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2'
经文:

约翰一书 1:1-1:1

注释:

 {That which} (ho). Strictly speaking, the neuter relative
here is not personal, but the message "concerning the Word of
life" (peri tou logou t(8873) z(9388)s), a phrase that reminds one at
once of the Word (Logos) in  Joh 1:1,14  Re 19:14  (an
incidental argument for identity of authorship for all these
books). For discussion of the Logos see on 浥oh 1:1-18|. Here
the Logos is described by 	(8873) z(9388)s (of life), while in  Joh
1:4  he is called h(8820)z(9388) (the Life) as here in verse  2  and as
Jesus calls himself ( Joh 11:25  14:6 ), an advance on the phrase
here, and in  Re 19:14  he is termed ho logos tou theou (the
Word of God), though in  Joh 1:1  the Logos is flatly named ho
theos (God). John does use ho in a collective personal sense
in  Joh 6:37,39 . See also pan ho in  1Jo 5:4 . {From the
beginning} (ap' arch(8873)). Anarthrous as in  Joh 1:1  6:64  16:4 . See same phrase in  2:7 . The reference goes beyond the
Christian dispensation, beyond the Incarnation, to the eternal
purpose of God in Christ ( Joh 3:16 ), "coeval in some sense with
creation" (Westcott). {That which we have heard} (ho
ak(886b)oamen). Note fourfold repetition of ho (that which)
without connectives (asyndeton). The perfect tense (active
indicative of akou(935c)) stresses John's equipment to speak on this
subject so slowly revealed. It is the literary plural unless John
associates the elders of Ephesus with himself (Lightfoot) the men
who certified the authenticity of the Gospel ( Joh 21:24 ). {That
which we have seen} (ho he(9372)akamen). Perfect active, again, of
hora(935c), with the same emphasis on the possession of knowledge by
John. {With our eyes} (	ois ophthalmois h(886d)(936e)). Instrumental
case and showing it was not imagination on John's part, not an
optical illusion as the Docetists claimed, for Jesus had an
actual human body. He could be heard and seen. {That which we
beheld} (ho etheasametha). Repetition with the aorist middle
indicative of 	heaomai (the very form in  Joh 1:14 ), "a
spectacle which broke on our astonished vision" (D. Smith).
{Handled} (eps(886c)aph(8873)an). First aorist active indicative of
ps(886c)apha(935c), old and graphic verb (from psa(935c), to touch), the
very verb used by Jesus to prove that he was not a mere spirit
( Lu 24:39 ). Three senses are here appealed to (hearing, sight,
touch) as combining to show the reality of Christ's humanity
against the Docetic Gnostics and the qualification of John by
experience to speak. But he is also "the Word of life" and so God
Incarnate.

经文:

约翰一书 1:2-1:2

注释:

 {Was manifested} (ephaner(9374)h(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative of phanero(935c), to make known what already exists,
whether invisible (B. Weiss) or visible, "intellectual or
sensible" (Brooke). In  Col 3:4  Paul employs it of the second
coming of Christ. Verse  2  here is an important parenthesis, a
mark of John's style as in  Joh 1:15 . By the parenthesis John
heaps reassurance upon his previous statement of the reality of
the Incarnation by the use of he(9372)akamen (as in verse  1 ) with
the assertion of the validity of his "witness" (marturoumen)
and "message" (apaggellomen), both present active indicatives
(literary plurals), apaggell(935c) being the public proclamation of
the great news ( Joh 16:25 ). {The life, the eternal life} (	(886e)
z(9388)n t(886e) ai(936e)ion). Taking up z(9388) of verse  1 , John defines
the term by the adjective ai(936e)ios, used 71 times in the N.T.,
44 times with z(9388) and 23 in John's Gospel and Epistles (only so
used in these books by John). Here lt means the divine life which
the Logos was and is ( Joh 1:4  1Jo 1:1 ). {Which} (h(8874)is).
Qualitative relative, "which very life." {Was with the Father}
((886e) pros ton patera). Not egeneto, but (886e), and pros with
the accusative of intimate fellowship, precisely as in  Joh 1:1 
(886e) pros ton theon (was with God). Then John closes the
parenthesis by repeating ephaner(9374)h(885c).

经文:

约翰一书 1:3-1:3

注释:

 {That which we have seen} (ho he(9372)akamen). Third use of
this form (verses  1,2,3 ), this time resumption after the
parenthesis in verse  2 . {And heard} (kai ak(886b)oamen). Second
(verse  1  for first) use of this form, a third in verse  5 .
Emphasis by repetition is a thoroughly Johannine trait. {Declare
we} (apaggellomen). Second use of this word (verse  2  for
first), but aggelia (message) and anaggellomen (announce) in
verse  5 . {That ye also may have} (hina kai humeis ech(8874)e).
Purpose clause with hina and present active subjunctive of
ech(935c) (may keep on having). "Ye also" who have not seen Jesus in
the flesh as well as those like John who have seen him. Like kai
humin (to you also) just before. {Fellowship with us}
(koin(936e)ian meth' h(886d)(936e)). Common word in this Epistle, from
koin(936e)os, partner ( Lu 5:10 ), and koin(936e)e(935c), to share, in
( 1Pe 4:13 ), with meta emphasising mutual relationship ( Ac
2:42 ). This Epistle often uses ech(935c) with a substantive rather
than a verb. {Yea, and our fellowship} (kai h(8820)koin(936e)ia de h(880a)h(886d)etera). Careful explanation of his meaning in the word
"fellowship" (partnership), involving fellowship with the Father
and with his Son Jesus Christ and only possible in Christ.

经文:

约翰一书 1:4-1:4

注释:

 {We write} (graphomen h(886d)eis). Literary plural present
active indicative of graph(935c), which see in the singular in
 2:12-14 . {May be fulfilled} ((8869) pepl(8872)(936d)en(885c)). Periphrastic
perfect passive subjunctive of pl(8872)o(935c), stressing the state of
completion in the purpose (hina), remain full, precisely as in
 Joh 16:24 . See aorist subjunctive in  Joh 15:11  and perfect
indicative in  Joh 17:13 . The MSS. differ as often between
h(886d)(936e) (our) and hum(936e) (your).

经文:

约翰一书 1:5-1:5

注释:

 {And} (kai). Mutual fellowship depends on mutual knowledge
(Westcott). {Message} (aggelia). Old word (from aggelos,
messenger), in N.T. only here and  3:11 , and note ap' autou
(from God like apaggell(935c) in verse  3 ) and anaggellomen, to
announce, to disclose, here as in  Joh 4:25 . {God is light} (ho
theos ph(9373) estin). Precisely so the Logos is light ( Joh
1:4-9 ) and what Jesus claimed to be ( Joh 8:12 ). John repeats
it in negative form as he often does ( Joh 1:3 ).

经文:

约翰一书 1:6-1:6

注释:

 {If we say} (ean eip(936d)en). Condition of third class with
ean and second aorist (ingressive, up and say) active
subjunctive. Claiming fellowship with God (see verse  3 )
involves walking in the light with God (verse  5 ) and not in the
darkness (skotos here, but skotia in  Joh 1:5 ). See  2:11 
also for en t(8869) skoti(8369) peripate(935c). {We lie} (pseudometha).
Present middle indicative, plain Greek and plain English like
that about the devil in  Joh 8:44 . {Do not the truth} (ou
poioumen t(886e) al(8874)heian). Negative statement of the positive
pseudometha as in  Joh 8:44 . See  Joh 3:21  for "doing the
truth," like  Ne 9:33 .

经文:

约翰一书 1:7-1:7

注释:

 1Jo
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3' or engs='1Jo
3'
经文:

约翰一书 1:8-1:8

注释:

 {If we say} (ean eip(936d)en). See verse  6 . {We have no sin}
(hamartian ouk echomen). For this phrase see  Joh 9:41  15:22,24 . That is, we have no personal guilt, no principle of
sin. This some of the Gnostics held, since matter was evil and
the soul was not contaminated by the sinful flesh, a thin
delusion with which so-called Christian scientists delude
themselves today. {We deceive ourselves} (heautous plan(936d)en).
Present active indicative of plana(935c), to lead astray. We do not
deceive others who know us. Negative statement again of the same
idea, "the truth is not in us."

经文:

约翰一书 1:9-1:9

注释:

 {If we confess} (ean homolog(936d)en). Third-class condition
again with ean and present active subjunctive of homologe(935c),
"if we keep on confessing." Confession of sin to God and to one
another ( Jas 5:16 ) is urged throughout the N.T. from John the
Baptist ( Mr 1:5 ) on. {Faithful} (pistos). Jesus made
confession of sin necessary to forgiveness. It is God's promise
and he is "righteous" (dikaios). {To forgive} (hina aph(8869)).
Sub-final clause with hina and second aorist active subjunctive
of aphi(886d)i. {And to cleanse} (kai hagias(8869)). So again with
hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of kathariz(935c)
(verse  7 ).

经文:

约翰一书 1:10-1:10

注释:

 {If we say} (ean eip(936d)en). As in verses  6,8 . {We have
not sinned} (ouch hamart(886b)amen). Perfect active indicative of
hamartan(935c). This is a denial of any specific acts of sin, while
in verse  8  we have the denial of the principle of sin. David
Smith observes that the claim to personal perfectionism has two
causes, one the stifling of conscience in making God a liar
(pseust(886e), the word used of the devil by Jesus in  Joh 8:44 ),
and the other ignorance of God's word, which is not in us, else
we should not make such a claim.

经文:

约翰一书 2:1-2:1

注释:

 {My little children} (	eknia mou). Tender tone with this
diminutive of 	eknon (child), again in  2:12  3:18 , but
paidia in  2:14 . John is now an old man and regards his
readers as his little children. That attitude is illustrated in
the story of his visit to the robber to win him to Christ. {That
ye may not sin} (hina m(8820)hamart(8874)e). Purpose (negative) clause
with hina m(885c) and the second aorist (ingressive, commit sin)
active subjunctive of hamartan(935c), to sin. John has no patience
with professional perfectionists ( 1:8-10 ), but he has still
less with loose-livers like some of the Gnostics who went to all
sorts of excesses without shame. {If any man sin} (ean tis
hamart(8869)). Third-class condition with ean and second aorist
(ingressive) active subjunctive again, "if one commit sin." {We
have} (echomen). Present active indicative of ech(935c) in the
apodosis, a present reality like echomen in  2Co 5:1 . {An
advocate} (parakl(8874)on). See on 浥oh 14:16,26; 15:26; 16:7| for
this word, nowhere else in the N.T. The Holy Spirit is God's
Advocate on earth with men, while Christ is man's Advocate with
the Father (the idea, but not the word, in  Ro 8:31-39  Heb
7:25 ). As dikaios (righteous) Jesus is qualified to plead our
case and to enter the Father's presence ( Heb 2:18 ).

经文:

约翰一书 2:2-2:2

注释:

 {And he} (kai autos). He himself in his own person, both
priest and sacrifice ( Heb 9:14 ). {The propitiation}
(hilasmos). Late substantive from hilaskomai ( Lu 18:13  Heb
2:17 ), in LXX, Philo, Plutarch, in N.T. only here and  4:10 .
Christ himself is the means of propitiation for (peri
concerning) our sins. See hilast(8872)ion in  Ro 3:15 . {For the
whole world} (peri holou tou kosmou). It is possible to supply
the ellipsis here of 	(936e) hamarti(936e) (the sins of) as we have it
in  Heb 7:27 , but a simpler way is just to regard "the whole
world" as a mass of sin ( 5:19 ). At any rate, the propitiation
by Christ provides for salvation for all ( Heb 2:9 ) if they will
only be reconciled with God ( 2Co 5:19-21 ).

经文:

约翰一书 2:3-2:3

注释:

 {Hereby} (en tout(9369)). See this phrase also in  2:5  3:16,19,24  4:2,13  5:2 . That is explained by the ean clause,
"if we keep his commandments " (ean t(8872)(936d)en, condition of the
third class, ean with present active subjunctive, "if we keep
on keeping"), the clause itself in apposition with 	out(9369)
(locative case). {Know we that we know him} (ginoskomen hoti
egn(936b)amen auton). "Know we that we have come to know and still
know him," egn(936b)amen the perfect active indicative of
gin(9373)k(935c). The Gnostics boasted of their superior knowledge of
Christ, and John here challenges their boast by an appeal to
experimental knowledge of Christ which is shown by keeping his
(autou, Christ's) commandments, thoroughly Johannine phrase (12
times in the Gospel, 6 in this Epistle, 6 in the Apocalypse).

经文:

约翰一书 2:4-2:4

注释:

 {I know him} (Egn(936b)a auton). Perfect active indicative with
recitative hoti like quotation marks just before it. This is
one of the pious platitudes, cheap claptrap of the Gnostics, who
would bob up in meetings with such explosions. John punctures
such bubbles with the sharp addition "and keepeth not" (ho m(880a)t(8872)(936e), present active linear participle). "The one who keeps on
saying: 'I have come to know him,' and keeps on not keeping his
commandments is a liar" (pseust(8873), just like Satan,  Joh 8:44 
and like  1Jo 1:8,10 ), followed by the negative statement as in
 1:8,10 . There is a whip-cracker effect in John's words.

经文:

约翰一书 2:5-2:5

注释:

 {But whoso keepeth} (hos d' an t(8872)(8869)). Indefinite relative
clause with modal an and the present active subjunctive,
"whoever keeps on keeping." {Verily} (al(8874)h(9373)). Truly, of a
truth. This prize is open to all, not confined to a few initiated
Gnostic intellectuals or pneumatics. {Hath the love of God been
perfected} (h(8820)agap(8820)tou theou tetelei(9374)ai). Perfect passive
indicative of 	eleio(935c), stands completed. Probably objective
genitive, our love for God, which is realized in absolute
obedience (Brooke). {Hereby} (en tout(9369)). That is by continuous
keeping of Christ's commandments, not by loud talk and loose
living.

经文:

约翰一书 2:6-2:6

注释:

 {Himself also to walk} (kai autos peripatein). Present
active infinitive after opheilei (ought), "Himself also to keep
on walking," a continuous performance, not a spasmodic spurt.
{Even as he walked} (kath(9373) ekeinos periepat(8873)en). Constative
aorist active indicative summing up the life of Christ on earth
with the emphatic use of the demonstrative ekeinos in reference
to Christ as in  3:3,5,7,16  4:17  Joh 7:11  9:12,28  19:21 .

经文:

约翰一书 2:7-2:7

注释:

 {Beloved} (agap(8874)oi). First instance of this favourite form
of address in these Epistles ( 3:2,21  4:1,7  3Jo 1,2,5,11 ). {No
new commandment} (ouk entol(886e) kain(886e)). Not novel or new in kind
(kain(886e) as distinct from 
eos, new in time, for which
distinction see  Lu 5:33-38 ). {But an old commandment} (all'
entol(886e) palaian). Ancient as opposed both to kainos and

eos. The Mosaic law taught love for one's neighbours and
Christ taught love even of enemies. {Which ye had} (h(886e)
eichete). Imperfect active, reaching back to the beginning of
their Christian lives (ap' arch(8873)). They had heard it expressly
from Jesus ( Joh 13:34 ), who, however, calls it "a new
commandment."

经文:

约翰一书 2:8-2:8

注释:

 {Again a new commandment} (palin entol(886e) kain(886e)). Paradox,
but truth. Old in teaching (as old as the story of Cain and Abel,
3:11f.), but new in practice. For this use of palin for a new
turn see  Joh 16:28 . To walk as Christ walked is to put in
practice the old commandment and so make it new (ever new and
fresh), as love is as old as man and fresh in every new
experience. {True in him and in you} (al(8874)hes en aut(9369) kai en
humin). This newness is shown supremely in Christ and in
disciples when they walk as Jesus did (verse  6 ). {Because}
(hoti). Explanation of the paradox. {Is passing away}
(paragetai). Present middle indicative of parag(935c), old verb,
to lead by, to go by (intransitive), as in  Mt 20:30 . Night does
pass by even if slowly. See this verb in verse  17  of the world
passing by like a procession. {True} (al(8874)hinon). Genuine,
reliable, no false flicker. {Already shineth} ((8864)(8820)phainei).
Linear present active, "is already shining" and the darkness is
already passing by. Dawn is here. Is John thinking of the second
coming of Christ or of the victory of truth over error, of light
over darkness (cf.  Joh 1:5-9 ), the slow but sure victory of
Christ over Satan as shown in the Apocalypse? See  1:5 .

经文:

约翰一书 2:9-2:9

注释:

 {And hateth his brother} (kai ton adelphon autou mis(936e)).
Sharp contrast between the love just described and hate. The only
way to walk in the light ( 1:7 ) is to have fellowship with God
who is light ( 1:3,5 ). So the claim to be in the light is
nullified by hating a brother. {Even until now} (he(9373) arti). Up
till this moment. In spite of the increasing light and his own
boast he is in the dark.

经文:

约翰一书 2:10-2:10

注释:

 {Abideth} (menei). Present active indicative, continues in
the light and so does not interrupt the light by hating his
brother. {Occasion of stumbling} (skandalon). See on 烘t 13:41;
16:23| for this interesting word. It is a stumbling block or trap
either in the way of others (its usual sense), as in  Mt 18:7 ,
or in one's own way, as is true of proskopt(935c) in  Joh 11:9  and
in verse  11  here. But, as Westcott argues, John may very well
have the usual meaning here and the other in verse  11 .

经文:

约翰一书 2:11-2:11

注释:

 {Blinded} (etuphl(9373)en). First aorist active indicative of
	uphlo(935c), the very verb and form used in  2Co 4:4  of the god of
this age to keep men from beholding the illumination of the
gospel of the glory of Christ who is the image of God. The first
part of the verse repeats verse  9 , but adds this vivid touch of
the blinding power of darkness. In the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky
the fish in Echo River have eye-sockets, but no eyes.

经文:

约翰一书 2:12-2:12

注释:

 {I write} (graph(935c)). Present active indicative, repeated
three times, referring to this Epistle. For "the name" see  3:23  3Jo 1:7 . They were loyal to the name of Christ ( Mt 10:22 ).
{Are forgiven} (aphe(936e)tai). Doric perfect passive indicative of
aphi(886d)i (seen also in  Lu 5:20,23 ) for the usual apheintai.
Teknia (little children) probably includes all, as in verse
 1 .

经文:

约翰一书 2:13-2:13

注释:

 {Fathers} (pateres). Those mature believers with long and
rich experience (egn(936b)ate, ye have come to know and still
know). {Him which is from the beginning} (	on ap' arch(8873)). See
 1:1  as explaining this crisp description of the Word of life
(cf.  Joh 1:1-18 ). {Young men} (
eaniskoi). The younger
element in contrast to the fathers, full of vigor and conflict
and victory. {Ye have overcome the evil one} (
enik(886b)ate ton
pon(8872)on). Perfect active indicative of 
ika(935c), a permanent
victory after conflict. The masculine article 	on shows that
the prince of darkness is the one defeated in this struggle, the
devil plain in  3:8,10  ( Joh 8:44  13:2 ).

经文:

约翰一书 2:14-2:14

注释:

 {I have written} (egrapsa). Repeated three times.
Epistolary aorist referring to this Epistle, not to a previous
Epistle. Law (_Tests of Life_, p. 309) suggests that John was
interrupted at the close of verse  13  and resumes here in verse
 14  with a reference to what he had previously written in verse
 13 . But that is needless ingenuity. It is quite in John's style
to repeat himself with slight variations. {The Father} (	on
patera). The heavenly Father as all of God's children should
come to know him. He repeats from verse  13  what he said to
"fathers." To the young men he adds ischuroi (strong) and the
word of God abiding in them. That is what makes them powerful
(ischuroi) and able to gain the victory over the evil one.

经文:

约翰一书 2:15-2:15

注释:

 {Love not the world} (m(8820)agap(8374)e ton kosmon). Prohibition
with m(885c) and the present active imperative of agapa(935c), either
stop doing it or do not have the habit of doing it. This use of
kosmos is common in John's Gospel ( 1:10  17:14ff. ) and
appears also in  1Jo 5:19 . In epitome the Roman Empire
represented it. See it also in  Jas 4:4 . It confronts every
believer today. {If any man love} (ean tis agap(8369)). Third-class
condition with ean and present active subjunctive of agapa(935c)
(same form as indicative), "if any keep on loving the world."
{The love of the Father} (h(8820)agap(8820)tou patros). Objective
genitive, this phrase only here in N.T., with which compare "love
of God" in  2:5 . In antithesis to love of the world.

经文:

约翰一书 2:16-2:16

注释:

 {All that} (p(836e) to). Collective use of the neuter singular
as in  5:4 , like p(836e) ho in  Joh 6:37,39 . Three examples, not
necessarily covering all sins, are given in the nominative in
apposition with p(836e) to. "The lust of the flesh" (h(8820)epithumia
t(8873) sarkos, subjective genitive, lust felt by the flesh) may be
illustrated by  Mr 4:19  Ga 5:17 . So the genitive with h(880a)epithumia t(936e) ophthalm(936e) (the lust of the eyes) is subjective,
lust with the eyes as organs as shown by Jesus in  Mt 5:28 . The
use of the "movies" today for gain by lustful exhibitions is a
case in point. For alazoneia see on 浥as 4:16|, the only other
N.T. example. Alaz(936e) (a boaster) occurs in  Ro 1:30  2Ti 3:2 .
Bios (life) as in  3:17  is the external aspect ( Lu 8:14 ),
not the inward principle (z(9388)). David Smith thinks that, as in
the case of Eve ( Ge 3:1-6 ) and the temptations of Jesus ( Mt
4:1-11 ), these three sins include all possible sins. But they
are all "of the world" (ek tou kosmou) in origin, in no sense
"of the Father" (ek tou patros). The problem for the believer
is always how to be in the world and yet not of it ( Joh
17:11,14ff. ).

经文:

约翰一书 2:17-2:17

注释:

 {Passeth away} (paragetai). "Is passing by" (linear
action, present middle indicative), as in verse  8 . There is
consolation in this view of the transitoriness of the conflict
with the world. Even the lust which belongs to the world passes
also. The one who keeps on doing (poi(936e) present active
participle of poie(935c)) the will of God "abides for ever" (menei
eis ton ai(936e)a) "amid the flux of transitory things" (D. Smith).

经文:

约翰一书 2:18-2:18

注释:

 2Jo
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1' or engs='2Jo
1'
经文:

约翰一书 2:19-2:19

注释:

 {From us} (ex h(886d)(936e)) {--of us} (ex h(886d)(936e)). The same
idiom, ex and the ablative case (h(886d)(936e)), but in different
senses to correspond with ex(886c)than (they went out from our
membership) and ouk (8873)an (they were not of us in spirit and
life). For ex in the sense of origin see  Joh 17:15 , for ex
in the sense of likeness,  Joh 17:14 . {For if they had been of
us} (ei gar ex h(886d)(936e) (8873)an). Condition of second class with ei
and imperfect tense (no aorist for eimi). {They would have
continued} (memen(886b)eisan an). Past perfect of men(935c), to
remain, without augment, with an in apodosis of second-class
condition. {With us} (meth' h(886d)(936e)). In fellowship, for which
see meta in  1:3 . They had lost the inner fellowship and then
apparently voluntarily broke the outward. {But they went}
(all'). Ellipsis of the verb ex(886c)than above, a common habit
(ellipse) in John s Gospel ( 1:8  9:3  13:18  15:25 ). {That they
might be made manifest} (hina phaner(9374)h(9373)in). Purpose clause
with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of
phanero(935c), for which verb see  Joh 21:1  Col 3:4 . See  2Co 3:3 
for the personal construction with hoti as here. {They all are
not} (ouk eisin pantes). Not just some, but all, as in  2:21  3:5 . These antichrists are thus revealed in their true light.

经文:

约翰一书 2:20-2:20

注释:

 {Anointing} (chrisma). Old word for result (mat) and for
the material, from chri(935c), to anoint, perhaps suggested by the
use of antichristoi in verse  18 . Christians are "anointed
ones," christoi in this sense, with which compare  Ps 105:15 :
"Touch not my anointed ones" (m(8820)haps(8873)the t(936e) christ(936e) mou).
These antichrists posed as the equals of or even superior to
Christ himself. But followers of Christ do have "the oil of
anointing" (	o elaion tou chrismatos,  Ex 29:7 ), the Holy
Spirit. This word in the N.T. only here and verse  27 . Later the
term was applied to baptism after baptismal remission came to be
taught (Tertullian, etc.). {From the Holy One} (apo tou
hagiou). They receive this anointing of the Holy Spirit from the
Anointed One, Jesus Christ (the Holy One). Cf.  Joh 6:69  Ac
3:14 . {And ye know all things} (kai oidate panta). But the
best MSS. read pantes rather than panta, "Ye all know it."
This anointing is open to all Christians, not just a select few.

经文:

约翰一书 2:21-2:21

注释:

 {I have not written} (ouk egrapsa). Not epistolary aorist
( 2:14 ), but a reference to what he has just said. {And because
no lie is of the truth} (kai hoti p(836e) pseudos ek t(8873) al(8874)heias
ouk estin). Not certain whether hoti here is causal (because)
or declarative (that). Either makes sense. Note the idiomatic use
of ek and p(836e)--ouk=ouden (no) as in verse  19 .

经文:

约翰一书 2:22-2:22

注释:

 {The liar} (ho pseust(8873)). The liar (with the article) _par
excellence_. Rhetorical question to sharpen the point made
already about lying in  1:6,10  2:4,21 . See  5:5  for a like
rhetorical question. {But} (ei m(885c)). Except, if not. {That
denieth that Jesus is the Christ} (ho arnoumenos hoti I(8873)ous ouk
estin ho Christos). Common Greek idiom for ouk to appear after
arneomai like redundant m(885c) in  Lu 20:27  Heb 12:19 . The old
Latin retains _non_ here as old English did (Shakespeare, _Comedy
of Errors_ IV. ii. 7, "He denied you had in him no right"). The
Cerinthian Gnostics denied the identity of the man Jesus and
Christ (an aeon, they held) like the modern Jesus or Christ
controversy. {This is the antichrist} (houtos estin ho
antichristos). The one just mentioned, Cerinthus himself in
particular. {Even he that denieth the Father and the Son} (ho
arnoumenos ton patera kai ton huion). This is the inevitable
logic of such a rejection of the Son of God. Jesus had himself
said this very same thing ( Joh 5:23f. ).

经文:

约翰一书 2:23-2:23

注释:

 {Hath not the Father} (oude ton patera echei). "Not even
does he have the Father" or God ( 2Jo 1:9 ). {He that confesseth
the Son} (ho homolog(936e) ton huion). Because the Son reveals the
Father ( Joh 1:18  14:9 ). Our only approach to the Father is by
the Son ( Joh 14:6 ). Confession of Christ before men is a
prerequisite for confession by Christ before the Father ( Mt
10:32  Lu 12:8 ).

经文:

约翰一书 2:24-2:24

注释:

 {As for you} (humeis). Emphatic proleptic position before
the relative ho and subject of (886b)ousate, a familiar idiom in
 Joh 8:45  10:29 , etc. Here for emphatic contrast with the
antichrists. See  1:1  for ap' arch(8873) (from the beginning).
{Let abide in you} (en humin menet(935c)). Present active imperative
of men(935c), to remain. Do not be carried away by the new-fangled
Gnostic teaching.

经文:

约翰一书 2:25-2:25

注释:

 {And this is the promise} (kai haut(8820)estin h(8820)epaggelia).
See  1:5  for the same idiom with aggelia (message). This is
the only instance of epaggelia in the Johannine writings. Here
"the promise" is explained to be "the life eternal" ( 1:2 ). In
 Ac 1:4  the word is used for the coming of the Holy Spirit. {He
promised} (autos ep(8867)geilato). First aorist middle indicative
of epaggell(935c). Autos (he) is Christ as is seen in  3:3  by
ekeinos.

经文:

约翰一书 2:26-2:26

注释:

 {Concerning them that would lead you astray} (peri t(936e)
plan(936e)t(936e) humas). "Concerning those that are trying to lead you
astray" (conative use of the present active articular participle
of plana(935c). See  1:8  for this verb. John is doing his part to
rescue the sheep from the wolves, as Paul did ( Ac 20:29 ).

经文:

约翰一书 2:27-2:27

注释:

 {And as for you} (kai humeis). Prolepsis again as in verse
 24 . {Which ye received of him} (ho elabete ap' autou). Second
aorist active indicative of lamban(935c), a definite experience,
this anointing (chrisma), from Christ himself as in verse  20 .
This Paraclete was promised by Christ ( Joh 14:26  16:13ff. ) and
came on the great Pentecost, as they knew, and in the experience
of all who yielded themselves to the Holy Spirit. {That any one
teach you} (hina tis didask(8869) humas). Sub-final use of hina
and the present active subjunctive of didask(935c), "that any one
keep on teaching you." {Teacheth you} (didaskei humas). Present
active indicative. The Holy Spirit was to bring all things to
their remembrance ( Joh 14:26 ) and to bear witness concerning
Christ ( Joh 15:26  16:12-15 ). Yet they need to be reminded of
what they already know to be "true" (al(8874)hes) and "no lie"
(ouk estin pseudos), according to John's habit of positive and
negative ( 1:5 ). So he exhorts them to "abide in him" (menete
en aut(9369), imperative active, though same form as the
indicative). Precisely so Jesus had urged that the disciples
abide in him ( Joh 15:4f. ).

经文:

约翰一书 2:28-2:28

注释:

 {And now} (kai nun). John tenderly repeats the
exhortation, "keep on abiding in him." {If he shall be
manifested} (ean phaner(9374)h(8869)). Condition of third class with
ean and first aorist passive subjunctive as in verse  19  Col
3:3 . A clear reference to the second coming of Christ which may
be at any time. {That we have boldness} (hina sch(936d)en
parr(8873)ian). Purpose clause with hina and the ingressive second
aorist active subjunctive of ech(935c), "that we may get boldness."
{And not be ashamed} (kai m(8820)aischunth(936d)en). Likewise negative
purpose (after John's fashion) with m(885c) and the first aorist
passive subjunctive of aischun(935c), to put to shame. {Before him}
(ap' autou). "From him," as if shrinking away from Christ in
guilty surprise. See  2Th 1:9  for this use of apo (from the
face of the Lord).

经文:

约翰一书 2:29-2:29

注释:

 {If ye know} (ean eid(8874)e). Third-class condition again
with ean and second perfect active subjunctive of oida. If ye
know by intuitive or absolute knowledge that Christ (because of
verse  28 ) is righteous, then "ye know" or "know ye"
(gin(9373)kete either indicative or imperative) by experimental
knowledge (so gin(9373)k(935c) means in contrast with oida). {Is
begotten} (gegenn(8874)ai). Perfect passive indicative of genna(935c),
stands begotten, the second birth (regeneration) of  Joh 3:3-8 .
{Of him} (ex autou). Plainly "of God" in verse  9  and so
apparently here in spite of dikaios referring to Christ. Doing
righteousness is proof of the new birth.

经文:

约翰一书 3:1-3:1

注释:

 {What manner of love} (potap(886e) agap(886e)). Qualitative
interrogative as in  2Pe 3:11  Mt 8:27 . Only here in John's
writings. Originally of what country or race. {Hath bestowed}
(ded(936b)en). Perfect active indicative of did(936d)i, state of
completion, "the endowment of the receiver" (Vincent). {That we
should be called} (hina kl(8874)h(936d)en). Sub-final use of hina
with the first aorist passive subjunctive of kale(935c), to call or
name, as in  Mt 2:23 . {Children} (	ekna). As in  Joh 1:12  and
with an allusion to gegenn(8874)ai in  2:29  in an effort "to
restore the waning enthusiasm of his readers, and to recall them
to their first love" (Brooke). {And such we are} (kai esmen).
"And we are." A parenthetical reflection characteristic of John
(kai nun estin in  Joh 5:25  and kai ouk eisin in  Re 2:2  3:9 ) omitted by Textus Receptus, though, in the old MSS.
{Because it knew him not} (hoti ouk egn(9320)auton). Second aorist
active indicative of gin(9373)k(935c), precisely the argument in  Joh
15:18f .

经文:

约翰一书 3:2-3:2

注释:

 2Co
3:18 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '2Co
3' or engs='2Co
3'
经文:

约翰一书 3:3-3:3

注释:

 {Set on him} (ep' aut(9369)). Resting upon (epi) with
locative rather than eis, looking to,  Ac 24:15 . That is upon
Christ (Brooke), upon God (D. Smith), upon God in Christ
(Westcott). {Purifieth himself} (hagnizei heauton). Present
active indicative of hagniz(935c), old verb, from hagnos (pure
from contamination), used of ceremonial purifications ( Joh
11:55  Ac 21:24,26  as in  Ex 19:10 ) and then of personal
internal cleansing of heart ( Jas 4:8 ), soul ( 1Pe 1:22 ), self
(here). Cf.  Php 2:12f.  the work of both God and man. {As he is
pure} (kath(9373) ekeinos hagnos estin). As in  2:6  3:9  ekeinos
(emphatic demonstrative) refers to Christ. Christ can be termed
hagnos "in virtue of the perfection of his humanity"
(Westcott). Our destiny is to be conformed to the image of God in
Christ ( Ro 8:29 ).

经文:

约翰一书 3:4-3:4

注释:

 {Sin is lawlessness} (h(8820)hamartia estin h(8820)anomia). The
article with both subject and predicate makes them coextensive
and so interchangeable. Doing sin is the converse of doing
righteousness ( 2:29 ). The present active participle (poi(936e))
means the habit of doing sin.

经文:

约翰一书 3:5-3:5

注释:

 1Jo
2:28 一共查出 0 筆,引用資料有問題!select chineses,engs from main where sengs = '1Jo
2' or engs='1Jo
2'
经文:

约翰一书 3:6-3:6

注释:

 {Sinneth not} (ouch hamartanei). Linear present (linear
men(936e), keeps on abiding) active indicative of hamartan(935c),
"does not keep on sinning." For men(935c) (abide) see  2:6  Joh
15:4-10 . {Whosoever sinneth} (ho hamartan(936e)). Present (linear)
active articular participle like men(936e) above, "the one who
keeps on sinning" (lives a life of sin, not mere occasional acts
of sin as hamart(8873)as, aorist active participle, would mean).
{Hath not seen him} (ouch he(9372)aken auton). Perfect active
indicative of hora(935c). The habit of sin is proof that one has not
the vision or the knowledge (egn(936b)en, perfect active also) of
Christ. He means, of course, spiritual vision and spiritual
knowledge, not the literal sense of hora(935c) in  Joh 1:18  20:29 .

经文:

约翰一书 3:7-3:7

注释:

 {Let no man lead you astray} (m(8864)eis plan(8374)(9320)humas).
Present active imperative of plana(935c), "let no one keep on
leading you astray." See  1:8  2:26 . Break the spell of any
Gnostic charmer. {He that doeth righteousness} (ho poi(936e) t(886e)
dikaiosun(886e)). "He that keeps on doing (present active participle
of poie(935c)) righteousness." For this idiom with poie(935c) see  1:6  3:4 . {He} (ekeinos). Christ as in verse  5 .

经文:

约翰一书 3:8-3:8

注释:

 {He that doeth sin} (ho poi(936e) t(886e) hamartian). "He that
keeps on doing sin" (the habit of sin). {Of the devil} (ek tou
diabolou). In spiritual parentage as Jesus said of the Pharisees
in  Joh 8:44 . When one acts like the devil he shows that he is
not a true child of God. {Sinneth from the beginning} (ap'
arch(8873) hamartanei). Linear progressive present active
indicative, "he has been sinning from the beginning" of his
career as the devil. This is his normal life and those who
imitate him become his spiritual children. {That he might
destroy} (hina lus(8869)). Purpose clause with hina and the first
aorist active subjunctive of lu(935c). This purpose (eis touto)
Jesus had and has. There is eternal conflict, with final victory
over Satan certain.

经文:

约翰一书 3:9-3:9

注释:

 {Doeth no sin} (hamartian ou poiei). Linear present active
indicative as in verse  4  like hamartanei in verse  8 . The
child of God does not have the habit of sin. {His seed} (sperma
autou). God's seed, "the divine principle of life" (Vincent).
Cf.  Joh 1 . {And he cannot sin} (kai ou dunatai hamartanein).
This is a wrong translation, for this English naturally means
"and he cannot commit sin" as if it were kai ou dunatai
hamartein or hamart(8873)ai (second aorist or first aorist active
infinitive). The present active infinitive hamartanein can only
mean "and he cannot go on sinning," as is true of hamartanei in
verse  8  and hamartan(936e) in verse  6 . For the aorist
subjunctive to commit a sin see hamart(8874)e and hamart(8869) in
 2:1 . A great deal of false theology has grown out of a
misunderstanding of the tense of hamartanein here. Paul has
precisely John's idea in  Ro 6:1  epimen(936d)en t(8869) hamarti(8369)
(shall we continue in sin, present active linear subjunctive) in
contrast with hamart(8873)(936d)en in  Ro 6:15  (shall we commit a sin,
first aorist active subjunctive).

经文:

约翰一书 3:10-3:10

注释:

 {In this} (en tout(9369)). As already shown. A life of sin is
proof that one is a child of the devil and not of God. This is
the line of cleavage that is obvious to all. See  Joh 8:33-39 
for the claim of the Pharisees to be the children of Abraham,
whereas their conduct showed them to be children of the devil.
This is not a popular note with an age that wishes to remove all
distinctions between Christians and the world. {Doeth not
righteousness} (ho m(8820)poi(936e) dikaiosun(886e)). Habit (linear present
participle) again of not doing righteousness, as in verse  7  of
doing it. Cf. poiei and m(8820)poi(936e) (doing and not doing) in  Mt
7:24,26 . {Neither} (kai). Literally, "and," but with the
ellipsis of ouk estin ek tou theou (is not of God). The
addition here of this one item about not loving (m(8820)agap(936e))
one's brother is like Paul's summary in  Ro 13:9 , a striking
illustration of the general principle just laid down and in
accord with  2:9-11 .

经文:

约翰一书 3:11-3:11

注释:

 {Message} (aggelia). In N.T. only here and  1:5 , but
epaggelia (promise) fifty-one times. {From the beginning} (ap'
arch(8873)). See  1:1  for this phrase and  2:7  for the idea. They
had the message of love for the brotherhood from the beginning of
the gospel and it goes back to the time of Cain and Abel (verse
 12 ). {That we should love one another} (hina agap(936d)en
all(886c)ous). Sub-final clause (content of the aggelia) with
hina and present active subjunctive. John repeats the message
of  2:7f .

经文:

约翰一书 3:12-3:12

注释:

 {Of the evil one} (ek tou pon(8872)ou). Ablative case and the
same for neuter and masculine singular, but verse  10  makes it
clear that the reference is to the devil. {Slew} (esphaxen).
First aorist active indicative of sphaz(935c), old verb, to slay, to
butcher, to cut the throat (Latin _jugulare_) like an ox in the
shambles, in N.T. only here and Rev. ( Re 5:6,9,12 , etc.).
{Wherefore?} (charin tinos;). "For the sake of what?"
Post-positive preposition ( Eph 3:1,14 ) except here. The
interpretation of the act of Cain ( Ge 4:8ff. ) is an addition to
the narrative, but in accord with  Heb 11:4 . Jealousy led to
murder.

经文:

约翰一书 3:13-3:13

注释:

 {If} (ei). Common construction after 	haumaz(935c) (wonder)
rather than hoti (that, because). Present imperative here with
m(885c) means "cease wondering." Note m(8820)thaumas(8869)s (do not begin
to wonder) in  Joh 3:6  (an individual case). See this same
condition and language in  Joh 15:18 .

经文:

约翰一书 3:14-3:14

注释:

 {We know} (h(886d)eis oidamen). Emphatic expression of
h(886d)eis (we) in contrast to the unregenerate world, the
Christian consciousness shared by writer and readers. {We have
passed} (metabeb(886b)amen). Perfect active indicative of
metabain(935c), old compound to pass over from one place to another
( Joh 7:3 ), to migrate, out of death into life. We have already
done it while here on earth. {Because} (hoti). Proof of this
transition, not the ground of it. {We love the brethren}
(agap(936d)en tous adelphous). Just this phrase (plural) here
alone, but see  2:9  for the singular. {He that loveth not} (ho
m(8820)agap(936e)). "The not loving man," general picture and picture of
spiritual death.

经文:

约翰一书 3:15-3:15

注释:

 {A murderer} (anthr(9370)oktonos). Old compound (Euripides)
from anthr(9370)os (man) and ktein(935c) (to kill), a man-killer, in
N.T. only here and  Joh 8:44  (of Satan). {No} (p(8373)--ou).
According to current Hebraistic idiom= oudeis as in  2:19,21 .
{Abiding} (menousan). Present active feminine accusative
predicate participle of men(935c), "a continuous power and a
communicated gift" (Westcott).

经文:

约翰一书 3:16-3:16

注释:

 {Know we} (egn(936b)amen). Perfect active indicative, "we have
come to know and still know." See  2:3  for "hereby" (en
tout(9369)). {Love} (	(886e) agap(886e)). "The thing called love" (D.
Smith). {He for us} (ekeinos huper h(886d)(936e)). Ekeinos as in
 2:6  3:3,5 , huper here alone in this Epistle, though common
in John's Gospel ( 10:11,15  11:50 , etc.) and in  3Jo 1:7 .
{Laid down his life} (	(886e) psuch(886e) autou eth(886b)en). First aorist
active indicative of 	ith(886d)i, the very idiom used by Jesus of
himself in  Joh 10:11,17f . {We ought} (h(886d)eis opheilomen).
Emphatic h(886d)eis again. For opheil(935c) see  2:6 . Of course our
laying down our lives for the brethren has no atoning value in
our cases as in that of Christ, but is a supreme proof of one's
love ( Joh 13:37f.  15:13 ), as often happens.

经文:

约翰一书 3:17-3:17

注释:

 {Whoso hath} (hos an ech(8869)). Indefinite relative clause
with modal an with hos and the present active subjunctive of
ech(935c). {The world's goods} (	on bion tou kosmou). "The living
or livelihood (not z(9388), the principle of life, and see  2:16 
for ios) of the world" (not in the sense of evil or wicked,
but simply this mundane sphere). {Beholdeth} (	he(9372)ei). Present
active subjunctive of 	he(9372)e(935c), like echei just before. {In
need} (chreian echonta). "Having need" (present active
predicate participle of ech(935c), agreeing with adelphon). See
the vivid picture of a like case in  Jas 2:15f . {Shutteth up}
(kleis(8869)). First aorist (effective) active subjunctive of
klei(935c), to close like the door, changed on purpose from present
tense to aorist (graphic slamming the door of his compassion,
splagchna, common in LXX and N.T. for the nobler viscera, the
seat of the emotions, as in  Php 2:11  Col 3:12 ). Only here in
John. {How} (p(9373)). Rhetorical question like that in  Jas 2:16 
(what is the use?). It is practical, not speculative, that counts
in the hour of need.

经文:

约翰一书 3:18-3:18

注释:

 {In word, neither with the tongue} (log(9369) m(8864)e t(8869)
gl(9373)s(8869)). Either instrumental or locative makes sense. What John
means is "not merely by word or by the tongue." He does not
condemn kind words which are comforting and cheering, but warm
words should be accompanied by warm deeds to make real "in deed
and in truth" (en erg(9369) kai al(8874)hei(8369)). Here is a case where
actions do speak louder than mere words.

经文:

约翰一书 3:19-3:19

注释:

 {Shall we know} (gn(9373)ometha). Future middle indicative of
gin(9373)k(935c), at any future emergency, we shall come to know by this
(en tout(9369)) "that we are of the truth" (hoti ek t(8873) al(8874)heias
esmen). {Before him} (emprosthen autou). In the very presence
of God we shall have confident assurance (peisomen t(886e) kardian
h(886d)(936e), either we shall persuade our heart or shall assure our
heart) because God understands us.

经文:

约翰一书 3:20-3:20

注释:

 {Whereinsoever our heart condemn us} (hoti ean katagin(9373)k(8869)
h(886d)(936e) h(8820)kardia). A construction like hoti an, whatever, in
 Joh 2:5  14:13 . Katagin(9373)k(935c) occurs only three times in the
N.T., here, verse  21  Ga 2:11 . It means to know something
against one, to condemn. {Because God is greater than our heart}
(hoti meiz(936e) estin t(8873) kardias h(886d)(936e)). Ablative kardias after
the comparative meiz(936e). {And knoweth all things} (kai gin(9373)kei
panta). Just so Peter replied to Jesus in spite of his denials
( Joh 21:17 ). God's omniscience is linked with his love and
sympathy. God knows every secret in our hearts. This difficult
passage strikes the very centre of Christian truth (Brooke).

经文:

约翰一书 3:21-3:21

注释:

 {If our heart condemn us not} (ean h(8820)kardia m(880a)katagin(9373)k(8869)). Condition of third class with ean m(885c) and
present active subjunctive. The converse of the preceding, but
not a claim to sinlessness, but the consciousness of fellowship
in God's presence. {Boldness toward God} (parr(8873)ian pros ton
theon). Even in prayer ( Heb 4:16 ). See also  2:28 .

经文:

约翰一书 3:22-3:22

注释:

 {Whatsoever we ask} (ho ean ait(936d)en). Indefinite relative
clause with modal an and the present active subjunctive, like
hoti ean katagin(9373)k(8869) in verse  20 . In form no limitations are
placed here save that of complete fellowship with God, which
means complete surrender of our will to that of God our Father.
See the clear teaching of Jesus on this subject in  Mr 11:24  Lu
11:9  Joh 14:12f.  16:23  and his example ( Mr 14:36  Mt 26:39  Lu 22:42 ). The answer may not always be in the form that we
expect, but it will be better. {We receive of him} (lambanomen
ap' autou). See  1:5  for ap' autou (from him). {Because}
(hoti). Twofold reason why we receive regularly (lambanomen)
the answer to our prayers (1) "we keep" (	(8872)oumen, for which
see  2:3 ) his commandments and (2) "we do" (poioumen, we
practise regularly) "the things that are pleasing" (	a aresta,
old verbal adjective from aresk(935c), to please, with dative in
 Joh 8:29  with same phrase;  Ac 12:3  and infinitive in  Ac
6:2 , only other N.T. examples) "in his sight" (en(9370)ion autou,
common late vernacular preposition in papyri, LXX, and in N.T.,
except Matthew and Mark, chiefly by Luke and in the Apocalypse),
in God's eye, as in  Heb 13:21 .

经文:

约翰一书 3:23-3:23

注释:

 {His commandment} (h(8820)entol(8820)autou). {That} (hina).
Subfinal use of hina in apposition with entol(885c) (commandment)
and explanatory of it, as in  Joh 15:12  (entol(8820)hina). See
Christ's summary of the commandments ( Mr 12:28-31  Mt
22:34-40 ). So these two points here (1) {We should believe}
(pisteus(936d)en, first aorist active subjunctive according to B K
L, though Aleph A C read the present subjunctive pisteu(936d)en)
either in a crisis (aorist) or the continuous tenor (present) of
our lives. The "name" of Jesus Christ here stands for all that he
is, "a compressed creed " (Westcott) as in  1:3 . Note dative
onomati here with pisteu(935c) as in  5:10 , though eis onoma
(on the name) in  5:13  Joh 1:12  2:23  3:18 . But (2) we should
love one another" (agap(936d)en all(886c)ous), as he has already urged
( 2:7f.  3:11 ) and as he will repeat ( 4:7,11f.  2Jo 1:5 ) as
Jesus (even as he gave us commandment, that is Christ) had
previously done ( Joh 13:34  15:12,17 ). There are frequent
points of contact between this Epistle and the words of Jesus in
 Joh 13-17 .

经文:

约翰一书 3:24-3:24

注释:

 {And he in him} (kai autos en aut(9369)). That is "God abides
in him" as in  4:15 . We abide in God and God abides in us
through the Holy Spirit ( Joh 14:10,17,23  17:21 ). "Therefore
let God be a home to thee, and be thou the home of God: abide in
God, and let God abide in thee" (Bede). {By the Spirit} (ek tou
pneumatos). It is thus (by the Holy Spirit, first mention in
this Epistle and "Holy" not used with "Spirit" in this Epistle or
the Apocalypse) that we know that God abides in us. {Which}
(hou). Ablative case by attraction from accusative ho (object
of ed(936b)en) to agree with pneumatos as often, though not
always. It is a pity that the grammatical gender (which) is
retained here in the English instead of "whom," as it should be.

经文:

约翰一书 4:1-4:1

注释:

 {Beloved} (agap(8874)oi). Three times in this chapter
( 1,7,11 ) we have this tender address on love. {Believe not
every spirit} (m(8820)panti pneumati pisteuete). "Stop believing,"
as some were clearly carried away by the spirits of error rampant
among them, both Docetic and Cerinthian Gnostics. Credulity means
gullibility and some believers fall easy victims to the latest
fads in spiritualistic humbuggery. {Prove the spirits}
(dokimazete ta pneumata). Put them to the acid test of truth as
the metallurgist does his metals. If it stands the test like a
coin, it is acceptable (dokimos,  2Co 10:18 ), otherwise it is
rejected (adokimos,  1Co 9:27  2Co 13:5-7 ). {Many false
prophets} (polloi pseudoproph(8874)ai). Jesus had warned people
against them ( Mt 7:15 ), even when they as false Christs work
portents ( Mt 24:11,24  Mr 13:22 ). It is an old story ( Lu
6:26 ) and recurs again and again ( Ac 13:6  Re 16:13  19:20  20:10 ) along with false teachers ( 2Pe 2:1 ). {Are gone out}
(exel(886c)uthasin). Perfect active indicative of exerchomai. Cf.
aorist in  2:19 . They are abroad always.

经文:

约翰一书 4:2-4:2

注释:

 {Hereby know ye} (en tout(9369) gin(9373)kete). Either present
active indicative or imperative. The test of "the Spirit of God"
(	o pneuma tou theou) here alone in this Epistle, save verse
 13 . With the clamour of voices then and now this is important.
The test (en tout(9369), as in  3:19 ) follows. {That Jesus Christ
is come in the flesh} (I(8873)oun Christon en sarki el(886c)uthota).
The correct text (perfect active participle predicate
accusative), not the infinitive (el(886c)uthenai, B Vg). The
predicate participle (see  Joh 9:22  for predicate accusative
with homologe(935c)) describes Jesus as already come in the flesh
(his actual humanity, not a phantom body as the Docetic Gnostics
held). See this same idiom in  2Jo 1:7  with erchomenon
(coming). A like test is proposed by Paul for confessing the
deity of Jesus Christ in  1Co 12:3  and for the Incarnation and
Resurrection of Jesus in  Ro 10:6-10 .

经文:

约翰一书 4:3-4:3

注释:

 {Confesseth not} (m(8820)homologei). Indefinite relative clause
with the subjective negative m(885c) rather than the usual objective
negative ou (verse  6 ). It is seen also in  2Pe 1:9  Tit
1:11 , a survival of the literary construction (Moulton,
_Prolegomena_, p. 171). The Vulgate (along with Irenaeus,
Tertullian, Augustine) reads _solvit_ (luei) instead of m(880a)homologei, which means "separates Jesus," apparently an allusion
to the Cerinthian heresy (distinction between Jesus and Christ)
as the clause before refers to the Docetic heresy. Many MSS. have
here also en sarki el(886c)uthota repeated from preceding clause,
but not A B Vg Cop. and not genuine. {The spirit of the
antichrist} (	o tou antichristou). Pneuma (spirit) not
expressed, but clearly implied by the neuter singular article to.
It is a repetition of the point about antichrists made in
 2:18-25 . {Whereof} (ho). Accusative of person (grammatical
neuter referring to pneuma) with akou(935c) along with accusative
of the thing (hoti erchetai, as in  2:18 , futuristic present
middle indicative). Here the perfect active indicative
(ak(886b)oate), while in  2:18  the aorist ((886b)ousate). {And now
already} (kai nun (8864)(885c)). As in  2:18  also (many have come).
"The prophecy had found fulfilment before the Church had looked
for it" (Westcott). It is often so. For (8864)(885c) see  Joh 4:35  9:27 .

经文:

约翰一书 4:4-4:4

注释:

 {Have overcome them} (
enik(886b)ate autous). Perfect active
indicative of 
ika(935c), calm confidence of final victory as in
 2:13  Joh 16:33 . The reference in autous (them) is to the
false prophets in  4:1 . {Because} (hoti). The reason for the
victory lies in God, who abides in them ( 3:20,24  Joh 14:20  15:4f. ). God is greater than Satan, "he that is in the world"
(ho en t(9369) kosm(9369)), the prince of this world ( Joh 12:31  14:30 ), the god of this age ( 2Co 4:4 ), powerful as he seems.

经文:

约翰一书 4:5-4:5

注释:

 {Of the world} (ek tou kosmou). As Jesus is not and as the
disciples are not ( Joh 17:14ff. ). {As of the world} (ek tou
kosmou). No "as" (h(9373)), but that is the idea, for their talk
proceeds from the world and wins a ready hearing. The false
prophets and the world are in perfect unison.

经文:

约翰一书 4:6-4:6

注释:

 {We} (h(886d)eis). In sharp contrast with the false prophets
and the world. We are in tune with the Infinite God. Hence "he
that knoweth God" (ho gin(9373)k(936e) ton theon, present active
articular participle, the one who keeps on getting acquainted
with God, growing in his knowledge of God) "hears us" (akouei
h(886d)(936e)). This is one reason why sermons are dull (some actually
are, others so to dull hearers) or inspiring. There is a touch of
mysticism here, to be sure, but the heart of Christianity is
mysticism (spiritual contact with God in Christ by the Holy
Spirit). John states the same idea negatively by a relative
clause parallel with the preceding articular participle, the
negative with both clauses. John had felt the cold, indifferent,
and hostile stare of the worldling as he preached Jesus. {By
this} (ek toutou). "From this," deduction drawn from the
preceding; only example in the Epistle for the common en tout(9369)
as in  4:2 . The power of recognition (gin(9373)komen, we know by
personal experience) belongs to all believers (Westcott). There
is no reason for Christians being duped by "the spirit of error"
(	o pneuma t(8873) plan(8873)), here alone in the N.T., though we have
pneumasin planois (misleading spirits) in  1Ti 4:1 . Rejection
of the truth may be due also to our not speaking the truth in
love ( Eph 4:15 ).

经文:

约翰一书 4:7-4:7

注释:

 {Of God} (ek tou theou). Even human love comes from God, "a
reflection of something in the Divine nature itself" (Brooke).
John repeats the old commandment of  2:7f . Persistence in loving
(present tense agap(936d)en indicative and agap(936e) participle) is
proof that one "has been begotten of God" (ek tou theou
gegenn(8874)ai as in  2:29 ) and is acquainted with God. Otherwise
mere claim to loving God accompanied by hating one's brother is a
lie ( 2:9-11 ).

经文:

约翰一书 4:8-4:8

注释:

 {He that loveth not} (ho m(8820)agap(936e)). Present active
articular participle of agapa(935c) "keeps on not loving." {Knoweth
not God} (ouk egn(9320)ton theon). Timeless aorist active
indicative of gin(9373)k(935c), has no acquaintance with God, never did
get acquainted with him. {God is love} (ho theos agap(8820)estin).
Anarthrous predicate, not h(8820)agap(885c). John does not say that love
is God, but only that God is love. The two terms are not
interchangeable. God is also light ( 1:5 ) and spirit ( Joh
4:24 ).

经文:

约翰一书 4:9-4:9

注释:

 {Was manifested} (ephaner(9374)h(885c)). First aorist passive
indicative of phanero(935c). The Incarnation as in  3:5 . Subjective
genitive as in  2:5 . {In us} (en h(886d)in). In our case, not
"among us" nor "to us." Cf.  Ga 1:16 . {Hath sent}
(apestalken). Perfect active indicative of apostell(935c), as
again in verse  14 , the permanent mission of the Son, though in
verse  10  the aorist apesteilen occurs for the single event.
See  Joh 3:16  for this great idea. {His only-begotten Son} (	on
huion autou ton monogen(885c)). "His Son the only-begotten" as in
 Joh 3:16 . John applies monogen(8873) to Jesus alone ( Joh
1:14,18 ), but Luke ( Lu 7:12  8:42  9:38 ) to others. Jesus
alone completely reproduces the nature and character of God
(Brooke). {That we might live through him} (hina z(8873)(936d)en di'
autou). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist
(ingressive, get life) active subjunctive of za(935c). "Through him"
is through Christ, who is the life ( Joh 14:6 ). Christ also
lives in us ( Ga 2:20 ). This life begins here and now.

经文:

约翰一书 4:10-4:10

注释:

 {Not that} (ouch hoti) {--but that} (all' hoti). Sharp
contrast as in  Joh 7:22  2Co 7:9  Php 4:17 . {We loved}
((8867)ap(8873)amen). First aorist active indicative, but B reads
(8867)ap(886b)amen (perfect active, we have loved). {He} (autos).
Emphatic nominative (God). {To be the propitiation} (hilasmon).
Merely predicate accusative in apposition with huion (Son). For
the word see  2:2  Ro 3:25  for hilast(8872)ion, and for peri see
also  2:2 .

经文:

约翰一书 4:11-4:11

注释:

 {If God so loved us} (ei hout(9373) ho theos (8867)ap(8873)en h(886d)as).
Condition of first class with ei and the first aorist active
indicative. As in  Joh 3:16 , so here hout(9373) emphasises the
manifestation of God's love both in its manner and in its extent
( Ro 8:32 ). {Ought} (opheilomen). As in  2:6 . _Noblesse
oblige_. "Keep on loving," (agap(8369)n) as in  3:11 .

经文:

约翰一书 4:12-4:12

注释:

 {No one hath beheld God at any time} (	heon oudeis p(9370)ote
tethe(8374)ai). Perfect middle indicative of 	heaomai ( Joh
1:14 ). Almost the very words of  Joh 1:18  	heon oudeis p(9370)ote
he(9372)aken (instead of 	ethe(8374)ai). {If we love one another}
(ean agap(936d)en all(886c)ous). Third-class condition with ean and
the present active subjunctive, "if we keep on loving one
another." {God abideth in us} (ho theos en h(886d)in menei). Else
we cannot go on loving one another. {His love} (h(8820)agap(880a)autou). More than merely subjective or objective ( 2:5  4:9 ).
"Mutual love is a sign of the indwelling of God in men" (Brooke).
{Is perfected} (	etelei(936d)en(8820)estin). Periphrastic (see usual
form 	etelei(9374)ai in  2:5  4:17 ) perfect passive indicative of
	eleio(935c) (cf.  1:4 ). See verse  18  for "perfect love."

经文:

约翰一书 4:13-4:13

注释:

 {Hereby know we} (en tout(9369) gin(9373)komen). The Christian's
consciousness of the fact of God dwelling in him is due to the
Spirit of God whom God has given (ded(936b)en, perfect active
indicative here, though the aorist ed(936b)en in  3:24 ). This gift
of God is proof of our fellowship with God.

经文:

约翰一书 4:14-4:14

注释:

 {We have beheld} (	ethe(836d)etha). Perfect middle of
	heaomai as in verse  12 , though the aorist in  1:1  Joh 1:14 
(ethe(8373)ametha). John is qualified to bear witness
(marturoumen as in  1:2 ) as Jesus had charged the disciples to
do ( Ac 1:8 ). {Hath sent} (apestalken). As in verse  9 ,
though apesteilen in verse  10 . {To be the Saviour of the
world} (s(9374)(8872)a tou kosmou). Predicate accusative of s(9374)(8872)
(Saviour), like hilasmon in verse  10 . This very phrase occurs
elsewhere only in  Joh 4:42  as the confession of the Samaritans,
but the idea is in  Joh 3:17 .

经文:

约翰一书 4:15-4:15

注释:

 {Whosoever shall confess} (hos ean homolog(8873)(8869)).
Indefinite relative clause with modal ean (=an) and the first
aorist active subjunctive, "whoever confesses." See  2:23  4:2f. 
for homologe(935c). {That} (hoti). Object clause (indirect
assertion) after homologe(935c). This confession of the deity of
Jesus Christ implies surrender and obedience also, not mere lip
service (cf.  1Co 12:3  Ro 10:6-12 ). This confession is proof
(if genuine) of the fellowship with God ( 1:3f.  3:24 ).

经文:

约翰一书 4:16-4:16

注释:

 {We know} (egn(936b)amen). Perfect active indicative, "we have
come to know and still know" as in  Joh 6:9 , only there order is
changed (pepisteukamen coming before egn(936b)amen). Confession
(homologe(935c)) follows experimental knowledge (gin(9373)k(935c)) and
confident trust (pisteu(935c)). Believers are the sphere (en
h(886d)in, in our case) in which the love of God operates
(Westcott). See  Joh 13:35  for "having love." {God is love} (ho
theos agap(8820)estin). Repeated from verse  8 . So he gathers up
the whole argument that one who is abiding in love is abiding in
God and shows that God is abiding in him. Thoroughly Johannine
style.

经文:

约翰一书 4:17-4:17

注释:

 {Herein} (en tout(9369)). It is not clear whether the hina
clause (sub-final use) is in apposition with en tout(9369) as in
 Joh 15:8  or the hoti clause (because) with the hina clause
as parenthesis. Either makes sense. Westcott argues for the
latter idea, which is reinforced by the preceding sentence. {With
us} (meth' h(886d)(936e)). Construed with the verb 	etelei(9374)ai (is
perfected). In contrast to en h(886d)in (verses  12,16 ),
emphasising cooperation. "God works with man" (Westcott). For
boldness (parr(8873)ian) in the day of judgment (only here with
both articles, but often with no articles as in  2Pe 2:9 ) see
 2:28 . {As he is} (kath(9373) ekeinos estin). That is Christ as in
 2:6  3:3,5,7,16 . Same tense (present) as in  3:7 . "Love is a
heavenly visitant" (David Smith). We are in this world to
manifest Christ.

经文:

约翰一书 4:18-4:18

注释:

 {Fear} (phobos). Like a bond-slave ( Ro 8:15 ), not the
reverence of a son (eulabeia,  Heb 5:7f. ) or the obedience to
a father (en phob(9369),  1Pe 1:17 ). This kind of dread is the
opposite of parr(8873)ia (boldness). {Perfect love} (h(8820)teleia
agap(885c)). There is such a thing, perfect because it has been
perfected (verses  12,17 ). Cf.  Jas 1:4 . {Casteth out fear}
(ex(9320)ballei ton phobon). "Drives fear out" so that it does not
exist in real love. See ekball(9320)ex(935c) in  Joh 6:37  9:34f.  12:31  15:6  to turn out-of-doors, a powerful metaphor. Perfect
love harbours no suspicion and no dread ( 1Co 13 ). {Hath
punishment} (kolasin echei). Old word, in N.T. only here and
 Mt 25:46 . Tim(9372)ia has only the idea of penalty, kolasis has
also that of discipline, while paideia has that of chastisement
( Heb 12:7 ). The one who still dreads (phoboumenos) has not
been made perfect in love (ou tetelei(9374)ai). Bengel graphically
describes different types of men: "sine timore et amore; cum
timore sine amore; cum timore et amore; sine timore cum amore."

经文:

约翰一书 4:19-4:19

注释:

 {He first} (autos pr(9374)os). Note pr(9374)os (nominative), not
pr(9374)on, as in  Joh 20:4,8 . God loved us {before} we loved him
( Joh 3:16 ). Our love is in response to his love for us.
Agap(936d)en is indicative (we love), not subjunctive (let us love)
of the same form. There is no object expressed here.

经文:

约翰一书 4:20-4:20

注释:

 {If a man say} (ean tis eip(8869)). Condition of third class
with ean and second aorist active subjunctive. Suppose one say.
Cf.  1:6 . {I love God} (Agap(9320)ton theon). Quoting an imaginary
disputant as in  2:4 . {And hateth} (kai misei). Continuation
of the same condition with ean and the present active
subjunctive, "and keep on hating." See  2:9  3:15  for use of
mise(935c) (hate) with adelphos (brother). A liar (pseust(8873)).
Blunt and to the point as in  1:10  2:4 . {That loveth not} (ho
m(8820)agap(936e)). "The one who does not keep on loving" (present
active negative articular participle). {Hath seen} (he(9372)aken).
Perfect active indicative of hora(935c), the form in  Joh 1:18  used
of seeing God. {Cannot love} (ou dunatai agap(8369)n). "Is not able
to go on loving," with which compare  2:9 , ou dunatai
hamartanein (is not able to go on sinning). The best MSS. do not
have p(9373) (how) here.

经文:

约翰一书 4:21-4:21

注释:

 {That} (hina). Sub-final object clause in apposition with
entol(886e) as in  Joh 13:34  15:13 . {From him} (ap' autou).
Either God or Christ. See  Mr 12:29-31  for this old commandment
( 2:7f. ).

经文:

约翰一书 5:1-5:1

注释:

 {That Jesus is the Christ} (hoti I(8873)ous estin ho Christos).
The Cerinthian antichrist denies the identity of Jesus and Christ
( 2:22 ). Hence John insists on this form of faith (pisteu(936e)
here in the full sense, stronger than in  3:23  4:16 , seen also
in pistis in verse  4 , where English and Latin fall down in
having to use another word for the verb) as he does in verse  5 
and in accord with the purpose of John's Gospel ( 20:31 ).
Nothing less will satisfy John, not merely intellectual
conviction, but full surrender to Jesus Christ as Lord and
Saviour. "The Divine Begetting is the antecedent, not the
consequent of the believing" (Law). For "is begotten of God" (ek
tou theou gegenn(8874)ai) see  2:29  3:9  4:7  5:4,18 . John appeals
here to family relationship and family love. {Him that begat}
(	on genn(8873)anta). First aorist active articular participle of
genna(935c), to beget, the Father (our heavenly Father). {Him also
that is begotten of him} (	on gegenn(886d)enon ex autou). Perfect
passive articular participle of genna(935c), the brother or sister
by the same father. So then we prove our love for the common
Father by our conduct towards our brothers and sisters in Christ.

经文:

约翰一书 5:2-5:2

注释:

 {Hereby} (en tout(9369)). John's usual phrase for the test of
the sincerity of our love. "The love of God and the love of the
brethren do in fact include each the other" (Westcott). Each is a
test of the other. So put  3:14  with  5:2 . {When} (hotan).
"Whenever" indefinite temporal clause with hotan and the
present active subjunctive (the same form agap(936d)en as the
indicative with hoti (that) just before, "whenever we keep on
loving God." {And do} (kai poi(936d)en) "and whenever we keep on
doing (present active subjunctive of poie(935c)) his commandments."
See  1:6  for "doing the truth."

经文:

约翰一书 5:3-5:3

注释:

 {This} (haut(885c)) {--that} (hina). Explanatory use of hina
with haut(885c), as in  Joh 17:3 , to show what "the love of God"
( 4:9,12 ) in the objective sense is, not mere declamatory
boasting ( 4:20 ), but obedience to God's commands, "that we keep
on keeping (present active subjunctive as in  2:3 ) his
commandments." This is the supreme test. {Are not grievous}
(areiai ouk eisin). "Not heavy," the adjective in  Mt 23:4 
with phortia (burdens), with lupoi (wolves) in  Ac 20:29 , of
Paul's letters in  2Co 10:10 , of the charges against Paul in  Ac
25:7 . Love for God lightens his commands.

经文:

约翰一书 5:4-5:4

注释:

 {For} (hoti). The reason why God's commandments are not
heavy is the power that comes with the new birth from God.
{Whatsoever is begotten of God} (p(836e) to gegenn(886d)enon ek tou
theou). Neuter singular perfect passive participle of genna(935c)
rather than the masculine singular (verse  1 ) to express sharply
the universality of the principle (Rothe) as in  Joh 3:6,8  6:37,39 . {Overcometh the world} (
ik(8369) ton kosmon). Present
active indicative of 
ika(935c), a continuous victory because a
continuous struggle, "keeps on conquering the world" ("the sum of
all the forces antagonistic to the spiritual life," D. Smith).
{This is the victory} (haut(8820)estin h(8820)nik(885c)). For this form of
expression see  1:5  Joh 1:19 . Nik(885c) (victory, cf. 
ika(935c)),
old word, here alone in N.T., but the later form 
ikos in  Mt
12:20  1Co 15:54f.,57 . {That overcometh} (h(8820)nik(8873)asa). First
aorist active articular participle of 
ika(935c). The English cannot
reproduce the play on the word here. The aorist tense singles out
an individual experience when one believed or when one met
temptation with victory. Jesus won the victory over the world
( Joh 16:33 ) and God in us ( 1Jo 4:4 ) gives us the victory.
{Even our faith} (h(8820)pistis h(886d)(936e)). The only instance of
pistis in the Johannine Epistles (not in John's Gospel, though
in the Apocalypse). It is our faith in Jesus Christ as shown by
our confession (verse  1 ) and by our life (verse  2 ).

经文:

约翰一书 5:5-5:5

注释:

 {And who is he that overcometh?} (	is estin de ho nik(936e)?).
Not a mere rhetorical question ( 2:22 ), but an appeal to
experience and fact. Note the present active articular participle
(
ik(936e)) like 
ik(8369) (present active indicative in verse  4 ),
"the one who keeps on conquering the world." See  1Co 15:57  for
the same note of victory (
ikos) through Christ. See verse  1 
for ho pisteu(936e) (the one who believes) as here. {Jesus is the
Son of God} (I(8873)ous estin ho huios tou theou). As in verse  1 
save that here ho huios tou theou in place of Christos and
see both in  2:22f . Here there is sharp antithesis between
"Jesus" (humanity) and "the Son of God" (deity) united in the one
personality.

经文:

约翰一书 5:6-5:6

注释:

 {This} (houtos). Jesus the Son of God (verse  5 ). {He that
came} (ho elth(936e)). Second aorist active articular participle of
erchomai, referring to the Incarnation as a definite historic
event, the preexistent Son of God "sent from heaven to do God's
will" (Brooke). {By water and blood} (di' hudatos kai
haimatos). Accompanied by (dia used with the genitive both as
instrument and accompaniment, as in  Ga 5:13 ) water (as at the
baptism) and blood (as on the Cross). These two incidents in the
Incarnation are singled out because at the baptism Jesus was
formally set apart to his Messianic work by the coming of the
Holy Spirit upon him and by the Father's audible witness, and
because at the Cross his work reached its culmination ("It is
finished," Jesus said). There are other theories that do not
accord with the language and the facts. It is true that at the
Cross both water and blood came out of the side of Jesus when
pierced by the soldier, as John bore witness ( Joh 19:34 ), a
complete refutation of the Docetic denial of an actual human body
for Jesus and of the Cerinthian distinction between Jesus and
Christ. There is thus a threefold witness to the fact of the
Incarnation, but he repeats the twofold witness before giving the
third. The repetition of both preposition (en this time rather
than dia) and the article (	(9369) locative case) argues for two
separate events with particular emphasis on the blood ("not only"
ouk monon, "but" all') which the Gnostics made light of or
even denied. {It is the Spirit that beareth witness} (	o pneuma
estin to marturoun). Present active articular participle of
marture(935c) with article with both subject and predicate, and so
interchangeable as in  3:4 . The Holy Spirit is the third and the
chief witness at the baptism of Jesus and all through his
ministry. {Because} (hoti). Or declarative "that." Either makes
sense. In  Joh 15:26  Jesus spoke of "the Spirit of truth" (whose
characteristic is truth). Here John identifies the Spirit with
truth as Jesus said of himself ( Joh 14:6 ) without denying
personality for the Holy Spirit.

经文:

约翰一书 5:7-5:7

注释:

 {For there are three who bear witness} (hoti treis eisin hoi
marturountes). At this point the Latin Vulgate gives the words
in the Textus Receptus, found in no Greek MS. save two late
cursives (162 in the Vatican Library of the fifteenth century, 34
of the sixteenth century in Trinity College, Dublin). Jerome did
not have it. Cyprian applies the language of the Trinity and
Priscillian has it. Erasmus did not have it in his first edition,
but rashly offered to insert it if a single Greek MS. had it and
34 was produced with the insertion, as if made to order. The
spurious addition is: en t(9369) ouran(9369) ho pat(8872), ho logos kai to
hagion pneuma kai houtoi hoi treis hen eisin kai treis eisin hoi
marturountes en t(8869) g(8869) (in heaven, the Father, the Word, and
the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. And there are three that
bear witness in earth). The last clause belongs to verse  8 . The
fact and the doctrine of the Trinity do not depend on this
spurious addition. Some Latin scribe caught up Cyprian's exegesis
and wrote it on the margin of his text, and so it got into the
Vulgate and finally into the Textus Receptus by the stupidity of
Erasmus.

经文:

约翰一书 5:8-5:8

注释:

 {The Spirit and the water and the blood} (	o pneuma kai to
hud(9372) kai to haima). The same three witnesses of verses  6,7 
repeated with the Spirit first. {The three} (hoi treis). The
resumptive article. {Agree in one} (eis to hen eisin). "Are for
the one thing," to bring us to faith in Jesus as the Incarnate
Son of God, the very purpose for which John wrote his Gospel
( 20:31 ).

经文:

约翰一书 5:9-5:9

注释:

 {If we receive} (ei lambanomen). Condition of first class
with ei and the present active indicative, assumed as true. The
conditions for a legally valid witness are laid down in  De
19:15  (cf.  Mt 18:16  Joh 8:17f.  10:25  2Co 13:1 ). {Greater}
(meiz(936e)). Comparative of megas, because God is always true.
{For} (hoti). So it applies to this case. {That} (hoti). Thus
taken in the declarative sense (the fact that) as in  Joh 3:19 ,
though it can be causal (because) or indefinite relative with
memartur(886b)en (what he hath testified, perfect active indicative
of marture(935c), as in  Joh 1:32  4:44 , etc.), a harsh
construction here because of marturia, though some MSS. do read
hen to agree with it (cf. verse  10 ). See hoti ean in  3:20 
for that idiom. Westcott notes the Trinity in verses  6-9 : the
Son comes, the Spirit witnesses, the Father has witnessed.

经文:

约翰一书 5:10-5:10

注释:

 {Believeth on} (pisteu(936e) eis). John draws a distinction
between "not believing God" (m(8820)pisteu(936e) t(9369) the(9369)) in next
clause, the testimony of God about his Son, and surrender to and
reliance on the Son as here (eis and the accusative). See the
same distinction less clearly drawn in  Joh 6:30f . See also eis
t(886e) marturian after pepisteuken in this same verse and  Joh
2:23 . {In him} (en haut(9369)). "In himself," though the evidence
is not decisive between haut(9369) and aut(9369). {Hath made}
(pepoi(886b)en). Perfect active indicative of poie(935c) like
memartur(886b)en and pepisteuken, permanent state. {A liar}
(pseust(886e)). As in  1:10 , which see. {Because he hath not
believed} (hoti ou pepisteuken). Actual negative reason with
negative ou, not the subjective reason as in  Joh 3:18 , where
we have hoti m(8820)pepisteuken). The subjective negative is
regular with ho m(8820)pisteu(936e). Relative clause here repeats close
of verse  9 .

经文:

约翰一书 5:11-5:11

注释:

 {That God gave} (hoti ed(936b)en ho theos). Declarative hoti
in apposition with marturia as in verse  14  Joh 3:19 . Note
aorist active indicative ed(936b)en (from did(936d)i) as in  3:23f. ,
the great historic fact of the Incarnation ( Joh 3:16 ), but the
perfect ded(936b)en in  1Jo 3:1  to emphasize the abiding presence
of God's love. {Eternal life} (z(9388)n ai(936e)ion). Anarthrous
emphasizing quality, but with the article in  1:2 . {In his Son}
(en t(9369) hui(9369) autou). This life and the witness also. This is
why Jesus who is life ( Joh 14:6 ) came to give us abundant life
( Joh 10:10 ).

经文:

约翰一书 5:12-5:12

注释:

 {Hath the life} (echei t(886e) z(9388)n). The life which God gave
(verse  11 ). This is the position of Jesus himself ( Joh 5:24  14:6 ).

经文:

约翰一书 5:13-5:13

注释:

 {I have written} (egrapsa). Not epistolary aorist, but
refers to verses  1-12  of this Epistle as in  2:26  to the
preceding verses. {That ye may know} (hina eid(8874)e). Purpose
clause with hina and the second perfect active subjunctive of
oida, to know with settled intuitive knowledge. He wishes them
to have eternal life in Christ ( Joh 20:31 ) and to know that
they have it, but not with flippant superficiality ( 2:3ff. ).
{Unto you that believe on} (	ois pisteuousin eis). Dative of
the articular present active participle of pisteu(935c) and eis as
in verse  10 . For this use of onoma (name) with pisteu(935c) see
 3:23  Joh 2:23 .

经文:

约翰一书 5:14-5:14

注释:

 {Toward him} (pros auton). Fellowship with (pros, face
to face) Christ. For boldness see  2:28 . {That} (hoti).
Declarative again, as in verse  11 . {If we ask anything} (ean
ti ait(936d)etha). Condition of third class with ean and present
middle (indirect) subjunctive (personal interest as in  Jas 4:3 ,
though the point is not to be pressed too far, for see  Mt
20:20,22  Joh 16:24,26 ). {According to his will} (kata to
thel(886d)a autou). This is the secret in all prayer, even in the
case of Jesus himself. For the phrase see  1Pe 4:19  Ga 1:4  Eph
1:5,11 . {He heareth us} (akouei h(886d)(936e)). Even when God does not
give us what we ask, in particular then ( Heb 5:7f. ).

经文:

约翰一书 5:15-5:15

注释:

 {And if we know} (kai ean oidamen). Condition of first
class with ean (usually ei) and the perfect active
indicative, assumed as true. See  1Th 3:8  Ac 8:31  for the
indicative with ean as in the papyri. "An amplification of the
second limitation" (D. Smith). {Whatsoever we ask} (ho ean
ait(936d)etha). Indefinite relative clause with modal ean (=an)
and the present middle (as for ourselves) subjunctive of aite(935c).
This clause, like h(886d)(936e), is also the object of akouei. {We
know that we have} (oidamen hoti echomen). Repetition of
oidamen, the confidence of possession by anticipation. {The
petitions} (	a ait(886d)ata). Old word, from aite(935c), requests,
here only in John, elsewhere in N.T.  Lu 23:24  Php 4:6 . We have
the answer already as in  Mr 11:24 . {We have asked}
((8869)t(886b)amen). Perfect active indicative of aite(935c), the asking
abiding.

经文:

约翰一书 5:16-5:16

注释:

 {If any man see} (ean tis id(8869)). Third-class condition
with ean and second aorist active subjunctive of eidon
(hora(935c)). {Sinning a sin} (hamartanonta hamartian). Present
active predicate (supplementary) participle agreeing with
adelphon and with cognate accusative hamartian. {Not unto
death} (m(8820)pros thanaton). Repeated again with hamartanousin
and in contrast with hamartia pros thanaton (sin unto death).
Most sins are not mortal sins, but clearly John conceives of a
sin that is deadly enough to be called "unto death." This
distinction is common in the rabbinic writings and in  Nu 18:22 
the LXX has labein hamartian thanat(8870)horon "to incur a
death-bearing sin" as many crimes then and now bear the death
penalty. There is a distinction in  Heb 10:26  between sinning
wilfully after full knowledge and sins of ignorance ( Heb 5:2 ).
Jesus spoke of the unpardonable sin ( Mr 3:29  Mt 12:32  Lu
12:10 ), which was attributing to the devil the manifest work of
the Holy Spirit. It is possible that John has this idea in mind
when he applies it to those who reject Jesus Christ as God's Son
and set themselves up as antichrists. {Concerning this} (peri
ekein(8873)). This sin unto death. {That he should make request}
(hina er(9374)(8873)(8869)). Sub-final use of hina with the first aorist
active subjunctive of er(9374)a(935c), used here as in  Joh 17:15,20 
(and often) for request rather than for question. John does not
forbid praying for such cases; he simply does not command prayer
for them. He leaves them to God.

经文:

约翰一书 5:17-5:17

注释:

 {All unrighteousness is sin} (p(8373)a adikia hamartia estin).
Unrighteousness is one manifestation of sin as lawlessness
( 3:4 ) is another (Brooke). The world today takes sin too
lightly, even jokingly as a mere animal inheritance. Sin is a
terrible reality, but there is no cause for despair. Sin not unto
death can be overcome in Christ.

经文:

约翰一书 5:18-5:18

注释:

 {We know} (oidamen). As in  3:2,14  5:15,19,20 . He has
"ye know" in  2:20  3:5,15 . {Sinneth not} (ouch hamartanei).
Lineal present active indicative, "does not keep on sinning," as
he has already shown in  3:4-10 . {He that was begotten of God}
(ho genn(8874)heis ek tou theou). First aorist passive articular
participle referring to Christ, if the reading of A B is correct
(	(8872)ei auton, not 	(8872)ei heauton). It is Christ who keeps the
one begotten of God (gegenn(886d)enos ek tou theou as in  3:9  and
so different from ho genn(8874)heis here). It is a difficult
phrase, but this is probably the idea. Jesus ( Joh 18:37 ) uses
gegenn(886d)ai of himself and uses also 	(8872)e(935c) of keeping the
disciples ( Joh 17:12,15  Re 3:10 ). {The evil one} (ho
pon(8872)os). Masculine and personal as in  2:13 , not neuter, and
probably Satan as in  Mt 6:13 , not just any evil man. {Touchest
him not} (ouch haptetai autou). Present middle indicative of
hapt(935c), elsewhere in John only  Joh 20:17 . It means to lay hold
of or to grasp rather than a mere superficial touch (	higgan(935c),
both in  Col 2:21 ). Here the idea is to touch to harm. The devil
cannot snatch such a man from Christ ( Joh 6:38f. ).

经文:

约翰一书 5:19-5:19

注释:

 {Of God} (ek tou theou). See  3:10  4:6  for this idiom.
{Lieth in the evil one} (en t(9369) pon(8872)(9369) keitai). Present middle
indicative of the defective verb keimai, to lie, as in  Lu
2:12 . Pon(8872)(9369) is masculine, like ho pon(8872)os in verse  18 .
This is a terrible picture of the Graeco-Roman world of the first
century A.D., which is confirmed by Paul in Romans 1 and 2 and by
Horace, Seneca, Juvenal, Tacitus.

经文:

约翰一书 5:20-5:20

注释:

 {Is come} (h(886b)ei). Present active indicative, but the root
has a perfect sense, "has come." See ex(886c)thon kai h(886b)(935c) in  Joh
8:42 . {An understanding} (dianoian). Here alone in John's
writings, but in Paul ( Eph 4:18 ) and Peter ( 1Pe 1:13 ). John
does not use gn(9373)is (knowledge) and 
ous (mind) only in  Re
13:18  17:9 . {That we know} (hina gin(9373)komen). Result clause
with hina and the present active indicative, as is common with
hina and the future indicative ( Joh 7:3 ). It is possible that
here o was pronounced (935c) as a subjunctive, but many old MSS.
have hina gin(9373)kousin (plainly indicative) in  Joh 17:3 , and
in many other places in the N.T. the present indicative with
hina occurs as a variant reading as in  Joh 5:20 . {Him that is
true} (	on al(8874)hinon). That is, God. Cf.  1:8 . {In him that is
true} (en t(9369) al(8874)hin(9369)). In God in contrast with the world "in
the evil one" (verse  19 ). See  Joh 17:3 . {Even in his Son
Jesus Christ} (en t(9369) hui(9369) autou I(8873)ou Christ(9369)). The autou
refers clearly to en t(9369) al(8874)hin(9369) (God). Hence this clause is
not in apposition with the preceding, but an explanation as to
how we are "in the True One" by being "in his Son Jesus Christ."
{This} (houtos). Grammatically houtos may refer to Jesus
Christ or to "the True One." It is a bit tautological to refer it
to God, but that is probably correct, God in Christ, at any rate.
God is eternal life ( Joh 5:26 ) and he gives it to us through
Christ.

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