

注释:

 {He spat on the ground} (eptusen chamai). First aorist
active indicative of the old verb ptu(935c) for which see  Mr 7:33 .
Chamai is an old adverb either in the dative or locative (sense
suits locative), in N.T. only here and  Joh 18:6 . Jesus was not
asked to cure this man. The curative effects of saliva are held
in many places. The Jews held saliva efficacious for eye-trouble,
but it was forbidden on the Sabbath. "That Jesus supposed some
virtue lay in the application of the clay is contradicted by the
fact that in other cases of blindness He did not use it" (Dods).
Cf.  Mr 8:23 . Why he here accommodated himself to current belief
we do not know unless it was to encourage the man to believe. {He
made clay} (epoi(8873)en p(886c)on). Only use of p(886c)os, old word for
clay, in N.T. in this chapter and  Ro 9:21 . The kneading of the
clay and spittle added another offence against the Sabbath rules
of the rabbis. {Anointed his eyes with the clay} (epechrisen
autou ton p(886c)on epi tous ophthalmous). First aorist active
indicative of epichri(935c), old verb, to spread on, anoint, here
only and verse  11  in N.T. "He spread the clay upon his eyes." B
C read epeth(886b)en (first aorist active indicative of
epitith(886d)i, to put on).

经文:

约翰福音 9:7-9:7

注释:

 {Wash} (
ipsai). First aorist middle imperative second
person singular of 
ipt(935c), later form of 
iz(935c), to wash,
especially parts of the body. Certainly bathing the eyes is good
for eye trouble, and yet we are not to infer that the cure was
due to the use of the clay or to the washing. {In the pool of
Siloam} (eis t(886e) kolumb(8874)hran tou Sil(9361)m). The word
kolumb(8874)hra (from kolumba(935c), to swim) is a common word for
swimming-pool, in N.T. only here and  5:2,7 . The name _Siloam_
is Hebrew ( Isa 8:6 ) and means "sent" (apestalmenos, perfect
passive participle of apostell(935c)). It was situated south of the
temple area and was apparently connected by a subterranean tunnel
with the Virgin's Well ( 5:2 ) according to Bernard. The water
was conducted artificially to the pool of Siloam. {Washed}
(enipsato). First aorist direct middle (cf. 
ipsai),
apparently bathing and not merely washing his eyes. {Came seeing}
((886c)then blep(936e)). Jesus had healed him. He was tested by the
demand to bathe his eyes.

经文:

约翰福音 9:8-9:8

注释:

 {Neighbours} (geitones). From g(885c) (land), of the same
land, old word. See  Lu 14:2 . {Saw him} (	he(9372)ountes). Present
active participle of 	he(9372)e(935c), who used to observe him.
{Aforetime} (	o proteron). Adverbial accusative, "the former
time," formerly. {That he was a beggar} (hoti prosait(8873) (886e)).
See  4:19  12:19  for declarative hoti after 	he(9372)e(935c). But it
is entirely possible that hoti here is "because" (Westcott).
Prosait(8873) is a late word for beggar, in N.T. only here and  Mr
10:46 . It is from prosaite(935c), to ask in addition (see
prosait(936e) below), a thing that beggars know how to do. {Is not
this he that sat and begged?} (Ouch houtos estin ho kath(886d)enos
kai prosait(936e);). He had his regular place and was a familiar
figure. But now his eyes are wide open.

经文:

约翰福音 9:9-9:9

注释:

 {Nay but he is like him} (Ouchi, alla homoios aut(9369) estin).
Vigorous denial (ouchi) and mere similarity suggested.
Associative instrumental case autoi after homoios. The crowd
is divided. {He said} (ekeinos elegen). Emphatic demonstrative
(as in  11,12,25,36 ), "That one spake up." He knew.

经文:

约翰福音 9:10-9:10

注释:

 {How then were thine eyes opened?} (P(9373) oun (886e)e(9369)chth(8873)an
sou hoi ophthalmoi;). Natural and logical (oun) question.
First aorist passive indicative (triple augment) of anoig(935c).
These neighbours admit the fact and want the manner ("how") of
the cure made clear.

经文:

约翰福音 9:11-9:11

注释:

 {The man that is called Jesus} (ho anthr(9370)os ho legomenos
I(8873)ous). He does not yet know Jesus as the Messiah the Son of
God ( 9:36 ). {I received sight} (aneblepsa). First aorist
active indicative of anablep(935c), old verb to see again, to
recover sight, not strictly true of this man who had never seen.
He got back sight that he had never had. Originally the verb
means to look up ( Mt 14:19 ).

经文:

约翰福音 9:12-9:12

注释:

 {Where is he?} (Pou estin ekeinos;). The very question of
 7:11 .

经文:

约翰福音 9:13-9:13

注释:

 {They bring him} (agousin auton). Vivid dramatic present
active of ag(935c). These neighbours bring him. {To the Pharisees}
(pros tous Pharisaious). The accepted professional teachers who
posed as knowing everything. The scribes were usually Pharisees.
{Him that aforetime was blind} (	on pote tuphlon). Simply, "the
once blind man."

经文:

约翰福音 9:14-9:14

注释:

 {Now it was the sabbath} ((886e) de sabbaton). Literally, "Now
it was a sabbath" (no article). To the Pharisees this fact was a
far more important matter than whether or how the thing was done.
See Volumes I and II for discussions of the minute Sabbath
regulations of the rabbis.

经文:

约翰福音 9:15-9:15

注释:

 {Again} (palin). Besides the questioning of the neighbours
(verses  8,9 ). {Therefore} (oun). Since he has been brought to
the Pharisees who must make a show of wisdom. {Also asked him}
((8872)(9374)(936e) auton kai). Inchoative imperfect active of er(9374)a(935c),
"began also to question him." {How he received his sight} (p(9373)
aneblepsen). No denial as yet of the fact, only interest in the
"how." {He put} (epeth(886b)en). Genuine here, but see verse  6 .
{And lo see} (kai blep(935c)). That is the overwhelming fact.

经文:

约翰福音 9:16-9:16

注释:

 {Because he keepeth not the sabbath} (hoti to sabbaton ou
t(8872)ei). This is reason (causal hoti) enough. He violates our
rules about the Sabbath and therefore is a Sabbath-breaker as
charged when here before ( 5:10,16,18 ). Hence he is not "from
God" (para theou). So some. {How can a man that is a sinner do
such signs?} (P(9373) dunatai anthr(9370)os hamart(936c)os toiauta s(886d)eia
poiein;). This was the argument of Nicodemus, himself a Pharisee
and one of the Sanhedrin, long ago ( 3:2 ). It was a conundrum
for the Pharisees. No wonder there was "a division" (schisma,
schism, split, from schiz(935c)) as in  7:43  10:19 .

经文:

约翰福音 9:17-9:17

注释:

 {Unto the blind man again} (	(9369) tuphl(9369) palin). The
doctors disagree and they ask the patient whose story they had
already heard (verse  15 ). {In that he opened thine eyes} (hoti
(886e)e(9369)xen sou tous ophthalmous). Causal use of hoti and triple
augment in the first aorist active indicative of anoig(935c). They
offer the excuse that the man's experience particularly qualified
him to explain the "how," overlooking the fact he had already
told his story and also trying to conceal their own hopeless
division of opinion. {He is a prophet} (proph(8874)(8873) estin). The
man will go that far anyhow.

经文:

约翰福音 9:18-9:18

注释:

 {The Jews} (hoi Ioudaioi). Probably the incredulous and
hostile section of the Pharisees in verse  16  (cf.  5:10 ). {Did
not believe} (ouk episteusan). The facts told by the man, "that
he had been blind and had received his sight" (hoti (886e) tuphlos
kai aneblepsen), conflicted with their theological views of God
and the Sabbath. So they refused belief "until they called the
parents" (he(9373) hotou eph(936e)(8873)an tous goneis). Usual construction
of he(9373) hotou ( = until which time, like he(9373) alone) with
aorist active indicative of ph(936e)e(935c), old verb from ph(936e)(885c)
(voice, sound). They called out loud for his parents to throw
light on this grave problem to cover up their own stupidity.

经文:

约翰福音 9:19-9:19

注释:

 {Is this your son who ye say was born blind? how doth he now
see?} (Houtos estin ho huios hum(936e), hon humeis l(8867)ete hoti
tuphlos egenn(8874)h(883b) p(9373) oun blepei arti;). It was shrewdly put
with three questions in one in order to confuse the parents if
possible and give the hostile Pharisees a handle.

经文:

约翰福音 9:20-9:20

注释:

 {We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind}
(Oidamen hoti houtos estin ho huios h(886d)(936e) kai hoti tuphlos
egenn(8874)h(885c)). These two questions the parents answer clearly and
thus cut the ground from under the disbelief of these Pharisees
as to the fact of the cure (verse  18 ). So these Pharisees made
a failure here.

经文:

约翰福音 9:21-9:21

注释:

 {But how he now seeth we know not} (p(9373) de nun blepei ouk
oidamen). Concerning the third question they profess ignorance
both as to the "how" (p(9373)) and the "who" (	is). {Opened}
((886e)oixen). First aorist active indicative with single augment
of anoig(935c), same form as (886e)e(9369)xen (triple augment) in verse
 17 . They were not witnesses of the cure and had the story only
from the son as the Pharisees had. {He is of age} (h(886c)ikian
echei). "He has maturity of age." He is an adult. A regular
classical phrase in Plato, etc. The parents were wholly right and
within their rights.

经文:

约翰福音 9:22-9:22

注释:

 {Because they feared the Jews} (hoti ephobounto tous
Ioudaious). Imperfect middle, a continuing fear and not without
reason. See already the whispers about Jesus because of fear of
the Jews ( 7:13 ). {Had agreed already} ((8864)(8820)sunetetheinto).
Past perfect middle of suntith(886d)i, to put together, to form a
compact ( 7:32,47-49 ). {If any man should confess him to be
Christ} (ean tis auton homolog(8873)(8869) Christon). Condition of
third class with ean and first aorist active subjunctive of
homologe(935c) and predicate accusative Christon. Jesus had made
confession of himself before men the test of discipleship and
denial the disproof ( Mt 10:32  Lu 12:8 ). We know that many of
the rulers nominally believed on Jesus ( 12:42 ) and yet "did not
confess him because of the Pharisees" (alla dia tous Pharisaious
ouch h(936d)ologoun), for the very reason given here, "that they
might not be put out of the synagogue" (hina m(8820)aposunag(9367)oi
gen(936e)tai). Small wonder then that here the parents cowered a
bit. {That he should be put out of the synagogue} (hina
aposunag(9367)os gen(8874)ai). Sub-final use of hina with second
aorist middle subjunctive of ginomai. Aposunag(9367)os (apo and
sunag(9367)(885c)) is found in N.T. only here and  12:42  16:2 . A
purely Jewish word naturally. There were three kinds of
excommunication (for thirty days, for thirty more, indefinitely).

经文:

约翰福音 9:23-9:23

注释:

 {Therefore} (dia touto). "For this reason." Reason enough
for due caution.

经文:

约翰福音 9:24-9:24

注释:

 {A second time} (ek deuterou). He had given the Pharisees
the facts the first time ( 9:15 ). It was really the third time
(see palin in  9:17 ). Now it was like a joke unless the
Pharisees meant to imply that his previous story was untrue.
{Give glory to God} (dos doxan t(9369) the(9369)). Second aorist active
imperative of did(936d)i (cf. sches, hes). This phrase does not
mean gratitude to God as in  Lu 17:18 . It is rather an
adjuration to speak the truth ( Jos 7:19  1Sa 6:5 ) as if he had
not done it before. Augustine says: "_Quid est Da gloriam Deo?
Nega quod accepisti._" Is a sinner (hamart(936c)os estin). They can
no longer deny the fact of the cure since the testimony of the
parents ( 9:19 ) and now wish the man to admit that he was lying
in saying that Jesus healed him. He must accept their
ecclesiastical authority as proving that Jesus had nothing to do
with the cure since Jesus is a sinner. They wish to decide the
fact by logic and authority like all persecutors through the
ages. Recall the Pharisaic distinction between dikaios
(righteous) and hamart(936c)os (sinner).

经文:

约翰福音 9:25-9:25

注释:

 {One thing I know} (hen oida). This man is keen and quick
and refuses to fall into the trap set for him. He passes by their
quibbling about Jesus being a "sinner" (hamart(936c)os) and clings
to the one fact of his own experience. {Whereas I was blind, now
I see} (	uphlos (936e) arti blep(935c)). Literally, "Being blind I now
see." The present active participle (936e) of eimi by implication
in contrast with arti (just now, at this moment) points to
previous and so past time. It must be borne in mind that the man
did not at this stage know who Jesus was and so had not yet taken
him as Saviour ( 9:36-38 ).

经文:

约翰福音 9:26-9:26

注释:

 {What did he do to thee?} (Ti epoi(8873)en soi;). Another
cross-examination, now admitting that Jesus opened his eyes and
wishing again ( 9:15,17 ) to know "how."

经文:

约翰福音 9:27-9:27

注释:

 {I told you even now} (eipon humin (8864)(885c)). In verses
 15,17,25 . {Would ye also become his disciples?} (M(8820)kai humeis
thelete autou math(8874)ai genesthai;). Negative answer formally
expected, but the keenest irony in this gibe. Clearly the healed
man knew from the use of "also" (kai) that Jesus had some
"disciples" (math(8874)ai, predicate nominative with the infinitive
genesthai) and that the Pharisees knew that fact. "Do ye also
(like the Galilean mob) wish, etc." See  7:45-52 . It cut to the
bone.

经文:

约翰福音 9:28-9:28

注释:

 1Pe
2:23 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Pe
2' or engs='1Pe
2'
经文:

约翰福音 9:29-9:29

注释:

 {We know that God hath spoken unto Moses} (h(886d)eis oidamen
hoti M(9375)sei lelal(886b)en ho theos). Perfect active indicative of
lale(935c), so still on record. See  Ex 33:11 . For lale(935c) used of
God speaking see  Heb 1:1 . They are proud to be disciples of
Moses. {But as for this man, we do not know whence he is}
(	outon de ouk oidamen pothen estin). "This fellow" they mean
by "	outon" in emphatic position, we do not even know whence he
is. Some of the people did ( 7:27 ), but in the higher sense none
of the Jews knew ( 8:14 ). These Pharisees neither knew nor
cared.

经文:

约翰福音 9:30-9:30

注释:

 {Why, herein is the marvel} (en tout(9369) gar to thaumaston
estin). This use of gar (ge + ara, accordingly indeed) to
bring out an affirmation from the previous words is common
enough. "Why in this very point is the wonder" (	haumaston, old
verbal adjective from 	haumaz(935c) as in  Mt 21:42 ). The man is
angry now and quick in his insight and reply. You confess your
ignorance of whence he is, ye who know everything, "and yet
(adversative use of kai again) he opened my eyes" (kai (886e)oixen
mou tous ophthalmous). That stubborn fact stands.

经文:

约翰福音 9:31-9:31

注释:

 {God does not hear sinners} (ho theos hamart(936c)(936e) ouk
akouei). Note genitive case with akouei. This was the argument
of the Pharisees in  9:16 . It is frequent in the O.T. ( Job
27:9  Ps 66:18  Isa 1:15  59:2 , etc.). The conclusion is
inevitable from this premise. Jesus is not hamart(936c)os. {If any
man be a worshipper of God} (ean tis theoseb(8873) (8869)). Condition
of third class with ean and present active subjunctive (8869).
Theoseb(8873) (	heos, God, sebomai, to worship) is an old
compound adjective, here alone in the N.T. {And do his will}
(kai to thel(886d)a autou poiei). Same condition with present
active subjunctive of poie(935c), "keep on doing his will."

经文:

约翰福音 9:32-9:32

注释:

 {Since the world began} (ek tou ai(936e)os). Literally, "from
the age," "from of old." Elsewhere in the N.T. we have apo tou
ai(936e)os or ap 'ai(936e)os ( Lu 1:70  Ac 3:31  15:18 ) as is common
in the LXX. {Of a man born blind} (	uphlou gegenn(886d)enou).
Perfect passive participle of genna(935c). This is the chief point
and the man will not let it be overlooked, almost rubs it in, in
fact. It was congenital blindness.

经文:

约翰福音 9:33-9:33

注释:

 {If this man were not from God} (ei m(8820)(886e) houtos para
theou). Negative condition of second class with imperfect
indicative. Assuming that Jesus is not "from God" (para theou)
as some argued in  9:16 , "he could do nothing" (ouk (8864)unato
poiein ouden). Conclusion of the second-class condition with
imperfect indicative (double augment in (8864)unato) without an
as is usual in conditions of possibility, propriety, obligation
(Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 920,1014). The man has scored with
terrific power in his use of Scripture and logic.

经文:

约翰福音 9:34-9:34

注释:

 {Thou wast altogether born in sin} (en hamartiais su
egenn(8874)h(8873) holos). First aorist passive indicative of genna(935c).
"In sins thou wast begotten (or born) all of thee." Holos is
predicate nominative and teaches total depravity in this case
beyond controversy, the Pharisees being judges. {And dost thou
teach us?} (kai su didaskeis h(886d)as;). The audacity of it all.
Note emphasis on su (thou). It was insufferable. He had not
only taught the rabbis, but had utterly routed them in argument.
{And they cast him out} (kai exebalon auton ex(935c)). Effective
second aorist active indicative of ekball(935c) intensified by the
addition of ex(935c). Probably not yet expulsion from the synagogue
( 9:22 ) which required a formal meeting of the Sanhedrin, but
certainly forcible driving of the gifted upstart from their
presence. See  6:37  for another use of ekball(9320)ex(935c) besides
 9:35 .

经文:

约翰福音 9:35-9:35

注释:

 {Finding him} (heur(936e) auton). Second aorist active
participle of heurisk(935c), after search because of what he had
heard ((886b)ousen). {Dost thou believe on the Son of God?} (Su
pisteueis eis ton huion tou theou;). So A L Theta and most
versions, but Aleph B D W Syr-sin read 	ou anthr(9370)ou (the Son
of Man), almost certainly correct. In either case it is a
distinct Messianic claim quite beyond the range of this man's
limited knowledge, keen as he is.

经文:

约翰福音 9:36-9:36

注释:

 {And who is he, Lord, that I may believe on him?} (Kai tis
estin, kurie;). The initial kai (and) is common ( Mr 10:26  Lu
10:29  18:26 ). Probably by kurie he means only "Sir." It
usually comes at the beginning of the sentence, not at the end as
here and verse  38 . {That I may believe on him} (hina pisteus(930a)eis auton). Ellipsis to be supplied before this final clause. He
catches up the words of Jesus in the preceding verse, though he
does not yet know who the Son of Man (or Son of God) is, but he
trusts Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 9:37-9:37

注释:

 {Thou hast both seen him} (kai he(9372)akas auton). Perfect
active indicative (double reduplication) of hora(935c). Since his
eyes were opened. {And he it is that speaketh with thee} (kai ho
lal(936e) meta sou ekeinos estin). "And the one speaking with thee
is that man." See  19:35  for ekeinos used of the speaker. In
 4:26  Jesus reveals himself in like manner to the Samaritan
woman as Messiah while here as the Son of Man (or the Son of
God).

经文:

约翰福音 9:38-9:38

注释:

 {Lord, I believe} (Pisteu(932c) kurie). Kurie here = Lord
(reverence, no longer respect as in  36 ). A short creed, but to
the point. {And he worshipped him} (kai prosekun(8873)en aut(9369)).
Ingressive first aorist active indicative of proskune(935c), old
verb to fall down in reverence, to worship. Sometimes of men ( Mt
18:26 ). In John (see  4:20 ) this verb "is always used to
express divine worship" (Bernard). It is tragic to hear men today
deny that Jesus should be worshipped. He accepted worship from
this new convert as he later did from Thomas who called him "God"
( Joh 20:28 ). Peter ( Ac 10:25f. ) refused worship from
Cornelius as Paul and Barnabas did at Lystra ( Ac 14:18 ), but
Jesus made no protest here.

经文:

约翰福音 9:39-9:39

注释:

 {For judgement} (eis krima). The Father had sent the Son
for this purpose ( 3:17 ). This world (kosmos) is not the home
of Jesus. The krima (judgement), a word nowhere else in John,
is the result of the krisis (sifting) from krin(935c), to
separate. The Father has turned over this process of sifting
(krisis) to the Son ( 5:22 ). He is engaged in that very work
by this miracle. {They which see not} (hoi m(8820)blepontes). The
spiritually blind as well as the physically blind ( Lu 4:18  Isa
42:18 ). Purpose clause with hina and present active
subjunctive lep(9373)in (may keep on seeing). This man now sees
physically and spiritually. {And that they which see may become
blind} (kai hoi blepontes tuphloi gen(936e)tai). Another part of
God's purpose, seen in  Mt 11:25  Lu 10:21 , is the curse on
those who blaspheme and reject the Son. Note ingressive aorist
middle subjunctive of ginomai and predicate nominative. Hoi
blepontes are those who profess to see like these Pharisees, but
are really blind. Blind guides they were ( Mt 23:16 ). Complacent
satisfaction with their dim light.

经文:

约翰福音 9:40-9:40

注释:

 {Are we also blind?} (M(8820)kai h(886d)eis tuphloi esmen;).
Negative answer expected (m(885c)) and yet these Pharisees who
overheard the words of Jesus to the new convert vaguely suspected
that Jesus was referring to them by the last clause. Up in
Galilee Jesus had called the Pharisees blind guides who stumble
into the pit ( Mt 15:14 ).

经文:

约翰福音 9:41-9:41

注释:

 {If ye were blind} (ei tuphloi (8874)e). Condition of second
class with imperfect indicative in the protasis. The old word
	uphlos is from 	uph(935c), to raise a smoke, to blind by smoke
(literally and metaphorically). Here, of course, it is moral
blindness. If the Pharisees were born morally blind, they would,
like idiots, be without responsibility. {Ye would not have sin}
(ouk an eichete hamartian). Regular form for conclusion of
second-class condition, an with imperfect. {But now ye say}
(
un de legete). In contrast to the previous condition. See
like contrast in  15:22,24 . They arrogantly asserted superior
knowledge. {We see} (lepomen). The ignorant mob do not
( 7:49 ). It is sin against light and is hopeless ( Mr 3:29  Mt
12:31f. ). "Ye are witnesses against yourselves" (martureite
heautois,  Mt 23:31 ).

经文:

约翰福音 10:1-10:1

注释:

 {Verily, Verily} (Am(886e), am(886e)). Solemn prelude by
repetition as in  1:51 . The words do not ever introduce a fresh
topic (cf.  8:34,51,58 ). So in  10:7 . The Pharisees had
previously assumed (Vincent) they alone were the authoritative
guides of the people ( 9:24,29 ). So Jesus has a direct word for
them. So Jesus begins this allegory in a characteristic way. John
does not use the word parabol(885c), but paroimia (verse  6 ), and
it really is an allegory of the Good Shepherd and
self-explanatory like that of the Prodigal Son in  Lu 15 . He
first tells it in verses  1-5  and then explains and expands it
in verses  7-18 . {Into the fold of the sheep} (eis t(886e) aul(886e)
t(936e) probat(936e)). Originally aul(885c) (from a(935c), to blow) in Homer's
time was just an uncovered space around the house enclosed by a
wall, then a roofless enclosure in the country where flocks were
herded as here and verse  16 . It later came to mean the house
itself or palace ( Mt 26:3,58 , etc.). In the papyri it means the
court attached to the house. {Climbeth up} (anabain(936e)). Present
active participle of anabain(935c), to go up. One who goes up, not
by the door, has to climb up over the wall. {Some other way}
(allachothen). Rare word for old allothen, but in 4Macc. 1:7
and in a papyrus. Only here in N.T. {The same} (ekeinos). "That
one" just described. {Is a thief and a robber} (klept(8873) estin
kai l(8869)st(8873)). Both old and common words (from klept(935c), to
steal, l(8869)zomai, to plunder). The distinction is preserved in
the N.T. as here. Judas was a klept(8873) ( Joh 12:6 ), Barabbas a
robber ( 18:40 ) like the two robbers ( Mt 27:38,44 ) crucified
with Jesus erroneously termed thieves like "the thief on the
cross" by most people. See  Mr 11:17 . Here the man jumping over
the wall comes to steal and to do it by violence like a bandit.
He is both thief and robber.

经文:

约翰福音 10:2-10:2

注释:

 {The shepherd of the sheep} (poim(886e) estin t(936e) probat(936e)).
No article with poim(886e), "a shepherd to the sheep." He comes in
by the door with the sheep whom he leads. Old word is poim(886e),
root meaning to protect. Jesus applies it to himself in verse
 16  and implies it here. It is used of Christ in  1Pe 2:25  Heb
13:20 . Paul applies it to ministers in  Eph 4:11 . Jesus uses
the verb poimain(935c), to shepherd, to Peter ( Joh 21:16 ) and
Peter uses it to other preachers ( 1Pe 5:2 ) and Paul uses it for
bishops (elders) in  Ac 20:28 . Our word pastor is simply Latin
for shepherd. Christ is drawing a sharp contrast after the
conduct of the Pharisees towards the blind man between himself
and them.

经文:

约翰福音 10:3-10:3

注释:

 {To him} (	out(9369)). "To this one," the shepherd, in dative
case. {The porter} (ho thur(9372)os). Old word for doorkeeper
(	hura, door, (9372)a, care, carer for the door). Used for man
( Mr 13:34  Joh 10:3 ) or woman ( Joh 18:16ff. ), only N.T.
examples. The porter has charge of the sheep in the fold at night
and opens the door in the morning for the shepherd. It is not
certain that Jesus meant this detail to have a special
application. The Holy Spirit, of course, does open the door of
our hearts for Jesus through various agencies. {Hear his voice}
(	(8873) ph(936e)(8873) autou akouei). Hear and heed (verse  27 ). Note
genitive case ph(936e)(8873) (accusative in  3:8 ). {By name} (kat'
onoma). Several flocks might be herded in the same fold
overnight. But the shepherd knows his own (	a idia) sheep
(verse  27 ) and calls their names. "It is still common for
Eastern shepherds to give particular names to their sheep"
(Bernard). {And leadeth them out} (kai exagei auta). Old and
common verb, present active indicative. The sheep follow readily
(verse  27 ) because they know their own shepherd's voice and his
name for each of them and because he has led them out before.
They love and trust their shepherd.

经文:

约翰福音 10:4-10:4

注释:

 {When he hath put forth all his own} (hotan ta idia panta
ekbal(8869)). Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and the second
aorist (effective) active subjunctive of ekball(935c). No need of
the _futurum exactum_ idea, simply, "when he leads out all his
own sheep." They are all out of the fold. He overlooks none.
Ekball(935c) does mean "thrust out" if a reluctant sheep wishes to
linger too long. {He goeth before them} (emprosthen aut(936e)
poreuetai). Staff in hand he leads the way in front of the flock
and they follow (akolouthei) him. What a lesson for pastors who
seek to drive the church like cattle and fail. The true pastor
leads in love, in words, in deeds.

经文:

约翰福音 10:5-10:5

注释:

 {A stranger} (allotri(9369)). Literally, "One belonging to
another" (from allos, opposed to idios). A shepherd of
another flock, it may be, not necessarily the thief and robber of
verse  1 . Note associative instrumental case after
akolouth(8873)ousin (future active indicative of akolouthe(935c),
verse  4 ). Note the strong double negative ou m(885c) here with the
future indicative, though usually with the aorist subjunctive
(Aleph L W have it here). They simply will not follow such a man
or woman, these well-trained sheep will not. {But will flee from
him} (alla pheuxontai ap' autou). Future middle of pheug(935c) and
ablative case with apo. They will flee as if from a wolf or
from the plague. Alas and alas, if only our modern pastors had
the sheep (old and young) so trained that they would run away
from and not run after the strange voices that call them to false
philosophy, false psychology, false ethics, false religion, false
life.

经文:

约翰福音 10:6-10:6

注释:

 {This parable} (	aut(886e) t(886e) paroimian). Old word for
proverb from para (beside) and oimos, way, a wayside saying
or saying by the way. As a proverb in N.T. in  2Pe 2:22 
(quotation from  Pr 26:11 ), as a symbolic or figurative saying
in  Joh 16:25,29 , as an allegory in  Joh 10:6 . Nowhere else in
the N.T. Curiously enough in the N.T. parabol(885c) occurs only in
the Synoptics outside of  Heb 9:9  11:19 . Both are in the LXX.
Parabol(885c) is used as a proverb ( Lu 4:23 ) just as paroimia is
in  2Pe 2:22 . Here clearly paroimia means an allegory which is
one form of the parable. So there you are. Jesus spoke this
paroimia to the Pharisees, "but they understood not what things
they were which he spake unto them" (ekeinoi de ouk egn(9373)an tina
(886e) ha elalei autois). Second aorist active indicative of
gin(9373)k(935c) and note (886e) in indirect question as in  2:25  and
both the interrogative 	ina and the relative ha. "Spake"
(imperfect elalei) should be "Was speaking or had been
speaking."

经文:

约翰福音 10:7-10:7

注释:

 {Therefore again} (oun palin). Jesus repeats the allegory
with more detail and with more directness of application.
Repeating a story is not usually an exhilarating experience. {I
am the door of the sheep} (eg(9320)eimi h(8820)thura t(936e) probat(936e)). The
door for the sheep by which they enter. "He is the legitimate
door of access to the spiritual aul(885c), the Fold of the House of
Israel, the door by which a true shepherd must enter" (Bernard).
He repeats it in verse  9 . This is a new idea, not in the
previous story ( 1-5 ). Moffatt follows the Sahidic in accepting
ho poim(886e) here instead of h(8820)thura, clearly whimsical. Jesus
simply changes the metaphor to make it plainer. They were
doubtless puzzled by the meaning of the door in verse  1 . Once
more, this metaphor should help those who insist on the literal
meaning of bread as the actual body of Christ in  Mr 14:22 .
Jesus is not a physical "door," but he is the only way of
entrance into the Kingdom of God ( 14:6 ).

经文:

约翰福音 10:8-10:8

注释:

 {Before me} (pro emou). Aleph with the Latin, Syriac, and
Sahidic versions omit these words (supported by A B D L W). But
with or without pro emou Jesus refers to the false Messiahs and
self-appointed leaders who made havoc of the flock. These are the
thieves and robbers, not the prophets and sincere teachers of
old. The reference is to verse  1 . There had been numerous such
impostors already (Josephus, _Ant_. XVIII. i. 6; _War_ II. viii.
I) and Jesus will predict many more ( Mt 24:23f. ). They keep on
coming, these wolves in sheep's clothing ( Mt 7:15 ) who grow
rich by fooling the credulous sheep. In this case "the sheep did
not hear them" (ouk (886b)ousan aut(936e) ta probata). First aorist
active indicative with genitive. Fortunate sheep who knew the
Shepherd's voice.

经文:

约翰福音 10:9-10:9

注释:

 {The door} (h(8820)thura). Repeated from verse  7 . {By me if
any man enter in} (di' emou ean tis eiselth(8869)). Condition of
third class with ean and second aorist active subjunctive of
eiserchomai. Note proleptic and emphatic position of di'
emou. One can call this narrow intolerance, if he will, but it
is the narrowness of truth. If Jesus is the Son of God sent to
earth for our salvation, he is the only way. He had already said
it in  5:23 . He will say it again more sharply in  14:6 . It is
unpalatable to the religious dogmatists before him as it is to
the liberal dogmatists today. Jesus offers the open door to "any
one" (	is) who is willing (	helei) to do God's will ( 7:17 ).
{He shall be saved} (s(9374)h(8873)etai). Future passive of s(937a)(935c), the
great word for salvation, from s(9373), safe and sound. The sheep
that comes into the fold through Jesus as the door will be safe
from thieves and robbers for one thing. He will have entrance
(eisleusetai) and outgo (exeleusetai), he will be at home in
the daily routine (cf.  Ac 1:21 ) of the sheltered flock. {And
shall find pasture} (kai nom(886e) heur(8873)ei). Future (linear
future) indicative of heurisk(935c), old word from 
em(935c), to
pasture. In N.T. only here and  2Ti 2:17  (in sense of growth).
This same phrase occurs in  1Ch 4:40 . The shepherd leads the
sheep to pasture, but this phrase pictures the joy of the sheep
in the pasture provided by the shepherd.

经文:

约翰福音 10:10-10:10

注释:

 {But that he may steal, and kill, and destroy} (ei m(8820)hina
kleps(8869) kai thus(8869) kai apoles(8869)). Literally, "except that" (ei
m(885c)) common without ( Mt 12:4 ) and with verb ( Ga 1:7 ), "if
not" (literally), followed here by final hina and three aorist
active subjunctives as sometimes by hotan ( Mr 9:9 ) or hoti
( 2Co 12:13 ). Note the order of the verbs. Stealing is the
purpose of the thief, but he will kill and destroy if necessary
just like the modern bandit or gangster. {I came that they may
have life} (eg(9320)(886c)thon hina z(9388)n ech(9373)in). In sharp contrast
(eg(935c)) as the good shepherd with the thieves and robbers of
verse  1  came Jesus. Note present active subjunctive
(ech(9373)in), "that they (people) may keep on having life
(eternal, he means)" as he shows in  10:28 . He is "the life"
( 14:6 ). {And may have it abundantly} (kai perisson ech(9373)in).
Repetition of ech(9373)in (may keep on having) abundance
(perisson, neuter singular of perissos). Xenophon (_Anab_.
VII. vi. 31) uses perisson echein, "to have a surplus," true to
the meaning of overflow from peri (around) seen in Paul's
picture of the overplus (hupereperisseusen in  Ro 5:20 ) of
grace. Abundance of life and all that sustains life, Jesus gives.

经文:

约翰福音 10:11-10:11

注释:

 1Ti
4:6 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Ti
4' or engs='1Ti
4'
经文:

约翰福音 10:12-10:12

注释:

 {He that is a hireling} (ho misth(9374)os). Old word from
mistho(935c), to hire ( Mt 20:1 ) from misthos (hire, wages,  Lu
10:7 ), in N.T. only in this passage. Literally, "the hireling
and not being a shepherd" (ho misth(9374)os kai ouk (936e) poim(886e)).
Note ouk with the participle (936e) to emphasize the certainty
that he is not a shepherd in contrast with m(8820)eiserchomenos in
verse  1  (conceived case). See same contrast in  1Pe 1:8 
between ouk idontes and m(8820)hor(936e)tes. The hireling here is not
necessarily the thief and robber of verses  1,8 . He may
conceivably be a nominal shepherd (pastor) of the flock who
serves only for the money, a sin against which Peter warned the
shepherds of the flock "not for shameful gain" ( 1Pe 5:2 ).
{Whose own} (hou idia). Every true shepherd considers the sheep
in his care "his own" (idia) even if he does not actually "own"
them. The mere "hireling" does not feel so. {Beholdeth}
(	he(9372)ei). Vivid dramatic present, active indicative of
	he(9372)e(935c), a graphic picture. {The wolf coming} (	on lukon
erchomenon). Present middle predicate participle of erchomai.
{Leaveth the sheep, and fleeth} (aphi(8873)in ta probata kai
pheugei). Graphic present actives again of aphi(886d)i and
pheug(935c). The cowardly hireling cares naught for the sheep, but
only for his own skin. The wolf was the chief peril to sheep in
Palestine. See  Mt 10:6  where Jesus says: "Behold I send you
forth as sheep in the midst of wolves." {And the wolf snatcheth
them and scattereth them} (kai ho lukos harpazei kai
skorpizei). Vivid parenthesis in the midst of the picture of the
conduct of the hireling. Bold verbs these. For the old verb
harpaz(935c) see  Joh 6:15  Mt 11:12 , and for skorpiz(935c), late word
(Plutarch) for the Attic skedannumi, see  Mt 12:30 . It occurs
in the vision of Ezekiel ( Eze 34:5 ) where because of the
careless shepherds "the sheep became meat to all the beasts of
the field, and were scattered." Jesus uses harpaz(935c) in  10:29 
where no one is able "to snatch" one out of the Father's hand.

经文:

约翰福音 10:13-10:13

注释:

 {Because he is a hireling} (hoti misth(9374)os estin). And
only that, without the shepherd heart that loves the sheep.
Reason given for the conduct of the hireling after the
parenthesis about the wolf. {And careth not for the sheep} (kai
ou melei aut(9369) peri t(936e) probat(936e)). Literally, "and it is no care
to him about the sheep." This use of the impersonal melei
(present active indicative) is quite common, as in  Mt 22:16 .
But God does care ( 1Pe 5:7 ).

经文:

约翰福音 10:14-10:14

注释:

 {I am the good-shepherd} (eg(9320)eimi ho poim(886e) ho kalos).
Effective repetition. {And mine own know me} (kai gin(9373)kousin me
ta ema). Jesus as the Good Shepherd knows his sheep by name as
he had already said (verse  3 ) and now repeats. Yes, and they
know his voice (verse  4 ), they have experimental knowledge
(gin(9373)k(935c)) of Jesus as their own Shepherd. Here (in this
mutually reciprocal knowledge) lies the secret of their love and
loyalty.

经文:

约翰福音 10:15-10:15

注释:

 {And I know the Father} (kag(9320)gin(9373)k(9320)ton patera). Hence
he is qualified to reveal the Father ( 1:18 ). The comparison of
the mutually reciprocal knowledge between the Father and the Son
illustrates what he has just said, though it stands above all
else ( Mt 11:27  Lu 10:22  Joh 17:21-26 ). We cannot claim such
perfect knowledge of the Good Shepherd as exists between the
Father and the Son and yet the real sheep do know the Shepherd's
voice and do love to follow his leadership here and now in spite
of thieves, robbers, wolves, hirelings. {And I lay down my life
for the sheep} (kai t(886e) psuch(886e) mou tith(886d)i huper t(936e)
probat(936e)). This he had said in verse  11 , but he repeats it now
for clearness. This he does not just as an example for the sheep
and for under-shepherds, but primarily to save the sheep from the
wolves, the thieves and robbers.

经文:

约翰福音 10:16-10:16

注释:

 {Other sheep} (alla probata). Sheep, not goats, but "not
of this fold" (ek t(8873) aul(8873) taut(8873)). See verse  1  for aul(885c).
Clearly "his flock is not confined to those enclosed in the
Jewish fold, whether in Palestine or elsewhere" (Westcott).
Christ's horizon takes in all men of all races and times ( Joh
11:52  12:32 ). The world mission of Christ for all nations is no
new idea with him ( Mt 8:11  Lu 13:28 ). God loved the world and
gave his Son for the race (John 3:16), {Them also I must bring}
(kakeina dei me agagein). Second aorist active infinitive of
ag(935c) with dei expressing the moral urgency of Christ's passion
for God's people in all lands and ages. Missions in Christ's mind
takes in the whole world. This is according to prophecy ( Isa
42:6  49:6  56:8 ) for the Messiah is to be a Light also to the
Gentiles. It was typified by the brazen serpent ( Joh 3:14 ).
Christ died for every man. The Pharisees doubtless listened in
amazement and even the disciples with slow comprehension. {And
they shall hear my voice} (kai t(8873) ph(936e)(8873) mou akousontai).
Future middle indicative of akou(935c) with the genitive ph(936e)(8873).
These words read like a transcript from the Acts and the Epistles
of Paul ( Ro 9-11  in particular). See especially Paul's words in
 Ac 28:28 . Present-day Christianity is here foretold. Only do we
really listen to the voice of the Shepherd as we should? Jesus
means that the Gentiles will hearken if the Jews turn away from
him. {And they shall become one flock, one shepherd} (kai
gen(8873)ontai mia poimn(882c) heis poim(886e)). Future middle indicative of
ginomai, plural, not singular gen(8873)etai as some MSS. have it.
All (Jews and Gentiles) will form one flock under one Shepherd.
Note the distinction here by Jesus between poimn(885c) (old word,
contraction of poimen(885c) from poim(886e), shepherd), as in  Mt
26:31 , and aul(885c) (fold) just before. There may be many folds of
the one flock. Jerome in his Vulgate confused this distinction,
but he is wrong. His use of _ovile_ for both aul(885c) and pomnion
has helped Roman Catholic assumptions. Christ's use of "flock"
(poimn(885c)) here is just another metaphor for kingdom (asileia)
in  Mt 8:11  where the children of the kingdom come from all
climes and nations. See also the various metaphors in  Eph 2  for
this same idea. There is only the one Great Shepherd of the sheep
( Heb 13:20 ), Jesus Christ our Lord.

经文:

约翰福音 10:17-10:17

注释:

 {For this reason} (dia touto). Points to the following
hoti clause. The Father's love for the Son is drawn out ( Joh
3:16 ) by the voluntary offering of the Son for the sin of the
world ( Ro 5:8 ). Hence the greater exaltation ( Php 2:9 ). Jesus
does for us what any good shepherd does ( 10:11 ) as he has
already said ( 10:15 ). The value of the atoning death of Christ
lies in the fact that he is the Son of God, the Son of Man, free
of sin, and that he makes the offering voluntarily ( Heb 9:14 ).
{That I may take it again} (hina palin lab(9320)aut(886e)). Purpose
clause with hina and second aorist active subjunctive of
lamban(935c). He looked beyond his death on the Cross to the
resurrection. "The purpose of the Passion was not merely to
exhibit his unselfish love; it was in order that He might resume
His life, now enriched with quickening power as never before"
(Bernard). The Father raised Jesus from the dead ( Ac 2:32 ).
There is spontaneity in the surrender to death and in the taking
life back again (Dods).

经文:

约翰福音 10:18-10:18

注释:

 {No one taketh it away from me} (oudeis airei aut(886e) ap'
emou). But Aleph B read (8872)en (first aorist active indicative
of air(935c), to take away), probably correct (Westcott and Hort).
"John is representing Jesus as speaking _sub specie
aeternitatis_" (Bernard). He speaks of his death as already past
and the resurrection as already accomplished. Cf.  Joh 3:16 . {Of
myself} (ap' emautou). The voluntariness of the death of Jesus
repeated and sharpened. D omits it, probably because of
superficial and apparent conflict with  5:19 . But there is no
inconsistency as is shown by  Joh 3:16  Ro 5:8 . The Father
"gave" the Son who was glad to be given and to give himself. {I
have power to lay it down} (exousian ech(9320)theinai aut(886e)).
Exousia is not an easy word to translate (right, authority,
power, privilege). See  1:12 . Restatement of the voluntariness
of his death for the sheep.

{And I have power to take it again} (kai exousian ech(9320)palin
labein aut(886e)). Note second aorist active infinitive in both
cases (	heinai from 	ith(886d)i and labein from lamban(935c)),
single acts. Recall  2:19  where Jesus said: "And in three days I
will raise it up." He did not mean that he will raise himself
from the dead independently of the Father as the active agent
( Ro 8:11 ). {I received from my Father} (elabon para tou patros
mou). Second aorist active indicative of lamban(935c). He always
follows the Father's command (entol(885c)) in all things ( 12:49f.  14:31 ). So now he is doing the Father's will about his death and
resurrection.

经文:

约翰福音 10:19-10:19

注释:

 {There arose a division again} (schisma palin egeneto).
As in  7:43  in the crowd (also in  7:12,31 ), so now among the
hostile Jews (Pharisees) some of whom had previously professed
belief in him ( 8:31 ). The direct reference of palin (again)
may be to  9:16  when the Pharisees were divided over the problem
of the blind man. Division of opinion about Jesus is a common
thing in John's Gospel ( 6:52,60,66  7:12,25ff.  8:22  9:16f.  10:19,24,41  11:41ff.  12:19,29,42  16:18f. ).

经文:

约翰福音 10:20-10:20

注释:

 {He has a demon and is mad} (daimonion echei kai
mainetai). As some had already said ( 7:20  8:48  with the
addition of "Samaritan"). So long before in  Mr 3:21 . An easy
way of discounting Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 10:21-10:21

注释:

 {Of one possessed with a demon} (daimonizomenou).
Genitive of present passive participle of daimoniz(935c). They had
heard demoniacs talk, but not like this. {Can a demon open the
eyes of the blind?} (m(8820)daimonion dunatai tuphlon ophthalmous
anoixai;). Negative answer expected. Demons would more likely
put out eyes, not open them. It was an unanswerable question.

经文:

约翰福音 10:22-10:22

注释:

 {And it was the feast of the dedication at Jerusalem}
(egeneto de ta enkainia en tois Ierosolumois). But Westcott and
Hort read 	ote (then) instead of de (and) on the authority of
B L W 33 and some versions. This is probably correct: "At that
time came the feast of dedication in Jerusalem." Tote does not
mean that the preceding events followed immediately after the
incidents in  10:1-21 . Bernard brings chapter 9 up to this date
(possibly also chapter 8) and rearranges chapter 10 in a purely
arbitrary way. There is no real reason for this arrangement.
Clearly there is a considerable lapse between the events in
 10:22-39  and  10:1-21 , possibly nearly three months (from just
after tabernacles  7:37  to dedication  10:22 ). The Pharisees
greet his return with the same desire to catch him. This feast of
dedication, celebrated for eight days about the middle of our
December, was instituted by Judas Maccabeus B.C. 164 in
commemoration of the cleansing of the temple from the defilements
of pagan worship by Antiochus Epiphanes (1Macc. 4:59). The word
enkainia (en, kainos, new) occurs here only in the N.T. It
was not one of the great feasts and could be observed elsewhere
without coming to Jerusalem. Jesus had apparently spent the time
between tabernacles and dedication in Judea ( Lu 10:1-13:21 ).
{Winter} (cheim(936e)). Old word from cheima (che(935c), to pour,
rain, or from chi(936e), snow). See  Mt 24:20 .

经文:

约翰福音 10:23-10:23

注释:

 {Was walking} (periepatei). Imperfect active of
peripate(935c), to walk around, picturesque imperfect. {In Solomon's
porch} (en t(8869) sto(8369) tou Solom(936e)os). A covered colonnade or
portico in which people could walk in all weather. See  Ac 3:11  5:12  for this porch. This particular part of Solomon's temple
was left uninjured by the Babylonians and survived apparently
till the destruction of the temple by Titus A.D. 70 (Josephus,
_Ant_. XX. 9,7). When John wrote, it was, of course, gone.

经文:

约翰福音 10:24-10:24

注释:

 {Came round about him} (ekukl(9373)an auton). Aorist active
indicative of kuklo(935c), old verb from kuklos (cycle, circle).
See  Ac 14:20  for the circle of disciples around Paul when
stoned. Evidently the hostile Jews cherished the memory of the
stinging rebuke given them by Jesus when here last, particularly
the allegory of the Good Shepherd ( 10:1-19 ), in which he drew
so sharply their own picture. {How long dost thou hold us in
suspense?} (he(9373) pote t(886e) psuch(886e) h(886d)(936e) aireis;). Literally,
"Until when dost thou lift up our soul?" But what do they mean by
this metaphor? Air(935c) is common enough to lift up the eyes ( Joh
11:41 ), the voice ( Lu 17:13 ), and in  Ps 25:1  86:4 
(Josephus, _Ant_. III. ii. 3) we have "to lift up the soul." We
are left to the context to judge the precise meaning. Clearly the
Jews mean to imply doubt and suspense. The next remark makes it
clear. {If thou art the Christ} (ei su ei ho Christos).
Condition of first class assumed to be true for the sake of
argument. {Tell us plainly} (eipon h(886d)in parr(8873)i(8369)). Conclusion
with eipon rather than the usual eipe as if first aorist
active imperative like luson. The point is in "plainly"
(parr(8873)i(8369)), adverb as in  7:13,26  which see. That is to say
"I am the Christ" in so many words. See  11:14  16:29  for the
same use of parr(8873)i(8369). The demand seemed fair enough on the
surface. They had made it before when here at the feast of
tabernacles ( 8:25 ). Jesus declined to use the word Christos
(Messiah) then as now because of the political bearing of the
word in their minds. The populace in Galilee had once tried to
make him king in opposition to Pilate ( Joh 6:14f. ). When Jesus
does confess on oath before Caiaphas that he is the Christ the
Son of God ( Mr 14:61f.  Mt 26:63f. ), the Sanhedrin instantly
vote him guilty of blasphemy and then bring him to Pilate with
the charge of claiming to be king as a rival to Caesar. Jesus
knew their minds too well to be caught now.

经文:

约翰福音 10:25-10:25

注释:

 {I told you, and you believe not} (eipon humin kai ou
pisteuete). It was useless to say more. In  7:14-10:18  Jesus
had shown that he was the Son of the Father as he had previously
claimed ( 5:17-47 ), but it was all to no purpose save to
increase their rage towards him. {These bear witness of me}
(	auta marturei peri emou). His works confirm his words as he
had shown before ( 5:36 ). They believe neither his words nor his
works.

经文:

约翰福音 10:26-10:26

注释:

 {Because ye are not of my sheep} (hoti ek t(936e) probat(936e)
mou). This had been the point in the allegory of the Good
Shepherd. In fact, they were the children of the devil in spirit
and conduct ( 8:43 ), pious ecclesiastics though they seemed,
veritable wolves in sheep's clothing ( Mt 7:15 ).

经文:

约翰福音 10:27-10:27

注释:

 {My sheep} (	a probata ta ema). In contrast with you they
are not in doubt and suspense. They know my voice and follow me.
Repetition of the idea in  10:4,14 .

经文:

约翰福音 10:28-10:28

注释:

 {And I give unto them eternal life} (kag(9320)did(936d)i autois
z(9388)n ai(936e)ion). This is the gift of Jesus now to his sheep as
stated in  6:27,40  (cf.  1Jo 2:25  5:11 ). {And they shall never
perish} (kai ou m(8820)apol(936e)tai). Emphatic double negative with
second aorist middle (intransitive) subjunctive of apollumi, to
destroy. The sheep may feel secure ( 3:16  6:39  17:12  18:9 ).
{And no one shall snatch them out of my hand} (kai ouch harpasei
tis auta ek t(8873) cheiros mou). Jesus had promised this security
in Galilee ( 6:37,39 ). No wolf, no thief, no bandit, no
hireling, no demon, not even the devil can pluck the sheep out of
my hand. Cf.  Col 3:3  (Your life is hid together with Christ in
God).

经文:

约翰福音 10:29-10:29

注释:

 {Which} (hos). Who. If ho (which) is correct, we have
to take ho pat(8872) as nominative absolute or independent, "As for
my Father." {Is greater than all} (pant(936e) meiz(936e) estin). If we
read hos. But Aleph B L W read ho and A B Theta have
meizon. The neuter seems to be correct (Westcott and Hort). But
is it? If so, the meaning is: "As for my Father, that which he
hath given me is greater than all." But the context calls for
hos ... meiz(936e) with ho pat(8872) as the subject of estin. The
greatness of the Father, not of the flock, is the ground of the
safety of the flock. Hence the conclusion that "no one is able to
snatch them out of the Father's hand."

经文:

约翰福音 10:30-10:30

注释:

 {One} (hen). Neuter, not masculine (heis). Not one
person (cf. heis in  Ga 3:28 ), but one essence or nature. By
the plural sumus (separate persons) Sabellius is refuted, by
unum Arius. So Bengel rightly argues, though Jesus is not
referring, of course, to either Sabellius or Arius. The Pharisees
had accused Jesus of making himself equal with God as his own
special Father ( Joh 5:18 ). Jesus then admitted and proved this
claim ( 5:19-30 ). Now he states it tersely in this great saying
repeated later ( 17:11, 21 ). Note hen used in  1Co 3:3  of the
oneness in work of the planter and the waterer and in  17:11,23 
of the hoped for unity of Christ's disciples. This crisp
statement is the climax of Christ's claims concerning the
relation between the Father and himself (the Son). They stir the
Pharisees to uncontrollable anger.

经文:

约翰福音 10:31-10:31

注释:

 2Co
11:25 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
11' or engs='2Co
11'
经文:

约翰福音 10:32-10:32

注释:

 {From the Father} (ek tou patros). Proceeding out of the
Father as in  6:65  16:28  (cf.  7:17  8:42,47 ) rather than
para as in  1:14  6:46  7:29  17:7 . {For which of those works}
(dia poion aut(936e) ergon). Literally, "For what kind of work of
them" (referring to the "many good works" polla erga kala).
Noble and beautiful deeds Jesus had done in Jerusalem like
healing the impotent man (chapter 5) and the blind man (chapter
9). Poion is a qualitative interrogative pronoun pointing to
kala (good). {Do ye stone me} (lithazete). Conative present
active indicative, "are ye trying to stone me." They had the
stones in their hands stretched back to fling at him, a
threatening attitude.

经文:

约翰福音 10:33-10:33

注释:

 {For a good work we stone thee not} (peri kalou ergou ou
lithazomen). "Concerning a good deed we are not stoning thee."
Flat denial that the healing of the blind man on the Sabbath had
led them to this attempt ( 8:59 ) in spite of the facts. {But for
blasphemy} (alla peri blasph(886d)ias). See  Ac 26:7  where peri
with the genitive is also used with egkaloumai for the charge
against Paul. This is the only example in John of the word
lasph(886d)ia (cf.  Mt 12:31 ). {And because that thou, being a
man, makest thyself God} (kai hoti su anthr(9370)os (936e) poieis
seauton theon). In  5:18  they stated the charge more
accurately: "He called God his own Father, making himself equal
with God." That is, he made himself the Son of God. This he did
beyond a doubt. But was it blasphemy? Only if he was not the Son
of God. The penalty for blasphemy was death by stoning ( Le
24:16  1Ki 21:10,13 ).

经文:

约翰福音 10:34-10:34

注释:

 {Is it not written?} (ouk estin gegrammenon;).
Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of graph(935c) (as in
 2:17 ) in place of the usual gegraptai. "Does it not stand
written?" {In your law} (en t(9369) nom(9369) hum(936e)). From  Ps 82:6 .
The term 
omos (law) applying here to the entire O.T. as in
 12:34  15:25  Ro 3:19  1Co 14:21 . Aleph D Syr-sin. omit
hum(936e), but needlessly. We have it already so from Jesus in
 8:17 . They posed as the special custodians of the O.T. {I said}
(hoti eg(9320)eipa). Recitative hoti before a direct quotation
like our quotation marks. Eipa is a late second aorist form of
indicative with -a instead of -on. {Ye are gods} (	heoi
este). Another direct quotation after eipa but without hoti.
The judges of Israel abused their office and God is represented
in  Ps 82:6  as calling them "gods" (	heoi, _elohim_) because
they were God's representatives. See the same use of _elohim_ in
 Ex 21:6  22:9,28 . Jesus meets the rabbis on their own ground in
a thoroughly Jewish way.

经文:

约翰福音 10:35-10:35

注释:

 {If he called them gods} (ei ekeinous eipen theous).
Condition of first class, assumed as true. The conclusion (verse
 36 ) is humeis legete; ({Do ye say?}). As Jews (and rabbis)
they are shut out from charging Jesus with blasphemy because of
this usage in the O.T. It is a complete _ad hominem_ argument. To
be sure, it is in  Ps 82:6  a lower use of the term 	heos, but
Jesus did not call himself "Son of Jahweh," but "huios theou"
which can mean only "Son of _Elohim_." It must not be argued, as
some modern men do, that Jesus thus disclaims his own deity. He
does nothing of the kind. He is simply stopping the mouths of the
rabbis from the charge of blasphemy and he does it effectually.
The sentence is quite involved, but can be cleared up. {To whom
the word of God came} (pros hous ho logos tou theou egeneto).
The relative points to ekeinous, before. These judges had no
other claim to the term 	heoi (_elohim_). {And the scripture
cannot be broken} (kai ou dunatai luth(886e)ai h(8820)graph(885c)). A
parenthesis that drives home the pertinency of the appeal, one
that the Pharisees had to accept. Luth(886e)ai is first aorist
passive infinitive of lu(935c), to loosen, to break.

经文:

约翰福音 10:36-10:36

注释:

 {Of him whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world}
(hon ho pat(8872) h(8867)iasen kai apesteilen eis ton kosmon). Another
relative clause with the antecedent (	outon, it would be,
object of legete) unexpressed. Every word counts heavily here
in contrast with the mere judges of  Ps 82:6 . {Thou blasphemest}
(hoti blasph(886d)eis). Recitative hoti again before direct
quotation. {Because I said} (hoti eipon). Causal use of hoti
and regular form eipon (cf. eipa in verse  34 ). {I am the
Son of God} (huios tou theou eimi). Direct quotation again
after eipon. This Jesus had implied long before as in  2:16 
(my Father) and had said in  5:18-30  (the Father, the Son), in
 9:35  in some MSS., and virtually in  10:30 . They will make
this charge against Jesus before Pilate ( 19:7 ). Jesus does not
use the article here with huios, perhaps (Westcott) fixing
attention on the character of Son rather than on the person as in
 Heb 1:2 . There is no answer to this question with its
arguments.

经文:

约翰福音 10:37-10:37

注释:

 {If I do not} (ei ou poi(935c)). Condition of first class,
assumed as true, with negative ou, not ei m(885c)=unless. {Believe
me not} (m(8820)pisteuete moi). Prohibition with m(885c) and the
present active imperative. Either "cease believing me" or "do not
have the habit of believing me." Jesus rests his case on his
doing the works of "my Father" (	ou patros mou), repeating his
claims to sonship and deity.

经文:

约翰福音 10:38-10:38

注释:

 {But if I do} (ei de poi(935c)). Condition again of the first
class, assumed as true, but with the opposite results. {Though ye
believe not me} (kan emoi m(8820)pisteu(8874)e). Condition now of third
class, undetermined (but with prospect), "Even if you keep on
(present active subjunctive of pisteuo) not believing me."
{Believe the works} (	ois ergois pisteuete). These stand
irrefutable. The claims, character, words, and works of Jesus
challenge the world today as then. {That ye may know and
understand} (hina gn(9374)e kai gin(9373)k(8874)e). Purpose clause with
hina and the same verb gin(9373)k(935c) repeated in different tenses
(first gn(9374)e, the second ingressive aorist active subjunctive,
that ye may come to know; then the present active subjunctive,
"that ye may keep on knowing"). This is Christ's deepest wish
about his enemies who stand with stones in their uplifted hands
to fling at him. {That the Father is in me, and I in the Father}
(hoti en emoi ho pat(8872) kag(9320)en t(9369) patri). Thus he repeats
(verse  30 ) sharply his real claim to oneness with the Father as
his Son, to actual deity. It was a hopeless wish.

经文:

约翰福音 10:39-10:39

注释:

 {They sought again to seize him} (ez(8874)oun auton palin
piazai). Imperfect active, "They kept on seeking to seize
(ingressive aorist active infinitive of piaz(935c) for which see
 7:30 ) as they had tried repeatedly ( 7:1,30,44  8:20 ), but in
vain. They gave up the effort to stone him. {Out of their hand}
(ek t(8873) cheiros aut(936e)). Overawed, but still angry, the stones
fell to the ground, and Jesus walked out.

经文:

约翰福音 10:40-10:40

注释:

 {Again} (palin). Referring to  1:28  (Bethany beyond
Jordan). Palin does not mean that the other visit was a recent
one. {At the first} (	o pr(9374)on). Adverbial accusative (extent
of time). Same idiom in  12:16  19:39 . Here the identical
language of  1:28  is used with the mere addition of 	o pr(9374)on
(hopou (886e) I(9361)n(8873) baptiz(936e), "where John was baptizing"). {And
there he abode} (kai emenen ekei). Imperfect (continued) active
of men(935c), though some MSS. have the constative aorist active
emeinen. Probably from here Jesus carried on the first part of
the later Perean Ministry ( Lu 13:22-16:10 ) before the visit to
Bethany at the raising of Lazarus ( Joh 11:1-44 ).

经文:

约翰福音 10:41-10:41

注释:

 {Many came to him} (polloi (886c)thon pros auton). Jesus was
busy here and in a more congenial atmosphere than Jerusalem. John
wrought no signs the crowds recall, though Jesus did many here
( Mt 19:2 ). The crowds still bear the impress of John's witness
to Christ as "true" (al(8874)h(885c)). Here was prepared soil for
Christ.

经文:

约翰福音 10:42-10:42

注释:

 {Many believed on him there} (polloi episteusan eis auton
ekei). See  1:12  2:11  for same idiom. Striking witness to the
picture of the Messiah drawn by John. When Jesus came they
recognized the original. See  Joh 1:29-34 . What about our
sermons about Jesus if he were to walk down the aisle in visible
form according to A.J. Gordon's dream?


经文:

约翰福音 11:1-11:1

注释:

 {Was sick} ((886e) asthen(936e)). Periphrastic imperfect active of
asthene(935c), old verb (from asthen(8873), a privative, and
sthenos, strength). {Lazarus} (Lazaros). See on 烊u 16:20|
for the name of another man in the parable, a shortened form of
Eleazer, only other N.T. use, but in Josephus and rabbinical
writings. No connexion between this Lazarus and the one in the
parable. {Of Bethany} (apo B(8874)hanias). Use of apo as in
 1:44  Philip of Bethsaida and  1:45  Joseph of Nazareth. This
Bethany is about two miles ( 11:18 ) east of Jerusalem on the
south-east slope of Olivet and is now called El Azariyeh, from
the name Lazarus. Jesus is still apparently at the other Bethany
beyond Jordan ( 10:40 ). It is doubtful if a distinction is meant
here by apo and ek between Bethany as the residence and some
other village (ek t(8873) k(936d)(8873)) as the birthplace of Lazarus and
the sisters. {Of Mary and Martha} (Marias kai Marthas). Note
Marthas, not Marth(8873) for the genitive. Elsewhere ( Joh 11:19  Lu 10:38 ) Martha comes first as the mistress and hostess. The
two sisters are named for further identification of Lazarus.
Martha was apparently the elder sister ( 11:5,19  Lu 10:38f. ).
"The identification of Mary with Mary Magdalene is a mere
conjecture supported by no direct evidence, and opposed to the
general tenor of the Gospels" (Westcott).

经文:

约翰福音 11:2-11:2

注释:

 {And it was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment,
and wiped his feet with her hair} ((886e) de Mariam h(8820)aleipsasa ton
kurion mur(9369) kai ekmaxasa tous podas autou tais thrixin aut(8873)).
This description is added to make plainer who Mary is "whose
brother Lazarus was sick" (h(8873) ho adelphos Lazaros (8873)thenei).
There is an evident proleptic allusion to the incident described
by John in  12:1-8  just after chapter 11. As John looks back
from the end of the century it was all behind him, though the
anointing (h(8820)aleipsasa, first aorist active articular
participle of aleiph(935c), old verb for which see  Mr 6:13 ) took
place after the events in chapter 11. The aorist participle is
timeless and merely pictures the punctiliar act. The same remark
applies to ekmaxasa, old verb ekmass(935c), to wipe off or away
( Isa 12:3  13:5  Lu 7:38,44 ). Note the Aramaic form Mariam as
usual in John, but Marias in verse  1 . When John wrote, it was
as Jesus had foretold ( Mt 26:13 ), for the fame of Mary of
Bethany rested on the incident of the anointing of Jesus. The
effort to link Mary of Bethany with Mary Magdalene and then both
names with the sinful woman of  Lu 7:36-50  is gratuitous and to
my mind grotesque and cruel to the memory of both Mary of Bethany
and Mary Magdalene. Bernard may be taken as a specimen: "The
conclusion is inevitable that John (or his editor) regarded Mary
of Bethany as the same person who is described by Luke as
hamart(936c)os." This critical and artistic heresy has already been
discussed in Vol. II on Luke's Gospel. Suffice it here to say
that Luke introduces Mary Magdalene as an entirely new character
in  8:2  and that the details in  Lu 7:36-50  Joh 12:1-8  have
only superficial resemblances and serious disagreements. John is
not here alluding to Luke's record, but preparing for his own in
chapter 12. What earthly difficulty is there in two different
women under wholly different circumstances doing a similar act
for utterly different purposes?

经文:

约翰福音 11:3-11:3

注释:

 {Sent saying} (apesteilan legousai). First aorist active
indicative of apostell(935c) and present active participle. The
message was delivered by the messenger. {Thou lovest}
(phileis). Phile(935c) means to love as a friend (see philos in
verse  11 ) and so warmly, while agapa(935c) (akin to agamai, to
admire, and agathos, good) means high regard. Here both terms
occur of the love of Jesus for Lazarus ((8867)apa in verse  5 ).
Both occur of the Father's love for the Son (agap(8369) in  3:35 ,
philei in  5:20 ). Hence the distinction is not always
observed.

经文:

约翰福音 11:4-11:4

注释:

 {Heard it} (akousas). The messenger delivered the message
of the sisters. The reply of Jesus is for him and for the
apostles. {Is not unto death} (ouk estin pros thanaton). Death
in the final issue, to remain dead. Lazarus did die, but he did
not remain dead. See hamartia pros thanaton in  1Jo 5:16 , "sin
unto death" (final death). {But for the glory of God} (all'
huper t(8873) dox(8873) tou theou). In behalf of God's glory, as the
sequel shows. Cf.  9:3  about the man born blind. The death of
Lazarus will illustrate God's glory. In some humble sense those
who suffer the loss of loved ones are entitled to some comfort
from this point made by Jesus about Lazarus. In a supreme way it
is true of the death of Christ which he himself calls
glorification of himself and God ( 13:31 ). In  7:39  John had
already used doxaz(935c) of the death of Christ. {That the Son of
God may be glorified thereby} (hina doxasth(8869) ho huios tou theou
di' aut(8873)). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist
passive subjunctive of doxaz(935c). Here Jesus calls himself "the
Son of God." In  8:54  Jesus had said: "It is my Father that
glorifieth me." The raising of Lazarus from the tomb will bring
glory to the Son of God. See  17:1  for this idea in Christ's
prayer. The raising of Lazarus will also bring to an issue his
own death and all this involves the glorification of the Father
( 7:39  12:16  13:31  14:13 ). The death of Lazarus brings Jesus
face to face with his own death.

经文:

约翰福音 11:5-11:5

注释:

 {Now Jesus loved} ((8867)apa de). Imperfect active of agapa(935c)
picturing the continued love of Jesus for this noble family where
he had his home so often ( Lu 10:38-42  Joh 12:1-8 ). The sisters
expected him to come at once and to heal Lazarus.

经文:

约翰福音 11:6-11:6

注释:

 {That he was sick} (hoti asthenei). Present active
indicative retained in indirect discourse after a secondary tense
((886b)ousen). {Two days} (duo h(886d)eras). Accusative of extent of
time. {In the place where he was} (en h(9369) (886e) top(9369)).
Incorporation of the antecedent 	op(9369) into the relative clause,
"in which place he was." It was long enough for Lazarus to die
and seemed unlike Jesus to the sisters.

经文:

约翰福音 11:7-11:7

注释:

 {Then after this} (epeita meta touto). Epeita (only here
in John) means thereafter ( Lu 16:7 ) and it is made plainer by
the addition of meta touto (cf.  2:12  11:11 ), meaning after
the two days had elapsed. {Let us go into Judea again} (Ag(936d)en
eis t(886e) Ioudaian palin). Volitive (hortative) subjunctive of
ag(935c) (intransitive use as in verses  11,16 ). They had but
recently escaped the rage of the Jews in Jerusalem ( 10:39 ) to
this haven in Bethany beyond Jordan ( 10:40 ).

经文:

约翰福音 11:8-11:8

注释:

 {Were but now seeking to stone thee} (
un ez(8874)oun se
lithasai). Conative imperfect of z(8874)e(935c) with reference to the
event narrated in  10:39  in these very words. {Goest thou
thither again?} (palin hupageis ekei;). Present active
intransitive use of the compound hupag(935c), to withdraw (:21;
8:21) from this safe retreat (Vincent). It seemed suicidal
madness to go back now.

经文:

约翰福音 11:9-11:9

注释:

 {In the day} (	(8873) h(886d)eras). Genitive of time, within the
day, the twelve-hour day in contrast with night. The words of
Jesus here illustrate what he had said in  9:4 . It is not blind
fatalism that Jesus proclaims, but the opposite of cowardice. He
has full confidence in the Father s purpose about his "hour"
which has not yet come. Jesus has courage to face his enemies
again to do the Father's will about Lazarus. {If a man walk in
the day} (ean tis peripat(8869) en t(8869) h(886d)er(8369)). Condition of the
third class, a conceived case and it applies to Jesus who walks
in the full glare of noonday. See  8:12  for the contrast between
walking in the light and in the dark. {He stumbleth not} (ou
proskoptei). He does not cut (or bump) against this or that
obstacle, for he can see. Kopt(935c) is to cut and pros, against.

经文:

约翰福音 11:10-11:10

注释:

 {But if a man walk in the night} (ean de tis peripat(8869) en
t(8869) nukti). Third condition again. It is spiritual darkness that
Jesus here pictures, but the result is the same. See the same
figure in  12:35  ( 1Jo 2:11 ). The ancients had poor
illumination at night as indeed we did before Edison gave us
electric lights. Pedestrians actually used to have little lamps
fastened on the feet to light the path. {In him} (en aut(9369)).
Spiritual darkness, the worst of all (cf.  Mt 6:23  Joh 8:12 ).
Man has the capacity for light, but is not the source of light.
"By the application of this principle Christianity is
distinguished from Neo-Platonism" (Westcott).

经文:

约翰福音 11:11-11:11

注释:

 {Is fallen asleep} (kekoim(8874)ai). Perfect passive
indicative of koima(935c), old verb to put to sleep. Common as a
metaphor for death like our cemetery. {I go} (poreuomai).
Futuristic use of the present tense as in  14:2 . {That I may
awake him out of sleep} (hina exupnis(9320)auton). Purpose clause
with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of
exupniz(935c), a late compound (ex, hupnos, sleep) for the older
aphupniz(935c), here only in the N.T. See  Job 14:12  where also it
occurs along with koimaomai.

经文:

约翰福音 11:12-11:12

注释:

 {He will recover} (s(9374)h(8873)etai). Future passive indicative
of s(937a)(935c) used in its original sense of being or getting well
(safe and sound). Conclusion of the condition of the first class
(ei kekoim(8874)ai).

经文:

约翰福音 11:13-11:13

注释:

 {Had spoken} (eir(886b)ei). Past perfect of eipon (er(935c)).
The disciples had misunderstood Christ's metaphor for death.
{That he spake} (hoti legei). Present active indicative
retained in indirect discourse after the secondary tense
(edoxan). {Of taking rest in sleep} (peri t(8873) koim(8873)e(9373) tou
hupou). Only use of koim(8873)is (from koima(935c)) in the N.T., but
it also was used of death (Sirach 46:19). Hupnou (in sleep) is
objective genitive of hupnos (sleep,  Mt 1:24 ).

经文:

约翰福音 11:14-11:14

注释:

 {Plainly} (parr(8873)i(8369)). Adverb (see on 浪:4|), without
metaphor as in  16:29 . {Is dead} (apethanen). First aorist
active indicative, "died."

经文:

约翰福音 11:15-11:15

注释:

 {For your sakes} (di' humas). That they may witness his
raising from the grave. {That I was not there} (hoti ouk (886d)(886e)
ekei). Imperfect middle (886d)(886e) of the later Greek instead of the
common active (886e) in indirect discourse in place of the usual
present retained as in verse  13 . {To the intent ye may believe}
(hina pisteus(8874)e). Purpose clause with hina and the
ingressive aorist active subjunctive, "that ye may come to
believe" (more than you do). See the same use of the ingressive
aorist in episteusan ( 2:11 ) where the disciples gained in
belief. {Nevertheless let us go to him} (alla ag(936d)en pros
auton). Volitive subjunctive, repeating the proposal of verse
 7 . He is dead, but no matter, yea all the more let us go on to
him.

经文:

约翰福音 11:16-11:16

注释:

 {Didymus} (Didumos). The word means twin. Clearly Thomas
had a twin brother or sister. Applied two other times to him
( 20:24  21:2 ). The Aramaic word for Thomas means Twin and
Didymus is just the Greek equivalent of Thomas. He may even in
Greek circles have been called Didymus. {His fellow disciples}
(	ois sunmath(8874)ais). Dative case and article use like "his."
Only use of sunmath(8874)es in the N.T., rare word (in Plato). {Us
also} (kai h(886d)eis). As well as Jesus, since he is bent on
going. {That we may die with him} (hina apothan(936d)en met'
autou). Purpose clause with hina and the second aorist active
subjunctive of apothn(8873)k(935c). Die with Jesus, Thomas means.
Lazarus is already dead and they will kill Jesus (verse  8 ).
Pessimistic courage surely.

经文:

约翰福音 11:17-11:17

注释:

 {Found} (heuren). Second aorist active indicative of
heurisk(935c). {That he had been in the tomb four days already}
(auton tessaras (8864)(8820)h(886d)eras echonta). Literally, "him
(accusative object of heuren) having already four days in the
tomb." See  5:5  for the same idiom (et(8820)ech(936e)) for expression
of time (having 38 years). In Jewish custom burial took place on
the day of death ( Ac 6:6,10 ).

经文:

约翰福音 11:18-11:18

注释:

 {About fifteen furlongs off} (h(9373) apo stadi(936e) dekapente).
The idiom of apo with the ablative for distance is like the
Latin _a millibus passum duobus_ (Caesar, _Bell. Gall_. ii. 7),
but it (pro also,  Joh 12:1 ) occurs already in the Doric and
in the _Koin(825f) often (Moulton, _Proleg_., p. 101; Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 110). See it again in  21:8  Re 14:20 .

经文:

约翰福音 11:19-11:19

注释:

 {Had come} (el(886c)utheisan). Past perfect of erchomai.
These Jews were probably not hostile to Jesus. There were seven
days of solemn mourning ( 1Sa 31:13 ). The presence of so many
indicates the prominence of the family. {To Martha and Mary}
(pros t(886e) Marthan kai Mariam). Correct text, not the Textus
Receptus pros tas peri Marthan kai Mariam (to the women about
Martha and Mary). {To console them} (hina paramuth(8873)(936e)tai).
Purpose clause with hina and first aorist middle subjunctive of
paramutheomai, old verb (para, beside, muthos, word), to
put in a word beside, to offer consolation. Again in verse  31 .
See  1Th 2:11  5:14 . See  Job 2:13  for these visits of
consolation, often deplorable enough, though kindly meant.

经文:

约翰福音 11:20-11:20

注释:

 {That Jesus was coming} (hoti I(8873)ous erchetai). Present
middle indicative retained in indirect discourse after the
secondary tense (886b)ousen (first aorist active). {Went and met
him} (hup(886e)t(8873)en aut(9369)). First aorist (ingressive) active
indicative of hupanta(935c), old compound verb, to go to meet ( Mt
8:28 ) with the associative instrumental case aut(9369). {But Mary
still sat in the house} (Mariam de en t(9369) oik(9369) ekathezeto).
Imperfect middle of kathezomai, old verb to sit down, graphic
picture of Mary, "while Mary was sitting in the house." Both
Martha and Mary act true to form here as in  Lu 10:38-42 .

经文:

约翰福音 11:21-11:21

注释:

 {Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died}
(Kurie, ei (8873) h(9364)e ouk an apethanen ho adelphos mou). Condition
of the second class with ei and the imperfect (8873) (no aorist
of eimi, to be) in the condition and an with the second
aorist active indicative of apothn(8873)k(935c). Mary (verse  32 ) uses
these identical words to Jesus. Clearly they had said so to each
other with wistful longing if not with a bit of reproach for his
delay. But they used (8873), not (886c)thes or egenou. But busy,
practical Martha comes to the point.

经文:

约翰福音 11:22-11:22

注释:

 {And even now I know} (kai nun oida). Rather just, "Even
now I know." Alla (but) of the Textus Receptus is not genuine.
{Whatsoever thou shalt ask of God} (hosa an ait(8873)(8869) ton theon).
Indefinite relative (hosa, as many things as) with an and the
first aorist middle (indirect middle, thou thyself asking)
subjunctive of aite(935c). Martha uses aite(935c) (usual word of prayer
of men to God) rather than er(9374)a(935c) (usual word of Jesus praying
to the Father), but in  16:23  we have er(9374)a(935c) used of prayer to
Jesus and aite(935c) of prayer to God. But the distinction is not to
be pressed. "As many things as thou dost ask of God." {God will
give} (d(9373)ei soi ho theos). Repetition of ho theos for
emphasis. Martha still has courageous faith in the power of God
through Jesus and Jesus in verse  41  says practically what she
has said here.

经文:

约翰福音 11:23-11:23

注释:

 {Thy brother will rise again} (anast(8873)etai ho adelphos
sou). Future middle (intransitive) of anist(886d)i. The words
promise Martha what she has asked for, if Jesus means that.

经文:

约翰福音 11:24-11:24

注释:

 {In the resurrection at the last day} (en t(8869) anastasei en
t(8869) eschat(8869) h(886d)er(8369)). Did Jesus mean only that? She believed
it, of course, and such comfort is often offered in case of
death, but that idea did not console Martha and is not what she
hinted at in verse  22 .

经文:

约翰福音 11:25-11:25

注释:

 {I am the resurrection and the life} (Eg(9320)eimi h(880a)anastasis kai h(8820)z(9388)). This reply is startling enough. They are
not mere doctrines about future events, but present realities in
Jesus himself. "The Resurrection is one manifestation of the
Life: it is involved in the Life" (Westcott). Note the article
with both anastasis and z(9388). Jesus had taught the future
resurrection often ( 6:39 ), but here he means more, even that
Lazarus is now alive. {Though he die} (kan apothan(8869)). "Even if
he die," condition (concession) of third class with kai ean
(kan) and the second aorist active subjunctive of apothn(8873)k(935c)
(physical death, he means). {Yet shall he live} (z(8873)etai).
Future middle of za(935c) (spiritual life, of course).

经文:

约翰福音 11:26-11:26

注释:

 {Shall never die} (ou m(8820)apothan(8869) eis ton ai(936e)a). Strong
double negative ou m(885c) with second aorist active subjunctive of
apothn(8873)k(935c) again (but spiritual death, this time), "shall not
die for ever" (eternal death). {Believest thou this?} (pisteueis
touto;) Sudden test of Martha's insight and faith with all the
subtle turns of thought involved.

经文:

约翰福音 11:27-11:27

注释:

 {Yea, Lord} (Nai, kurie). Martha probably did not
understand all that Jesus said and meant, but she did believe in
the future resurrection, in eternal life for believers in Christ,
in the power of Christ to raise even the dead here and now. She
had heroic faith and makes now her own confession of faith in
words that outrank those of Peter in  Mt 16:16  because she makes
hers with her brother dead now four days and with the hope that
Jesus will raise him up now. {I have believed} (pepisteuka).
Perfect active indicative of pisteu(935c). It is my settled and firm
faith. Peter uses this same tense in  6:69 . {That thou art the
Son of God} (hoti su ei ho Christos ho huios tou theou). The
Messiah or the Christ ( 1:41 ) was to be also "the Son of God" as
the Baptist said he had found Jesus to be ( 1:34 ), as Peter
confessed on Hermon for the apostles ( Mt 16:16 ), as Jesus
claimed to be ( Joh 11:41 ) and confessed on oath before Caiaphas
that he was ( Mt 26:63f. ), and as John stated that it was his
purpose to prove in his Gospel ( 20:31 ). But no one said it
under more trying circumstances than Martha. {Even he that cometh
into the world} (ho eis ton kosmon erchomenos). No "even" in
the Greek. This was a popular way of putting the people's
expectation ( 6:14  Mt 11:3 ). Jesus himself spoke of his coming
into the world ( 9:39  16:28  8:37 ).

经文:

约翰福音 11:28-11:28

注释:

 {Called Mary} (eph(936e)(8873)en Mariam). First aorist active
indicative of ph(936e)e(935c). Out of the house and away from the crowd.
{Secretly} (lathr(8369)). Old adverb from lathros (lanthan(935c)).
To tell her the glad news. {The Master} (ho didaskalos). "The
Teacher." So they loved to call him as he was ( 13:13 ). {Is
here} (parestin). "Is present." {Calleth thee} (ph(936e)ei se).
This rouses Mary.

经文:

约翰福音 11:29-11:29

注释:

 {And she} (kai ekein(885c)). Emphatic use of the demonstrative
ekeinos as often in John, "And that one." {Arose quickly}
((8867)erth(885c)). First aorist (ingressive) passive of egeir(935c) and
intransitive. Naturally so on the sudden impulse of joy. {And
went unto him} (kai (8872)cheto pros auton). Imperfect middle,
possibly inchoative, started towards him, certainly picturing her
as she was going.

经文:

约翰福音 11:30-11:30

注释:

 {Now Jesus was not yet come into the town} (oup(9320)de
el(886c)uthei ho I(8873)ous eis t(886e) k(936d)(886e)). Explanatory parenthesis with
past perfect as in verse  19 . Martha had her interview while he
was still coming (verse  20 ) and left him (went off, ap(886c)then,
verse  28 ) to hurry to Mary with the news. Why Jesus tarried
still where he had met Martha we do not know. Westcott says, "as
though He would meet the sisters away from the crowd of
mourners."

经文:

约翰福音 11:31-11:31

注释:

 {Followed her} ((886b)olouth(8873)an aut(8869)). First aorist active
indicative of akolouthe(935c) with associative instrumental case
(aut(8869)). This crowd of consolers (paramuthoumenoi) meant
kindly enough, but did the one wrong thing for Mary wished to see
Jesus alone. People with kind notions often so act. The secrecy
of Martha (verse  28 ) was of no avail. {Supposing that she was
going unto the tomb} (doxantes hoti hupagei eis to mn(886d)eion).
First aorist active participle of doke(935c), justifying their
conduct by a wrong inference. Note retention of present tense
hupagei in indirect discourse after the secondary tense
(886b)olouth(8873)an. {To weep there} (hina klaus(8869) ekei). Purpose
clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of
klai(935c), old verb to weep. Sometimes to wail or howl in oriental
style of grief, but surely not that here. At any rate this
supposed purpose of Mary was a real reason for this crowd {not}
to go with her.

经文:

约翰福音 11:32-11:32

注释:

 {Fell down at his feet} (epesen autou pros tous podas).
Second aorist active of pipt(935c), to fall. Note unusual position
of autou. This impulsive act like Mary. She said precisely what
Martha had said to Jesus (verse  21 ). But she said no more, only
wept (verse  33 ).

经文:

约翰福音 11:33-11:33

注释:

 {When Jesus therefore saw her weeping} (I(8873)ous oun h(9373)
eiden aut(886e) klaiousan). Proleptic position of "Jesus," "Jesus
therefore when he saw." She was weeping at the feet of Jesus, not
at the tomb. {And the Jews also weeping} (kai tous Ioudaious
klaiontas). Mary's weeping was genuine, that of the Jews was
partly perfunctory and professional and probably actual "wailing"
as the verb klai(935c) can mean. Klai(935c) is joined with alalaz(935c) in
 Mr 5:38 , with ololuz(935c) in  Jas 5:1 , with 	horube(935c) in  Mr
5:39 , with penthe(935c) in  Mr 16:10 . It was an incongruous
combination. {He groaned in the spirit} (enebrim(8873)ato t(9369)
pneumati). First aorist middle indicative of embrimaomai, old
verb (from en, and rim(885c), strength) to snort with anger like
a horse. It occurs in the LXX ( Da 11:30 ) for violent
displeasure. The notion of indignation is present in the other
examples of the word in the N.T. ( Mr 1:43  14:5  Mt 9:30 ). So
it seems best to see that sense here and in verse  38 . The
presence of these Jews, the grief of Mary, Christ's own concern,
the problem of the raising of Lazarus--all greatly agitated the
spirit of Jesus (locative case 	(9369) pneumati). He struggled for
self-control. {Was troubled} (etaraxen heauton). First aorist
active indicative of 	arass(935c), old verb to disturb, to agitate,
with the reflexive pronoun, "he agitated himself" (not passive
voice, not middle). "His sympathy with the weeping sister and the
wailing crowd caused this deep emotion" (Dods). Some indignation
at the loud wailing would only add to the agitation of Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 11:34-11:34

注释:

 {Where have ye laid him?} (Pou tetheikate auton;).
Perfect active indicative of 	ith(886d)i. A simple question for
information. The only other like it in John is in  6:6  where it
is expressly stated that Jesus knew what he was going to do. So
it was here, only he politely asked for direction to the tomb of
Lazarus. The people invite him to come and see, the very language
used by Philip to Nathanael ( 1:46 ). It was a natural and polite
reply as they would show Jesus the way, but they had no idea of
his purpose.

经文:

约翰福音 11:35-11:35

注释:

 {Jesus wept} (edakrusen ho I(8873)ous). Ingressive first
aorist active indicative of dakru(935c), old verb from dakru or
dakruon, a tear ( Ac 20:19 ), only here in N.T. It never means
to wail, as klai(935c) sometimes does. "Jesus burst into tears."
Klai(935c) is used of Jesus in  Lu 19:41 . See  Heb 5:7  "with
strong crying and tears" (meta kraug(8873) kai dakru(936e)). Apparently
this was as Jesus started towards (see verse  38 ) the tomb. In a
sense it was a reaction from the severe strain in verse  33 , but
chiefly it was the sheer human sympathy of his heart with Martha
and Mary touched with the feeling of our common weakness ( Heb
4:15 ). Often all that we can do is to shed tears in grief too
deep for words. Jesus understood and understands. This is the
shortest verse in the Bible, but no verse carries more meaning in
it.

经文:

约翰福音 11:36-11:36

注释:

 {Loved} (ephilei). As in verse  3  which see. Imperfect
active. Even the Jews saw that Jesus loved Lazarus.

经文:

约翰福音 11:37-11:37

注释:

 {Could not this man} (ouk edunato houtos). Imperfect
middle of dunamai. They do not say dunatai (can, present
middle indicative). But clearly the opening of the blind man's
eyes (chapter 9) had made a lasting impression on some of these
Jews, for it was done three months ago. {Have caused that this
man also should not die} (poi(8873)ai hina kai houtos m(880a)apothan(8869)). First aorist active infinitive of poie(935c) with
hina, like the Latin _facere ut_ (sub-final use, Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 985), with the second aorist active subjunctive
apothan(8869) and negative m(885c). These Jews share the view
expressed by Martha (verse  21 ) and Mary (verse  32 ) that Jesus
could have {prevented} the death of Lazarus.

经文:

约翰福音 11:38-11:38

注释:

 {Again groaning in himself} (palin embrim(936d)enos en
heaut(9369)). Direct reference to the use of this same word (present
middle participle here) in verse  33 , only with en heaut(9369) (in
himself) rather than 	(9369) pneumati (in his spirit), practically
the same idea. The speculation concerning his power stirred the
depths of his nature again. {Cometh to the tomb} (erchetai eis
to mn(886d)eion). Vivid historical present. {A cave} (sp(886c)aion).
Old word (from speos, cavern). Cf.  Mt 21:13 . {Lay against it}
(epekeito ep' aut(9369)). Imperfect middle of epikeimai, old verb
to lie upon as in  21:9  and figuratively ( 1Co 9:16 ). Note
repetition of epi with locative case. The use of a cave for
burial was common ( Ge 23:19 ). Either the body was let down
through a horizontal opening (hardly so here) or put in a tomb
cut in the face of the rock (if so, epi can mean "against").
The stones were used to keep away wild animals from the bodies.

经文:

约翰福音 11:39-11:39

注释:

 {Take ye away the stone} (arate ton lithon). First aorist
active imperative of air(935c). They could do this much without the
exercise of Christ's divine power. It was a startling command to
them. {By this time he stinketh} ((8864)(8820)ozei). Present active
indicative of old verb, here only in N.T. (cf.  Ex 8:14 ). It
means to give out an odour, either good or bad. {For he hath been
dead four days} (	etartaios gar estin). The Greek simply says,
"For he is a fourth-day man." It is an old ordinal numeral from
	etartos (fourth). Herodotus (ii. 89) has 	etartaios
genesthai of one four days dead as here. The word is only here
in the N.T. The same idiom occurs in  Ac 28:13  with deuteraioi
(second-day men). Lightfoot (_Hor. Hebr._) quotes a Jewish
tradition (_Beresh. Rabba_) to the effect that the soul hovers
around the tomb for three days hoping to return to the body, but
on the fourth day leaves it. But there is no suggestion here that
Martha held that notion. Her protest is a natural one in spite of
her strong faith in verses  22-27 .

经文:

约翰福音 11:40-11:40

注释:

 {Said I not unto thee?} (Ouk eipon soi;). Jesus pointedly
reminds Martha of his promise to raise Lazarus (verses  25f. ).
{That if thou believedst} (hoti ean pisteus(8869)s). Indirect
discourse with ean and the first aorist active subjunctive
(condition of third class) retained after the secondary tense
eipon. He had not said this very phrase, ean pisteus(8869)s, to
Martha, but he did say to her: Pisteueis touto; (Believest thou
this?). He meant to test Martha as to her faith already hinted at
(verse  22 ) on this very point. Jesus had also spoken of
increase of faith on the part of the disciples (verse  15 ).
{Thou shouldest see the glory of God} (ops(8869) t(886e) doxan tou
theou). Future middle indicative of the old defective verb
hora(935c) retained in the conclusion of this condition in indirect
discourse. Jesus means the glory of God as shown in the
resurrection of Lazarus as he had already said to the disciples
(verse  4 ) and as he meant Martha to understand (verse  25 ) and
may in fact have said to her (the report of the conversation is
clearly abridged). Hence Bernard's difficulty in seeing how
Martha could understand the words of Jesus about the resurrection
of Lazarus here and now seems fanciful and far-fetched.

经文:

约翰福音 11:41-11:41

注释:

 {So they took away the stone} ((8872)an oun ton lithon).
First aorist active indicative of air(935c), but without the
explanatory gloss of the Textus Receptus "from the place where
the dead was laid" (not genuine). {I thank thee that thou
heardest me} (eucharist(9320)soi hoti (886b)ousas mou). See  6:11  for
euchariste(935c). Clearly Jesus had prayed to the Father concerning
the raising of Lazarus. He has the answer before he acts. "No
pomp of incantation, no wrestling in prayer even; but simple
words of thanksgiving, as if already Lazarus was restored"
(Dods). Jesus well knew the issues involved on this occasion. If
he failed, his own claims to be the Son of God (the Messiah),
would be hopelessly discredited with all. If he succeeded, the
rulers would be so embittered as to compass his own death.

经文:

约翰福音 11:42-11:42

注释:

 {And I knew} (eg(9320)de (8869)dein). Past perfect of oida used
as imperfect. This confident knowledge is no new experience with
Jesus. It has "always" (pantote) been so. {Which standeth
around} (	on periest(9374)a). Second perfect active (intransitive)
articular participle of periist(886d)i. It was a picturesque and
perilous scene. {That they may believe} (hina pisteus(9373)in).
Purpose clause with hina and first ingressive aorist active
subjunctive of pisteu(935c), "that they may come to believe." {That
thou didst send me} (hoti su me apesteilas). First aorist
active indicative of apostell(935c) and note position of su me
side by side. This claim Jesus had long ago made ( 5:36 ) and had
repeatedly urged ( 10:25,38 ). Here was a supreme opportunity and
Jesus opens his heart about it.

经文:

约翰福音 11:43-11:43

注释:

 {He cried with a loud voice} (ph(936e)(8869) megal(8869) ekraugasen).
First aorist active indicative of kraugaz(935c), old and rare word
from kraug(885c) ( Mt 25:6 ). See  Mt 12:19 . Occurs again in  Joh
18:40  19:6,12 . Only once in the LXX ( Ezr 3:13 ) and with
ph(936e)(8869) megal(8869) (either locative or instrumental case makes
sense) as here. For this "elevated (great) voice" see also  Mt
24:31  Mr 15:34,37  Re 1:10  21:3 . The loud voice was not for
the benefit of Lazarus, but for the sake of the crowd standing
around that they might see that Lazarus came forth simultaneously
with the command of Jesus. {Lazarus, come forth} (Lazare, deuro
ex(935c)). "Hither out." No verb, only the two adverbs, deuro here
alone in John. Lazarus heard and obeyed the summons.

经文:

约翰福音 11:44-11:44

注释:

 {He that was dead came forth} (ex(886c)then ho tethn(886b)(9373)).
Literally, "Came out the dead man," (effective aorist active
indicative and perfect active articular participle of 	hn(8873)k(935c)).
Just as he was and at once. {Bound hand and foot} (dedemenos
tous podas kai tas cheiras). Perfect passive participle of de(935c)
with the accusative loosely retained according to the common
Greek idiom (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 486), but literally "as to
the feet and hands" (opposite order from the English). Probably
the legs were bound separately. {With grave-clothes}
(keiriais). Or "with bands." Instrumental case of this late and
rare word (in Plutarch, medical papyrus in the form k(8872)ia, and
 Pr 7:16 ). Only here in N.T. {His face} (h(8820)opsis autou). Old
word, but pros(9370)on is usual in N.T. See  Re 1:16  for another
instance. {Was bound about} (periededeto). Past perfect passive
of peride(935c), old verb to bind around, only here in N.T. {With a
napkin} (soudari(9369)). Instrumental case of soudarion (Latin
word _sudarium_ from _sudor_, sweat). In N.T. here,  20:7  Lu
19:20  Ac 19:12 . Our handkerchief. {Loose him} (lusate auton).
First aorist active imperative of lu(935c). From the various bands.
{Let him go} (aphete auton hupagein). Second aorist active
imperative of aphi(886d)i and present active infinitive.

经文:

约翰福音 11:45-11:45

注释:

 {Beheld that which he did} (	heasamenoi ho epoi(8873)en).
First aorist middle participle of 	heaomai and first aorist
active indicative of poie(935c) in the relative (ho) clause. They
were eye-witnesses of all the details and did not depend on
hearsay. {Believed on him} (episteusan eis auton). Such a
result had happened before ( 7:31 ), and all the more in the
presence of this tremendous miracle which held many to Jesus
( 12:11,17 ).

经文:

约翰福音 11:46-11:46

注释:

 {Went away to the Pharisees} (ap(886c)thon pros tous
Pharisaious). Second aorist active indicative of aperchomai.
This "some" (	ines) did who were deeply impressed and yet who
did not have the courage to break away from the rabbis without
consulting them. It was a crisis for the Sanhedrin.

经文:

约翰福音 11:47-11:47

注释:

 {Gathered a council} (sun(8867)agon sunedrion). Second aorist
active indicative of sunag(935c) and sunedrion, the regular word
for the Sanhedrin ( Mt 5:22 , etc.), only here in John. Here a
sitting or session of the Sanhedrin. Both chief priests
(Sadducees) and Pharisees (mentioned no more in John after  7:57 
save  12:19,42 ) combine in the call (cf.  7:32 ). From now on
the chief priests (Sadducees) take the lead in the attacks on
Jesus, though loyally supported by their opponents (the
Pharisees). {And said} (kai elegon). Imperfect active of
leg(935c), perhaps inchoative, "began to say." {What do we?} (Ti
poioumen;). Present active (linear) indicative of poie(935c).
Literally, "What are we doing?" {Doeth} (poiei). Better, "is
doing" (present, linear action). He is active and we are idle.
There is no mention of the raising of Lazarus as a fact, but it
is evidently inoluded in the "many signs."

经文:

约翰福音 11:48-11:48

注释:

 {If we let him thus alone} (ean aph(936d)en auton hout(9373)).
Condition of third class with ean and second aorist active
subjunctive of api(886d)i. "Suppose we leave him thus alone."
Suppose also that he keeps on raising the dead right here next
door to Jerusalem! {All will believe on him} (pantes
pisteusousin eis auton). Future active of pisteu(935c). The
inevitable conclusion, "all" (pantes), not just "some"
(	ines). as now. {And the Romans will come} (kai eleusontai
hoi R(936d)aioi). Another inevitable result with the future middle
of erchomai. Only if the people take Jesus as their political
Messiah ( 6:15 ) as they had once started to do. This is a
curious muddle for the rulers knew that Jesus did not claim to be
a political Messiah and would not be a rival to Caesar. And yet
they use this fear (their own belief about the Messiah) to stir
themselves to frenzy as they will use it with Pilate later. {And
take away both our place and our nation} (kai arousin h(886d)(936e) kai
ton topon kai to ethnos). Future active of air(935c), another
certain result of their inaction. Note the order here when
"place" (job) is put before nation (patriotism), for all the
world like modern politicians who make the fate of the country
turn on their getting the jobs which they are seeking. In the
course of time the Romans will come, not because of the leniency
of the Sanhedrin toward Jesus, but because of the uprising
against Rome led by the Zealots and they will destroy both temple
and city and the Sanhedrin will lose their jobs and the nation
will be scattered. Future historians will say that this fate came
as punishment on the Jews for their conduct toward Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 11:49-11:49

注释:

 {Caiaphas} (Kaiaphas). Son-in-law of Annas and successor
and high priest for 18 years (A.D. 18 to 36). {That year} (	ou
eniautou ekeinou). Genitive of time; his high-priesthood
included that year (A.D. 29 or 30). So he took the lead at this
meeting. {Ye know nothing at all} (humeis ouk oidate ouden). In
this he is correct, for no solution of their problem had been
offered.

经文:

约翰福音 11:50-11:50

注释:

 2Co
5:14f. 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
5' or engs='2Co
5'
经文:

约翰福音 11:51-11:51

注释:

 {Not of himself} (aph' heautou ouk). Not wholly of
himself, John means. There was more in what Caiaphas said than he
understood. His language is repeated in  18:14 . {Prophesied}
(eproph(8874)eusen). Aorist active indicative of proph(8874)eu(935c). But
certainly unconscious prophecy on his part and purely accidental.
Caiaphas meant only what was mean and selfish. {That Jesus should
die} (hoti emellen I(8873)ous apothn(8873)kein). Imperfect active of
mell(935c) in indirect discourse instead of the usual present
retained after a secondary tense (eproph(8874)eusen) as sometimes
occurs (see  2:25 ).

经文:

约翰福音 11:52-11:52

注释:

 {But that he might also gather together into one} (all'
hina sunagag(8869) eis hen). Purpose clause with hina and the
second aorist active subjunctive of sunag(935c). Caiaphas was
thinking only of the Jewish people (laou, ethnos, verse  50 ).
The explanation and interpretation of John here follow the lead
of the words of Jesus about the other sheep and the one flock in
 10:16 . {That are scattered abroad} (	a dieskorpismena).
Perfect passive articular participle of diaskorpiz(935c), late verb
(Polybius, LXX) to scatter apart, to winnow grain from chaff,
only here in John. The meaning here is not the Diaspora (Jews
scattered over the world), but the potential children of God in
all lands and all ages that the death of Christ will gather "into
one" (eis hen). A glorious idea, but far beyond Caiaphas.

经文:

约翰福音 11:53-11:53

注释:

 {So from that day} (ap' ekein(8873) oun t(8873) h(886d)eras). The
raising of Lazarus brought matters to a head so to speak. It was
now apparently not more than a month before the end. {They took
counsel} (ebouleusanto). First aorist middle indicative of
ouleu(935c), old verb to take counsel, in the middle voice for
themselves, among themselves. The Sanhedrin took the advice of
Caiaphas seriously and plotted the death of Jesus. {That they
might put him to death} (hina apoktein(9373)in auton). Purpose
clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of
apoktein(935c). It is an old purpose ( 5:18  7:19  8:44,59  10:39  11:8 ) now revived with fresh energy due to the raising of
Lazarus.

经文:

约翰福音 11:54-11:54

注释:

 {Therefore walked no more openly} (oun ouketi parr(8873)i(8369)
periepatei). Imperfect active of peripate(935c), to walk around.
Jesus saw clearly that to do so would bring on the end now
instead of his "hour" which was to be at the passover a month
ahead. {Into the country near to the wilderness} (eis t(886e) ch(9372)an
eggus t(8873) er(886d)ou). It was now in Jerusalem as it had become once
in Galilee ( 7:1 ) because of the plots of the hostile Jews. The
hill country northeast of Jerusalem was thinly populated. {Into a
city called Ephraim} (eis Ephraim legomen(886e) polin). Polis
here means no more than town or village (k(936d)(885c)). The place is
not certainly known, not mentioned elsewhere in the N.T. Josephus
mentions (_War_, IV. ix. 9) a small fort near Bethel in the hill
country and in  2Ch 13:19  Ephron is named in connexion with
Bethel. Up here Jesus would at least be free for the moment from
the machinations of the Sanhedrin while he faced the coming
catastrophe at the passover. He is not far from the mount of
temptation where the devil showed and offered him the kingdoms of
the world for the bending of the knee before him. Is it mere
fancy to imagine that the devil came to see Jesus again here at
this juncture with a reminder of his previous offer and of the
present plight of the Son of God with the religious leaders
conspiring his death? At any rate Jesus has the fellowship of his
disciples this time (meta t(936e) math(8874)(936e)). But what were they
thinking?

经文:

约翰福音 11:55-11:55

注释:

 {Was near} ((886e) eggus). See  2:13  for the same phrase.
This last passover was the time of destiny for Jesus. {Before the
passover to purify themselves} (pro tou pascha hina hagnis(9373)in
heautous). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist
active subjunctive of hagniz(935c), old verb from hagnos (pure),
ceremonial purification here, of course. All this took time.
These came "from the country" (ek t(8873) ch(9372)as), from all over
Palestine, from all parts of the world, in fact. John shifts the
scene to Jerusalem just before the passover with no record of the
way that Jesus came to Jerusalem from Ephraim. The Synoptic
Gospels tell this last journey up through Samaria into Galilee to
join the great caravan that crossed over into Perea and came down
on the eastern side of the Jordan opposite Jericho and then
marched up the mountain road to Bethany and Bethphage just beside
Jerusalem. This story is found in  Lu 17:11-19:28  Mr 10:1-52  Mt
19:1-20:34 . John simply assumes the Synoptic narrative and gives
the picture of things in and around Jerusalem just before the
passover ( 11:56,57 ).

经文:

约翰福音 11:56-11:56

注释:

 {They sought therefore for Jesus} (ez(8874)oun oun ton
I(8873)oun). Imperfect active of z(8874)e(935c) and common oun of which
John is so fond. They were seeking Jesus six months before at the
feast of tabernacles ( 7:11 ), but now they really mean to kill
him. {As they stood in the temple} (en t(9369) hier(9369) hest(886b)otes).
Perfect active participle (intransitive) of hist(886d)i, a graphic
picture of the various groups of leaders in Jerusalem and from
other lands, "the knots of people in the Temple precincts"
(Bernard). They had done this at the tabernacles ( 7:11-13 ), but
now there is new excitement due to the recent raising of Lazarus
and to the public order for the arrest of Jesus. {That he will
not come to the feast?} (hoti ou m(8820)elth(8869) eis t(886e) heort(886e);).
The form of the question (indirect discourse after dokeite)
assumes strongly that Jesus will not (ou m(885c), double negative
with second aorist active elth(8869) from erchomai) dare to come
this time for the reason given in verse  57 .

经文:

约翰福音 11:57-11:57

注释:

 {The chief priests and the Pharisees} (hoi archiereis kai
hoi Pharisaioi). The Sanhedrin. {Had given commandment}
(ded(936b)eisan entolas). Past perfect active of did(936d)i. {That he
should shew it} (hina m(886e)us(8869)). Sub-final hina with first
aorist active subjunctive of m(886e)u(935c), old verb to disclose, to
report formally ( Ac 23:30 ). {If any man knew} (ean tis gn(9369)).
Third-class condition with ean and second aorist active
subjunctive of gin(9373)k(935c). {Where he was} (pou estin). Indirect
question with interrogative adverb and present indicative estin
retained like gn(9369) and m(886e)us(8869) after the secondary tense
ded(936b)eisan. {That they might take him} (hop(9373) pias(9373)in
auton). Purpose clause with hop(9373) instead of hina and first
aorist active subjunctive of piaz(935c) so often used before
( 7:44 , etc.).

经文:

约翰福音 12:1-12:1

注释:

 {Jesus therefore} (I(8873)ous oun). Here oun is not causal,
but simply copulative and transitional, "and so" (Bernard), as
often in John ( 1:22 , etc.). {Six days before the passover}
(pro hex h(886d)er(936e) tou pascha). This idiom, transposition of
pro, is like the Latin use of _ante_, but it occurs in the old
Doric, in the inscriptions and the papyri. See  Am 1:1  for it
also (cf. Moulton, _Proleg_., pp. 100ff.; Robertson, _Grammar_,
pp. 621f.). If the crucifixion was on Friday, as seems certain
from both John and the Synoptics, then six days before would be
the Jewish Sabbath preceding or more probably the Friday
afternoon before, since Jesus would most likely arrive before the
Sabbath. Probably we are to put together in one scene for the
atmosphere  Joh 11:55-57  Joh 12:1, 9-11 . {Came to Bethany,
where Lazarus was, whom Jesus raised from the dead} ((8874)lhen eis
B(8874)hanian, hopou (886e) Lazaros, hon (8867)eiren ek nekr(936e) I(8873)ous). Each
phrase explains the preceding. There is no reason for thinking
this a gloss as Bernard does. It was a place of danger now after
that great miracle and the consequent rage of the Sanhedrin
( 12:9-11 ). The crowd of eager spectators to see both Lazarus
and Jesus would only intensify this rage.

经文:

约翰福音 12:2-12:2

注释:

 {So they made him a supper there} (epoi(8873)an oun aut(9369)
deipnon ekei). Here again oun is not inferential, but merely
transitional. This supper is given by Mark ( Mr 14:3-9 ) and
Matthew ( Mt 26:6-13 ) just two days ( Mr 14:1 ) before the
passover, that is on our Tuesday evening (beginning of Jewish
Wednesday), while John mentions ( 12:2-9 ) it immediately after
the arrival of Jesus in Bethany ( 12:1 ). One must decide which
date to follow. Mark and Matthew and Luke follow it with the
visit of Judas to the Sanhedrin with an offer to betray Jesus as
if exasperated by the rebuke by Jesus at the feast. Bernard
considers that John "is here more probably accurate." It all
turns on John's purpose in putting it here. This is the last
mention of Jesus in Bethany and he may have mentioned it
proleptically for that reason as seems to me quite reasonable.
Westcott notes that in chapter 12 John closes his record of the
public ministry of the Lord relative to the disciples at this
feast ( 1-11 ), to the multitude in the triumphal entry
( 12-19 ), to the world outside in the visit of the Greeks
( 20-36a ), and with two summary judgements ( 36b-50 ). There is
no further reason to refer to the feast in the house of another
Simon when a sinful woman anointed Jesus ( Lu 7:36-50 ). It is no
credit to Luke or to John with Mark and Matthew to have them all
making a jumble like that. There were two anointings by two
absolutely different women for wholly different purposes. See the
discussion on Luke for further details. {And Martha served} (kai
h(8820)Martha di(886b)onei). Imperfect active of diakone(935c), picturing
Martha true to the account of her in  Lu 10:40  (poll(886e)
diakonian, diakonein as here). But this fact does not show
that Martha was the wife of this Simon at all. They were friends
and neighbours and Martha was following her bent. It is Mark ( Mr
14:3 ) and Matthew ( Mt 26:6 ) who mention the name of the host.
It is not Simon the Pharisee ( Lu 7:36 ), but Simon the leper
( Mr 14:3  Mt 26:6 ) in whose house they meet. The name is common
enough. The Simon in Luke was sharply critical of Jesus; this one
is full of gratitude for what Jesus has done for him. {That sat
at meat} (	(936e) anakeimen(936e)). "That lay back," reclined as they
did, articular participle (ablative case after ek) of the
common verb anakeimai. Perhaps Simon gave the feast partly in
honour of Lazarus as well as of Jesus since all were now talking
of both ( Joh 12:9 ). It was a gracious occasion. The guests were
Jesus, the twelve apostles, and Martha, Mary, and Lazarus.

经文:

约翰福音 12:3-12:3

注释:

 {A pound} (litran). Latin _libra_, late _Koin(825f) (Polybius,
Plutarch) word with weight of 12 ounces, in N.T. only here and
 19:39 . Mark ( Mr 14:3 ) and Matthew ( Mt 26:7 ) have alabaster
cruse. {Of ointment of spikenard} (murou nardou pistik(8873)). "Of
oil of nard." See already  11:2  for murou (also  Mt 26:7 ).
Nard is the head or spike of an East Indian plant, very fragrant.
Occurs also in  Mr 14:3 . Pistik(8873) here and in  Mr 14:3 
probably means genuine (pistikos, from pistos, reliable).
Only two instances in the N.T. {Very precious} (polutimou). Old
compound adjective (polus, much, 	im(885c)), in N.T. only here,
 Mt 13:46  1Pe 1:7 . Mark has polutelous (very costly). Matthew
( Mt 26:7 ) has here arutimou of weighty value (only N.T.
instance). {Anointed} ((886c)eipsen). First aorist active
indicative of aleiph(935c), old word ( Mr 16:1 ). {The feet} (	ous
podas). Mark ( Mr 14:3 ) and Matthew ( Mt 26:7 ) have "his
head." Why not both, though neither Gospel mentions both? The
Latin MS. _fuldensis_ and the Syriac Sinatic do give both head
and feet here. {Wiped} (exemaxen). First aorist active
indicative of ekmass(935c), old verb to wipe off already in  11:2  Lu 7:38,44 . {With her hair} (	ais thrixin aut(8873)). Instrumental
plural. It is this item that is relied on largely by those who
identify Mary of Bethany with the sinful woman in Luke 7 and with
Mary Magdalene. It is no doubt true that it was usually
considered immodest for a woman to wear her hair loose. But it is
not impossible that Mary of Bethany in her carefully planned
love-offering for Jesus on this occasion was only glad to throw
such a punctilio to the winds. Such an act on this occasion does
not brand her a woman of loose character. {Was filled with the
odour of the ointment} (epl(8872)(9374)h(8820)ek t(8873) osm(8873) tou murou).
Effective first aorist passive of pl(8872)o(935c) and a natural result.

经文:

约翰福音 12:4-12:4

注释:

 {Judas Iscariot} (Ioudas ho Iskari(9374)(8873)). See ho
Iskari(9374)(8873) in  14:22 . See  6:71  13:1  for like description of
Judas save that in  6:71  the father's name is given in the
genitive, Sim(936e)os and Iskari(9374)ou (agreeing with the father),
but in  13:1  Iskari(9374)(8873) agrees with Ioudas, not with
Sim(936e)os. Clearly then both father and son were called
"Iscariot" or man of Kerioth in the tribe of Judah ( Jos 15:25 ).
Judas is the only one of the twelve not a Galilean. {One of his
disciples} (heis t(936e) math(8874)(936e) autou). Likewise in  6:71 , only
there ek is used after heis as some MSS. have here. This is
the shameful fact that clung to the name of Judas. {Which should
betray him} (ho mell(936e) auton paradidonai). John does not say in
 6:71  (emellen paradidonai auton) or here that Judas "was
predestined to betray Jesus" as Bernard suggests. He had his own
responsibility for his guilt as Jesus said ( Mt 26:24 ). Mell(935c)
here simply points to the act as future, not as necessary. Note
the contrast between Mary and Judas. "Mary in her devotion
unconsciously provides for the honour of the dead. Judas in his
selfishness unconsciously brings about the death itself"
(Westcott).

经文:

约翰福音 12:5-12:5

注释:

 {Sold} (eprath(885c)). First aorist passive indicative of
piprask(935c), old verb to sell ( Mt 13:46 ). {For three hundred
pence} (	riakosi(936e) d(886e)ari(936e)). Genitive of price. Same item in
 Mr 14:5 , while in  Mt 26:9  it is simply "for much" (pollou).
But all three have "given to the poor" (edoth(8820)pt(9363)hois). First
aorist passive indicative of did(936d)i with dative case pt(9363)hois
(note absence of the article, poor people), real beggars,
mendicants ( Mt 19:21  Lu 14:13 ). But only John singles out
Judas as the one who made the protest against this waste of money
while Mark says that "some" had indignation and Matthew has it
that "the disciples" had indignation. Clearly Judas was the
spokesman for the group who chimed in and agreed with his
protest. The amount here spent by Mary (ten guineas) would equal
a day labourer's wages for a year (Dods).

经文:

约翰福音 12:6-12:6

注释:

 {Not because he cared for the poor} (ouch hoti peri t(936e)
pt(9363)h(936e) emelen aut(9369)). Literally, "not because it was a care to
him concerning the poor" (impersonal imperfect of melei, it was
a care). John often makes explanatory comments of this kind as in
 2:21f.  7:22,39 . {But because he was a thief} (alle hoti
klept(8873) (886e)). Clearly the disciples did not know then that Judas
was a petty thief. That knowledge came later after he took the
bribe of thirty pieces of silver for betraying Jesus ( Mt
26:15 ), for the disciples did not suspect Judas of treachery
( 13:28f. ), let alone small peculations. There is no reason for
thinking that John is unfair to Judas. "Temptation commonly comes
through that for which we are naturally fitted" (Westcott). In
this case Judas himself was "the poor beggar" who wanted this
money. {And having the bag took away what was put therein} (kai
to gl(9373)sokomon ech(936e) ta ballomena ebastazen). This is the
correct text. This compound for the earlier gl(9373)sokomeion (from
gl(9373)sa, tongue, and kome(935c), to tend) was originally a
receptacle for the tongues or mouth-pieces of wind instruments.
The shorter form is already in the Doric inscriptions and is
common in the papyri for "money-box" as here. It occurs also in
Josephus, Plutarch, etc. In N.T. only here and  13:29  in same
sense about Judas. Ballomena is present passive participle
(repeatedly put in) of all(935c), to cast or fling. The imperfect
active (custom) of astaz(935c), old verb to pick up ( Joh 10:31 ),
to carry ( 19:17 ), but here and  20:15  with the sense to bear
away as in Polybius, Josephus, Diogenes Laertes, and often so in
the papyri.

经文:

约翰福音 12:7-12:7

注释:

 {Suffer her to keep it against the day of my burying}
(Aphes aut(886e), hina eis t(886e) h(886d)eran tou entaphiasmou mou t(8872)(8873)(8869)
auto). This reading (hina t(8872)(8873)(8869), purpose clause with hina
and first aorist active subjunctive of 	(8872)e(935c)) rather than that
of the Textus Receptus (just 	et(8872)eken, perfect active
indicative) is correct. It is supported by Aleph B D L W Theta.
The hina can be rendered as above after aphes according to
_Koin(825f) idiom or more probably: "Let her alone: it was that,"
etc. (supplying "it was"). Either makes good sense. The word
entaphiasmos is a later and rare substantive from the late verb
entaphiaz(935c), to prepare for burial ( Mt 26:12  Joh 19:40 ), and
means preparation for burial. In N.T. only here and  Mr 14:8 .
"Preparation for my burial" is the idea here and in Mark. The
idea of Jesus is that Mary had saved this money to use in
preparing his body for burial. She is giving him the flowers
before the funeral. We can hardly take it that Mary did not use
all of the ointment for Mark ( Mr 14:3 ) says that she broke it
and yet he adds ( Mr 14:8 ) what John has here. It is a paradox,
but Jesus is fond of paradoxes. Mary has kept this precious gift
by giving it now beforehand as a preparation for my burial. We
really keep what we give to Christ. This is Mary's glory that she
had some glimmering comprehension of Christ's death which none of
the disciples possessed.

经文:

约翰福音 12:8-12:8

注释:

 {Ye have always} (pantote echete). Jesus does not
discredit gifts to the poor at all. But there is relativity in
one's duties. {But me ye have not always} (eme de ou pantote
echete). This is what Mary perceived with her delicate woman's
intuition and what the apostles failed to understand though
repeatedly and plainly told by Jesus. John does not mention the
precious promise of praise for Mary preserved in  Mr 14:9  Mt
26:13 , but he does show her keen sympathetic insight and
Christ's genuine appreciation of her noble deed. It is curiously
mal-a-propos surely to put alongside this incident the other
incident told long before by Luke ( Lu 7:35ff. ) of the sinful
woman. Let Mary alone in her glorious act of love.

经文:

约翰福音 12:9-12:9

注释:

 {The common people} (ho ochlos polus). This is the right
reading with the article ho, literally, "the people much or in
large numbers." One is reminded of the French idiom. Gildersleeve
(_Syntax_, p. 284) gives a few rare examples of the idiom ho
an(8872) agathos. Westcott suggests that ochlos polus came to be
regarded as a compound noun. This is the usual order in the N.T.
rather than polus ochlos (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 774). Mark
( Mr 12:37 ) has ho polus ochlos. Moulton (_Proleg_., p. 84)
terms ho ochlos polus here and in verse  12  "a curious
misplacement of the article." John's use of ochlos is usually
the common crowd as "riff-raff." {That he was} (hoti estin).
Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse after
the secondary tense (egn(935c), second aorist active indicative of
gin(9373)k(935c)). These "Jews" are not all hostile to Jesus as in
 5:10  6:41 , etc., but included some who were friendly (verse
 11 ). {But that they might see Lazarus also} (all' hina kai ton
Lazaron id(9373)in). Purpose clause with hina and second aorist
active subjunctive of hora(935c). Motive enough to gather a great
crowd, to see one raised from the dead (cf. verse  1  for the
same phrase, "whom he had raised from the dead"). Some of the
very witnesses of the raising of Lazarus will bear witness later
(verse  17 ). It was a tense situation.

经文:

约翰福音 12:10-12:10

注释:

 {The chief priests took counsel} (ebouleusanto hoi
archiereis). First aorist middle indicative of ouleu(935c), old
verb, seen already in  11:53  which see. The whole Sanhedrin
( 7:32 ) had decided to put Jesus to death and had asked for
information concerning him ( 11:57 ) that might lead to his
arrest, but the Sadducees were specially active now to accomplish
the death of Lazarus also (hina with first aorist active
subjunctive of apoktein(935c) as in  11:53 ). Perhaps they argued
that, if they should kill both Jesus and Lazarus, then Lazarus
would remain dead. The raising of Lazarus has brought matters to
a crisis. Incidentally, it may be observed that here we may see
the reason why the Synoptics do not tell the story of the raising
of Lazarus, if he was still living (cf. the case of Malchus's
name in  Joh 18:10 ).

经文:

约翰福音 12:11-12:11

注释:

 {Because that} (hoti). Causal use of hoti. {By reason
of him} (di' auton). "Because of him," regular idiom,
accusative case with dia. {Went away} (hup(8867)on). Cf.  6:67 
for this verb. Inchoative imperfect active of hupag(935c), "began to
withdraw" as happened at the time of the raising of Lazarus
( 11:45f. ) and the secession was still going on. {And believed
on Jesus} (kai episteuon eis ton I(8873)oun). Imperfect active of
pisteu(935c) (note aorist in  11:45 ). There was danger of a mass
movement of the people to Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 12:12-12:12

注释:

 {On the morrow} (	(8869) epaurion). Locative case. Supply
h(886d)er(8369) (day) after the adverb epaurion ("on the tomorrow
day"). That is on our Sunday, Palm Sunday. {A great multitude}
(ho ochlos polus). Same idiom rendered "the common people" in
verse  9  and should be so translated here. {That had come} (ho
elth(936e)). Second aorist active participle, masculine singular of
erchomai agreeing with ochlos, "that came." {When they heard}
(akousantes). First aorist active masculine plural participle
of akou(935c), construction according to sense (plural, though
ochlos singular). {Was coming} (erchetai). Present middle
indicative of erchomai retained in indirect discourse after a
secondary tense. It is a vivid picture. What they heard was:
"Jesus is coming into Jerusalem." He is defying the Sanhedrin
with all their public advertisement for him.

经文:

约翰福音 12:13-12:13

注释:

 {Took} (elabon). Second aorist active indicative of
lamban(935c). {The branches of the palm-trees} (	a baia t(936e)
phoinik(936e)). Phoinix is an old word for palm-tree ( Re 7:9  for
the branches) and in  Ac 27:12  the name of a city. Baion is
apparently a word of Egyptian origin, palm branches, here only in
N.T., but in the papyri and I Macc. 13:51. Here we have "the palm
branches of the palm-trees." The use in 1 Macc. 13:51 (cf. II
Macc. 10:7) is in the account of Simon's triumphal entry into
Jerusalem. Bernard notes that to carry palms was a mark of
triumphant homage to a victor or a king ( Re 7:9 ). Palm-trees
grew on the Mount of Olives ( Mr 11:8 ) on the road from Bethany
to Jerusalem. The crowds (one in front and one behind,  Mr 11:9  Mt 21:9  Joh 2:18 ) cut the branches as they came ( Mt 21:8 ).
{To meet him} (eis hupant(8873)in aut(9369)). Literally, {for a
meeting} (hupant(8873)is, late word from the verb hupanta(935c),  Mt
8:28  Joh 11:20,30  12:18 , in the papyri, but only here in the
N.T.) with him" (aut(9369), associative instrumental case after
hupant(8873)in as after the verb in verse  18 ). It was a scene of
growing excitement. {And cried out} (kai ekraugazon). Imperfect
active of kraugaz(935c), old and rare verb (from kraug(885c)) as in  Mt
12:19  Joh 19:15 . {Hosannah} (H(9373)annah). Transliteration of
the Hebrew word meaning "Save now." The LXX renders it by S(9373)on
d(885c) (Save now). {Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the
Lord} (eulog(886d)enos ho erchomenos en onomati kuriou). Perfect
passive participle of euloge(935c). Quotation from  Ps 118:25f. ,
written, some think, for the dedication of the second temple, or,
as others think, for the feast of tabernacles after the return
( Ezr 3:1f. ). It was sung in the processional recitation then as
a welcome to the worshippers. Here the words are addressed to the
Messiah as is made plain by the addition of the words, "even the
king of Israel" (kai ho basileus tou Isra(886c)) as Nathanael
called him ( 1:49 ). Jesus is here hailed by the multitudes as
the long-looked for Messiah of Jewish hope and he allows them so
to greet him ( Lu 19:38-40 ), a thing that he prevented a year
before in Galilee ( Joh 6:14f. ). It is probable that "in the
name of the Lord" should be taken with "blessed" as in  De 21:5  2Sa 6:18  1Ki 22:16  2Ki 2:24 . The Messiah was recognized by
Martha as the Coming One ( Joh 11:27 ) and is so described by the
Baptist ( Mt 11:3 ). Mark ( Mr 11:10 ) adds "the kingdom that
cometh" while Luke ( 19:38 ) has "the king that cometh." "It was
this public acclamation of Jesus as King of Israel or King of the
Jews which was the foundation of the charge made against him
before Pilate ( 18:33 )" (Bernard).

经文:

约翰福音 12:14-12:14

注释:

 {Found} (heur(936e)). Second aorist active participle of
heurisk(935c). Through the disciples, of course, as in  Mr 11:2-6 
( Mt 21:2-3,6  Lu 19:30f. ). {A young ass} (onarion). Late
diminutive of onos, in Epictetus and the papyri (even the
double diminitive, onaridion), only here in the N.T. See
discussion of 烘t 21:5| where kai has been wrongly rendered
"and" instead of "even." Rightly understood Matthew has Jesus
riding only the colt like the rest.

经文:

约翰福音 12:15-12:15

注释:

 {Daughter of Zion} (	hugat(8872) Si(936e)). Nominative form
(instead of 	hugater) but vocative case. The quotation is from
 Zec 9:9  shortened. {Thy King cometh} (ho basileus erchetai).
Prophetic futuristic present. The ass was the animal ridden in
peace as the horse was in war ( Jud 10:4  12:14  2Sa 17:23  19:26 ). Zechariah pictures one coming in peace. So the people
here regarded Jesus as the Prince of Peace in the triumphal
entry. {Sitting on an ass's colt} (kath(886d)enos epi p(936c)on onou).
Matthew ( Mt 21:6f. ) does speak of both the ass and the colt
having garments put on them, but he does not say that Jesus "sat
upon" both animals at once, for epan(9320)aut(936e) (upon them)
probably refers to the garments, not to the colts. When John
wrote (end of the century), Jerusalem had fallen. Jesus will
lament over Jerusalem ( Lu 19:41ff. ). So "Fear not" (m(880a)phobou).

经文:

约翰福音 12:16-12:16

注释:

 {Understood not} (ouk egn(9373)an). Second aorist active
indicative of gin(9373)k(935c). Another comment by John concerning the
failure of the disciples to know what was happening (cf.  2:22  7:39 ). {At the first} (	o pr(9374)on). Adverbial accusative, as in
 10:40  19:39 . {Was glorified} (edoxasth(885c)). First aorist
passive indicative of doxaz(935c), to glorify, used of his death
already in  7:39  and by Jesus himself of his death,
resurrection, and ascension in  12:23  13:31 . {Then remembered
they} (	ote emn(8873)th(8873)an). First aorist passive indicative of
mimn(8873)k(935c). It was easier to understand then and they had the
Holy Spirit to help them ( 16:13-15 ). {Were written of him} ((886e)
ep' aut(9369) gegrammena). Periphrastic past perfect passive of
graph(935c) with neuter plural participle agreeing with 	auta
(these things) and singular verb, though the plural (8873)an could
have been used. Note the threefold repetition of 	auta in this
verse, "clumsy" Bernard calls it, but making for clarity. The use
of ep' aut(9369) for "of him" rather than peri autou is unusual,
but occurs in  Re 10:11  22:16 . {They had done} (epoi(8873)an).
First aorist active indicative of poie(935c), simply, "they did."

经文:

约翰福音 12:17-12:17

注释:

 {Bare witness} (emarturei). Imperfect active of
marture(935c). This crowning triumph of Jesus gave an added sense of
importance to the crowds that were actually with Jesus when he
called Lazarus out of the tomb and raised him from the dead. For
this description of this portion of the crowd see  11:45f.  12:1,9-11 .

经文:

约翰福音 12:18-12:18

注释:

 {The multitude} (ho ochlos). The multitude of verse  13 ,
not the crowd just mentioned that had been with Jesus at the
raising of Lazarus. There were two crowds (one following Jesus,
one meeting Jesus as here). {Went and met him} (hup(886e)t(8873)en
aut(9369)). First aorist active indicative of hupanta(935c), old
compound verb (hupo, anta(935c)) to go to meet, with associative
instrumental case aut(9369). Cf.  Joh 4:51 . {That he had done this
sign} (	outo auton pepoi(886b)enai to s(886d)eion). Perfect active
infinitive in indirect discourse after (886b)ousan (first aorist
active indicative of akou(935c), to hear) (instead of a hoti
clause) with the accusative of general reference auton (as to
him) and another accusative (s(886d)eion, sign) the object of the
infinitive. Clearly there was much talk about the raising of
Lazarus as the final proof that Jesus in truth is the Messiah of
Jewish hope.

经文:

约翰福音 12:19-12:19

注释:

 {The Pharisees therefore laid among themselves} (hoi oun
Pharisaioi eipan pros heautous). Graphic picture of the
predicament of the Pharisees standing off and watching the
enthusiastic crowds sweep by. As people usually do, they blame
each other for the defeat of their plots against Jesus and for
his final victory, as it seemed. {Behold how ye prevail nothing}
(	he(9372)eite hoti ouk (9370)heleite ouden). It was a pathetic
confession of failure because the rest of the plotters had
bungled the whole thing. "Ye help nothing at all" by your plots
and plans. {Lo, the world is gone after him} (ide ho kosmos
opis(9320)autou ap(886c)then). Exclamatory use of ide and timeless
aorist active indicative of aperchomai. The "world" is a bunch
of fools, they feel, but see for yourselves. And the Sanhedrin
had advertised to "find" Jesus! They can find him now!

经文:

约翰福音 12:20-12:20

注释:

 {Certain Greeks} (Hell(886e)es tines). Real Greeks, not
Greek-speaking Jews (Hellenists,  Ac 6:1 ), but Greeks like those
in Antioch ( Ac 11:20 , correct text pros tous Hell(886e)as) to
whom Barnabas was sent. These were probably proselytes of the
gate or God-fearers like those worshipping Greeks in Thessalonica
whom Paul won to Christ ( Ac 17:4 ). {To worship at the feast}
(hina proskun(8873)(9373)in en t(8869) heort(8869)). Purpose clause with hina
and the first aorist active subjunctive of proskune(935c), old and
common verb to kiss the hand in reverence, to bow the knee in
reverence and worship. We do not know whence they came, whether
from Decapolis, Galilee, or further away. They found the pilgrims
and the city ringing with talk about Jesus. They may even have
witnessed the triumphal entry.

经文:

约翰福音 12:21-12:21

注释:

 {To Philip which was of Bethsaida of Galilee} (Philipp(9369)
t(9369) apo B(8874)hsaida t(8873) Galilaias). He had a Greek name and the
Greeks may have seen Philip in Galilee where there were many
Greeks, probably ( Mr 6:45 ) the Western Bethsaida in Galilee,
not Bethsaida Julias on the Eastern side ( Lu 9:10 ). {Asked}
((8872)(9374)(936e)). Imperfect active, probably inchoative, "began to
ask," in contrast with the aorist tense just before
(pros(886c)than, came to). {Sir} (Kurie). Most respectfully and
courteously. {We would see Jesus} (	helomen ton I(8873)oun idein).
"We desire to see Jesus." This is not abrupt like our "we wish"
or "we want," but perfectly polite. However, they could easily
"see" Jesus, had already done so, no doubt. They wish an
interview with Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 12:22-12:22

注释:

 {Andrew} (	(9369) Andre(8369)). Another apostle with a Greek name
and associated with Philip again ( Joh 6:7f. ), the man who first
brought his brother Simon to Jesus ( 1:41 ). Andrew was clearly a
man of wisdom for a crisis. Note the vivid dramatic presents
here, {cometh} (erchetai), {telleth} (legei). What was the
crisis? These Greeks wish an interview with Jesus. True Jesus had
said something about "other sheep" than Jews ( 10:16 ), but he
had not explained. Philip and Andrew wrestle with the problem
that will puzzle Peter on the housetop in Joppa ( Ac 10:9-18 ),
that middle wall of partition between Jew and Gentile that was
only broken down by the Cross of Christ ( Eph 2:11-22 ) and that
many Christians and Jews still set up between each other. Andrew
has no solution for Philip and they bring the problem, but not
the Greeks, to Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 12:23-12:23

注释:

 12:16, 13:31 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '12' or engs='12'
经文:

约翰福音 12:24-12:24

注释:

 {Except} (ean m(885c)). Negative condition of third class
(undetermined, supposable case) with second aorist active
participle pes(936e) (from pipt(935c), to fall) and the second aorist
active subjunctive of apothn(8873)k(935c), to die. {A grain of wheat}
(ho kokkos tou sitou). Rather, "the grain of wheat." {By itself
alone} (autos monos). Both predicate nominatives after menei.
It is not necessary to think (nor likely) that Jesus has in mind
the Eleusinian mysteries which became a symbol of the mystery of
spring. Paul in  1Co 15:36  uses the same illustration of the
resurrection that Jesus does here. Jesus shows here the paradox
that life comes through death. Whether the Greeks heard him or
not we do not know. If so, they heard something not in Greek
philosophy, the Christian ideal of sacrifice, "and this was
foreign to the philosophy of Greece" (Bernard). Jesus had already
spoken of himself as the bread of life ( 6:35-65 ). {But if it
die} (ean de apothan(8869)). Parallel condition of the third class.
Grains of wheat have been found in Egyptian tombs three or four
thousand years old, but they are now dead. They bore no fruit.

经文:

约翰福音 12:25-12:25

注释:

 {Loseth it} (apolluei aut(886e)). The second paradox. Present
active indicative of apollu(935c). This great saying was spoken at
various times as in  Mr 8:35  ( Mt 16:25  Lu 9:24 ) and  Mr
10:39  ( Lu 17:33 ). See those passages for discussion of
psuch(885c) (life or soul). For "he that hateth his life" (ho mis(936e)
t(886e) psuch(886e) autou) see the sharp contrasts in Luke  14:26-35 
where mise(935c) is used of father, mother, wife, children,
brothers, sisters, as well as one's own life. Clearly mise(935c)
means "hate" when the issue is between Christ and the dearest
things of life as happens when the choice is between martyrdom
and apostasy. In that case one keeps his soul for eternal life by
losing his life (psuch(885c), each time) here. That is the way to
"guard" (phulaxei) life by being true to Christ. This is the
second paradox to show Christ's philosophy of life.

经文:

约翰福音 12:26-12:26

注释:

 {If any man serve me} (ean emoi tis diakon(8869)). Condition
of third class again (ean with present active subjunctive of
diakone(935c), keep on serving with dative emoi). {Let him follow
me} (emoi akoloutheit(935c)). "Me (associative instrumental case)
let him keep on following" (present active imperative of
akolouthe(935c)). {Where ... there} (hopou ... ekei). In presence
and spiritual companionship here and hereafter. Cf.  14:3  17:24  Mt 28:20 . {Shall honour} (	im(8873)ei). Future active of 	ima(935c),
but it may be the kind of honour that Jesus will get (verse
 23 ).

经文:

约翰福音 12:27-12:27

注释:

 {My soul} (h(8820)psuch(8820)mou). The soul (psuch(885c)) here is
synonymous with spirit (pneuma) in  13:21 . {Is troubled}
(	etaraktai). Perfect passive indicative of 	arass(935c), used
also in  11:33  13:21  of Jesus. While John proves the deity of
Jesus in his Gospel, he assumes throughout his real humanity as
here (cf.  4:6 ). The language is an echo of that in  Ps 6:4  42:7 . John does not give the agony in Gethsemane which the
Synoptics have ( Mr 14:35f.  Mt 26:39  Lu 22:42 ), but it is
quite beside the mark to suggest, as Bernard does, that the
account here is John's version of the Gethsemane experience. Why
do some critics feel called upon to level down to a dead plane
every variety of experience in Christ's life? {And what shall I
say?} (kai ti eip(933b)). Deliberative subjunctive which expresses
vividly "a genuine, if momentary indecision" (Bernard). The
request of the Greeks called up graphically to Jesus the nearness
of the Cross. {Father, save me from this hour} (pater, s(9373)on me
ek t(8873) h(9372)as taut(8873)). Jesus began his prayers with "Father"
( 11:41 ). Dods thinks that this should be a question also.
Westcott draws a distinction between ek (out of) and apo
(from) to show that Jesus does not pray to draw back from the
hour, but only to come safely out of it all and so interprets
ek in  Heb 5:7 , but that distinction will not stand, for in
 Joh 1:44  ek and apo are used in the same sense and in the
Synoptics ( Mr 14:35f.  Mt 26:39  Lu 52:42 ) we have apo. If it
holds here, we lose the point there. Here as in Gethsemane the
soul of Jesus instinctively and naturally shrinks from the Cross,
but he instantly surrenders to the will of God in both
experiences. {But for this cause came I unto this hour} (alla
dia touto (886c)thon eis t(886e) h(9372)an taut(886e)). It was only a moment of
human weakness as in Gethsemane that quickly passed. Thus
understood the language has its natural meaning.

经文:

约翰福音 12:28-12:28

注释:

 {Father, glorify thy name} (pater, doxason sou to onoma).
First aorist (note of urgency) active imperative of doxaz(935c) and
in the sense of his death already in verses  16,23  and again in
 13:31  17:5 . This is the prayer of the pneuma (or psuch(885c))
as opposed to that of the sarx (flesh) in verse  27 . The
"name" (onoma) of God expresses the character of God ( 1:12  5:43  17:11 ). Cf.  Mt 6:9 . {A voice out of heaven} (ph(936e)(8820)ek
tou ouranou). This was the Father's answer to the prayer of
Jesus for help. See already the Father's voice at the baptism of
Jesus ( Mr 1:11 ) and at the transfiguration ( Mr 9:7 ). The
rabbis called the audible voice of God _bath-qol_ (the daughter
of a voice). {I have both glorified it and will glorify it again}
(kai edoxasa kai palin doxas(935c)). This definite assurance from
the Father will nerve the soul of Jesus for the coming ordeal.
Cf.  11:40  for edoxasa and  13:31  17:5  for doxas(935c).

经文:

约翰福音 12:29-12:29

注释:

 {That it had thundered} (ront(886e) gegonenai). Perfect
active infinitive of ginomai in indirect discourse after
elegen and the accusative of general reference (ront(886e),
thunder, as in  Mr 3:17 ), "that thunder came to pass." So the
crowd "standing by" (hest(9373), second perfect active participle
of hist(886d)i), but Jesus understood his Father's voice. {An angel
hath spoken to him} (Aggelos aut(9369) lelal(886b)en). Perfect active
indicative of lale(935c). So, when Jesus spoke to Saul on the way to
Damascus, those with Saul heard the voice, but did not understand
( Ac 9:7  22:9 ).

经文:

约翰福音 12:30-12:30

注释:

 {Not for my sake, but for your sakes} (ou di' eme, alla
di' humas). These words seem to contradict verses  28,29 .
Bernard suggests an interpolation into the words of Jesus. But
why not take it to be the figure of exaggerated contrast, "not
merely for my sake, but also for yours"?

经文:

约翰福音 12:31-12:31

注释:

 {The judgement} (krisis). No article, "A judgement." The
next few days will test this world. {The prince of this world}
(ho arch(936e) tou kosmou toutou). This phrase here, descriptive of
Satan as in possession of the evil world, occurs again in  14:30  16:11 . In the temptations Satan claims power over the world and
offers to share it with Jesus ( Mt 4:8-10  Lu 4:5-8 ). Jesus did
not deny Satan's power then, but here proclaims final victory
over him. {Shall be cast out} (ekbl(8874)h(8873)etai ex(935c)). Future
passive of ekball(935c). Note ex(935c), clean out. The Book of
Revelation also proclaims final victory over Satan.

经文:

约翰福音 12:32-12:32

注释:

 {And I, if I be lifted from the earth} (kag(9320)an hups(9374)h(930a)ek t(8873) g(8873)). Note proleptic position of eg(935c) (I). Condition of
third class (undetermined with prospect) with an (=ean here)
with first aorist passive subjunctive of hupso(935c), the verb used
in  3:14  of the brazen serpent and of the Cross of Christ as
here and also in  8:28 . Westcott again presses ek instead of
apo to make it refer to the ascension rather than to the Cross,
a wrong interpretation surely. {Will draw all men unto myself}
(pantas helkus(9320)pros emauton). Future active of helku(935c), late
form of helk(935c), to draw, to attract. Jesus had already used this
verb of the Father's drawing power ( 6:44 ). The magnetism of the
Cross is now known of all men, however little they understand the
mystery of the Cross. By "all men" (pantas) Jesus does not mean
every individual man, for some, as Simeon said ( Lu 2:34 ) are
repelled by Christ, but this is the way that Greeks (verse  22 )
can and will come to Christ, by the way of the Cross, the only
way to the Father ( 14:6 ).

经文:

约翰福音 12:33-12:33

注释:

 {Signifying} (s(886d)ain(936e)). Present active participle of
semain(935c), old verb to give a sign (s(886d)eion) as in  Ac 25:27 ,
and the whole phrase repeated in  18:32  and nearly so in
 21:19 . The indirect question here and in  18:32  has the
imperfect emellen with present infinitive rather than the usual
present mellei retained while in  21:19  the future indicative
doxasei occurs according to rule. The point in poi(9369)
(qualitative relative in the instrumental case with 	hanat(9369))
is the Cross (lifted up) as the kind of death before Christ.

经文:

约翰福音 12:34-12:34

注释:

 {Out of the law} (ek tou nomou). That is, "out of the
Scriptures" ( 10:34  15:25 ). {The Christ abideth forever} (ho
Christos menei eis ton ai(936e)a). Timeless present active
indicative of men(935c), to abide, remain. Perhaps from  Ps 89:4  110:4  Isa 9:7  Eze 37:25  Da 7:14 . {How sayest thou?} (p(9373)
legeis su;). In opposition to the law (Scripture). {The Son of
man} (	on huion tou anthr(9370)ou). Accusative case of general
reference with the infinitive hups(9374)h(886e)ai (first aorist passive
of hupso(935c) and taken in the sense of death by the cross as Jesus
used it in verse  32 ). Clearly the crowd understand Jesus to be
"the Son of man" and take the phrase to be equivalent to "the
Christ." This is the obvious way to understand the two terms in
their reply, and not, as Bernard suggests, that they saw no
connexion between "the Christ" (the Messiah) and "the Son of
man." The use of "this" (houtos) in the question that follows
is in contrast to verse  32 . The Messiah (the Son of man) abides
forever and is not to be crucified as you say he "must" (dei)
be.

经文:

约翰福音 12:35-12:35

注释:

 {Yet a little while is the light among you} (eti mikron
chronon to ph(9373) en humin estin). Chronon is the accusative of
extent of time. Jesus does not argue the point of theology with
the crowd who would not understand. He turns to the metaphor used
before when he claimed to be the light of the world ( 8:12 ) and
urges that they take advantage of their privilege "while ye have
the light" (h(9373) to ph(9373) echete). {That darkness overtake you
not} (hina m(8820)skotia humas katalab(8869)). Purpose (negative) with
hina m(885c) and second aorist active subjunctive of katalamban(935c).
See this verb in  1:5 . In  1Th 5:4  this verb occurs with
h(886d)era (day) overtaking one like a thief. {Knoweth not whither
he goeth} (ouk oiden pou hupagei). See  11:10  for this idea
and the same language in  1Jo 2:11 . The ancients did not have
our electric street lights. The dark streets were a terror to
travellers.

经文:

约翰福音 12:36-12:36

注释:

 {Believe in the light} (pisteuete eis to ph(9373)). That is,
"believe in me as the Messiah" ( 8:12  9:5 ). {That ye may become
sons of light} (hina huioi ph(9374)os gen(8873)the). Purpose clause
with hina and second aorist subject of ginomai, to become.
They were not "sons of light," a Hebrew idiom (cf.  17:12  Lu
16:8  with the contrast), an idiom used by Paul in  1Th 5:5  Eph
5:8 . It is equivalent to "enlightened men" (Bernard) and Jesus
called his disciples the light of the world ( Mt 5:14 ). {Hid
himself from them} (ekrub(8820)ap' aut(936e)). Second aorist passive
indicative of krupt(935c), late form (in LXX) for old ekruph(885c),
"was hidden from them," as in  8:59 . This part of verse  36 
begins a new paragraph.

经文:

约翰福音 12:37-12:37

注释:

 {Though he had done so many signs before them} (	osauta
autou s(886d)eia pepoi(886b)otos emprosthen aut(936e)). Genitive absolute
with perfect active participle in concessive sense of poie(935c).
{Yet they believed not on him} (ouk episteuon eis auton). No
"yet" in the Greek. Negative imperfect active of pisteu(935c), "they
kept on not believing on him," stubborn refusal in face of the
light (verse  35 ).

经文:

约翰福音 12:38-12:38

注释:

 1Th
5:4 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Th
5' or engs='1Th
5'
经文:

约翰福音 12:39-12:39

注释:

 {For this cause they could not believe} (dia touto ouk
edunanto pisteuein). Touto (this) seems to have a double
reference (to what precedes and to what follows) as in  8:47 .
The negative imperfect (double augment, edunanto) of dunamai.
John is not absolving these Jews from moral responsibility, but
only showing that the words of Isaiah "had to be fulfilled, for
they were the expression of Divine foreknowledge " (Bernard).

经文:

约翰福音 12:40-12:40

注释:

 {He hath blinded} (	etuphl(936b)en). Perfect active
indicative of 	uphlo(935c), old causative verb to make blind (from
	uphlos, blind), in N.T. only here,  2Co 4:4  1Jo 2:11 . {He
hardened} (ep(9372)(9373)en). First aorist active indicative of
p(9372)o(935c), a late causative verb (from p(9372)os, hard skin), seen
already in  Mr 6:52 , etc. This quotation is from  Isa 6:10  and
differs from the LXX. {Lest they should see} (hina m(8820)id(9373)in).
Negative purpose clause with hina m(885c) instead of m(8870)ote (never
used by John) of the LXX. Matthew ( Mt 13:15 ) has m(8870)ote and
quotes Jesus as using the passage as do Mark ( Mr 4:12 ) and Luke
( Lu 8:10 ). Paul quotes it again ( Ac 28:26 ) to the Jews in
Rome. In each instance the words of Isaiah are interpreted as
forecasting the doom of the Jews for rejecting the Messiah.
Matthew ( Mt 13:15 ) has sun(9373)in where John has 
o(8873)(9373)in
(perceive), and both change from the subjunctive to the future
(kai iasomai), "And I should heal them." John has here
straph(9373)in (second aorist passive subjunctive of streph(935c))
while Matthew reads epistreps(9373)in (first aorist active of
epistreph(935c)).

经文:

约翰福音 12:41-12:41

注释:

 {Because he saw his glory} (hoti eiden t(886e) doxan autou).
Correct reading here hoti (because), not hote (when). Isaiah
with spiritual vision saw the glory of the Messiah and spoke
(elal(8873)en) of him, John says, whatever modern critics may think
or say. So Jesus said that Abraham saw his day ( 8:56 ). Cf.  Heb
11:13 .

经文:

约翰福音 12:42-12:42

注释:

 {Nevertheless even} (hom(9373) mentoi kai). For the old
hom(9373) see  1Co 14:7  Ga 3:15  (only other examples in N.T.),
here only with mentoi, "but yet," and kai, "even." In spite
of what has just been said "many (polloi) even of the rulers"
(recall the lonely shyness of Nicodemus in  3:1ff. ). These
actually "believed on him" (episteusan eis auton) in their
convictions, a remarkable statement as to the effect that Christ
had in Jerusalem as the Sanhedrin plotted his death. Cf.
Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea. {But because of the Pharisees}
(alla dia tous Pharisaious). Like the whispered talk in  7:13 
"because of the fear of the Jews." Once the Pharisees sneeringly
asked the officers ( 7:48 ): "Hath any one of the rulers believed
on him?" And now "many of the rulers have believed on him." {They
did not confess} (ouch h(936d)ologoun). Negative imperfect in
contrast to the punctiliar aorist episteusan. "They kept on not
confessing." How like the cowardly excuses made today by those
under conviction who refuse to step out for Christ. {Lest they
should be put out of the synagogue} (hina m(8820)aposunag(9367)oi
gen(936e)tai). Cf.  9:22  where this very word occurs in a purpose
clause like this. Only once more in the N.T. ( 16:2 ), a Jewish
word not in profane authors. This ostracism from the synagogue
was dreaded by the Jews and made cowards of these "believing
elders." {More than} (mallon (8870)er). They preferred the glory
and praise of men more than the glory and praise of God. How
apropos these words are to some suave cowards today.

经文:

约翰福音 12:44-12:44

注释:

 {Cried and said} (ekraxen kai eipen). First aorist active
indicative of kraz(935c), to cry aloud, and second aorist active of
defective verb er(935c), to say. This is probably a summary of what
Jesus had already said as in verse  36  John closes the public
ministry of Jesus without the Synoptic account of the last day in
the temple on our Tuesday ( Mr 11:27-12:44  Mt 21:23-23:39  Lu
20:1-21:4 ). {Not on me, but on him} (ou eis eme, alla eis
ton). "Not on me only, but also on," another example of
exaggerated contrast like that in verse  30 . The idea of Jesus
here is a frequent one (believing on Jesus whom the Father has
sent) as in  3:17f.  5:23f.,30,43  7:16  8:42  13:20  14:1  Mt
10:40  Lu 9:48 .

经文:

约翰福音 12:46-12:46

注释:

 {I am come a light} (Eg(9320)ph(9373) el(886c)utha). As in  3:19  9:5  8:12  12:35 . Final clause (negative) also here (hina m(880a)mein(8869), first aorist active subjunctive) as in  12:35 . Light
dispels darkness.

经文:

约翰福音 12:47-12:47

注释:

 {If any one} (ean tis). Third-class condition with ean
and first aorist active subjunctive (akous(8869)) of akou(935c) and
same form (phulax(8869)) of phulass(935c) with negative m(885c). {But to
save the world} (all' hina s(9373)(9320)ton kosmon). Purpose clause
again (cf. hina krin(935c), just before) with hina and first
aorist active of s(937a)(932e) Exaggerated contrast again, "not so much
to judge, but also to save." See  3:17  for same contrast. And
yet Jesus does judge the world inevitably ( 8:15f.  9:39 ), but
his primary purpose is to save the world ( 3:16 ). See close of
the Sermon on the Mount for the same insistence on hearing and
keeping (obeying) the words of Jesus ( Mt 7:24,26 ) and also  Lu
11:28 .

经文:

约翰福音 12:48-12:48

注释:

 {Rejecteth} (athet(936e)). Present active participle of
athete(935c), late _Koin(825f) verb (from athetos, a privative, and
	ith(886d)i), to render null and void, only here in John, but see
 Mr 6:26  7:9 . {One that judgeth him} (	on krinonta auton).
Articular present active participle of krin(935c). See same idea in
 5:45  9:50 . {The same} (ekeinos). "That" very word of Christ
which one rejects will confront him and accuse him to the Father
"at the last day" (en t(8869) eschat(8869) h(886d)erai, this phrase
peculiar to John). There is no escaping it. And yet Jesus himself
will bear witness for or against the one whose conduct has
already revealed his attitude towards the message of God ( Mt
10:32  Lu 12:8f. ).

经文:

约翰福音 12:49-12:49

注释:

 {He hath given} (ded(936b)en). Perfect active indicative.
Christ has permanent commission. {What I should say and what I
should speak} (	i eip(9320)kai ti lal(8873)(935c)). Indirect question
retaining the deliberative subjunctive (second aorist active
eip(935c), first aorist active lal(8873)(935c)). Meyer and Westcott take
eip(935c) to refer to the content and lal(8873)(935c) more to the varying
manner of delivery. Possibly so.

经文:

约翰福音 12:50-12:50

注释:

 {Life eternal} (z(9388) ai(936e)ios). See  3:15  Mt 25:46  for
this great phrase. In  6:68  Peter says to Jesus, "Thou hast the
words of eternal life." Jesus had just said ( 6:63 ) that his
words were spirit and life. The secret lies in the source, "as
the Father hath said to me" (eir(886b)en).

经文:

约翰福音 13:1-13:1

注释:

 {Now before the feast of the passover} (pro de t(8873) heort(8873)
tou pascha). Just before, John means, not twenty-four hours
before, that is our Thursday evening (beginning of 15th of Nisan,
sunset to sunset Jewish day), since Jesus was crucified on Friday
15th of Nisan. Hence Jesus ate the regular passover meal at the
usual time. The whole feast, including the feast of unleavened
bread, lasted eight days. For a discussion of the objections to
this interpretation of John in connexion with the Synoptic
Gospels one may consult my _Harmony of the Gospels_, pp. 279-84,
and David Smith's _In the Days of His Flesh_, Appendix VIII. The
passover feast began on the 15th Nisan at sunset, the passover
lamb being slain the afternoon of 14th Nisan. There seems no real
doubt that this meal in  Joh 13:1-30  is the real passover meal
described by the Synoptics also ( Mr 14:18-21  Mt 26:21-25  Lu
22:21-23 ), followed by the institution of the Lord's Supper.
Thus understood verse  1  here serves as an introduction to the
great esoteric teaching of Christ to the apostles ( Joh
13:2-17:26 ), called by Barnas Sears _The Heart of Christ_. This
phrase goes with the principal verb (8867)ap(8873)en (loved). {Knowing}
(eid(9373)). Second perfect active participle, emphasizing the full
consciousness of Christ. He was not stumbling into the dark as he
faced "his hour" (autou h(8820)h(9372)a). See  18:4  19:28  for other
examples of the insight and foresight (Bernard) of Jesus
concerning his death. See on  12:23  for use before by Jesus.
{That he should depart} (hina metab(8869)). Sub-final use of hina
with second aorist active subjunctive of metabain(935c), old word,
to go from one place to another, here ( 5:24  1Jo 3:14 ) to go
from this world ( 8:23 ) back to the Father from whom he had come
( 14:12,28  16:10,28  17:5 ). {His own which were in the world}
(	ous idious tous en t(9369) kosm(9369)). His own disciples
( 17:6,9,11 ), those left in the world when he goes to the
Father, not the Jews as in  1:11 . See  Ac 4:23  1Ti 5:8  for the
idiom. John pictures here the outgoing of Christ's very heart's
love (chs.  Joh 13-17 ) towards these men whom he had chosen and
whom he loved "unto the end" (eis telos) as in  Mt 10:22  Lu
18:15 , but here as in  1Th 2:16  rather "to the uttermost." The
culmination of the crisis ("his hour") naturally drew out the
fulness of Christ's love for them as is shown in these great
chapters ( Joh 13-17 ).

经文:

约翰福音 13:2-13:2

注释:

 {During supper} (deipnou ginomenou). Correct text, present
middle participle of ginomai (not genomenou, second aorist
middle participle, "being ended") genitive absolute. Verse  4 
shows plainly that the meal was still going on. {The devil having
already put} (	ou diabolou (8864)(8820)bebl(886b)otos). Another genitive
absolute without a connective (asyndeton), perfect active
participle of all(935c), to cast, to put. Luke ( Lu 22:3 ) says
that Satan entered Judas when he offered to betray Jesus. Hence
John's "already" ((8864)(885c)) is pertinent. John repeats his statement
in verse  27 . In  Joh 6:70  Jesus a year ago had seen that Judas
was a devil. {To betray him} (hina paradoi auton). Cf.  Ac
5:3 . Purpose clause with hina and second aorist active
subjunctive of paradid(936d)i (form in -oi as in  Mr 14:10 
rather than the usual -(9369) in  Lu 22:4 ). Satan had an open door
by now into the heart of Judas.

经文:

约翰福音 13:3-13:3

注释:

 {Knowing} (eid(9373)). Repeated from verse  1 , accenting the
full consciousness of Jesus. {Had given} (ed(936b)en). So Aleph B L
W, aorist active instead of ded(936b)en (perfect active) of
did(936d)i. Cf.  3:31  for a similar statement with en instead of
eis. See  Mt 11:27  ( Lu 10:22 ) and  28:18  for like claim by
Jesus to complete power. {And that he came forth from God, and
goeth unto God} (kai hoti apo theou ex(886c)then kai pros ton theon
hupagei). See plain statement by Jesus on this point in  16:28 .
The use of pros ton theon recalls the same words in  1:1 .
Jesus is fully conscious of his deity and Messianic dignity when
he performs this humble act.

经文:

约翰福音 13:4-13:4

注释:

 {Riseth from supper} (egeiretai ek tou deipnou). Vivid
dramatic present middle indicative of egeir(935c). From the couch on
which he was reclining. {Layeth aside} (	ith(8873)in). Same
dramatic present active of 	ith(886d)i. {His garments} (	a
himatia). The outer robe 	allith (himation) and with only
the tunic (chit(936e)) on "as one that serveth" ( Lu 22:27 ). Jesus
had already rebuked the apostles for their strife for precedence
at the beginning of the meal ( Lu 22:24-30 ). {A towel}
(lention). Latin word _linteum_, linen cloth, only in this
passage in the N.T. {Girded himself} (diez(9373)en heauton). First
aorist active indicative of diaz(936e)nu(935c) (-umi), old and rare
compound (in Plutarch, LXX, inscriptions, and papyri), to gird
all around. In N.T. only in John ( 13:4,5  21:7 ). Did Peter not
recall this incident when in  1Pe 5:5  he exhorts all to "gird
yourselves with humility" (	(886e) tapeinophrosun(886e) egkomb(9373)asthe)?

经文:

约翰福音 13:5-13:5

注释:

 {Poureth} (allei). Vivid present again. Literally,
"putteth" (as in verse  2 , all(935c)). {Into the basin} (eis ton
nipt(8872)a). From verb 
ipt(935c) (later form of 
iz(935c) in this same
verse and below) to wash, found only here and in quotations of
this passage. Note the article, "the basin" in the room. {Began
to wash} ((8872)xato niptein). Back to the aorist again as with
diez(9373)en (verse  4 ). Nipt(935c) was common for washing parts of
the body like the hands or the feet. {To wipe} (ekmassein). "To
wipe off" as in  12:3 . {With the towel} (	(9369) lenti(9369)).
Instrumental case and the article (pointing to lention in verse
 4 ). {Wherewith} (h(9369)). Instrumental case of the relative
ho. {He was girded} ((886e) diez(9373)menos). Periphrastic past
perfect of diaz(936e)nu(935c) for which verb see verse  4 .

经文:

约翰福音 13:6-13:6

注释:

 {So he cometh} (erchetai oun). Transitional use of oun
and dramatic present again (erchetai). {Lord, dost thou wash my
feet?} (Kurie, su mou nipteis tous podas;). Emphatic contrast
in position of su mou (away from podas), "Dost thou my feet
wash?" "Peter, we may suppose, drew his feet up, as he spoke, in
his impulsive humility" (Bernard).

经文:

约翰福音 13:7-13:7

注释:

 {I ... thou} (eg(9320)... su). Jesus repeats the pronouns used
by Peter in similar contrast. {Not now} (ouk arti). Just now
arti means ( 9:19,25 ). Used again by Jesus (verse  33 ) and
Peter (verse  37 ). {But thou shalt understand hereafter}
(gn(9373)(8869) de meta tauta). Future middle of gin(9373)k(935c) (instead of
the verb oida) to know by experience. "Thou shalt learn after
these things," even if slowly.

经文:

约翰福音 13:8-13:8

注释:

 {Thou shalt never wash my feet} (ou m(8820)nips(8869)s mou tous
podas eis ton ai(936e)a). Strong double negative ou m(885c) with first
aorist active subjunctive of 
ipt(935c) with eis ton ai(936e)a (for
ever) added and mou (my) made emphatic by position. Peter's
sudden humility should settle the issue, he felt. {If I wash thee
not} (ean m(8820)nips(9320)se). Third-class condition with ean m(885c)
(negative). Jesus picks up the challenge of Peter whose act
amounted to irreverence and want of confidence. "The first
condition of discipleship is self-surrender" (Westcott). So
"Jesus, waiting with the basin" (Dods), concludes. {Thou hast no
part with me} (ouk echeis meros met' emou). Not simply here at
the supper with its fellowship, but in the deeper sense of mystic
fellowship as Peter was quick to see. Jesus does not make
foot-washing essential to spiritual fellowship, but simply tests
Peter's real pride and mock-humility by this symbol of
fellowship.

经文:

约翰福音 13:9-13:9

注释:

 {Not my feet only, but also my hands and my head} (m(8820)tous
podas mou monon alla kai tas cheiras kai t(886e) kephal(886e)). Nouns in
the accusative case object of 
ipson understood. Peter's
characteristic impulsiveness that does not really understand the
Master's act. "A moment ago he told his Master He was doing too
much: now he tells Him He is doing too little" (Dods).

经文:

约翰福音 13:10-13:10

注释:

 {He that is bathed} (ho leloumenos). Perfect passive
articular participle of lou(935c), to bathe the whole body ( Ac
9:37 ). {Save to wash his feet} (ei m(8820)tous podas nipsasthai).
Aleph and some old Latin MSS. have only 
ipsasthai, but the
other words are genuine and are really involved by the use of

ipsasthai (first aorist middle infinitive of 
ipt(935c), to wash
parts of the body) instead of lousasthai, to bathe the whole
body (just used before). The guest was supposed to bathe (lou(935c))
before coming to a feast and so only the feet had to be washed
(
ipt(935c)) on removing the sandals. {Clean} (katharos). Because
of the bath. For katharos meaning external cleanliness see  Mt
23:26  27:59    but in  Joh 15:3  it is used for spiritual purity
as here in "ye are clean" (katharoi). {Every whit} (holos).
All of the body because of the bath. For this same predicate use
of holos see  9:34 . {But not all} (all' ouchi pantes).
Strongly put exception (ouchi). Plain hint of the treachery of
Judas who is reclining at the table after having made the bargain
with the Sanhedrin ( Mr 14:11 ). A year ago Jesus knew that Judas
was a devil and said to the apostles: "One of you is a devil"
( 6:64,70 ). But it did not hurt them then nor did they suspect
each other then or now. It is far-fetched to make Jesus here
refer to the cleansing power of his blood or to baptism as some
do.

经文:

约翰福音 13:11-13:11

注释:

 {For he knew him that should betray him} ((8869)dei gar ton
paradidonta auton). Past perfect (8869)dei used as imperfect.
Jesus had known for a year at least ( 6:64,70 ) and yet he
treated Judas with his usual courtesy. The articular present
participle of paradid(936d)i, "the betraying one," for Judas was
already engaged in the process. Did Judas wince at this thrust
from Jesus?

经文:

约翰福音 13:12-13:12

注释:

 {Sat down again} (anepesen palin). Second aorist active
indicative of anapipt(935c), old compound verb to fall back, to lie
down, to recline. Palin (again) can be taken either with
anepesen, as here, or with eipen (he said again). {Know ye
what I have done to you?} (gin(9373)kete ti pepoi(886b)a humin;). "Do
ye understand the meaning of my act?" Perfect active indicative
of poie(935c) with dative case (humin). It was a searching
question, particularly to Simon Peter and Judas.

经文:

约翰福音 13:13-13:13

注释:

 {Ye} (humeis). Emphatic. {Call me} (ph(936e)eite me).
"Address me." Ph(936e)e(935c) regular for addressing one with his title
( 1:48 ). {Master} (Ho didaskalos). Nominative form (not in
apposition with me accusative after ph(936e)eite), but really
vocative in address with the article (called titular nominative
sometimes) like Ho Kurios kai ho theos mou in  20:28 .
"Teacher." See  11:28  for Martha's title for Jesus to Mary.
{Lord} (Ho Kurios). Another and separate title. In  1:38  we
have Didaskale (vocative form) for the Jewish Rabbei and in
 9:36,38  Kurie for the Jewish _Mari_. It is significant that
Jesus approves (kal(9373), well) the application of both titles to
himself as he accepts from Thomas the terms kurios and 	heos.
{For I am} (eimi gar). Jesus distinctly claims here to be both
Teacher and Lord in the full sense, at the very moment when he
has rendered this menial, but symbolic, service to them. Here is
a hint for those who talk lightly about "the peril of worshipping
Jesus!"

经文:

约翰福音 13:14-13:14

注释:

 {If I then} (ei oun eg(935c)). Argumentative sense of oun
(therefore). Condition of first class, assumed to be true, with
first aorist active indicative of 
ipt(935c), "If I, being what I
am, washed your feet" (as I did). {Ye also ought} (kai humeis
opheilete). The obligation rests on you _a fortiori_. Present
active indicative of the old verb opheil(935c), to owe a debt ( Mt
18:30 ). The mutual obligation is to do this or any other needed
service. The widows who washed the saints' feet in  1Ti 5:10  did
it "as an incident-of their hospitable ministrations" (Bernard).
Up to 1731 the Lord High Almoner in England washed the feet of
poor saints (_pedilavium_) on Thursday before Easter, a custom
that arose in the fourth century, and one still practised by the
Pope of Rome.

经文:

约翰福音 13:15-13:15

注释:

 1Pe
5:3 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Pe
5' or engs='1Pe
5'
经文:

约翰福音 13:16-13:16

注释:

 {Is not greater} (ouk estin meiz(936e)). Comparative
adjective of megas (greater) followed by the ablative case
kuriou (contrast between slave, lord) and 	ou pempsantos
(articular participle of pemp(935c), to send, with contrast with
apostle, "one sent" (apostolos) from apostell(935c)). Jesus here
enforces the dignity of service. In  Lu 22:27  Jesus argues this
point a bit. In  Lu 6:40  the contrast is between the pupil and
the teacher, though some pupils consider themselves superior to
the teacher. In  Mt 10:24  Jesus uses both forms of the saying
(pupil and slave). He clearly repeated this logion often.

经文:

约翰福音 13:17-13:17

注释:

 {If ye know} (ei oidate). Condition of first class
assumed as true, ei and present (oidate used as present)
active indicative. {If ye do} (ean poi(8874)e). Third-class
condition, ean and present active subjunctive, assumed as
possible, "if ye keep on doing." Both conditions with the one
conclusion coming in between, "happy are ye." Just knowing does
not bring happiness nor just occasional doing.

经文:

约翰福音 13:18-13:18

注释:

 {Not of you all} (ou peri pant(936e)). As in verse  11 , he
here refers to Judas whose treachery is no surprise to Jesus
( 6:64,70 ). {Whom I have chosen} (	inas exelexam(886e)). Indirect
question, unless 	inas is here used as a relative like hous.
The first aorist middle indicative of ekleg(935c) is the same form
used in  6:70 . Jesus refers to the choice ( Lu 6:13 
eklexamenos, this very word again) of the twelve from among the
large group of disciples. That the scripture might be fulfilled
(all' hina h(8820)graph(8820)pl(8872)(9374)h(8869)). See the same clause in
 17:12 . Purpose clause with hina and first aorist passive
subjunctive of pl(8872)o(935c). This treachery of Judas was according to
the eternal counsels of God ( 12:4 ), but none the less Judas is
responsible for his guilt. For a like elliptical clause see  9:3  15:25 . The quotation is from the Hebrew of  Ps 41:9 . {He that
eateth} (ho tr(9367)(936e)). Present active participle of old verb to
gnaw, to chew, to eat, in N.T. only in John ( 6:54,56,57,58  13:18 ) and  Mt 26:38 . LXX has here ho esthi(936e). {Lifted up his
heel against me} (ep(8872)en ep' eme t(886e) pternan autou). First
aorist active indicative of epair(935c). Pterna, old word for
heel, only here in N.T. The metaphor is that of kicking with the
heel or tripping with the heel like a wrestler. It was a gross
breach of hospitality to eat bread with any one and then turn
against him so. The Arabs hold to it yet.

经文:

约翰福音 13:19-13:19

注释:

 {From henceforth} (ap' arti). "From now on," as in  14:7  Mt 23:39  Re 14:13 . {Before it come to pass} (pro tou
genesthai). Pro with ablative of the articular second aorist
middle infinitive ginomai (before the coming to pass). {When it
is come to pass} (hotan gen(8874)ai). Indefinite relative clause
with hotan and the second aorist middle subjunctive of
ginomai, "whenever it does come to pass." {That ye may believe}
(hina pisteu(8874)e). Purpose clause with hina and present active
subjunctive of pisteu(935c), "that ye may keep on believing." Cf.
 Isa 48:5 . {That I am he} (hoti eg(9320)eimi). As Jesus has
repeatedly claimed to be the Messiah ( 8:24,58 , etc.). Cf. also
 14:29  (pisteus(8874)e here);  16:4 .

经文:

约翰福音 13:20-13:20

注释:

 {Whomsoever I send} (an tina pemps(935c)). More precisely, "If
I send any one" (third-class condition, an=ean and 	ina,
indefinite pronoun accusative case, object of pemps(935c), first
aorist active subjunctive of pemp(935c), to send). This use of ei
tis or ean tis (if any one) is very much like the indefinite
relative hostis and hos an (or ean), but the idiom is
different. In  Mr 8:34f.  we have both ei tis thelei and hos
ean while in  Joh 14:13f.  we find hoti an and ean ti
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 956).

经文:

约翰福音 13:21-13:21

注释:

 {He was troubled in the spirit} (etarachth(8820)toi
pneumati). First aorist passive indicative of 	arass(935c) and the
locative case of pneuma. See already  11:33  12:27  for this
use of 	arass(935c) for the agitation of Christ's spirit. In
 14:1,27  it is used of the disciples. Jesus was one with God
( 5:19 ) and yet he had our real humanity ( 1:14 ). {Testified}
(emartur(8873)en). First aorist active indicative of marture(935c),
definite witness as in  4:44  18:37 . {One of you shall betray
me} (heis ex hum(936e) parad(9373)ei me). Future active of
paradid(936d)i, to betray, the word so often used of Judas. This
very language occurs in  Mr 14:18  Mt 26:21  and the idea in  Lu
22:21 . Jesus had said a year ago that "one of you is a devil"
( Joh 6:70 ), but it made no such stir then. Now it was a bolt
from the blue sky as Jesus swept his eyes around and looked at
the disciples.

经文:

约翰福音 13:22-13:22

注释:

 {Looked one on another} (eblepon eis all(886c)ous).
Inchoative imperfect of lep(935c), "began to glance at one another
in bewilderment (doubting, aporoumenoi, present passive
participle of apore(935c), to be at a loss, to lose one's way, a
privative and poros, way). They recalled their strife about
precedence and Judas betrayed nothing. {Concerning whom he spake}
(peri tinos legei). Indirect question retaining present active
indicative legei. See same note in 烘r 14:19; Mt 26:22; Lu
22:23|.

经文:

约翰福音 13:23-13:23

注释:

 {Was at the table reclining in Jesus' bosom} ((886e)
anakeimenos en t(9369) kolp(9369) tou I(8873)ou). No word for "table" in the
text. Periphrastic imperfect of anakeimai, to lie back, to
recline. Kolpos usual word for bosom ( 1:18 ). {Whom Jesus
loved} (hon (8867)apa I(8873)ous). Imperfect active of agapa(935c), John's
description of himself of which he was proud ( 19:26  20:2  21:7,20 ), identified in  21:24  as the author of the book and
necessarily one of the twelve because of the "explicit" (Bernard)
language of Mark ( Mr 14:17  Lu 22:14 ). John son of Zebedee and
brother of James. At the table John was on the right of Jesus
lying obliquely so that his head lay on the bosom of Jesus. The
centre, the place of honour, Jesus occupied. The next place in
rank was to the left of Jesus, held by Peter (Westcott) or by
Judas (Bernard) which one doubts.

经文:

约翰福音 13:24-13:24

注释:

 {Beckoneth} (
euei). Old verb to nod, in N.T. only here
and  Ac 24:10 . They were all looking in surprise at each other.
{Tell us who it is of whom he speaketh} (eipe tis estin peri hou
legei). Second aorist active imperative with indirect question
(	is) and relative clause (peri hou). Peter was cautious, but
could not contain his curiosity. John in front of Jesus was in a
favourable position to have a whispered word with him. {Breast}
(st(8874)hos). As in  21:20  Lu 18:13  in place of kolpon (verse
 23 ). This is the moment represented in Leonardo da Vinci's
"Last Supper," only he shows the figures like the monks for whom
he painted it.

经文:

约翰福音 13:25-13:25

注释:

 {He} (ekeinos). "That one" (John). {Leaning back}
(anapes(936e)). Second aorist active participle of anapipt(935c), to
fall back. {As he was} (hout(9373)). "Thus." It was easily done.

经文:

约翰福音 13:26-13:26

注释:

 {He} (ekeinos). Emphatic pronoun again. {For whom I shall
dip the sop} (h(9369) eg(9320)baps(9320)to ps(936d)ion). Dative case of the
relative (h(9369)) and future active of apt(935c), to dip ( Lu
16:24 ). Ps(936d)ion is a diminutive of ps(936d)os, a morsel, a
common _Koin(825f) word (in the papyri often), in N.T. only in this
passage. It was and is in the orient a token of intimacy to allow
a guest to dip his bread in the common dish (cf.  Ru 2:14 ). So
 Mr 14:20 . Even Judas had asked: "Is it I?" ( Mr 14:19  Mt
26:22 ). {Giveth it to Judas} (did(9373)in Ioud(8369)). Unobserved by
the others in spite of Christ's express language, because "it was
so usual a courtesy" (Bernard), "the last appeal to Judas' better
feeling" (Dods). Judas now knew that Jesus knew his plot.

经文:

约翰福音 13:27-13:27

注释:

 {Then entered Satan into him} (	ote eis(886c)then eis ekeinon
ho Satanas). The only time the word Satan occurs in the Gospel.
As he had done before ( 13:2  Lu 22:3 ) until Christ considered
him a devil ( 6:70 ). This is the natural outcome of one who
plays with the devil. {That thou doest, do quickly} (Ho poieis
poi(8873)on tacheion). Aorist active imperative of poie(935c). "Do more
quickly what thou art doing." Tacheion is comparative of
	ache(9373) ( Joh 11:31 ) and in N.T. only here,  20:4  Heb
13:19,23 . See the eagerness of Jesus for the passion in  Lu
12:50 .

经文:

约翰福音 13:28-13:28

注释:

 {No one knew} (oudeis egn(935c)). Second aorist active
indicative of gin(9373)k(935c). The disciples had not yet perceived the
treacherous heart of Judas.

经文:

约翰福音 13:29-13:29

注释:

 {Some thought} (	ines edokoun). Imperfect active of
doke(935c). Mere inference in their ignorance. {The bag} (	o
gl(9373)sokomon). See on 气2:6| for this word. {What things we have
need of} (h(936e) chreian echomen). Antecedent (	auta) of the
relative (hon) not expressed. {For the feast} (eis t(886e)
heort(886e)). The feast of unleavened bread beginning after the
passover meal and lasting eight days. If this was twenty-four
hours ahead of the passover meal, there was no hurry for next day
would be in ample time. {Or that he should give something to the
poor} ((8820)tois pt(9363)hois hina ti d(9369)). Another alternative in
their speculation on the point. Note prolepsis of 	ois pt(9363)hois
(dative case) before hina d(9369) (final clause with hina and
second aorist active subjunctive of did(936d)i).

经文:

约翰福音 13:30-13:30

注释:

 {Having received the sop} (lab(936e) to ps(936d)ion). Second
aorist active participle of lamban(935c). Judas knew what Jesus
meant, however ignorant the disciples. So he acted "straightway"
(euthus). {And it was night} ((886e) de nux). Darkness falls
suddenly in the orient. Out into the terror and the mystery of
this dreadful night (symbol of his devilish work) Judas went.

经文:

约翰福音 13:31-13:31

注释:

 {Now} (
un). Now at last, the crisis has come with a
sense of deliverance from the presence of Judas and of surrender
to the Father's will (Westcott). {Is glorified} (edoxasth(885c)).
First aorist passive of doxaz(935c), consummation of glory in death
both for the Son and the Father. For this verb in this sense see
already  7:39  12:16  and later  17:3 . Four times here in verses
 31f .

经文:

约翰福音 13:32-13:32

注释:

 {In himself} (en haut(9369)). Reflexive pronoun. God is the
source of the glory ( 17:5 ) and is the glory succeeding the
Cross (the glory with the Father in heaven). {And straightway}
(kai euthus). No postponement now. First and quickly the Cross,
then the Ascension.

经文:

约翰福音 13:33-13:33

注释:

 {Little children} (	eknia). Diminutive of 	ekna and
affectionate address as Jesus turns to the effect of his going on
these disciples. Only here in this Gospel, but common in I John
( 1Jo 2:1 , etc.), and nowhere else in N.T. {Yet a little while}
(eti mikron). Accusative of extent of time. See also  7:33  8:21  (to which Jesus here refers);  16:16-19 . {So now I say
unto you} (kai humin leg(9320)arti). This juncture point (arti)
of time relatively to the past and the future ( 9:25  16:12,31 ).

经文:

约翰福音 13:34-13:34

注释:

 {New} (kain(886e)). First, in contrast with the old
(archaios, palaios), the very adjective used in  1Jo 2:7 ) of
the "commandment" (entol(886e)) at once called old (palaia). They
had had it a long time, but the practice of it was new. Jesus
does not hesitate, like the Father, to give commandments
( 15:10,12 ). {That ye love one another} (hina agap(8374)e
all(886c)ous). Non-final use of hina with present active
subjunctive of agapa(935c), the object clause being in the
accusative case in apposition with entol(886e). Note the present
tense (linear action), "keep on loving." {Even as} (kath(9373)).
The measure of our love for another is set by Christ's love for
us.

经文:

约翰福音 13:35-13:35

注释:

 {By this} (en tout(9369)). Locative case with en, "In this
way," viz., "if ye have love" (ean agap(886e) ech(8874)e), condition of
third class (in apposition with en tout(9369)) with ean and
present active subjunctive of ech(935c) ("keep on having love"). See
 17:23  where Jesus prays for mutual love among the disciples
"that the world may know" that the Father sent him. Jerome (_ad
Galat_. vi. 10) says that in his extreme old age John repeated
often this command of Jesus and justified it: "Because it is the
Lord's commandment; and if it be fulfilled it is enough." See
also  14:31 . Tertullian (_Apol_. 39) urges it also as proof of
being disciples. Hatred of one another _per contra_, is an
argument that we are 
ot disciples (learners) of Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 13:36-13:36

注释:

 {Whither goest thou?} (pou hupageis;). Peter is puzzled
just as the Pharisees were twice ( 7:35  8:21f. ).

经文:

约翰福音 13:37-13:37

注释:

 {"Why can I not follow thee even now?"} (dia ti ou dunamai
soi akolouthein arti;). The use of arti (right now, this
minute) instead of 
un (at this time, verse  36 ) illustrates
the impatience of Peter. {I will lay down my life for thee} (	en
psuch(886e) mou huper sou th(8873)(935c)). Future active indicative of
	ith(886d)i. Peter, like the rest, had not yet grasped the idea of
the death of Christ, but, like Thomas ( 11:16 ), he is not afraid
of danger. He had heard Christ's words about the good shepherd
( 10:11 ) and knew that such loyalty was the mark of a good
disciple.

经文:

约翰福音 13:38-13:38

注释:

 {Wilt thou lay down?} (	h(8873)eis;). Jesus picks up Peter's
very words and challenges his boasted loyalty. See such
repetition in  16:16f.,31  21:17 . {Shall not crow} (ph(936e)(8873)(8869)).
Aorist active subjunctive of ph(936e)e(935c), to use the voice, used of
animals and men. Note strong double negative ou m(885c). Mark adds
dis (twice). John's report is almost identical with that in  Lu
22:34 . The other disciples joined in Peter's boast ( Mr 14:31  Mt 26:35 ). {Till thou hast denied} (he(9373) hou arn(8873)(8869)). Future
middle indicative or aorist middle subjunctive second person
singular (form identical) with compound conjunction he(9373) hou
(until which time), "till thou deny or deniest" (_futurum
exactum_ needless). Peter is silenced for the present. They all
"sat astounded and perplexed" (Dods).

经文:

约翰福音 14:1-14:1

注释:

 {Let not your heart be troubled} (m(8820)tarassesth(9320)hum(936e) h(880a)kardia). Not here the physical organ of life ( Lu 21:34 ), but
the seat of spiritual life (pneuma, psuch(885c)), the centre of
feeling and faith ( Ro 10:10 ), "the focus of the religious life"
(Vincent) as in  Mt 22:37 . See these words repeated in  14:27 .
Jesus knew what it was to have a "troubled" heart ( 11:33  13:31 ) where 	arass(935c) is used of him. Plainly the hearts of the
disciples were tossed like waves in the wind by the words of
Jesus in  13:38 . {Ye believe ... believe also} (pisteuete ...
kai pisteuete). So translated as present active indicative
plural second person and present active imperative of pisteu(935c).
The form is the same. Both may be indicative (ye believe ... and
ye believe), both may be imperative (believe ... and believe or
believe also), the first may be indicative (ye believe) and the
second imperative (believe also), the first may be imperative
(keep on believing) and the second indicative (and ye do believe,
this less likely). Probably both are imperatives ( Mr 11:22 ),
"keep on believing in God and in me."

经文:

约翰福音 14:2-14:2

注释:

 {Mansions} (monai). Old word from men(935c), to abide,
abiding places, in N.T. only here and verse  23 . There are many
resting-places in the Father's house (oikia). Christ's picture
of heaven here is the most precious one that we possess. It is
our heavenly home with the Father and with Jesus. {If it were not
so} (ei de m(885c)). Ellipsis of the verb ( Mr 2:21  Re 2:5,16  Joh
14:11 ). Here a suppressed condition of the second class
(determined as unfulfilled) as the conclusion shows. {I would
have told you} (eipon an humin). Regular construction for this
apodosis (an and aorist--second active--indicative). {For I go}
(hoti poreuomai). Reason for the consolation given, futuristic
present middle indicative, and explanation of his words in
 13:33  that puzzled Peter so ( 13:36f. ). {To prepare a place
for you} (hetoimasai topon humin). First aorist active
infinitive of purpose of hetoimaz(935c), to make ready, old verb
from hetoimos. Here only in John, but in  Mr 10:40  ( Mt
20:23 ). It was customary to send one forward for such a purpose
( Nu 10:33 ). So Jesus had sent Peter and John to make ready
(this very verb) for the passover meal ( Mr 14:12  Mt 26:17 ).
Jesus is thus our Forerunner (prodromos) in heaven ( Heb
6:20 ).

经文:

约翰福音 14:3-14:3

注释:

 {If I go} (ean poreuth(935c)). Third-class condition (ean and
first aorist passive subjunctive of poreuomai). {And prepare}
(kai hetoimas(935c)). Same condition and first aorist active
subjunctive of the same verb hetoimaz(935c). {I come again} (palin
erchomai). Futuristic present middle, definite promise of the
second coming of Christ. {And will receive you unto myself} (kai
paral(886d)psomai humas pros emauton). Future middle of
paralamban(935c). Literally, "And I shall take you along (para-)
to my own home" (cf.  13:36 ). This blessed promise is fulfilled
in death for all believers who die before the Second Coming.
Jesus comes for us then also. {That where I am there ye may be
also} (hina hopou eimi eg(9320)kai humeis (8874)e). Purpose clause with
hina and present active subjunctive of eimi. This the purpose
of the departure and the return of Christ. And this is heaven for
the believer to be where Jesus is and with him forever.

经文:

约翰福音 14:4-14:4

注释:

 {Ye know the way} (oidate t(886e) hodon). Definite allusion to
the puzzle of Peter in  13:36f . The path to the Father's house
is now plain.

经文:

约翰福音 14:5-14:5

注释:

 {Whither} (pou)--{how} (p(9373)). It is Thomas, not Peter
( 13:36f. ) who renews the doubt about the destination of Jesus
including the path or way thither (	(886e) hodon). Thomas is the
spokesman for the materialistic conception then and now.

经文:

约翰福音 14:6-14:6

注释:

 {I am the way, and the truth, and the life} (Eg(9320)eimi h(880a)hodos kai h(8820)al(8874)heia kai h(8820)z(9388)). Either of these statements is
profound enough to stagger any one, but here all three together
overwhelm Thomas. Jesus had called himself "the life" to Martha
( 11:25 ) and "the door" to the Pharisees ( 10:7 ) and "the light
of the world" ( 8:12 ). He spoke "the way of God in truth" ( Mr
12:14 ). He is the way to God and the only way (verse  6 ), the
personification of truth, the centre of life. {Except by me} (ei
m(8820)di' emou). There is no use for the Christian to wince at
these words of Jesus. If he is really the Incarnate Son of God
( 1:1,14,18 , they are necessarily true.

经文:

约翰福音 14:7-14:7

注释:

 {If ye had known me} (ei egn(936b)eite me). Past perfect
indicative of gin(9373)k(935c), to know by personal experience, in
condition of second class as is made plain by the conclusion (an
(8869)dete) where oida, not gin(9373)k(935c) is used. Thomas and the rest
had not really come to know Jesus, much as they loved him. {From
henceforth ye know him} (ap' arti gin(9373)kete auton). Probably
inchoative present active indicative, "ye are beginning to know
the Father from now on." {And have seen him} (kai he(9372)akate).
Perfect active indicative of hora(935c). Because they had seen Jesus
who is the Son of God, the Image of God, and like God ( 1:18 ).
Hence God is like Jesus Christ. It is a bold and daring claim to
deity. The only intelligible conception of God is precisely what
Jesus here says. God is like Christ.

经文:

约翰福音 14:8-14:8

注释:

 {Show us} (deixon h(886d)in). Philip now speaks up, possibly
hoping for a theophany ( Ex 33:18f. ), certainly not grasping the
idea of Jesus just expressed.

经文:

约翰福音 14:9-14:9

注释:

 {So long time} (	osouton chronon). Accusative of extent of
time. {And dost thou not know me?} (kai ouk egn(936b)as me;).
Perfect active indicative of gin(9373)k(935c). Jesus patiently repeats
his language to Philip with the crisp statement: "he that hath
seen me hath seen the Father" (ho he(9372)ak(9373) eme e(9372)aken ton
patera). Perfect active participle and perfect active indicative
of hora(935c), state of completion. {Thou} (su). Emphatic--After
these years together.

经文:

约翰福音 14:10-14:10

注释:

 {Believest thou not?} (ou pisteueis;). Jesus had a right
to expect greater faith from these men than from the blind man
( 9:35 ) or Martha ( 11:27 ). His words in  14:1  are clearly
needed. This oneness with the Father Jesus had already stated
( 10:38 ) as shown by his "words" (
(886d)ata) and his "works"
(erga). Cf.  3:34  5:19  6:62 .

经文:

约翰福音 14:11-14:11

注释:

 {Believe me} (pisteuete moi). Repeated appeal (present
active imperative of pisteu(935c)) as in  14:1  to his disciples and
as he had done with the hostile Jews to be influenced by his
"works" at any rate ( 10:38 ).

经文:

约翰福音 14:12-14:12

注释:

 {Shall he do also} (kakeinos poi(8873)ei). Emphatic pronoun
ekeinos, "that one also." {Greater works than these} (meizona
tout(936e)). Comparative adjective neuter plural from megas with
ablative case 	out(936e). Not necessarily greater miracles and not
greater spiritual works in quality, but greater in quantity. Cf.
Peter at Pentecost and Paul's mission tours. "Because I go"
(hoti eg(9320)poreuornai). Reason for this expansion made possible
by the Holy Spirit as Paraclete ( 16:7 ).

经文:

约翰福音 14:13-14:13

注释:

 {Whatsoever ye shall ask} (hoti an ait(8873)(8874)e). Indefinite
relative clause with hoti (neuter accusative singular of
hostis), an and the aorist active subjunctive of aite(935c).
This is an advance thought over verse  12 . {In my name} (en t(9369)
onomati mou). First mention of his "name" as the open sesame to
the Father's will. See also  14:26  15:16  16:23,24,26 . {That
will I do} (	outo poi(8873)(935c)). The Father answers prayers ( 15:16  16:23 ), but so does the Son (here and verse  14 ). The purpose
(hina clause with first aorist passive subjunctive of doxaz(935c))
is "that the Father may be glorified in the Son." Plead Christ's
name in prayer to the Father.

经文:

约翰福音 14:14-14:14

注释:

 {If ye shall ask me anything in my name} (ean ti ait(8873)(8874)e
me en t(9369) onomati mou). Condition of third class with ean and
first aorist active subjunctive of aite(935c). The use of me (me)
here is supported by Aleph B 33 Vulgate Syriac Peshitta. Just
this phrase does not occur elsewhere in John and seems awkward,
but see  16:23 . If it is genuine, as seems likely, here is
direct prayer to Jesus taught as we see it practiced by Stephen
in  Ac 7:59 ; and in  Re 22:20 .

经文:

约翰福音 14:15-14:15

注释:

 {If ye love me} (ean agap(8374)e me). Third-class condition
"if ye keep on loving (present active subjunctive, same contract
form as indicative) me." Cf. verse  23 . {Ye will keep}
(	(8872)(8873)ete). Future active of 	(8872)e(935c), not aorist imperative
	(8872)(8873)ate (keep) as some MSS. have. For this phrase see also
 8:51  14:23,24  14:20  1Jo 2:5 . Continued love prevents
disobedience.

经文:

约翰福音 14:16-14:16

注释:

 {And I will pray the Father} (kag(9320)er(9374)(8873)(9320)ton patera).
Er(9374)a(935c) for prayer, not question (the old use), also in  16:23 
(prayer to Jesus in same sense as aite(935c)),  26  (by Jesus as
here);  17:9  (by Jesus), "make request of." {Another Comforter}
(allon parakl(8874)on). Another of like kind (allon, not
heteron), besides Jesus who becomes our Paraclete, Helper,
Advocate, with the Father ( 1Jo 2:1 , Cf.  Ro 8:26f. ). This old
word (Demosthenes), from parakale(935c), was used for legal
assistant, pleader, advocate, one who pleads another's cause
(Josephus, Philo, in illiterate papyrus), in N.T. only in John's
writings, though the idea of it is in  Ro 8:26-34 . Cf.
Deissmann, _Light, etc._, p. 336. So the Christian has Christ as
his Paraclete with the Father, the Holy Spirit as the Father's
Paraclete with us ( Joh 14:16,26  15:26  16:7  1Jo 2:1 ). {For
ever} (eis ton ai(936e)a). This the purpose (hina) in view and
thus Jesus is to be with his people here forever ( Mt 28:20 ).
See  4:14  for the idiom.

经文:

约翰福音 14:17-14:17

注释:

 {The Spirit of truth} (	o pneuma t(8873) al(8874)heias). Same
phrase in  15:27  16:13  1Jo 4:6 , "a most exquisite title"
(Bengel). The Holy Spirit is marked by it (genitive case), gives
it, defends it (cf.  1:17 ), in contrast to the spirit of error
( 1Jo 4:6 ). {Whom} (ho). Grammatical neuter gender (ho)
agreeing with pneuma (grammatical), but rightly rendered in
English by "whom" and note masculine ekeinos (verse  26 ). He
is a person, not a mere influence. {Cannot receive} (ou dunatai
labein). Left to itself the sinful world is helpless ( 1Co 2:14  Ro 8:7f. ), almost Paul's very language on this point. The world
lacks spiritual insight (ou the(9372)ei) and spiritual knowledge
(oude gin(9373)kei). It failed to recognize Jesus ( 1:10 ) and
likewise the Holy Spirit. {Ye know him} (humeis gin(9373)kete
auto). Emphatic position of humeis (ye) in contrast with the
world ( 15:19 ), because they have seen Jesus the Revealer of the
Father (verse  9 ). {Abides} (menei). Timeless present tense.
{With you} (par' humin). "By your side," "at home with you,"
not merely "with you" (meth' hum(936e)) "in the midst of you." {In
you} (en humin). In your hearts. So note meta ( 16 ), para,
en.

经文:

约翰福音 14:18-14:18

注释:

 {I will not leave} (ouk aph(8873)(935c)). Future active of
aphi(886d)i, to send away, to leave behind. {Desolate}
(orphanous). Old word (orphos, Latin _orbus_), bereft of
parents, and of parents bereft of children. Common in papyri of
orphan children. In  13:33  Jesus called the disciples 	eknia
(little children), and so naturally the word means "orphans"
here, but the meaning may be "helpless" (without the other
Paraclete, the Holy Spirit). The only other N.T. example is in
 Jas 1:27  where it means "fatherless." {I come} (erchomai).
Futuristic present as in verse  3 .

经文:

约翰福音 14:19-14:19

注释:

 {But ye behold me} (humeis de the(9372)eite me). Emphatic
position of humeis (ye) in contrast to the blind, unseeing
world. Cf.  13:33  16:10,16 . {Because I live, ye shall live
also} (hoti eg(9320)z(9320)kai humeis z(8873)ete). This is our blessed
guarantee of immortal, eternal life, the continued living of
Jesus. He is the surety of a better covenant ( Heb 7:22 ), the
Risen Christ Jesus. He had said it before ( 6:57 ).

经文:

约翰福音 14:20-14:20

注释:

 {In that day} (en ekein(8869) t(8869) h(886d)er(8369)). The New
Dispensation of the Holy Spirit, beginning with Christ's
Resurrection and the Coming of the Holy Spirit at pentecost.
{Shall know} (gn(9373)esthe). Future middle of gin(9373)k(935c). Chapters
1 to 3 of Acts bear eloquent witness to these words.

经文:

约翰福音 14:21-14:21

注释:

 {He it is that loveth me} (ekeinos estin ho agap(936e) me).
Emphatic demonstrative pronoun ekeinos: "that is the one who
loves me." {And will manifest myself unto him} (kai emphanis(930a)aut(9369) emauton). Future active of emphaniz(935c), old verb from
emphan(8873) ( Ac 10:40  Ro 10:20 ). The Unseen and Risen Christ
will be a real and spiritual Presence to the obedient and loving
believer.

经文:

约翰福音 14:22-14:22

注释:

 {Not Iscariot} (ouch ho Iskari(9374)(8873)). Judas Iscariot had
gone ( 13:30 ), but John is anxious to make it clear that this
Judas (common name, two apostles also named James) was not the
infamous traitor. He is also called Thaddaeus or Lebbaeus ( Mr
3:17  Mt 10:3 ) and the brother (or son) of James ( 6:15  Ac
1:13 ). This is the fourth interruption of the talk of Jesus (by
Peter,  13:36 ; by Thomas,  14:5 ; by Philip,  14:8 ; by Judas,
 14:22 ). {And not to the world} (kai ouchi t(9369) kosm(9369)). Judas
caught at the word emphaniz(935c) in verse  21  as perhaps a
Messianic theophany visible to all the world as at the judgment
( 5:27f. ). He seems to suspect a change of plan on the part of
Jesus (	i gegonen hoti=how has it happened that).

经文:

约翰福音 14:23-14:23

注释:

 {If a man love me} (ean tis agap(8369) me). Condition of
third class with ean and present active subjunctive, "if one
keep on loving me." That is key to the spiritual manifestation
(emphaniz(935c)). {We will come} (eleusometha). Future middle of
erchomai and first person plural (the Father and I), not at the
judgment, but here and now. {And make our abode with him} (kai
mon(886e) par' aut(9369) poi(8873)ometha). See verse  2  for the word mon(885c)
(dwelling, abiding place). If the Holy Spirit "abides" (menei,
verse  17 ) in you, that heart becomes a temple (
aos) of the
Holy Spirit ( 1Co 3:16f. ), and so a fit dwelling place for the
Father and the Son, a glorious and uplifting reality.

经文:

约翰福音 14:24-14:24

注释:

 {He that loveth me not} (ho m(8820)agap(936e) me). Present active
articular participle of agapa(935c) with negative m(885c), "the one who
keeps on not loving me." {Is not mine, but the Father's} (ouk
estin emos, alla tou patros). Predicative possessive pronoun
emos and the predicate genitive of possession patros.

经文:

约翰福音 14:25-14:25

注释:

 {Have I spoken} (lelal(886b)a). Perfect active indicative of
lale(935c), for permanent keeping (	(8872)e(935c) verse  23 ). {While yet
abiding with you} (par' humin men(936e)). Present active
participle, no "yet" (eti) in the Greek, "while remaining
beside (par') you" before departing for the coming of the other
Paraclete.

经文:

约翰福音 14:26-14:26

注释:

 {Whom} (ho). Grammatical neuter, but "whom" is correct
translation. The Father will send the Holy Spirit ( 14:16  Lu
24:49  Ac 2:33 ), but so will the Son ( Joh 15:26  16:7 ) as
Jesus breathes the Holy Spirit upon the disciples ( 20:22 ).
There is no contradiction in this relation of the Persons in the
Trinity (the Procession of the Holy Spirit). Here the Holy Spirit
(full title as in  Mr 3:29  Mt 12:32  Lu 12:10 ) is identified
with the Paraclete. {He} (ekeinos). Emphatic demonstrative
pronoun and masculine like parakl(8874)os. {Shall teach you all
things} (humas didaxei panta). The Holy Spirit knows "the deep
things of God" ( 1Co 2:10 ) and he is our Teacher in the
Dispensation of the Holy Spirit of both new truth (verse  25 )
and old. {Bring to your remembrance} (hupomn(8873)ei humas). Future
active indicative of hupomimn(8873)k(935c), old verb to remind, to
recall, here only in this Gospel (cf.  3Jo 1:10  2Ti 2:14 ) and
with two accusatives (person and thing). After pentecost the
disciples will be able better to recall and to understand what
Jesus had said (how dull they had been at times) and to be open
to new revelations from God (cf. Peter at Joppa and Caesarea).

经文:

约翰福音 14:27-14:27

注释:

 {My peace} (eir(886e)(886e) t(886e) em(886e)). This is Christ's bequest
to the disciples before he goes, the _shalom_ of the orient for
greeting and parting, used by Jesus in his appearances after the
resurrection ( 20:19,21,26 ) as in  2Jo 1:3  3Jo 1:14 , but here
and in  16:33  in the sense of spiritual peace such as only
Christ can give and which his Incarnation offers to men ( Lu
2:14 ). {Neither let it be fearful} (med(8820)deiliat(935c)). Added to
the prohibition in verse  1 , only N.T. example of deilia(935c)
(rare word in Aristotle, in a papyrus of one condemned to death),
common in LXX, like palpitating of the heart (from deilos).

经文:

约翰福音 14:28-14:28

注释:

 {I go away, and I come} (hupag(9320)kai erchomai), both
futuristic presents ( 7:33  14:3,18 ). {If ye loved me} (ei
(8867)ap(8374)e me). Second-class condition with the imperfect active of
agapa(935c) referring to present time, implying that the disciples
are not loving Jesus as they should. {Ye would have rejoiced}
(echar(8874)e an). Second aorist passive indicative of chair(935c)
with an, conclusion of second-class condition referring to past
time, "Ye would already have rejoiced before this" at Christ's
going to the Father (verse  12 ). {Greater than I} (meiz(936e)
mou). Ablative case mou after the comparative meiz(936e) (from
positive megas). The filial relation makes this necessary. Not
a distinction in nature or essence (cf.  10:30 ), but in rank in
the Trinity. No Arianism or Unitarianism here. The very
explanation here is proof of the deity of the Son (Dods).

经文:

约翰福音 14:30-14:30

注释:

 {The prince of the world} (ho tou kosmou arch(936e)). Satan
as in  12:31  which see.

经文:

约翰福音 14:31-14:31

注释:

 {But that the world may know} (all' hina gn(9369) ho kosmos).
Purpose clause with hina and the second aorist active
subjunctive of gin(9373)k(935c). Elliptical construction (cf.  9:3  13:18  15:25 ). "But I surrendered myself to death," etc., before
hina. {Arise, let us go hence} (egeiresthe, ag(936d)en
enteuthen). Imperative present middle of egeir(935c) and the
volitive (hortatory) subjunctive ag(936d)en (the word used in
 11:7,16 ) of going to meet death. Apparently the group arose and
walked out into the night and the rest of the talk (chs. 15 and
16) and prayer (ch. 17) was in the shadows on the way to
Gethsemane.

经文:

约翰福音 15:1-15:1

注释:

 {The true vine} (h(8820)ampelos h(8820)al(8874)hin(885c)). "The vine the
genuine." Assuming that the Lord's Supper had just been
instituted by Jesus the metaphor of the vine is naturally
suggested by "the fruit of the vine" ( Mr 14:25  Mt 26:29 ).
Ampelos in the papyri (Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_) is
sometimes used in the sense of _ampel(936e)_ (vineyard), but not so
here. Jesus uses various metaphors to illustrate himself and his
work (the light,  8:12 ; the door,  10:7 ; the shepherd,  10:11 ;
the vine,  15:1 ). The vine was common in Palestine. See  Ps
80:8f . "On the Maccabean coinage Israel was represented by a
vine" (Dods). Jesus is the genuine Messianic vine. {The
husbandman} (ho ge(9372)gos) as in  Mr 12:1  Jas 5:7  2Ti 2:6 . cf.
 1Co 3:9 , 	heou ge(9372)gion (God's field).

经文:

约翰福音 15:2-15:2

注释:

 {Branch} (kl(886d)a). Old word from kla(935c), to break, common
in LXX for offshoots of the vine, in N.T. only here (verses
 2-6 ), elsewhere in N.T. klados ( Mr 4:32 , etc.), also from
kla(935c), both words meaning tender and easily broken parts. {In
me} (en emoi). Two kinds of connexion with Christ as the vine
(the merely cosmic which bears no fruit, the spiritual and vital
which bears fruit). The fruitless (not bearing fruit, m(8820)pheron
karpon) the vine-dresser "takes away" (airei) or prunes away.
Probably (Bernard) Jesus here refers to Judas. {Cleanseth}
(kathairei). Present active indicative of old verb kathair(935c)
(clean) as in verse  3 , only use in N.T., common in the
inscriptions for ceremonial cleansing, though kathariz(935c) is more
frequent ( Heb 10:2 ). {That it may bear more fruit} (hina
karpon pleiona pher(8869)). Purpose clause with hina and present
active subjunctive of pher(935c), "that it may keep on bearing more
fruit" (more and more). A good test for modern Christians and
church members.

经文:

约翰福音 15:3-15:3

注释:

 {Already ye are clean} ((8864)(8820)humeis katharoi este).
Potentially cleansed (Westcott) as in  13:10  which see and
 17:19 .

经文:

约翰福音 15:4-15:4

注释:

 {Abide in me} (meinate en emoi). Constative aorist active
imperative of men(935c). The only way to continue "clean" (pruned)
and to bear fruit is to maintain vital spiritual connexion with
Christ (the vine). Judas is gone and Satan will sift the rest of
them like wheat ( Lu 22:31f. ). Blind complacency is a peril to
the preacher. {Of itself} (aph' heautou). As source (from
itself) and apart from the vine (cf.  17:17 ). {Except it abide}
(ean m(8820)men(8869)). Condition of third class with ean, negative
m(885c), and present active (keep on abiding) subjunctive of men(935c).
Same condition and tense in the application, "except ye abide in
me."

经文:

约翰福音 15:5-15:5

注释:

 {Ye the branches} (humeis ta kl(886d)ata). Jesus repeats and
applies the metaphor of verse  1 . {Apart from me} (ch(9372)is
emou). See  Eph 2:12  for ch(9372)is Christou. There is nothing
for a broken off branch to do but wither and die. For the cosmic
relation of Christ see  Joh 1:3  (ch(9372)is autou).

经文:

约翰福音 15:6-15:6

注释:

 {He is cast forth} (ebl(8874)h(8820)ex(935c)). Timeless or gnomic use
of the first aorist passive indicative of all(935c) as the
conclusion of a third-class condition (see also verses  4,7  for
the same condition, only constative aorist subjunctive mein(8874)e
and mein(8869) in verse  7 ). The apostles are thus vividly warned
against presumption. Jesus as the vine will fulfil his part of
the relation as long as the branches keep in vital union with
him. {As a branch} (h(9373) to kl(886d)a). {And is withered}
(ex(8872)anth(885c)). Another timeless first aorist passive indicative,
this time of x(8872)ain(935c), same timeless use in  Jas 1:11  of grass,
old and common verb. They gather (sunagousin). Plural though
subject not expressed, the servants of the vine-dresser gather up
the broken off branches. {Are burned} (kaietai). Present
passive singular of kai(935c), to burn, because kl(886d)ata (branches)
is neuter plural. See this vivid picture also in  Mt
13:41f.,49f .

经文:

约翰福音 15:7-15:7

注释:

 {Ask whatsoever ye will} (ho ean thel(8874)e ait(8873)asthe).
Indefinite relative with ean and present active subjunctive of
	hel(935c), to wish, to will, and aorist middle imperative of
aite(935c), to ask. This astounding command and promise
(gen(8873)etai, future middle of ginomai, it will come to pass)
is not without conditions and limitations. It involves such
intimate union and harmony with Christ that nothing will be asked
out of accord with the mind of Christ and so of the Father.
Christ's name is mentioned in  15:16 ; cf.  14:13  16:23 .

经文:

约翰福音 15:8-15:8

注释:

 {Herein} (en tout(9369)). That is in the vital union and the
much fruit bearing. It points here backwards and forwards. {Is
glorified} (edoxasth(885c)). Another gnomic or timeless first aorist
passive indicative. {Bear} (pherete). Present active
subjunctive, "keep on bearing" much fruit. {And so shall ye be}
(kai gen(8873)esthe). Rather "become." Future middle indicative of
ginomai, though B D L read gen(8873)the (after hina like
pher(8874)e). "Become" my disciples (learners) in the fullest sense
of rich fruit-bearing according to the text in

经文:

约翰福音 15:9-15:9

注释:

 {Abide} (meinate). Constative first aorist active
imperative of men(935c), summing up the whole. {In my love} (en t(8869)
agap(8869) t(8869) em(8869)). Subjunctive possessive pronoun, "in the love
that I have for you." Our love for Christ is the result of
Christ's love for us and is grounded at bottom in the Father's
love for the world ( 3:16 ). John has emos 37 times and always
in the words of Jesus (Bernard). But he uses mou also (verse
 10 ).

经文:

约翰福音 15:10-15:10

注释:

 {Ye will abide} (meneite). Future tense of men(935c),
conclusion of the third-class condition (ean and first aorist
active subjunctive 	(8872)(8873)(8874)e). The correlative of  14:15 . Each
involves the other (love and keeping the commandments of Jesus).
{And abide} (kai men(935c)). The high example of Jesus (the Son) in
relation to the Father is set before us as the goal.

经文:

约翰福音 15:11-15:11

注释:

 {That my joy may be in you} (hina h(8820)chara h(8820)em(8820)en humin
(8869)). Purpose clause with hina and the present subjunctive (8869)
(some MSS. have mein(8869), may remain), Christ's permanent
absolute joy in the disciples. {And that your joy be fulfilled}
(Kai h(8820)chara hum(936e) pl(8872)(9374)h(8869)). Same construction with first
aorist (effective) passive subjunctive of pl(8872)o(935c), consummation
of the process preceding.

经文:

约翰福音 15:12-15:12

注释:

 {That ye love one another} (hina agap(8374)e all(886c)ous).
Non-final use of hina, introducing a subject clause in
apposition with entol(885c) (commandment) and the present active
subjunctive of agapa(935c), "that ye keep on loving one another."
See  13:34 .

经文:

约翰福音 15:13-15:13

注释:

 {Than this} (	aut(8873)). Ablative case after the comparative
adjective meizona and feminine agreeing with 	(8873) agap(8873)
(love) understood. {That a man lay down his life} (hina tis t(886e)
psuch(886e) autou th(8869)). Object clause (non-final use of hina in
apposition with the ablative pronoun 	aut(8873) and the second
aorist active subjunctive of 	ith(886d)i. For the phrase see
 10:11  of the good shepherd. Cf.  1Jo 3:16  Ro 5:7f . {For his
friends} (huper t(936e) phil(936e) autou). "In behalf of his friends"
and so "in place of his friends." "Self-sacrifice is the
high-water mark of love" (Dods). For this use of huper see  Joh
11:50  Ga 3:13  2Co 5:14f.  Ro 5:7f .

经文:

约翰福音 15:14-15:14

注释:

 {If ye do} (ean poi(8874)e). Condition of third class with
ean and the present active subjunctive, "if ye keep on doing,"
not just spasmodic obedience. Just a different way of saying what
is in verse  10 . Obedience to Christ's commands is a
prerequisite to discipleship and fellowship (spiritual friendship
with Christ). He repeats it in the Great Commission ( Mt 28:20 ,
eneteilam(886e), I commanded) with the very word used here
(entellomai, I command).

经文:

约翰福音 15:15-15:15

注释:

 {No longer} (ouketi). As he had done in  13:16 . He was
their Rabbi ( 1:38  13:13 ) and Lord ( 13:13 ). Paul gloried in
calling himself Christ's doulos (bond-slave). {Servants}
(doulous). Bond-servants, slaves. {I have called you friends}
(humas eir(886b)a philous). Perfect active indicative, permanent
state of new dignity. They will prove worthy of it by continued
obedience to Christ as Lord, by being good douloi. Abraham was
called the Friend of God ( Jas 2:23 ). Are we friends of Christ?

经文:

约翰福音 15:16-15:16

注释:

 {But I chose you} (all' eg(9320)exelexam(886e) humas). First
aorist middle indicative of ekleg(935c). See this same verb and
tense used for the choice of the disciples by Christ ( 6:70  13:18  15:19 ). Jesus recognizes his own responsibility in the
choice after a night of prayer ( Lu 6:13 ). So Paul was "a vessel
of choice" (skeuos eklog(8873),  Ac 9:15 ). Appointed (eth(886b)a).
First aorist active indicative (k aorist) of 	ith(886d)i. Note
three present active subjunctives with hina (purpose clause) to
emphasize continuance (hupag(8874)e, keep on going, pher(8874)e, keep
on bearing fruit, men(8869), keep on abiding), not a mere spurt,
but permanent growth and fruit-bearing. {He may give} (d(9369)).
Second aorist active subjunctive of did(936d)i with hina (purpose
clause). Cf.  14:13  for the same purpose and promise, but with
poi(8873)(935c) (I shall do). See also  16:23f.,26 .

经文:

约翰福音 15:17-15:17

注释:

 {That ye may love one another} (hina agap(8374)e all(886c)ous).
Repetition of  13:34  15:12 . This very night the disciples had
been guilty of jealousy and wrangling ( Lu 22:24  Joh 13:5,15 ).

经文:

约翰福音 15:18-15:18

注释:

 {If the world hateth you} (ei ho kosmos humas misei).
Condition of the first class. As it certainly does. {Ye know}
(gin(9373)kete). Present active second person plural indicative of
gin(9373)k(935c) or present active imperative (know), same form. {Hath
hated} (memis(886b)en). Perfect active indicative, "has hated and
still hates." {Before it hateth you} (pr(9374)on hum(936e)). Ablative
case hum(936e) after the superlative pr(9374)on as with pr(9374)os mou
in  1:15 .

经文:

约翰福音 15:19-15:19

注释:

 {The world would love its own} (ho kosmos an to idion
ephilei). Conclusion of second-class condition (determined as
unfulfilled), regular idiom with an and imperfect indicative in
present time. {But because ye are not of the world} (hoti de ek
tou kosmou ouk este). Definite and specific reason for the
world's hatred of real Christians whose very existence is a
reproach to the sinful world. Cf.  7:7  17:14  1Jo 3:13 . Does
the world hate us? If not, why not? Has the world become more
Christian or Christians more worldly?

经文:

约翰福音 15:20-15:20

注释:

 1Co
4:12 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Co
4' or engs='1Co
4'
经文:

约翰福音 15:21-15:21

注释:

 {Unto you} (eis humas). Like the dative humin (Textus
Receptus) as in the papyri and modern Greek (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 594). {For my name's sake} (dia to onoma mou).
See verse  20 . See this same warning and language in  Mt 10:22  Mr 13:13  Mt 24:9  Lu 21:17 ). There is little difference in
meaning from heneken mou ( Mr 13:9  Lu 21:12 ). Loyalty to the
name of Christ will bring persecution as they will soon know ( Ac
5:41  Php 1:29  1Pe 4:14 ). About the world's ignorance of God
see  Lu 23:34  Ac 3:17  Joh 16:3 .

经文:

约翰福音 15:22-15:22

注释:

 {They had not had sin} (hamartian ouk eichosan).
Conclusion of condition of second class without an because
context makes it clear (
un de) without it (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 1013). The imperfect active indicative with -osan
instead of -on (also in verse  24 ) as common in the LXX, and
occurs in the papyri and the inscriptions and the Boeotian
dialect. {Excuse} (prophasin). Old word ( 1Th 2:5 ) either from
prophain(935c), to show forth, or proph(886d)i, to speak forth. Mere
pretence, in John only here and verse  24 .

经文:

约翰福音 15:23-15:23

注释:

 {My Father also} (kai ton patera mou). Because Christ
reveals God ( 14:9 ) and to dishonour Christ is to dishonour God
( 5:23 ). The coming of Christ has revealed the weight of sin on
those who reject him.

经文:

约翰福音 15:24-15:24

注释:

 {They have both seen and hated} (kai he(9372)akasin kai
memis(886b)asin). Perfect active indicative of hora(935c) and mise(935c),
permanent attitude and responsibility. The "world" and the
ecclesiastics (Sanhedrin) had united in this attitude of
hostility to Christ and in reality to God.

经文:

约翰福音 15:25-15:25

注释:

 {But this cometh to pass} (all'). Ellipsis in the Greek
(no verb), as in  9:3  13:18 . {In their law} (en t(9369) nom(9369)
aut(936e)). Cf.  8:17  10:34  for this standpoint. "Law" (
omos)
here is for the whole of Scripture as in  12:34 . The allusion is
to  Ps 69:4  (or  Ps 35:19 ). The hatred of the Jews toward Jesus
the promised Messiah ( 1:11 ) is "part of the mysterious purpose
of God" (Bernard) as shown by hina pl(8872)(9374)h(8869) (first aorist
passive subjunctive of pl(8872)o(935c), to fulfil). {Without a cause}
(d(9372)ean). Adverbial accusative of d(9372)ea from did(936d)i,
gratuitously, then unnecessarily or _gratis_ (in two _Koin(825f)
tablets, Nageli) as here and  Ga 2:21 .

经文:

约翰福音 15:26-15:26

注释:

 {When the Comforter is come} (hotan elth(8869) ho
parakl(8874)os). Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and the
second aorist active subjunctive of erchomai, "whenever the
Comforter comes." {Whom I will send unto you from the Father}
(hon eg(9320)pemps(9320)humin para tou patros). As in  16:7 , but in
 14:16,26  the Father sends at the request of or in the name of
Jesus. Cf.  Lu 24:49  Ac 2:33 . This is the Procession of the
Holy Spirit from the Father and from the Son. {Which} (ho).
Grammatical neuter to agree with pneuma, and should be rendered
"who" like ho in  14:26 . {Proceedeth from the Father} (para
tou patros ekporeuetai). "From beside the Father" as in the
preceding clause. {He} (ekeinos). Emphatic masculine pronoun,
not neuter (ekeino) though following ho. {Shall bear witness
of me} (martur(8873)ei peri emou). Future active of marture(935c).
This is the mission of the Paraclete ( 16:14 ) as it should be
ours.

经文:

约翰福音 15:27-15:27

注释:

 {And ye also bear witness} (kai humeis de martureite).
Present active indicative or imperative (do ye bear witness),
same form of marture(935c). "Ye also" as well as the Holy Spirit, ye
also when filled with and taught by the Holy Spirit the things
concerning Jesus. It is here that Christians fail most. {Have
been} (este). Progressive present of eimi, "are with me from
the beginning of my ministry as in  14:9 . They were chosen to be
with Christ ( Mr 3:14 ).


经文:

约翰福音 16:1-16:1

注释:

 1Jo
2:10 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
2' or engs='1Jo
2'
经文:

约翰福音 16:2-16:2

注释:

 {They shall put you out of the synagogues} (aposunag(9367)ous
poi(8873)ousin humas). "They will make you outcasts from the
synagogues." Predicate accusative of the compound adjective
aposunag(9367)os for which see  9:22  12:42 . {Yea} (all'). Use
of alla as co-ordinating conjunction, not adversative. {That}
(hina) not in the sense of "when" (hote), but as in  12:23 
for God's purpose ( Lu 2:34 , hop(9373)). {Shall think} (dox(8869)).
First aorist active subjunctive of doke(935c). "So blind will he be"
(Bernard). {That he offereth service unto God} (latreian
prospherein t(9369) the(9369)). Infinitive (present active) indirect
discourse after dox(8869). For the phrase see  Heb 6:1ff.  8:3ff.  9:7ff . The rabbis so felt when they crucified Jesus and when
they persecuted the disciples ( Ac 6:13  7:57f. ). No persecution
is more bitter than when done by religious enthusiasts and bigots
like the Spanish Inquisition.

经文:

约翰福音 16:3-16:3

注释:

 {Because} (hoti). Definite reason for the religious hatred
is ignorance of God and Christ as in  15:21 .

经文:

约翰福音 16:4-16:4

注释:

 {Have I spoken} (lelal(886b)a). Perfect active indicative as
in  15:11  16:1 . Solemn repetition. {When their hour is come}
(hotan elth(8869) h(8820)h(9372)a aut(936e)). Indefinite temporal clause,
hotan with the second aorist active subjunctive of erchomai,
"whenever their hour comes." The time appointed for these things.
{Now that} (hoti). Simply "that" (declarative conjunction in
indirect discourse. Forewarned is to be forearmed. Cf.  13:19 .
{From the beginning} (ex arch(8873)). As in  6:64  but practically
like ap' arch(8873) in  15:27 . While Christ was with them, he was
the object of attack ( 15:18 ).

经文:

约翰福音 16:5-16:5

注释:

 {And none of you asketh me} (kai oudeis ex hum(936e) er(9374)(8369)
me). Adversative use of kai="and yet" as in  1:10 . Now that
they realize that Jesus is going, the thoughts of the disciples
turn on themselves and they cease asking the query of Peter
( 13:36 ).

经文:

约翰福音 16:6-16:6

注释:

 {Sorrow hath filled} (h(8820)lup(8820)pepl(8872)(936b)en). This word is
not used of Jesus in the Gospels, in John only in this chapter.
Perfect active indicative of pl(8872)o(935c). They do not see their way
to go on without Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 16:7-16:7

注释:

 {It is expedient for you} (sumpherei humin). Present
active indicative of sumpher(935c), old verb to bear together. See
 11:50  where the phrase is used by Caiaphas "for us," here "for
you" (humin ethical dative). {That I go away} (hina eg(930a)apelth(935c)). Subject clause the subject of sumpherei, hina and
second aorist active subjunctive of aperchomai. The reason
(gar) for this startling statement follows. {If I go not away}
(ean m(8820)apelth(935c)). Third-class condition with ean and the
negative m(885c) with apelth(935c) as before. {Will not come} (ou m(880a)elth(8869)). Strong double negative with second aorist active
subjunctive of erchomai. The Holy Spirit was, of course,
already at work in the hearts of men, but not in the sense of
witnessing as Paraclete which could only take place after Jesus
had gone back to the Father. {But if I go} (ean de poreuth(935c)).
Third-class condition again (ean and the first aorist passive
subjunctive of poreuomai). {I will send} (pemps(935c)). First
person future as in  15 .

经文:

约翰福音 16:8-16:8

注释:

 {And he} (kai ekeinos). Emphatic demonstrative masculine
pronoun. {When he is come} (elth(936e)). Second aorist active
participle of erchomai, "having come" or "coming." {Will
convict the world} (elegxei ton kosmon). Future active of
elegch(935c), old word for confuting, convicting by proof already in
 3:29  8:46 . Jesus had been doing this ( 7:7 ), but this is
pre-eminently the work of the Holy Spirit and the most needed
task today for our complacent age. {In respect of sin} (peri
hamartias). Concerning the reality of sin as missing the mark
and as wronging God and man, and not a mere slip or animal
instinct or devoid of moral responsibility or evil. Some
scientists and psychologists (Freudians and behaviourists) seem
bent on destroying man's sense of sin. Hence crime waves even in
youth. {And of righteousness} (kai peri dikaiosun(8873)). The
opposite of "sin" and to be yearned for after conviction. Cf.  Ro
1:19-3:21  about the necessity of the God-kind of righteousness
and the Sermon on the Mount for Christ's idea of righteousness.
{And of judgment} (kai peri krise(9373)). As certain to come as
condemnation because of sin and the lack of righteousness. These
are not played out motives in human life, but basal. For this
ministry we have the help of the Paraclete. The Paraclete is here
spoken of "not as man's advocate with God ( 1Jo 2:1 ), but as
Christ's advocate with the world" (Bernard).

经文:

约翰福音 16:9-16:9

注释:

 {Because they believe not on me} (hoti ou pisteuousin eis
eme). Without this conviction by the Paraclete such men actually
have a pride of intellectual superiority in refusing to believe
on Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 16:10-16:10

注释:

 {And ye behold me no more} (kai ouketi the(9372)eite me).
With the bodily eyes and without the Holy Spirit they are unable
to behold Jesus with the spiritual vision ( 14:19 ). Without
Christ they lose the sense of righteousness as is seen in the
"new morals" (immorality, loose views of marriage, etc.).

经文:

约翰福音 16:11-16:11

注释:

 {Because the prince of this world hath been judged} (hoti
ho arch(936e) tou kosmou toutou kekritai). Cf.  12:31  14:31  for
the title. Perfect passive indicative of krin(935c). He stands
condemned. The sinful world is in his grip, but he will be cast
out ( 12:31 ).

经文:

约翰福音 16:12-16:12

注释:

 {But ye cannot bear them now} (all' ou dunasthe bastazein
arti). The literal sense of astaz(935c), to bear, occurs in
 12:6 . For the figurative as here see  Ac 15:10 . The untaught
cannot get the full benefit of teaching ( 1Co 3:1  Heb 5:11-14 ).
The progressive nature of revelation is a necessity.

经文:

约翰福音 16:13-16:13

注释:

 {Howbeit} (de). One of the most delicate and difficult
particles to translate, varying from "and" to "but." {When he,
the Spirit of truth, is come} (hotan elth(8869) ekeinos, to pneuma
t(8873) al(8874)heias). Indefinite relative clause (hotan and the
second aorist active subjunctive of erchomai, no _futurum
exactum_), "whenever he comes." Note ekeinos (masculine
demonstrative pronoun, though followed by neuter pneuma in
apposition. See  15:26  for this phrase about the Holy Spirit. He
shall guide you (hod(8867)(8873)ei humas). Future active of old verb
hod(8867)e(935c) (from hod(8867)os, from hodos, way, h(8867)eomai, to
lead). See  Ps 24:5  for "lead me into thy truth" (hod(8867)(8873)on me
eis t(886e) al(8874)heian sou). Christ is both the Way and the Truth
( 14:6 ) and the Holy Spirit is the Guide who shows the way to
the Truth (verse  14 ). This he does gradually. We are still
learning the truth in Christ. {From himself} (aph' heautou). In
this he is like Christ ( 1:26  12:49  14:10 ). {He shall declare}
(anaggelei). Future active of anaggell(935c), as in  4:25 . See it
also repeated in verse  14 . {The things that are yet to come}
(	a erchomena). Neuter plural articular participle of
erchomai, "the coming things." This phrase only here in the
N.T. The things already begun concerning the work of the Kingdom
( Lu 7:19ff.  18:30 ) not a chart of future history. See  Lu
7:20  Joh 6:14  11:27  for ho erchomenos (the coming one) used
of the Messiah.

经文:

约翰福音 16:14-16:14

注释:

 {He shall glorify me} (ekeinos eme doxasei). This is the
glory of the Holy Spirit, to glorify Jesus Christ. {For he shall
take of mine} (hoti ek tou emou l(886d)psetai). Future middle of
lamban(935c) and a definite promise of the Spirit's guidance in
interpreting Christ. One need only refer to Peter's sermon at
pentecost after the coming of the Holy Spirit, to Peter's
Epistles, to Paul's Epistles, to Hebrews, to John's Epistles, to
see how under the tutelage of the Holy Spirit the disciples grew
into the fulness of the knowledge of God in the face of Christ
( 2Co 6:4 ).

经文:

约翰福音 16:15-16:15

注释:

 {Therefore said I} (dia touto eipon). Jesus explains how
and why the Holy Spirit can and will reveal to the disciples what
they need to know further concerning him. They had failed so far
to understand Christ's words about his death and resurrection.
The Holy Spirit as Guide and Teacher will teach them what they
can only receive and understand after the resurrection and
ascension of Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 16:16-16:16

注释:

 {A little while} (mikron). The brief period now till
Christ's death as in  7:33  13:33  14:19 . {Again a little while}
(palin mikron). The period between the death and the
resurrection of Jesus (from Friday afternoon till Sunday
morning). {Ye shall see me} (opsesthe me). Future middle of
optomai, the verb used in  1:51  16:22  as here of spiritual
realities (Bernard), though 	he(9372)e(935c) is so used in  20:14 .

经文:

约翰福音 16:17-16:17

注释:

 {Some of the disciples} (ek t(936e) math(8874)(936e) autou). Ellipsis
of time (some) before ek as in  7:40 . Jesus seemed to
contradict himself, for the disciples took both verbs in the same
sense and were still puzzled over the going to the Father of
 14:3 . But they talk to one another, not to Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 16:18-16:18

注释:

 {We know not what he saith} (ouk oidamen ti lalei). The
questions to Jesus cease and the disciples frankly confess to
each other their own ignorance.

经文:

约翰福音 16:19-16:19

注释:

 {Jesus perceived} (egn(9320)I(8873)ous). Second aorist active
indicative of gin(9373)k(935c). {That they were desirous to ask him}
(hoti (8874)helon auton er(9374)(8369)n). Imperfect active tense of 	hel(935c)
in indirect discourse instead of the retention of the present
	helousin (the usual idiom), just like our English. Their
embarrassment was manifest after four inquiries already (Peter,
Thomas, Philip, Judas). So Jesus takes the initiative.

经文:

约翰福音 16:20-16:20

注释:

 {Ye shall weep and lament} (klausete kai thr(886e)(8873)ete).
Future active of klai(935c) and 	hr(886e)e(935c), both old words (for
klai(935c) see  Joh 11:31 , for 	hr(886e)e(935c) see  Mt 11:17 ), both
words used of the loud lamentations so common in the east. {Shall
rejoice} (char(8873)etai). Second future passive of chair(935c) in
violent contrast. Picture the women on the way to the Cross ( Lu
23:27 , ekoptonto kai ethr(886e)oun, two descriptive imperfects)
and Mary Magdalene by the tomb ( Joh 20:11 , klaiousa). {Ye
shall be sorrowful} (lup(8874)h(8873)esthe). First future passive of
lupe(935c), word for inward grief. See the change from sorrow to joy
in  20:14-16  when "they disbelieved for joy" ( Lu 24:41 ). So
violent was the reaction on the sudden appearance of Jesus.

经文:

约翰福音 16:21-16:21

注释:

 {A woman} (h(8820)gun(885c)). "The woman," any woman. {When she is
in travail} (hotan tikt(8869)). Indefinite temporal clause,
"whenever she is about to bear (or give birth)," hotan and
present active subjunctive of 	ikt(935c), common O.T. image for
pain. {Her hour is come} ((886c)then h(8820)h(9372)a aut(8873)). Second aorist
active indicative, timeless aorist, "her hour" for giving birth
which she knows is like a living death. {But when she is
delivered of the child} (hotan de genn(8873)(8869) to paidion).
Indefinite temporal clause with hotan and first aorist active
subjunctive of genna(935c). "But whenever she bears the child." {The
anguish} (	(8873) thlipse(9373)). Genitive case after mn(886d)oneuei of
	hlipsis, usual word for tribulation ( Mt 13:21 ). {Is born}
(egenn(8874)h(885c)). First aorist (effective) passive indicative of
genna(935c).

经文:

约翰福音 16:22-16:22

注释:

 {And ye therefore now} (kai humeis oun nun). See  8:38 
for like emphasis on {ye} (humeis). The "sorrow" (lup(886e)) is
like that of the mother in childbirth (real, but fleeting, with
permanent joy following). The metaphor points, of course, to the
resurrection of Jesus which did change the grief of the disciples
to gladness, once they are convinced that Jesus has risen from
the dead. {But I will see you again} (palin de opsomai humas).
Future middle of hora(935c), to see. In verses  16,19  Jesus had
said "ye shall see me" (opsesthe me), but here we have one more
blessed promise, "I shall see you," showing "that we are the
objects of God's regard" (Westcott). {Shall rejoice}
(char(8873)etai). Second future passive of chair(935c). {Taketh away}
(airei). Present active indicative, futuristic present, but B D
have arei the future active (shall take away). This joy is a
permanent possession.

经文:

约翰福音 16:23-16:23

注释:

 {Ye shall ask me nothing} (eme ouk er(9374)(8873)ete). Either in
the sense of question (original meaning of er(9374)a(935c)) as in verses
 19,30  since he will be gone or in the sense of request or
favours (like aite(935c) in this verse) as in  14:16  Ac 3:2 . In
verse  26  both aite(935c) and er(9374)a(935c) occur in this sense. Either
view makes sense here. {If ye shall ask} (an ti ait(8873)(8874)e).
Third-class condition, an like ean with first aorist active
subjunctive of aite(935c). Note 气4:26| for "in my name."

经文:

约翰福音 16:24-16:24

注释:

 {Hitherto} (he(9373) arti). Up till now the disciples had not
used Christ's name in prayer to the Father, but after the
resurrection of Jesus they are to do so, a distinct plea for
parity with the Father and for worship like the Father. {May be
fulfilled} ((8869) pepl(8872)(936d)en(885c)). Periphrastic perfect passive
subjunctive of pl(8872)o(935c) in a purpose clause with hina. See
 15:11  for some verb (first aorist passive subjunctive with
hina) and  1Jo 1:4  for same form as here, emphasizing the
abiding permanence of the joy.

经文:

约翰福音 16:25-16:25

注释:

 {In proverbs} (en paroimiais). See on 气0:6| for this
word. {Shall tell} (apaggel(935c)). Future active of apaggell(935c), to
report, correct text and not anaggel(935c) (verses  13,14,15 ), as
in  1Jo 1:2f . {Plainly} (parr(8873)i(8369)). See on 浪:13| for this
word.

经文:

约翰福音 16:26-16:26

注释:

 {I say not} (ou leg(935c)). "I speak not." Christ did pray for
the disciples before his death ( Joh 14:16  17:9,15,24 ) and he
prays also for sinners ( Lu 23:34  1Jo 2:1 ). Here it is the
special love of God for disciples of Jesus ( Joh 14:21,23  17:23  1Jo 4:19 ). Note aite(935c) and er(9374)a(935c) used in practically the
same sense as in verse  23 .

经文:

约翰福音 16:27-16:27

注释:

 {Loveth} (philei). Present active indicative of phile(935c),
the word for warm and friendly love, here used of God's love for
the disciples, while in  3:16  agapa(935c) occurs of God's love for
the world. {Ye have loved me} (pephil(886b)ate). Perfect active
indicative of phile(935c), "loved and still love me warmly." {And
have believed} (pepisteukate). Perfect active indicative again.
Recall the exhortation in  14:1 .

经文:

约翰福音 16:28-16:28

注释:

 {I came out from the Father} (ex(886c)thon ek tou patros).
Definite act (aorist), the Incarnation, with repetition of ek
(out of), while in verse  27  we have para tou patros ex(886c)thon)
with no practical distinction between ek and para in
resultant idea. {Am come} (el(886c)utha). Perfect active indicative
of erchomai, as in  18:37 . The Incarnation is now a permanent
fact, once only a blessed hope ( 11:27 ). His leaving the world
and going to the Father does not set aside the fact of the
Incarnation. Both aphi(886d)i (I leave) and poreuomai (I go) are
futuristic present indicatives.

经文:

约翰福音 16:29-16:29

注释:

 {No proverb} (paroimian oudemian). No wayside saying, no
dark saying. See  10:6  16:25 .

经文:

约翰福音 16:30-16:30

注释:

 {Now know we} (
un oidamen). They had failed to
understand the plain words of Jesus about going to the Father
heretofore ( 16:5 ), but Jesus read their very thoughts
( 16:19f. ) and this fact seemed to open their minds to grasp his
idea. {Should ask} (er(9374)(8369)). Present active subjunctive with
hina in original sense of asking a question. {By this} (en
tout(9369)). In Christ's supernatural insight into their very
hearts. {From God} (apo theou). Compare para tou patros
(verse  27 ) and ek tou patros (verse  28 ), apo, ek, para
all with the ablative of source or origin.

经文:

约翰福音 16:31-16:31

注释:

 {Do ye now believe?} (arti pisteuete;). For arti (just
now) see  9:19  13:33,37 . Their belief in Christ was genuine _as
far as it went_, but perils await them of which they are
ignorant. They are too self-confident as their despair at
Christ's death shows.

经文:

约翰福音 16:32-16:32

注释:

 {Cometh} (erchetai). Futuristic present middle indicative
of erchomai. {Yea, is come} (kai el(886c)uthen). Explanatory use
of kai and the perfect active indicative as in  12:23 . The
long-looked-for hour (h(9372)a) is so close that it has virtually
begun. The time for the arrest of Jesus is near. See also  17:1 .
{That} (hina). See verse  2  for this same use of hina (not
hote) with erchomai h(9372)a. {Ye shall be scattered}
(skorpisth(8874)e). First aorist passive subjunctive of skorpiz(935c),
used in  10:12  of sheep scampering from the wolf. Cf.  Mt 12:30  Lu 11:33 . {To his own} (eis ta idia). "To his own home" as in
 1:11  19:27 . So Appian VI. 23. {Shall leave} (aph(8874)e). Second
aorist subjunctive of aphi(886d)i with hina. {And yet} (kai).
Clear case of kai in adversative sense, not just "and."

经文:

约翰福音 16:33-16:33

注释:

 {That in me ye may have peace} (hina en emoi eir(886e)(886e)
ech(8874)e). Present active subjunctive of ech(935c), "that ye may keep
on having peace in me," even when I am put to death, peace to be
found nowhere save in me ( 14:27 ). {Be of good cheer}
(	harseite). Imperative active from 	harsos, courage ( Ac
28:15 ). A word for courage in the face of danger, only here in
John, but see  Mt 9:2,22  Mr 10:49 . {I have overcome the world}
(eg(932c) nenik(886b)a ton kosmon). Perfect active indicative of

ika(935c), to be victorious, to conquer. Always of spiritual
victory in the N.T. See  1Jo 5:4f . This majestic proclamation of
victory over death may be compared with 	etelestai ({It is
finished}) in  Joh 19:30  as Christ died and with Paul's
hupernik(936d)en (we are more than conquerors) in  Ro 8:37 .

经文:

约翰福音 17:1-17:1

注释:

 {Lifting up} (eparas). First aorist active participle of
epair(935c), old and common verb with ophthalmous (eyes) as in
 4:35  6:5  11:41 . {Father} (Pater). Vocative form as in
verses  5,11  11:41 , Christ's usual way of beginning his
prayers. It is inconceivable that this real _Lord's Prayer_ is
the free composition of a disciple put into the mouth of Jesus.
It is rather "the tenacious memory of an old man recalling the
greatest days of his life" (Bernard), aided by the Holy Spirit
promised for this very purpose ( Joh 14:26  16:13f. ). Jesus had
the habit of prayer ( Mr 1:35  6:46  Mt 11:25f.  Lu 3:21  5:16  6:12  9:18,28  11:22,42  23:34,46  Joh 11:41  12:27 ). He prayed
here for himself ( 1-5 ), for the disciples ( 6-19 ), for all
believers ( 20-26 ). The prayer is similar in spirit to the Model
Prayer for us in  Mt 6:9-13 . The hour for his glorification has
come as he had already told the disciples ( 13:31f.  12:23 ).
{Glorify thy Son} (doxason sou ton huion). First aorist active
imperative of doxaz(935c), the only personal petition in this
prayer. Jesus had already used this word doxaz(935c) for his death
( 13:31f. ). Here it carries us into the very depths of Christ's
own consciousness. It is not merely for strength to meet the
Cross, but for the power to glorify the Father by his death and
resurrection and ascension, "that the Son may glorify thee"
(hina ho huios doxas(8869) se). Purpose clause with hina and the
first aorist active subjunctive.

经文:

约翰福音 17:2-17:2

注释:

 {Authority over all flesh} (exousian pas(8873) sarkos).
Sarkos is objective genitive. Stupendous claim impossible for a
mere man to make. Made already in  Mt 11:27  Lu 10:22  (Q, the
Logia of Jesus, our earliest known document about Jesus) and
repeated in  Mt 28:18  after his resurrection. {That} (hina).
Secondary purpose with hina d(9373)ei (future active indicative)
carrying on the idea of hina doxas(8869). See  13:34  17:21  for
hina, kath(9373), hina. {Whatsoever} (p(836e) ho). A peculiar
classical Greek idiom, the collective use of the singular p(836e)
ho as in  6:37,39  and ho in  17:24  and the nominative
absolute (_nom. pendens_) with autois (to them), the dative
plural explaining the construction. See Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
653.

经文:

约翰福音 17:3-17:3

注释:

 {Should know} (gin(9373)k(9373)in). Present active subjunctive
with hina (subject clause), "should keep on knowing." {Even
Jesus Christ} (I(8873)oun Christon). See  1:17  for the only other
place in John's Gospel where the words occur together. Coming
here in the Lord's own prayer about himself they create
difficulty, unless, as Westcott suggests, Christon be regarded
as a predicate accusative, "Jesus as the Christ" (Messiah).
Otherwise the words would seem to be John's parenthetical
interpretation of the idea of Jesus. Lucke thinks that the
solemnity of this occasion explains Jesus referring to himself in
the third person. The knowledge of "the only true God" is through
Jesus Christ ( 14:6-9 ).

经文:

约翰福音 17:4-17:4

注释:

 {I glorified thee on the earth} (eg(9320)se edoxasa epi t(8873)
g(8873)). Verse  3  is parenthetical and so verse  4  goes on after
verse  2 . He had prayed for further glorification. {Having
accomplished} (	elei(9373)as). First aorist active participle of
	eleio(935c), old verb from 	eleios (perfect). Used in  4:34  by
Jesus with 	o ergon as here. That was Christ's "food" (r(936d)a)
and joy. Now as he faces death he has no sense of failure as some
modern critics say, but rather fulness of attainment as in
 19:30  (	etelestai). Christ does not die as a disappointed
man, but as the successful messenger, apostle (apesteil(8373),
verse  3 ) of the Father to men. {Thou hast given} (ded(936b)as).
Perfect active indicative of did(936d)i, regarded as a permanent
task.

经文:

约翰福音 17:5-17:5

注释:

 {With thine own self} (para seaut(9369)). "By the side of
thyself." Jesus prays for full restoration to the pre-incarnate
glory and fellowship (cf.  1:1 ) enjoyed before the Incarnation
( Joh 1:14 ). This is not just ideal pre-existence, but actual
and conscious existence at the Father's side (para soi, with
thee) "which I had" (h(8869) eichon, imperfect active of ech(935c), I
used to have, with attraction of case of h(886e) to h(8869) because
of dox(8869)), "before the world was" (pro tou ton kosmon einai),
"before the being as to the world" (cf. verse  24 ). It is small
wonder that those who deny or reject the deity of Jesus Christ
have trouble with the Johannine authorship of this book and with
the genuineness of these words. But even Harnack admits that the
words here and in verse  24  are "undoubtedly the reflection of
the certainty with which Jesus himself spoke" (_What Is
Christianity_, Engl. Tr., p. 132). But Paul, as clearly as John,
believes in the actual pre-existence and deity of Jesus Christ
( Php 2:5-11 ).

经文:

约翰福音 17:6-17:6

注释:

 {I manifested} (ephaner(9373)a). First aorist active
indicative of phanero(935c) (from phaneros, manifest). Another
word for claiming successful accomplishment of his task as in
verse  4  with edoxasa and in verse  26  with egn(9372)isa.
{Whom} (hous). Accusative case after ed(936b)as, not attracted to
case of antecedent (anthr(9370)ois). Jesus regards the apostles as
the Father's gift to him. Recall the night of prayer before he
chose them. {They have kept} (	et(8872)(886b)an). Perfect active
indicative, late _Koin(825f) form for the third plural instead of the
usual 	et(8872)(886b)asin. Jesus claims loyalty and fidelity in these
men with the one exception of Judas (verse  12 ). He does not
claim perfection for them, but they have at least held on to the
message of the Father in spite of doubt and wavering ( 6:67-71  Mt 16:15-20 ).

经文:

约翰福音 17:7-17:7

注释:

 {Now they know} (
un egn(936b)an). Perfect active indicative
third plural like 	et(8872)(886b)an above. They have come to know, not
as fully as they felt ( 16:30 ), and yet in a real sense.

经文:

约翰福音 17:8-17:8

注释:

 {The words} (	a r(886d)ata). Plural, each word of God, as in
 3:34 , and of Christ ( 5:47  6:63,68 ), while the singular (	on
logon sou) in verses  6,14  views God's message as a whole.
{Knew} (egn(9373)an). Second aorist active indicative of gin(9373)k(935c)
like elabon in contrast with egn(936b)an (perfect) in verse  7 .
They definitely "received and recognized truly" (al(8874)h(9373)).
There was comfort to Christ in this fact. {They believed}
(episteusan). Another aorist parallel with elabon and
egn(9373)an. The disciples believed in Christ's mission from the
Father ( Joh 6:69  Mt 16:16 ). Note apesteilas here as in verse
 3 . Christ is God's {Apostle} to man ( Heb 3:1 ). This
statement, like a solemn refrain (Thou didst send me), occurs
five times in this prayer (verses  8,18,21,23,25 ).

经文:

约翰福音 17:9-17:9

注释:

 {I pray} (eg(9320)er(9374)(935c)). Request, not question, as in
 16:23 . {Not for the world} (ou peri tou kosmou). Now at this
point in the prayer Christ means. In verse  19  Jesus does pray
for the world (for future believers) that it may believe (verse
 21 ). God loves the whole world ( 3:16 ). Christ died for
sinners ( Ro 5:8 ) and prayed for sinners ( Lu 23:34 ) and
intercedes for sinners ( 1Jo 2:1f.  Ro 8:34  Heb 7:25 ). {For
those whom} (peri h(936e)). A condensed and common Greek idiom for
peri tout(936e) hous with 	out(936e) (the demonstrative antecedent)
omitted and the relative hous attracted from the accusative
hous (object of ded(936b)as) to the case (genitive) of the
omitted antecedent.

经文:

约翰福音 17:10-17:10

注释:

 {Are} (estin). Singular number in the Greek (is), not the
plural eisin (are), emphasizing the unity of the whole as in
 16:15 . "This no creature can say in reference to God" (Luther).
{I am glorified in them} (dedoxasmai en autois). "I stand
glorified (perfect passive indicative of doxaz(935c)) in the
disciples" (en autois), in spite of all their shortcomings and
failings. There is comfort for us in this.

经文:

约翰福音 17:11-17:11

注释:

 {And these} (kai houtoi or autoi, they). Note
adversative use of ka